Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 319

Search results for: Communications

139 A Review on Terrestrial Multimedia Communication using OFDM Technology

Authors: Upena Dalal, Shweta Shah

Abstract:

The development of wireless communication technologies has changed our living style in global level. After the international success of mobile telephony standards, the location and time independent voice connection has become a default method in daily telecommunications. As for today, highly advanced multimedia messaging plays a key role in value added service handling. Along with evolving data services, the need for more complex applications can be seen, including the mobile usage of broadcast technologies. Here performance of a system design for terrestrial multimedia content is examined with emphasis on mobile reception. This review paper has accommodated the understanding of physical layer role and the flavour of terrestrial channel effects on the terrestrial multimedia transmission using OFDM keeping DVB-H as benchmark standard.

Keywords: Multimedia, OFDM, Physical layer, Digital Video Broadcast-Handhelds

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138 Performance Analysis of Selective Adaptive Multiple Access Interference Cancellation for Multicarrier DS-CDMA Systems

Authors: Maged Ahmed, Ahmed El-Mahdy

Abstract:

In this paper, Selective Adaptive Parallel Interference Cancellation (SA-PIC) technique is presented for Multicarrier Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (MC DS-CDMA) scheme. The motivation of using SA-PIC is that it gives high performance and at the same time, reduces the computational complexity required to perform interference cancellation. An upper bound expression of the bit error rate (BER) for the SA-PIC under Rayleigh fading channel condition is derived. Moreover, the implementation complexities for SA-PIC and Adaptive Parallel Interference Cancellation (APIC) are discussed and compared. The performance of SA-PIC is investigated analytically and validated via computer simulations.

Keywords: Spread spectrum, Adaptive interference cancellation, communicationsystems, multicarrier signal processing

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137 Measures and Influence of a Baw Filter on Digital Radio-Communications Signals

Authors: A. Diet, M. Villegas, G. Baudoin

Abstract:

This work concerns the measurements of a Bulk Acoustic Waves (BAW) emission filter S parameters and compare with prototypes simulated types. Thanks to HP-ADS, a co-simulation of filters- characteristics in a digital radio-communication chain is performed. Four cases of modulation schemes are studied in order to illustrate the impact of the spectral occupation of the modulated signal. Results of simulations and co-simulation are given in terms of Error Vector Measurements to be useful for a general sensibility analysis of 4th/3rd Generation (G.) emitters (wideband QAM and OFDM signals)

Keywords: RF architectures, BAW filters

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136 Using the Monte Carlo Simulation to Predict the Assembly Yield

Authors: C. Chahin, M. C. Hsu, Y. H. Lin, C. Y. Huang

Abstract:

Electronics Products that achieve high levels of integrated communications, computing and entertainment, multimedia features in small, stylish and robust new form factors are winning in the market place. Due to the high costs that an industry may undergo and how a high yield is directly proportional to high profits, IC (Integrated Circuit) manufacturers struggle to maximize yield, but today-s customers demand miniaturization, low costs, high performance and excellent reliability making the yield maximization a never ending research of an enhanced assembly process. With factors such as minimum tolerances, tighter parameter variations a systematic approach is needed in order to predict the assembly process. In order to evaluate the quality of upcoming circuits, yield models are used which not only predict manufacturing costs but also provide vital information in order to ease the process of correction when the yields fall below expectations. For an IC manufacturer to obtain higher assembly yields all factors such as boards, placement, components, the material from which the components are made of and processes must be taken into consideration. Effective placement yield depends heavily on machine accuracy and the vision of the system which needs the ability to recognize the features on the board and component to place the device accurately on the pads and bumps of the PCB. There are currently two methods for accurate positioning, using the edge of the package and using solder ball locations also called footprints. The only assumption that a yield model makes is that all boards and devices are completely functional. This paper will focus on the Monte Carlo method which consists in a class of computational algorithms (information processed algorithms) which depends on repeated random samplings in order to compute the results. This method utilized in order to recreate the simulation of placement and assembly processes within a production line.

Keywords: Monte Carlo Simulation, placement yield, PCBcharacterization, electronics assembly

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135 Analysing of Indoor Radio Wave Propagation on Ad-hoc Network by Using TP-LINK Router

Authors: Khine Phyu, Aung Myint Aye

Abstract:

This paper presents results of measurements campaign carried out at a carrier frequency of 24GHz with the help of TPLINK router in indoor line-of-sight (LOS) scenarios. Firstly, the radio wave propagation strategies are analyzed in some rooms with router of point to point Ad hoc network. Then floor attenuation is defined for 3 floors in experimental region. The free space model and dual slope models are modified by considering the influence of corridor conditions on each floor. Using these models, indoor signal attenuation can be estimated in modeling of indoor radio wave propagation. These results and modified models can also be used in planning the networks of future personal communications services.

