Search results for: re-routing cost
2033 Dynamic Reroute Modeling for Emergency Evacuation: Case Study of Brunswick City, Germany
Authors: Yun-Pang Flötteröd, Jakob Erdmann
The human behaviors during evacuations are quite complex. One of the critical behaviors which affect the efficiency of evacuation is route choice. Therefore, the respective simulation modeling work needs to function properly. In this paper, Simulation of Urban Mobility’s (SUMO) current dynamic route modeling during evacuation, i.e. the rerouting functions, is examined with a real case study. The result consistency of the simulation and the reality is checked as well. Four influence factors (1) time to get information, (2) probability to cancel a trip, (3) probability to use navigation equipment, and (4) rerouting and information updating period are considered to analyze possible traffic impacts during the evacuation and to examine the rerouting functions in SUMO. Furthermore, some behavioral characters of the case study are analyzed with use of the corresponding detector data and applied in the simulation. The experiment results show that the dynamic route modeling in SUMO can deal with the proposed scenarios properly. Some issues and function needs related to route choice are discussed and further improvements are suggested.
Keywords: Evacuation, microscopic traffic simulation, rerouting, SUMO.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 913
2032 Optimization for Reducing Handoff Latency and Utilization of Bandwidth in ATM Networks
Authors: Pooja, Megha Kulshrestha, V. K. Banga, Parvinder S. Sandhu
Abstract:To support mobility in ATM networks, a number of technical challenges need to be resolved. The impact of handoff schemes in terms of service disruption, handoff latency, cost implications and excess resources required during handoffs needs to be addressed. In this paper, a one phase handoff and route optimization solution using reserved PVCs between adjacent ATM switches to reroute connections during inter-switch handoff is studied. In the second phase, a distributed optimization process is initiated to optimally reroute handoff connections. The main objective is to find the optimal operating point at which to perform optimization subject to cost constraint with the purpose of reducing blocking probability of inter-switch handoff calls for delay tolerant traffic. We examine the relation between the required bandwidth resources and optimization rate. Also we calculate and study the handoff blocking probability due to lack of bandwidth for resources reserved to facilitate the rapid rerouting.
Keywords: Wireless ATM, Mobility, Latency, Optimization rateand Blocking Probability.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1299
2031 Wafer Fab Operational Cost Monitoring and Controlling with Cost per Equivalent Wafer Out
Authors: Ian Kree, Davina Chin Lee Yien
This paper presents Cost per Equivalent Wafer Out, which we find useful in wafer fab operational cost monitoring and controlling. It removes the loading and product mix effect in the cost variance analysis. The operation heads, therefore, could immediately focus on identifying areas for cost improvement. Without this, they would have to measure the impact of the loading variance and product mix variance between actual and budgeted prior to make any decision on cost improvement. Cost per Equivalent Wafer Out, thereby, increases efficiency in wafer fab operational cost monitoring and controlling.
Keywords: Cost Control, Cost Variance, Operational Expenditure, Semiconductor.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2248
2030 Reliability-Based Life-Cycle Cost Model for Engineering Systems
Authors: Reza Lotfalian, Sudarshan Martins, Peter Radziszewski
The effect of reliability on life-cycle cost, including initial and maintenance cost of a system is studied. The failure probability of a component is used to calculate the average maintenance cost during the operation cycle of the component. The standard deviation of the life-cycle cost is also calculated as an error measure for the average life-cycle cost. As a numerical example, the model is used to study the average life-cycle cost of an electric motor.
Keywords: Initial Cost, Life-cycle cost, Maintenance Cost, Reliability.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2014
2029 Scheduled Maintenance and Downtime Cost in Aircraft Maintenance Management
Authors: Remzi Saltoglu, Nazmia Humaira, Gokhan Inalhan
During aircraft maintenance scheduling, operator calculates the budget of the maintenance. Usually, this calculation includes only the costs that are directly related to the maintenance process such as cost of labor, material, and equipment. In some cases, overhead cost is also included. However, in some of those, downtime cost is neglected claiming that grounding is a natural fact of maintenance; therefore, it is not considered as part of the analytical decision-making process. Based on the normalized data, we introduce downtime cost with its monetary value and add its seasonal character. We envision that the rest of the model, which works together with the downtime cost, could be checked with the real life cases, through the review of MRO cost and airline spending in the particular and scheduled maintenance events.
