Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 319

Search results for: Communications

109 Towards Model-Driven Communications

Authors: Antonio Natali, Ambra Molesini

Abstract:

In modern distributed software systems, the issue of communication among composing parts represents a critical point, but the idea of extending conventional programming languages with general purpose communication constructs seems difficult to realize. As a consequence, there is a (growing) gap between the abstraction level required by distributed applications and the concepts provided by platforms that enable communication. This work intends to discuss how the Model Driven Software Development approach can be considered as a mature technology to generate in automatic way the schematic part of applications related to communication, by providing at the same time high level specialized languages useful in all the phases of software production. To achieve the goal, a stack of languages (meta-meta¬models) has been introduced in order to describe – at different levels of abstraction – the collaborative behavior of generic entities in terms of communication actions related to a taxonomy of messages. Finally, the generation of platforms for communication is viewed as a form of specification of language semantics, that provides executable models of applications together with model-checking supports and effective runtime environments.

Keywords: Interactions, Model Driven Development, specific languages, meta-models

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108 The Overall Aspects of E-Leaning Issues, Developments, Opportunities and Challenges

Authors: Bala Dhandayuthapani Veerasamy

Abstract:

Rapid steps made in the field of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has facilitated the development of teaching and learning methods and prepared them to serve the needs of an assorted educational institution. In other words, the information age has redefined the fundamentals and transformed the institutions and method of services delivery forever. The vision is the articulation of a desire to transform the method of teaching and learning could proceed through e-learning. E-learning is commonly deliberated to use of networked information and communications technology in teaching and learning practice. This paper deals the general aspects of the e-leaning with its issues, developments, opportunities and challenges, which can the higher institutions own.

Keywords: Multimedia, e-Learning, Challenges, Issues, Flash, Opportunities, html, VRML

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107 A New Secure Communication Model Based on Synchronization of Coupled Multidelay Feedback Systems

Authors: Thang Manh Hoang

Abstract:

Recent research result has shown that two multidelay feedback systems can synchronize each other under different schemes, i.e. lag, projective-lag, anticipating, or projectiveanticipating synchronization. There, the driving signal is significantly complex due that it is constituted by multiple nonlinear transformations of delayed state variable. In this paper, a secure communication model is proposed based on synchronization of coupled multidelay feedback systems, in which the plain signal is mixed with a complex signal at the transmitter side and it is precisely retrieved at the receiver side. The effectiveness of the proposed model is demonstrated and verified in the specific example, where the message signal is masked directly by the complex signal and security is examined under the breaking method of power spectrum analysis.

Keywords: chaos synchronization, time-delayed system, chaosbasedsecure communications

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106 Error Rate Probability for Coded MQAM with MRC Diversity in the Presence of Cochannel Interferers over Nakagami-Fading Channels

Authors: J.S. Ubhi, M.S. Patterh, T.S. Kamal

Abstract:

Exact expressions for bit-error probability (BEP) for coherent square detection of uncoded and coded M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (MQAM) using an array of antennas with maximal ratio combining (MRC) in a flat fading channel interference limited system in a Nakagami-m fading environment is derived. The analysis assumes an arbitrary number of independent and identically distributed Nakagami interferers. The results for coded MQAM are computed numerically for the case of (24,12) extended Golay code and compared with uncoded MQAM by plotting error probabilities versus average signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) for various values of order of diversity N, number of distinct symbols M, in order to examine the effect of cochannel interferers on the performance of the digital communication system. The diversity gains and net gains are also presented in tabular form in order to examine the performance of digital communication system in the presence of interferers, as the order of diversity increases. The analytical results presented in this paper are expected to provide useful information needed for design and analysis of digital communication systems with space diversity in wireless fading channels.

Keywords: Cochannel interference, maximal ratio combining, Nakagami-m fading, wireless digital communications

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105 Hybrid TOA/AOA Schemes for Mobile Location in Cellular Communication Systems

Authors: Chien-Sheng Chen, Szu-Lin Su, Chuan-Der Lu

Abstract:

Wireless location is to determine the mobile station (MS) location in a wireless cellular communications system. When fewer base stations (BSs) may be available for location purposes or the measurements with large errors in non-line-of-sight (NLOS) environments, it is necessary to integrate all available heterogeneous measurements to achieve high location accuracy. This paper illustrates a hybrid proposed schemes that combine time of arrival (TOA) at three BSs and angle of arrival (AOA) information at the serving BS to give a location estimate of the MS. The proposed schemes mitigate the NLOS effect simply by the weighted sum of the intersections between three TOA circles and the AOA line without requiring a priori information about the NLOS error. Simulation results show that the proposed methods can achieve better accuracy when compare with Taylor series algorithm (TSA) and the hybrid lines of position algorithm (HLOP).