Keywords: radio wave signal analyzing, LOS radio wavepropagation, indoor radio wave propagation, free space model, tworay model and indoor attenuation

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134 Integrating Fast Karnough Map and Modular Neural Networks for Simplification and Realization of Complex Boolean Functions

Authors: Hazem M. El-Bakry

Abstract:

In this paper a new fast simplification method is presented. Such method realizes Karnough map with large number of variables. In order to accelerate the operation of the proposed method, a new approach for fast detection of group of ones is presented. Such approach implemented in the frequency domain. The search operation relies on performing cross correlation in the frequency domain rather than time one. It is proved mathematically and practically that the number of computation steps required for the presented method is less than that needed by conventional cross correlation. Simulation results using MATLAB confirm the theoretical computations. Furthermore, a powerful solution for realization of complex functions is given. The simplified functions are implemented by using a new desigen for neural networks. Neural networks are used because they are fault tolerance and as a result they can recognize signals even with noise or distortion. This is very useful for logic functions used in data and computer communications. Moreover, the implemented functions are realized with minimum amount of components. This is done by using modular neural nets (MNNs) that divide the input space into several homogenous regions. Such approach is applied to implement XOR function, 16 logic functions on one bit level, and 2-bit digital multiplier. Compared to previous non- modular designs, a clear reduction in the order of computations and hardware requirements is achieved.

Keywords: Boolean Functions, Simplification, Karnough map, implementation of logic functions, modular neural networks

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133 Modeling and Performance Evaluation of LTE Networks with Different TCP Variants

Authors: Mahamod Ismail, Kasmiran Jumari, Ghassan A. Abed

Abstract:

Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a 4G wireless broadband technology developed by the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) release 8, and it's represent the competitiveness of Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) for the next 10 years and beyond. The concepts for LTE systems have been introduced in 3GPP release 8, with objective of high-data-rate, low-latency and packet-optimized radio access technology. In this paper, performance of different TCP variants during LTE network investigated. The performance of TCP over LTE is affected mostly by the links of the wired network and total bandwidth available at the serving base station. This paper describes an NS-2 based simulation analysis of TCP-Vegas, TCP-Tahoe, TCPReno, TCP-Newreno, TCP-SACK, and TCP-FACK, with full modeling of all traffics of LTE system. The Evaluation of the network performance with all TCP variants is mainly based on throughput, average delay and lost packet. The analysis of TCP performance over LTE ensures that all TCP's have a similar throughput and the best performance return to TCP-Vegas than other variants.

Keywords: LTE; EUTRAN; 3GPPP, SAE; TCP Variants; NS-2

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132 Embedded Throughput Improving of Low-rate EDR Packets for Lower-latency

Authors: M. A. M. El-Bendary, N. A. El-Fishawy, A. E. Abu El-Azm, F. Shawky, F. E. El-Samie

Abstract:

With increasing utilization of the wireless devices in different fields such as medical devices and industrial fields, the paper presents a method for simplify the Bluetooth packets with throughput enhancing. The paper studies a vital issue in wireless communications, which is the throughput of data over wireless networks. In fact, the Bluetooth and ZigBee are a Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN). With taking these two systems competition consideration, the paper proposes different schemes for improve the throughput of Bluetooth network over a reliable channel. The proposition depends on the Channel Quality Driven Data Rate (CQDDR) rules, which determines the suitable packet in the transmission process according to the channel conditions. The proposed packet is studied over additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) and fading channels. The Experimental results reveal the capability of extension of the PL length by 8, 16, 24 bytes for classic and EDR packets, respectively. Also, the proposed method is suitable for the low throughput Bluetooth.

Keywords: throughput, bluetooth, adaptive packets, EDRpackets, CQDDR, low latency. Channel condition

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131 A Novel Receiver Algorithm for Coherent Underwater Acoustic Communications

Authors: Liang Zhao, Jianhua Ge

Abstract:

In this paper, we proposed a novel receiver algorithm for coherent underwater acoustic communications. The proposed receiver is composed of three parts: (1) Doppler tracking and correction, (2) Time reversal channel estimation and combining, and (3) Joint iterative equalization and decoding (JIED). To reduce computational complexity and optimize the equalization algorithm, Time reversal (TR) channel estimation and combining is adopted to simplify multi-channel adaptive decision feedback equalizer (ADFE) into single channel ADFE without reducing the system performance. Simultaneously, the turbo theory is adopted to form joint iterative ADFE and convolutional decoder (JIED). In JIED scheme, the ADFE and decoder exchange soft information in an iterative manner, which can enhance the equalizer performance using decoding gain. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can reduce computational complexity and improve the performance of equalizer. Therefore, the performance of coherent underwater acoustic communications can be improved greatly.