Keywords: Aircraft maintenance, downtime, downtime cost, maintenance cost.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4058
2028 Main Elements of Soft Cost in Green Buildings
Authors: Nurul Zahirah M.A., N. Zainul Abidin
Abstract:Green buildings have been commonly cited to be more expensive than conventional buildings. However, limited research has been conducted to clearly identify elements that contribute to this cost differential. The construction cost of buildings can be typically divided into “hard" costs and “soft" cost elements. Using a review analysis of existing literature, the study identified six main elements in green buildings that contribute to the general cost elements that are “soft" in nature. The six elements found are insurance, developer-s experience, design cost, certification, commissioning and energy modeling. Out of the six elements, most literatures have highlighted the increase in design cost for green design as compared to conventional design due to additional architectural and engineering costs, eco-charettes, extra design time, and the further need for a green consultant. The study concluded that these elements of soft cost contribute to the green premium or cost differential of green buildings.
Keywords: Green building, cost differential, soft cost, intangible cost.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2539
2027 Methodology of Estimating Assembly Cost by MODAPTS
Authors: Heung Jae Cho, Jae Il Park
This paper presents the development of an MODAPTS based cost estimating system to help designers in estimating the manufacturing cost of a assembly products which is belonged from the workers in working fields. Competitiveness of manufacturing cost is getting harder because of the development of Information and telecommunication, but also globalization. Therefore, the accuracy of the assembly cost estimation is getting important. DFA and MODAPTS is useful method for measuring the working hour. But these two methods are used just as a timetable. Therefore, in this paper, we suggest the process of measuring the working hours by MODAPTS which includes the working field-s accurate information. In addition, we adduce the estimation method of accuracy assembly cost with the real information. This research could be useful for designers that can estimate the assembly cost more accurately, and also effective for the companies that which are concerned to reduce the product cost.
Keywords: Cost estimation, DFA, MODAPTS, Assembly costProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3816
2026 Chaotic Dynamics of Cost Overruns in Oil and Gas Megaprojects: A Review
Authors: O. J. Olaniran, P. E. D. Love, D. J. Edwards, O. Olatunji, J. Matthews
Abstract:Cost overruns are a persistent problem in oil and gas megaprojects. Whilst the extant literature is filled with studies on incidents and causes of cost overruns, underlying theories to explain their emergence in oil and gas megaprojects are few. Yet, a way to contain the syndrome of cost overruns is to understand the bases of ‘how and why’ they occur. Such knowledge will also help to develop pragmatic techniques for better overall management of oil and gas megaprojects. The aim of this paper is to explain the development of cost overruns in hydrocarbon megaprojects through the perspective of chaos theory. The underlying principles of chaos theory and its implications for cost overruns are examined and practical recommendations proposed. In addition, directions for future research in this fertile area provided.
Keywords: Chaos theory, oil and gas, cost overruns, megaprojects.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2181
2025 Identification of Factors Influencing Costs in Green Projects
Authors: Nazirah Zainul Abidin, Nurul Zahirah Mokhtar Azizi
Abstract:Cost has always been the leading concern in green building development. The perception that construction cost for green building is higher than conventional buildings has only made the discussion of green building cost more difficult. Understanding the factors that will influence the cost of green construction is expected to shed light into what makes green construction more or at par with conventional projects, or perhaps, where cost can be optimised. This paper identifies the elements of cost before shifting the attention to the influencing factors. Findings from past studies uncovered various factors related to cost which are grouped into five focal themes i.e. awareness, knowledge, financial, technical, and government support. A conceptual framework is produced in a form of a flower diagram indicating the cost influencing factors of green building development. These factors were found to be both physical and non-physical aspects of a project. The framework provides ground for the next stage of research that is to further explore how these factors influence the project cost and decision making.