Keywords: angle of arrival (AoA), Time of arrival (TOA), non-line-of-sight (NLOS)

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104 Investigating Simple Multipath Compensation for Frequency Modulated Signals at Lower Frequencies

Authors: Lusungu Ndovi

Abstract:

Radio propagation from point-to-point is affected by the physical channel in many ways. A signal arriving at a destination travels through a number of different paths which are referred to as multi-paths. Research in this area of wireless communications has progressed well over the years with the research taking different angles of focus. By this is meant that some researchers focus on ways of reducing or eluding Multipath effects whilst others focus on ways of mitigating the effects of Multipath through compensation schemes. Baseband processing is seen as one field of signal processing that is cardinal to the advancement of software defined radio technology. This has led to wide research into the carrying out certain algorithms at baseband. This paper considers compensating for Multipath for Frequency Modulated signals. The compensation process is carried out at Radio frequency (RF) and at Quadrature baseband (QBB) and the results are compared. Simulations are carried out using MatLab so as to show the benefits of working at lower QBB frequencies than at RF.

Keywords: Signal Processing, radio frequency, quadrature baseband, MultipathCompensation, Frequency modulation

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103 A Simplified Single Correlator Rake Receiver for CDMA Communications

Authors: Abhijit Mitra, C. Ardil, K. Murali Krishna

Abstract:

This paper presents a single correlator RAKE receiver for direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA) systems. In conventional RAKE receivers, multiple correlators are used to despread the multipath signals and then to align and combine those signals in a later stage before making a bit decision. The simplified receiver structure presented here uses a single correlator and single code sequence generator to recover the multipaths. Modified Walsh- Hadamard codes are used here for data spreading that provides better uncorrelation properties for the multipath signals. The main advantage of this receiver structure is that it requires only a single correlator and a code generator in contrary to the conventional RAKE receiver concept with multiple correlators. It is shown in results that the proposed receiver achieves better bit error rates in comparison with the conventional one for more than one multipaths.

Keywords: code division multiple access, RAKE receiver, ModifiedWalsh-Hadamard codes, Single correlator

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102 A Degraded Practical MIMOME Channel: Issues Insecret Data Communications

Authors: Mohammad Rakibul Islam

Abstract:

In this paper, a Gaussian multiple input multiple output multiple eavesdropper (MIMOME) channel is considered where a transmitter communicates to a receiver in the presence of an eavesdropper. We present a technique for determining the secrecy capacity of the multiple input multiple output (MIMO) channel under Gaussian noise. We transform the degraded MIMOME channel into multiple single input multiple output (SIMO) Gaussian wire-tap channels and then use scalar approach to convert it into two equivalent multiple input single output (MISO) channels. The secrecy capacity model is then developed for the condition where the channel state information (CSI) for main channel only is known to the transmitter. The results show that the secret communication is possible when the eavesdropper channel noise is greater than a cutoff noise level. The outage probability is also analyzed of secrecy capacity is also analyzed. The effect of fading and outage probability is also analyzed.

Keywords: mimo, fading, covariance matrix, secrecy capacity, wiretap channel

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101 Distributed Relay Selection and Channel Choice in Cognitive Radio Network

Authors: Hao He, Shaoqian Li

Abstract:

In this paper, we study the cooperative communications where multiple cognitive radio (CR) transmit-receive pairs competitive maximize their own throughputs. In CR networks, the influences of primary users and the spectrum availability are usually different among CR users. Due to the existence of multiple relay nodes and the different spectrum availability, each CR transmit-receive pair should not only select the relay node but also choose the appropriate channel. For this distributed problem, we propose a game theoretic framework to formulate this problem and we apply a regret-matching learning algorithm which is leading to correlated equilibrium. We further formulate a modified regret-matching learning algorithm which is fully distributed and only use the local information of each CR transmit-receive pair. This modified algorithm is more practical and suitable for the cooperative communications in CR network. Simulation results show the algorithm convergence and the modified learning algorithm can achieve comparable performance to the original regretmatching learning algorithm.