Keywords: Underwater acoustic communication, Time reversal (TR) combining, joint iterative equalization and decoding (JIED)

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130 Matrix-Interleaved Serially Concatenated Block Codes for Speech Transmission in Fixed Wireless Communication Systems

Authors: F. Mehran

Abstract:

In this paper, we study a class of serially concatenated block codes (SCBC) based on matrix interleavers, to be employed in fixed wireless communication systems. The performances of SCBC¬coded systems are investigated under various interleaver dimensions. Numerical results reveal that the matrix interleaver could be a competitive candidate over conventional block interleaver for frame lengths of 200 bits; hence, the SCBC coding based on matrix interleaver is a promising technique to be employed for speech transmission applications in many international standards such as pan-European Global System for Mobile communications (GSM), Digital Cellular Systems (DCS) 1800, and Joint Detection Code Division Multiple Access (JD-CDMA) mobile radio systems, where the speech frame contains around 200 bits.

Keywords: Wireless Communications, turbo codes, Matrix Interleaver, serial concatenated block codes (SCBC)

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129 Turbo-Coded Mobile Terrestrial Communication Systems in Urban and Suburban Areas for Wireless Multimedia Applications

Authors: F. Mehran

Abstract:

With the rapid popularization of internet services, it is apparent that the next generation terrestrial communication systems must be capable of supporting various applications like voice, video, and data. This paper presents the performance evaluation of turbo- coded mobile terrestrial communication systems, which are capable of providing high quality services for delay sensitive (voice or video) and delay tolerant (text transmission) multimedia applications in urban and suburban areas. Different types of multimedia information require different service qualities, which are generally expressed in terms of a maximum acceptable bit-error-rate (BER) and maximum tolerable latency. The breakthrough discovery of turbo codes allows us to significantly reduce the probability of bit errors with feasible latency. In a turbo-coded system, a trade-off between latency and BER results from the choice of convolutional component codes, interleaver type and size, decoding algorithm, and the number of decoding iterations. This trade-off can be exploited for multimedia applications by using optimal and suboptimal performance parameter amalgamations to achieve different service qualities. The results are therefore proposing an adaptive framework for turbo-coded wireless multimedia communications which incorporate a set of performance parameters that achieve an appropriate set of service qualities, depending on the application's requirements.

Keywords: Mobile Communications, turbo codes, wireless multimedia communication systems

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128 Applications of Support Vector Machines on Smart Phone Systems for Emotional Speech Recognition

Authors: Wernhuar Tarng, Kun-Rong Hsie, Mingteh Chen, Yuan-Yuan Chen, Chien-Lung Li

Abstract:

An emotional speech recognition system for the applications on smart phones was proposed in this study to combine with 3G mobile communications and social networks to provide users and their groups with more interaction and care. This study developed a mechanism using the support vector machines (SVM) to recognize the emotions of speech such as happiness, anger, sadness and normal. The mechanism uses a hierarchical classifier to adjust the weights of acoustic features and divides various parameters into the categories of energy and frequency for training. In this study, 28 commonly used acoustic features including pitch and volume were proposed for training. In addition, a time-frequency parameter obtained by continuous wavelet transforms was also used to identify the accent and intonation in a sentence during the recognition process. The Berlin Database of Emotional Speech was used by dividing the speech into male and female data sets for training. According to the experimental results, the accuracies of male and female test sets were increased by 4.6% and 5.2% respectively after using the time-frequency parameter for classifying happy and angry emotions. For the classification of all emotions, the average accuracy, including male and female data, was 63.5% for the test set and 90.9% for the whole data set.