Keywords: Green project, factors influencing cost, hard cost, soft cost.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1259
2024 Soft Cost Elements That Affect Developers’ Decision to Build Green
Authors: Nurul Zahirah M.A., N. Zainul Abidin, Azlan Raofuddin Nuruddin
Despite all the hype about green building, many developers are still resistant to the idea of building green due to the common perception that green building construction is expensive. This contradicts with scholarly findings that identify only a marginal cost premium or none at all given that green design is considered during the design process and planning stage. Nevertheless, cost implications continue to become an issue when deciding to build green. The planning stage is of strategic importance as decisions made at this early stage would influence the project cost thereafter. Using analysis of existing literature, the paper identifies six elements of soft cost that are considered in the planning stage. The elements include consultants, green building consultant, certification, commissioning, market, and tax. Out of the six elements, commissioning represents the bulk of soft cost for buildings seeking green certification. The study concluded that, although hard cost may have a bigger impact on the project cost, but soft cost is the hidden cost which people tend to ignore. Poor consideration of soft cost during planning stage may lead to over-realistic expectations and ultimately, overlooked cost additions.
Keywords: Green building, cost element, soft cost, developer decision.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1840
2023 Modeling Cost Structure for Assessment Production Cost of Algal - Biofue
Authors: A. Eman Mohammed
Abstract:Algae-based fuel are considered a promising sources of clean energy, and because it has many advantages over traditional biofuel, research and business ventures have driven into developing and producing Algal-biofuel. But its production stages create a cost structure that it is not competitive with traditional fuels. Therefore, cost becomes the main obstacle in commercial production purpose. However, the present research which aims at using cost structure model, and designed MS-Dose program, to investigate the a mount of production cost and determined the parameter had great effect on it, second to measured the amount of contribution rate of algae in process the pollution by capturing Co2 from air . The result generated from the model shows that the production cost of biomass is between $0.137 /kg for 100 ha and $0.132 /kg for 500 ha which was less than cost of other studies, while gallon costs between $3.4 - 3.5, more than traditional sources of oil about $1 ,which regarded as a rate of contribution of algal in capturing CO2 from air.
Keywords: Cost Structure Model, Operation Costs(Production Cost), Capital Costs, Algae.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1875
2022 Maintenance Alternatives Related to Costs of Wind Turbines Using Finite State Markov Model
Authors: Boukelkoul Lahcen
Abstract:The cumulative costs for O&M may represent as much as 65%-90% of the turbine's investment cost. Nowadays the cost effectiveness concept becomes a decision-making and technology evaluation metric. The cost of energy metric accounts for the effect replacement cost and unscheduled maintenance cost parameters. One key of the proposed approach is the idea of maintaining the WTs which can be captured via use of a finite state Markov chain. Such a model can be embedded within a probabilistic operation and maintenance simulation reflecting the action to be done. In this paper, an approach of estimating the cost of O&M is presented. The finite state Markov model is used for decision problems with number of determined periods (life cycle) to predict the cost according to various options of maintenance.
Keywords: Cost, finite state, Markov model, operation, maintenance.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1367
2021 Structural Cost of Optimized Reinforced Concrete Isolated Footing
Authors: Mohammed S. Al-Ansari
Abstract:This paper presents an analytical model to estimate the cost of an optimized design of reinforced concrete isolated footing base on structural safety. Flexural and optimized formulas for square and rectangular footingare derived base on ACI building code of design, material cost and optimization. The optimization constraints consist of upper and lower limits of depth and area of steel. Footing depth and area of reinforcing steel are to be minimized to yield the optimal footing dimensions. Optimized footing materials cost of concrete, reinforcing steel and formwork of the designed sections are computed. Total cost factor TCF and other cost factors are developed to generalize and simplify the calculations of footing material cost. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the model capability of estimating the material cost of the footing for a desired axial load.