Keywords: cognitive radio, Correlated Equilibrium, Cooperative Communication, relay selection, channel choice, regret-matching learning

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100 Performance Study on Audio Codec and Session Transfer of Open Source VoIP applications

Authors: Cheng-Suan Lee, Khong Neng Choong, So Gean Koh, Chee Onn Chow, Mazlan Abbas

Abstract:

Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) application or commonly known as softphone has been developing an increasingly large market in today-s telecommunication world and the trend is expected to continue with the enhancement of additional features. This includes leveraging on the existing presence services, location and contextual information to enable more ubiquitous and seamless communications. In this paper, we discuss the concept of seamless session transfer for real-time application such as VoIP and IPTV, and our prototype implementation of such concept on a selected open source VoIP application. The first part of this paper is about conducting performance evaluation and assessments across some commonly found open source VoIP applications that are Ekiga, Kphone, Linphone and Twinkle so as to identify one of them for implementing our design of seamless session transfer. Subjective testing has been carried out to evaluate the audio performance on these VoIP applications and rank them according to their Mean Opinion Score (MOS) results. The second part of this paper is to discuss on the performance evaluations of our prototype implementation of session transfer using Linphone.

Keywords: audio codec, softphone, session transfer

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99 ECA-SCTP: Enhanced Cooperative ACK for SCTP Path Recovery in Concurrent Multiple Transfer

Authors: GangHeok Kim, SungHoon Seo, JooSeok Song

Abstract:

Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) has been proposed to provide reliable transport of real-time communications. Due to its attractive features, such as multi-streaming and multihoming, the SCTP is often expected to be an alternative protocol for TCP and UDP. In the original SCTP standard, the secondary path is mainly regarded as a redundancy. Recently, most of researches have focused on extending the SCTP to enable a host to send its packets to a destination over multiple paths simultaneously. In order to transfer packets concurrently over the multiple paths, the SCTP should be well designed to avoid unnecessary fast retransmission and the mis-estimation of congestion window size through the paths. Therefore, we propose an Enhanced Cooperative ACK SCTP (ECASCTP) to improve the path recovery efficiency of multi-homed host which is under concurrent multiple transfer mode. We evaluated the performance of our proposed scheme using ns-2 simulation in terms of cwnd variation, path recovery time, and goodput. Our scheme provides better performance in lossy and path asymmetric networks.

Keywords: SCTP, Concurrent Multiple Transfer, CooperativeSack, Dynamic ack policy

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98 An Enhanced Key Management Scheme Based on Key Infection in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: JooSeok Song, Han Park

Abstract:

We propose an enhanced key management scheme based on Key Infection, which is lightweight scheme for tiny sensors. The basic scheme, Key Infection, is perfectly secure against node capture and eavesdropping if initial communications after node deployment is secure. If, however, an attacker can eavesdrop on the initial communications, they can take the session key. We use common neighbors for each node to generate the session key. Each node has own secret key and shares it with its neighbor nodes. Then each node can establish the session key using common neighbors- secret keys and a random number. Our scheme needs only a few communications even if it uses neighbor nodes- information. Without losing the lightness of basic scheme, it improves the resistance against eavesdropping on the initial communications more than 30%.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks, Key Management

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97 Wireless Sensor Networks for Swiftlet Farms Monitoring

Authors: Al-Khalid Othman, Wan A. Wan Zainal Abidin, Kee M. Lee, Hushairi Zen, Tengku. M. A. Zulcaffle, Kuryati Kipli

Abstract:

This paper provides an in-depth study of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) application to monitor and control the swiftlet habitat. A set of system design is designed and developed that includes the hardware design of the nodes, Graphical User Interface (GUI) software, sensor network, and interconnectivity for remote data access and management. System architecture is proposed to address the requirements for habitat monitoring. Such applicationdriven design provides and identify important areas of further work in data sampling, communications and networking. For this monitoring system, a sensor node (MTS400), IRIS and Micaz radio transceivers, and a USB interfaced gateway base station of Crossbow (Xbow) Technology WSN are employed. The GUI of this monitoring system is written using a Laboratory Virtual Instrumentation Engineering Workbench (LabVIEW) along with Xbow Technology drivers provided by National Instrument. As a result, this monitoring system is capable of collecting data and presents it in both tables and waveform charts for further analysis. This system is also able to send notification message by email provided Internet connectivity is available whenever changes on habitat at remote sites (swiftlet farms) occur. Other functions that have been implemented in this system are the database system for record and management purposes; remote access through the internet using LogMeIn software. Finally, this research draws a conclusion that a WSN for monitoring swiftlet habitat can be effectively used to monitor and manage swiftlet farming industry in Sarawak.