Keywords: Footing, Depth, Concrete, Steel, Formwork, Optimization, Material cost, Cost Factors.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4536
2020 Matrix Completion with Heterogeneous Observation Cost Using Sparsity-Number of Column-Space
Authors: Ilqar Ramazanli
The matrix completion problem has been studied broadly under many underlying conditions. In many real-life scenarios, we could expect elements from distinct columns or distinct positions to have a different cost. In this paper, we explore this generalization under adaptive conditions. We approach the problem under two different cost models. The first one is that entries from different columns have different observation costs, but, within the same column, each entry has a uniform cost. The second one is any two entry has different observation cost, despite being the same or different columns. We provide complexity analysis of our algorithms and provide tightness guarantees.
Keywords: Matrix completion, adaptive learning, heterogeneous cost, Matroid optimization.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 226
2019 Low Cost Chip Set Selection Algorithm for Multi-way Partitioning of Digital System
Authors: Jae Young Park, Soongyu Kwon, Kyu Han Kim, Hyeong Geon Lee, Jong Tae Kim
Abstract:This paper considers the problem of finding low cost chip set for a minimum cost partitioning of a large logic circuits. Chip sets are selected from a given library. Each chip in the library has a different price, area, and I/O pin. We propose a low cost chip set selection algorithm. Inputs to the algorithm are a netlist and a chip information in the library. Output is a list of chip sets satisfied with area and maximum partitioning number and it is sorted by cost. The algorithm finds the sorted list of chip sets from minimum cost to maximum cost. We used MCNC benchmark circuits for experiments. The experimental results show that all of chip sets found satisfy the multiple partitioning constraints.
Keywords: lowest cost chip set, MCNC benchmark, multi-way partitioning.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1397
2018 Cost of Road Traffic Accidents in Egypt
Authors: Mohamed A. Ismail, Samar M. M. Abdelmageed
The main objective of this paper is to estimate the cost of road traffic accidents in Egypt. The Human Capital (HC) approach, specifically the Gross-Loss-of-Output methodology, is adopted for estimation. Moreover, cost values obtained by previous national literature are updated using the inflation rates. The results indicate an estimated cost of road traffic accidents in Egypt of approximately 10 billion Egyptian Pounds (about $US 1.8 billion) for the year 2008. In addition, it is expected that this cost will rise in 2009 to 11.8 billion Egyptian Pounds (about $US 2.1 billion).
Keywords: Cost, Gross-Loss-of-Output, Human CapitalApproach, Road Traffic Accidents.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3634
2017 Genetic Algorithms Multi-Objective Model for Project Scheduling
Authors: Elsheikh Asser
Time and cost are the main goals of the construction project management. The first schedule developed may not be a suitable schedule for beginning or completing the project to achieve the target completion time at a minimum total cost. In general, there are trade-offs between time and cost (TCT) to complete the activities of a project. This research presents genetic algorithms (GAs) multiobjective model for project scheduling considering different scenarios such as least cost, least time, and target time.
Keywords: Genetic algorithms, Time-cost trade-off.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2208
2016 Optimizing Turning Parameters for Cylindrical Parts Using Simulated Annealing Method
Authors: Farhad Kolahan, Mahdi Abachizadeh
In this paper, a simulated annealing algorithm has been developed to optimize machining parameters in turning operation on cylindrical workpieces. The turning operation usually includes several passes of rough machining and a final pass of finishing. Seven different constraints are considered in a non-linear model where the goal is to achieve minimum total cost. The weighted total cost consists of machining cost, tool cost and tool replacement cost. The computational results clearly show that the proposed optimization procedure has considerably improved total operation cost by optimally determining machining parameters.
Keywords: Optimization, Simulated Annealing, Machining Parameters, Turning Operation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1380
2015 The Model to Calculate the Cost of Money to the Breakdown of Deposits and Banking Service
Authors: Javad Elkaie Behjati, Mehrzad Minouei
Abstract:The present study aimed to assess the cost of money based on separating deposits and identifying actions and costs affecting in the process of cost of money in EN Bank of Iran (also known as Eghtesad Novin Bank). The method to calculate the cost of money is based on Activity-Based Costing (ABC). To conduct the study, the required data including deposits in banks and absorbed costs related to the same deposits were extracted from the financial statements of the bank. In order to cost the bank services properly as well as determining the commercial strategies required by commercial units, the data are precisely studied and the cost of each deposit is calculated according to the ABC. Eventually, the factors helping to improve the cost management and also a new model to calculate the cost of money in the bank are presented by some applicable formulas. Furthermore, some offers have been provided for users of both sections, in the practical section in commercial units and the theoretical one in universities.
Keywords: The cost of money, activity-based costing, banking, bank deposits, bank fees, services bank.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 729
2014 Low-Cost Eco-Friendly Building Material: A Case Study in Ethiopia
Authors: W. Z. Taffese
Abstract:This work presents a low-cost and eco-friendly building material named Agrostone panel. Africa-s urban population is growing at an annual rate of 2.8% and 62% of its population will live in urban areas by 2050. As a consequence, many of the least urbanized and least developed African countries- will face serious challenges in providing affordable housing to the urban dwellers. Since the cost of building materials accounts for the largest proportion of the overall construction cost, innovating low-cost building material is vital. Agrostone panel is used in housing projects in Ethiopia. It uses raw materials of agricultural/industrial wastes and/or natural minerals as a filler, magnesium-based chemicals as a binder and fiberglass as reinforcement. Agrostone panel reduces the cost of wall construction by 50% compared with the conventional building materials. The pros and cons of Agrostone panel as well as the use of other waste materials as a raw material to make the panel more sustainable, low-cost and better properties are discussed.
Keywords: Agrostone Panel, Low-cost and sustainable Building Materials, Agro-waste for constructionProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 9574
2013 Analysing the Cost of Immigrants to the National Health System in Eastern Macedonia and Thrace
Authors: T. Theodosiou, P. Polychronidou, A. G. Karasavvoglou
Abstract:The latest years the number of immigrants at Greece has increased dramatically. Their impact on the National Health System (NHS) has not been yet thoroughly investigated. This paper analyses the cost of immigrants to the NHS hospitals of the region of Eastern Macedonia and Thrace. The data are collected from 2005 to 2011 from five different hospitals and are analysed using linear mixed effects models in order to investigate the effects of nationality and year on the cost of hospitalization and treatment. The results show that generally the Greek nationality patients have a higher mean cost of hospitalization compared to the immigrants and that there is an increasing trend for the cost except for the year 2010.
Keywords: Cost, Eastern Macedonia, Thrace, immigrants, national health system.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1422
2012 Transmission Expansion Planning Considering Network Adequacy and Investment Cost Limitation using Genetic Algorithm
Authors: M. Mahdavi, E. Mahdavi
In this research, STNEP is being studied considering network adequacy and limitation of investment cost by decimal codification genetic algorithm (DCGA). The goal is obtaining the maximum of network adequacy with lowest expansion cost for a specific investment. Finally, the proposed idea is applied to the Garvers 6-bus network. The results show that considering the network adequacy for solution of STNEP problem is caused that among of expansion plans for a determined investment, configuration which has relatively lower expansion cost and higher adequacy is proposed by GA based method. Finally, with respect to the curve of adequacy versus expansion cost it can be said that more optimal configurations for expansion of network are obtained with lower investment costs.
Keywords: TNEP, Network Adequacy, Investment Cost, GAProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1372
2011 Preliminary Views on the Determinants of the Cost of Capital for the Emergent Market of Romania
Authors: I. Ionascu, M. Ionascu, D.-A. Calu, L. Olimid
Abstract:This paper investigates several factors affecting the cost of capital for listed Romanian companies. Although there is a large amount of literature investigating the drivers of the cost of capital internationally, there is currently little evidence from emergent markets. Based on a sample of 19 Romanian listed companies followed by financial analysts for the years 2008-2010, according to Thomson Reuters- I/B/E/S data base, the paper confirms the international trends, showing that size, corporate governance policies, and growth are negatively correlated with the cost of capital.