Keywords: Networking, WSN, Swiftlet, Habitat Monitoring

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96 A Quantitative Study on Japanese Internet User's Awareness to Information Security: Necessity and Importance of Education and Policy

Authors: Toshihiko Takemura, Atsushi Umino

Abstract:

In this paper, the authors examine whether or not there Institute for Information and Communications Policy shows are differences of Japanese Internet users awareness to information security based on individual attributes by using analysis of variance based on non-parametric method. As a result, generally speaking, it is found that Japanese Internet users' awareness to information security is different by individual attributes. Especially, the authors verify that the users who received the information security education would have rather higher recognition concerning countermeasures than other users including self-educated users. It is suggested that the information security education should be enhanced so that the users may appropriately take the information security countermeasures. In addition, the information security policy such as carrying out "e- net caravan" and "information security seminars" are effective in improving the users' awareness on the information security in Japan.

Keywords: Internet Users, Information Security Policy, Information security education, variance of analysis, Web-based survey

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95 Predictors of Academic Achievement of Student ICT Teachers with Different Learning Styles

Authors: Deniz Deryakulu, Şener Büyüköztürk Hüseyin Özçınar

Abstract:

The main purpose of this study was to determine the predictors of academic achievement of student Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) teachers with different learning styles. Participants were 148 student ICT teachers from Ankara University. Participants were asked to fill out a personal information sheet, the Turkish version of Kolb-s Learning Style Inventory, Weinstein-s Learning and Study Strategies Inventory, Schommer's Epistemological Beliefs Questionnaire, and Eysenck-s Personality Questionnaire. Stepwise regression analyses showed that the statistically significant predictors of the academic achievement of the accommodators were attitudes and high school GPAs; of the divergers was anxiety; of the convergers were gender, epistemological beliefs, and motivation; and of the assimilators were gender, personality, and test strategies. Implications for ICT teaching-learning processes and teacher education are discussed.

Keywords: Academic Achievement, Experiential Learning, student ICT teachers, Kolb learning styles

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94 Mobile Velocity Based Bidirectional Call Overflow Scheme in Hierarchical Cellular System

Authors: G. M. Mir, N. A. Shah, Moinuddin

Abstract:

In the age of global communications, heterogeneous networks are seen to be the best choice of strategy to ensure continuous and uninterruptible services. This will allow mobile terminal to stay in connection even they are migrating into different segment coverage through the handoff process. With the increase of teletraffic demands in mobile cellular system, hierarchical cellular systems have been adopted extensively for more efficient channel utilization and better QoS (Quality of Service). This paper presents a bidirectional call overflow scheme between two layers of microcells and macrocells, where handoffs are decided by the velocity of mobile making the call. To ensure that handoff calls are given higher priorities, it is assumed that guard channels are assigned in both macrocells and microcells. A hysteresis value introduced in mobile velocity is used to allow mobile roam in the same cell if its velocity changes back within the set threshold values. By doing this the number of handoffs is reduced thereby reducing the processing overhead and enhancing the quality of service to the end user.

Keywords: threshold, hysteresis, overflow, Hierarchical cellular systems

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93 An Atomic-Domains-Based Approach for Attack Graph Generation

Authors: Fangfang Chen, Chunlu Wang, Zhihong Tian, Shuyuan Jin, Tianle Zhang

Abstract:

Attack graph is an integral part of modeling the overview of network security. System administrators use attack graphs to determine how vulnerable their systems are and to determine what security measures to deploy to defend their systems. Previous methods on AGG(attack graphs generation) are aiming at the whole network, which makes the process of AGG complex and non-scalable. In this paper, we propose a new approach which is simple and scalable to AGG by decomposing the whole network into atomic domains. Each atomic domain represents a host with a specific privilege. Then the process for AGG is achieved by communications among all the atomic domains. Our approach simplifies the process of design for the whole network, and can gives the attack graphs including each attack path for each host, and when the network changes we just carry on the operations of corresponding atomic domains which makes the process of AGG scalable.