Keywords: Corporate governance, determinants of the cost of capital, emergent markets.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1399
2010 Integrating Life Cycle Uncertainties for Evaluating a Building Overall Cost
Authors: M. Arja, G. Sauce, B. Souyri
Abstract:Overall cost is a significant consideration in any decision-making process. Although many studies were carried out on overall cost in construction, little has treated the uncertainties of real life cycle development. On the basis of several case studies, a feedback process was performed on the historical data of studied buildings. This process enabled to identify some factors causing uncertainty during the operational period. As a result, the research proposes a new method for assessing the overall cost during a part of the building-s life cycle taking account of the building actual value, its end-of-life value and the influence of the identified life cycle uncertainty factors. The findings are a step towards a higher level of reliability in overall cost evaluation taking account of some usually unexpected uncertainty factors.
Keywords: Asset management, building life cycle uncertainty, building value, overall cost.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1511
2009 An Analysis of Activity-Based Costing in a Manufacturing System
Authors: Derya Eren Akyol, Gonca Tuncel, G. Mirac Bayhan
Abstract:Activity-Based Costing (ABC) represents an alternative paradigm to traditional cost accounting system and it often provides more accurate cost information for decision making such as product pricing, product mix, and make-orbuy decisions. ABC models the causal relationships between products and the resources used in their production and traces the cost of products according to the activities through the use of appropriate cost drivers. In this paper, the implementation of the ABC in a manufacturing system is analyzed and a comparison with the traditional cost based system in terms of the effects on the product costs are carried out to highlight the difference between two costing methodologies. By using this methodology, a valuable insight into the factors that cause the cost is provided, helping to better manage the activities of the company.
Keywords: Activity-based costing, manufacturing systems, product costs, traditional costing.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2999
2008 Optimizing the Project Delivery Time with Time Cost Trade-offs
Authors: Wei Lo, Ming-En Kuo
Abstract:While to minimize the overall project cost is always one of the objectives of construction managers, to obtain the maximum economic return is definitely one the ultimate goals of the project investors. As there is a trade-off relationship between the project time and cost, and the project delivery time directly affects the timing of economic recovery of an investment project, to provide a method that can quantify the relationship between the project delivery time and cost, and identify the optimal delivery time to maximize economic return has always been the focus of researchers and industrial practitioners. Using genetic algorithms, this study introduces an optimization model that can quantify the relationship between the project delivery time and cost and furthermore, determine the optimal delivery time to maximize the economic return of the project. The results provide objective quantification for accurately evaluating the project delivery time and cost, and facilitate the analysis of the economic return of a project.
Keywords: Time-Cost Trade-Off, Genetic Algorithms, Resource Integration, Economic return.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1537
2007 Adoption of Appropriate and Cost Effective Technologies in Housing: Indian Experience
Authors: A. K. Jain, M. C. Paliwal
Abstract:Construction cost in India is increasing at around 50 per cent over the average inflation levels. It have registered increase of up to 15 per cent every year, primarily due to cost of basic building materials such as steel, cement, bricks, timber and other inputs as well as cost of labour. As a result, the cost of construction using conventional building materials and construction is becoming beyond the affordable limits particularly for low-income groups of population as well as a large cross section of the middle - income groups. Therefore, there is a need to adopt cost-effective construction methods either by up-gradation of traditional technologies using local resources or applying modern construction materials and techniques with efficient inputs leading to economic solutions. This has become the most relevant aspect in the context of the large volume of housing to be constructed in both rural and urban areas and the consideration of limitations in the availability of resources such as building materials and finance. This paper makes an overview of the housing status in India and adoption of appropriate and cost effective technologies in the country.