Keywords: Computer Security, Vulnerability, Generation, atomic domain, attack graphs

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92 Personalization and the Universal Communications Identifier Concept

Authors: Françoise Petersen, Mike Pluke, Tatiana Kovacikova, Giovanni Bartolomeo

Abstract:

As communications systems and technology become more advanced and complex, it will be increasingly important to focus on users- individual needs. Personalization and effective user profile management will be necessary to ensure the uptake and success of new services and devices and it is therefore important to focus on the users- requirements in this area and define solutions that meet these requirements. The work on personalization and user profiles emerged from earlier ETSI work on a Universal Communications Identifier (UCI) which is a unique identifier of the user rather than a range of identifiers of the many of communication devices or services (e.g. numbers of fixed phone at home/work, mobile phones, fax and email addresses). This paper describes work on personalization including standardized information and preferences and an architectural framework providing a description of how personalization can be integrated in Next Generation Networks, together with the UCI concept.

Keywords: Interoperability, personalization, Next Generation Network (NGN), Universal Communications Identifier (UCI), User Profile Management (UPM)

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91 The Effects of Multipath on OFDM Systems for Broadband Power-Line Communications a Case of Medium Voltage Channel

Authors: Justinian Anatory, N.H. Mvungi, N. Theethayi, R. Thottappillil, C. Mwase

Abstract:

Power-line networks are widely used today for broadband data transmission. However, due to multipaths within the broadband power line communication (BPLC) systems owing to stochastic changes in the network load impedances, branches, etc., network or channel capacity performances are affected. This paper attempts to investigate the performance of typical medium voltage channels that uses Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) techniques with Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) sub carriers. It has been observed that when the load impedances are different from line characteristic impedance channel performance decreases. Also as the number of branches in the link between the transmitter and receiver increases a loss of 4dB/branch is found in the signal to noise ratio (SNR). The information presented in the paper could be useful for an appropriate design of the BPLC systems.

Keywords: Performance Evaluation, OFDM, QAM, transfer function, multipath, Communication channel model, Power-line communication, Branched network

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90 Software Engineering Mobile Learning Software Solution Using Task Based Learning Approach

Authors: Bekim Fetaji, Majlinda Fetaji

Abstract:

The development and use of mobile devices as well as its integration within education systems to deliver electronic contents and to support real-time communications was the focus of this research. In order to investigate the software engineering issues in using mobile devices a research on electronic content was initiated. The Developed MP3 mobile software solution was developed as a prototype for testing and developing a strategy for designing a usable m-learning environment. The mobile software solution was evaluated using mobile device using the link: http://projects.seeu.edu.mk/mlearn. The investigation also tested the correlation between the two mobile learning indicators: electronic content and attention, based on the Task Based learning instructional method. The mobile software solution ''M-Learn“ was developed as a prototype for testing the approach and developing a strategy for designing usable m-learning environment. The proposed methodology is about what learning modeling approach is more appropriate to use when developing mobile learning software.

Keywords: M-Learning, task based learning, learning instructions, mobile software development, mobiledevices

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89 An Optical WDM Network Concept for Tanzania

Authors: S. Pazi, C. Chatwin, R. Young, P. Birch

Abstract:

Tanzania is a developing country, which significantly lags behind the rest of the world in information communications technology (ICT), especially for the Internet. Internet connectivity to the rest of the world is via expensive satellite links, thus leaving the majority of the population unable to access the Internet due to the high cost. This paper introduces the concept of an optical WDM network for Internet infrastructure in Tanzania, so as to reduce Internet connection costs, and provide Internet access to the majority of people who live in both urban and rural areas. We also present a proposed optical WDM network, which mitigates the effects of system impairments, and provide simulation results to show that the data is successfully transmitted over a longer distance using a WDM network.

Keywords: wdm, Internet Access, Internet infrastructure, Internettraffic

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88 Comparing Data Analysis, Communication and Information Technologies Expertise Levels in Undergraduate Psychology Students

Authors: Ana Cázares

Abstract:

Aims for this study: first, to compare the expertise level in data analysis, communication and information technologies in undergraduate psychology students. Second, to verify the factor structure of E-ETICA (Escala de Experticia en Tecnologias de la Informacion, la Comunicacion y el Análisis or Data Analysis, Communication and Information'Expertise Scale) which had shown an excellent internal consistency (α= 0.92) as well as a simple factor structure. Three factors, Complex, Basic Information and Communications Technologies and E-Searching and Download Abilities, explains 63% of variance. In the present study, 260 students (119 juniors and 141 seniors) were asked to respond to ETICA (16 items Likert scale of five points 1: null domain to 5: total domain). The results show that both junior and senior students report having very similar expertise level; however, E-ETICA presents a different factor structure for juniors and four factors explained also 63% of variance: Information E-Searching, Download and Process; Data analysis; Organization; and Communication technologies.

Keywords: Data Analysis, Information, Communications Technologies, Expertise'Levels

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87 Chronic Consumer States Influencing Compulsive Consumption

Authors: K. Prakash Vel, Lif Miriam Hamouda

Abstract:

Consumer behaviour analysis represents an important field of study in marketing. Particularly strategy development for marketing and communications will be more focused and effective when marketers have an understanding of the motivations, behaviour and psychology of consumers. While materialism has been found to be one of the important elements in consumer behaviour, compulsive consumption represents another aspect that has recently attracted more attention. This is because of the growing prevalence of dysfunctional buying that has raised concern in consumer societies. Present studies and analyses on origins and motivations of compulsive buying have mainly focused on either individual factors or groups of related factors and hence a need for a holistic view exists. This paper provides a comprehensive perspective on compulsive consumption and establishes relevant propositions keeping the family life cycle stages as a reference for the incidence of chronic consumer states and their influence on compulsive consumption.

Keywords: family life cycle, Chronic consumer states, compulsive consumption

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86 Telecommunications Access, Social Capital and Sustainable Development

Authors: Susan.Bandias

Abstract:

This paper examines the role of telecommunications in sustainable development of urban, rural and remote communities in the Northern Territory of Australia through the theoretical lens of Social Capital. Social Capital is a relatively new construct and is rapidly gaining interest among policy makers, politicians and researchers as a means to both describe and understand social and economic development. Increasingly, the concept of Social Capital, as opposed to the traditional economic indicators, is seen as a more accurate measure of well-being. Whilst the essence of Social Capital is quality social relations, the concept intersects with telecommunications and Information Communications Technology (ICT) in a number of ways. The potential of ICT to disseminate information quickly, to reach vast numbers of people simultaneously and to include the previously excluded, is immense. However, the exact nature of the relationship is not clearly defined. This paper examines the nexus between social relations of mutual benefit, telecommunications access and sustainable development. A mixed methodological approach was used to test the hypothesis that No relationship exists between Social Capital and access to telecommunications services and facilities. Four communities, which included two urban, a rural and a remote Indigenous community in the Northern Territory of Australia are the focus of this research paper.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Telecommunications, Social Capital, Indigenous disadvantage

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85 Secret Communications Using Synchronized Sixth-Order Chuas's Circuits

Authors: López-Gutiérrez R.M., Rodríguez-Orozco E., Cruz-Hernández C., Inzunza-González E., Posadas-Castillo C., García-Guerrero E.E., Cardoza-Avendaño L.

Abstract:

In this paper, we use Generalized Hamiltonian systems approach to synchronize a modified sixth-order Chua's circuit, which generates hyperchaotic dynamics. Synchronization is obtained between the master and slave dynamics with the slave being given by an observer. We apply this approach to transmit private information (analog and binary), while the encoding remains potentially secure.

Keywords: Simulation, Observers, Secure Communication, Hyperchaos synchronization, sixth-order Chua's circuit

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84 The Internationalization of R&D and its Offshoring Process

Authors: Jianlin Li, Jizhen Li

Abstract:

Transnational corporations (TNCs) are playing a major role in global R&D, not only through activities in their home countries but also increasingly abroad. However, the process of R&D offshoring is not yet discussed thoroughly. Based on in-depth case study on Agilent China Communications Operation, this paper presents a stage model for theorizing the R&D offshoring process. This stage model outlines 5 maturity levels of organization and the offshoring process: Subsidiary team, Mirror team, Independent team, Mirror sector and the Independent sector (from software engineering point of view, it is similar to the local team's capability level of maturity model). Moreover, the paper gives a detailed discussion on the relevant characteristics, as well as the ability/responsibility of transfer, priorities and the corresponding organization structure. It also gives the characteristics and key points of different level-s R&D offshoring implementation using actual team practice.