Keywords: Appropriate, Cost Effective, Ekra, Five year plan, PovertyProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4845
2006 Greedy Geographical Void Routing for Wireless Sensor Networks
Authors: Chiang Tzu-Chiang, Chang Jia-Lin, Tsai Yue-Fu, Li Sha-Pai
Abstract:With the advantage of wireless network technology, there are a variety of mobile applications which make the issue of wireless sensor networks as a popular research area in recent years. As the wireless sensor network nodes move arbitrarily with the topology fast change feature, mobile nodes are often confronted with the void issue which will initiate packet losing, retransmitting, rerouting, additional transmission cost and power consumption. When transmitting packets, we would not predict void problem occurring in advance. Thus, how to improve geographic routing with void avoidance in wireless networks becomes an important issue. In this paper, we proposed a greedy geographical void routing algorithm to solve the void problem for wireless sensor networks. We use the information of source node and void area to draw two tangents to form a fan range of the existence void which can announce voidavoiding message. Then we use source and destination nodes to draw a line with an angle of the fan range to select the next forwarding neighbor node for routing. In a dynamic wireless sensor network environment, the proposed greedy void avoiding algorithm can be more time-saving and more efficient to forward packets, and improve current geographical void problem of wireless sensor networks.
Keywords: Wireless sensor network, internet routing, wireless network, greedy void avoiding algorithm, bypassing void.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3040
2005 Towards an Intelligent Ontology Construction Cost Estimation System: Using BIM and New Rules of Measurement Techniques
Authors: F. H. Abanda, B. Kamsu-Foguem, J. H. M. Tah
Construction cost estimation is one of the most important aspects of construction project design. For generations, the process of cost estimating has been manual, time-consuming and error-prone. This has partly led to most cost estimates to be unclear and riddled with inaccuracies that at times lead to over- or underestimation of construction cost. The development of standard set of measurement rules that are understandable by all those involved in a construction project, have not totally solved the challenges. Emerging Building Information Modelling (BIM) technologies can exploit standard measurement methods to automate cost estimation process and improve accuracies. This requires standard measurement methods to be structured in ontological and machine readable format; so that BIM software packages can easily read them. Most standard measurement methods are still text-based in textbooks and require manual editing into tables or Spreadsheet during cost estimation. The aim of this study is to explore the development of an ontology based on New Rules of Measurement (NRM) commonly used in the UK for cost estimation. The methodology adopted is Methontology, one of the most widely used ontology engineering methodologies. The challenges in this exploratory study are also reported and recommendations for future studies proposed.
Keywords: BIM, Construction projects, Cost estimation, NRM, Ontology.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3525
2004 Development of a Software about Calculating the Production Parameters in Knitted Garment Plants
Authors: Ender Bulgun, Arzu Vuruskan
Apparel product development is an important stage in the life cycle of a product. Shortening this stage will help to reduce the costs of a garment. The aim of this study is to examine the production parameters in knitwear apparel companies by defining the unit costs, and developing a software to calculate the unit costs of garments and make the cost estimates. In this study, with the help of a questionnaire, different companies- systems of unit cost estimating and cost calculating were tried to be analyzed. Within the scope of the questionnaire, the importance of cost estimating process for apparel companies and the expectations from a new cost estimating program were investigated. According to the results of the questionnaire, it was seen that the majority of companies which participated to the questionnaire use manual cost calculating methods or simple Microsoft Excel spreadsheets to make cost estimates. Furthermore, it was discovered that many companies meet with difficulties in archiving the cost data for future use and as a solution to that problem, it is thought that prior to making a cost estimate, sub units of garment costs which are fabric, accessory and the labor costs should be analyzed and added to the database of the programme beforehand. Another specification of the cost estimating unit prepared in this study is that the programme was designed to consist of two main units, one of which makes the product specification and the other makes the cost calculation. The programme is prepared as a web-based application in order that the supplier, the manufacturer and the customer can have the opportunity to communicate through the same platform.
Keywords: Apparel, cost estimating, design archive.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2867