Keywords: Multinational Corporations, Internationalization of R&D, R&D offshoring process, Organization Level

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83 A Fast Adaptive Tomlinson-Harashima Precoder for Indoor Wireless Communications

Authors: Abhijit Mitra, C. Ardil, M. Naresh Kumar

Abstract:

A fast adaptive Tomlinson Harashima (T-H) precoder structure is presented for indoor wireless communications, where the channel may vary due to rotation and small movement of the mobile terminal. A frequency-selective slow fading channel which is time-invariant over a frame is assumed. In this adaptive T-H precoder, feedback coefficients are updated at the end of every uplink frame by using system identification technique for channel estimation in contrary with the conventional T-H precoding concept where the channel is estimated during the starting of the uplink frame via Wiener solution. In conventional T-H precoder it is assumed the channel is time-invariant in both uplink and downlink frames. However assuming the channel is time-invariant over only one frame instead of two, the proposed adaptive T-H precoder yields better performance than conventional T-H precoder if the channel is varied in uplink after receiving the training sequence.

Keywords: Adaptive Channel Estimation, bit error rate, Tomlinson-Harashima precoder, Indoor wireless communication

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82 Mobile Communications Client Server System for Stock Exchange e-Services Access

Authors: E. Pop, M. Barbos

Abstract:

Using mobile Internet access technologies and eservices, various economic agents can efficiently offer their products or services to a large number of clients. With the support of mobile communications networks, the clients can have access to e-services, anywhere and anytime. This is a base to establish a convergence of technological and financial interests of mobile operators, software developers, mobile terminals producers and e-content providers. In this paper, a client server system is presented, using 3G, EDGE, mobile terminals, for Stock Exchange e-services access.

Keywords: Mobile Communications, e-services access, stockexchange

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81 Analysis of Phosphate in Wastewater Using an Autonomous Microfluidics-Based Analyser

Authors: John Cleary, Conor Slater, Dermot Diamond

Abstract:

A portable sensor for the analysis of phosphate in aqueous samples has been developed. The sensor incorporates microfluidic technology, colorimetric detection, and wireless communications into a compact and rugged portable device. The detection method used is the molybdenum yellow method, in which a phosphate-containing sample is mixed with a reagent containing ammonium metavanadate and ammonium molybdate in an acidic medium. A yellow-coloured compound is generated and the absorption of this compound is measured using a light emitting diode (LED) light source and a photodiode detector. The absorption is directly proportional to the phosphate concentration in the original sample. In this paper we describe the application of this phosphate sensor to the analysis of wastewater at a municipal wastewater treatment plant in Co. Kildare, Ireland.

Keywords: Sensor, wastewater, Microfluidic, phosphate

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80 Internet Governance based on Multiple-Stakeholders: Opportunities, Issues and Developments

Authors: Martin Hans Knahl

Abstract:

The Internet is the global data communications infrastructure based on the interconnection of both public and private networks using protocols that implement Internetworking on a global scale. Hence the control of protocol and infrastructure development, resource allocation and network operation are crucial and interlinked aspects. Internet Governance is the hotly debated and contentious subject that refers to the global control and operation of key Internet infrastructure such as domain name servers and resources such as domain names. It is impossible to separate technical and political positions as they are interlinked. Furthermore the existence of a global market, transparency and competition impact upon Internet Governance and related topics such as network neutrality and security. Current trends and developments regarding Internet governance with a focus on the policy-making process, security and control have been observed to evaluate current and future implications on the Internet. The multi stakeholder approach to Internet Governance discussed in this paper presents a number of opportunities, issues and developments that will affect the future direction of the Internet. Internet operation, maintenance and advisory organisations such as the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) or the Internet Governance Forum (IGF) are currently in the process of formulating policies for future Internet Governance. Given the controversial nature of the issues at stake and the current lack of agreement it is predicted that institutional as well as market governance will remain present for the network access and content.

Keywords: Security, Democracy, Internet Governance, ICANN

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