Keywords: Support Vector Machines, smart phones, emotional speech recognition, socialnetworks, time-frequency parameter, Mel-scale frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC)

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127 Performance Analysis of HSDPA Systems using Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC)Coding as Compared to Turbo Coding

Authors: K. Anitha Sheela, J. Tarun Kumar

Abstract:

HSDPA is a new feature which is introduced in Release-5 specifications of the 3GPP WCDMA/UTRA standard to realize higher speed data rate together with lower round-trip times. Moreover, the HSDPA concept offers outstanding improvement of packet throughput and also significantly reduces the packet call transfer delay as compared to Release -99 DSCH. Till now the HSDPA system uses turbo coding which is the best coding technique to achieve the Shannon limit. However, the main drawbacks of turbo coding are high decoding complexity and high latency which makes it unsuitable for some applications like satellite communications, since the transmission distance itself introduces latency due to limited speed of light. Hence in this paper it is proposed to use LDPC coding in place of Turbo coding for HSDPA system which decreases the latency and decoding complexity. But LDPC coding increases the Encoding complexity. Though the complexity of transmitter increases at NodeB, the End user is at an advantage in terms of receiver complexity and Bit- error rate. In this paper LDPC Encoder is implemented using “sparse parity check matrix" H to generate a codeword at Encoder and “Belief Propagation algorithm "for LDPC decoding .Simulation results shows that in LDPC coding the BER suddenly drops as the number of iterations increase with a small increase in Eb/No. Which is not possible in Turbo coding. Also same BER was achieved using less number of iterations and hence the latency and receiver complexity has decreased for LDPC coding. HSDPA increases the downlink data rate within a cell to a theoretical maximum of 14Mbps, with 2Mbps on the uplink. The changes that HSDPA enables includes better quality, more reliable and more robust data services. In other words, while realistic data rates are only a few Mbps, the actual quality and number of users achieved will improve significantly.

Keywords: AMC, WCDMA, LDPC, HSDPA

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126 Analysis of the Shielding Effectiveness of Several Magnetic Shields

Authors: ahmad gholami, Diako Azizi, Hosein Heydari

Abstract:

Today with the rapid growth of telecommunications equipment, electronic and developing more and more networks of power, influence of electromagnetic waves on one another has become hot topic discussions. So in this article, this issue and appropriate mechanisms for EMC operations have been presented. First, a source of alternating current (50 Hz) and a clear victim in a certain distance from the source is placed. With this simple model, the effects of electromagnetic radiation from the source to the victim will be investigated and several methods to reduce these effects have been presented. Therefore passive and active shields have been used. In some steps, shielding effectiveness of proposed shields will be compared. . It should be noted that simulations have been done by the finite element method (FEM).

Keywords: shielding effectiveness, finite element method, Electrical field, field distribution

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125 Analysis of the Effect of HV Transmission Lines on the Control Room and its Proposed Shielding

Authors: ahmad gholami, Diako Azizi, Hosein Heydari

Abstract:

Today with the rapid growth of telecommunications equipment, electronic and developing more and more networks of power, influence of electromagnetic waves on one another has become hot topic discussions. So in this article, this issue and appropriate mechanisms for EMC operations have been presented. First, impact of high voltage lines on the surrounding environment especially on the control room has been investigated, then to reduce electromagnetic radiation, various methods of shielding are provided and shielding effectiveness of them has been compared. It should be expressed that simulations have been done by the finite element method (FEM).

Keywords: finite element method, EMC, Electrical field, field distribution

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124 Performance Evaluation of Energy Efficient Communication Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: Kazunori Sugahara, Toshihiko Sasama, Hiroshi Masuyama, Kentaro Kishida

Abstract:

A mobile ad hoc network is a network of mobile nodes without any notion of centralized administration. In such a network, each mobile node behaves not only as a host which runs applications but also as a router to forward packets on behalf of others. Clustering has been applied to routing protocols to achieve efficient communications. A CH network expresses the connected relationship among cluster-heads. This paper discusses the methods for constructing a CH network, and produces the following results: (1) The required running costs of 3 traditional methods for constructing a CH network are not so different from each other in the static circumstance, or in the dynamic circumstance. Their running costs in the static circumstance do not differ from their costs in the dynamic circumstance. Meanwhile, although the routing costs required for the above 3 methods are not so different in the static circumstance, the costs are considerably different from each other in the dynamic circumstance. Their routing costs in the static circumstance are also very different from their costs in the dynamic circumstance, and the former is one tenths of the latter. The routing cost in the dynamic circumstance is mostly the cost for re-routing. (2) On the strength of the above results, we discuss new 2 methods regarding whether they are tolerable or not in the dynamic circumstance, that is, whether the times of re-routing are small or not. These new methods are revised methods that are based on the traditional methods. We recommended the method which produces the smallest routing cost in the dynamic circumstance, therefore producing the smallest total cost.

Keywords: Cluster, Simulation, mobile ad hoc network, re-routing cost

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123 Multihop Cooperative Transmissions for Asymmetric Traffic Accommodation in CDMA/FDD Cellular Networks

Authors: Hideo Kobayashi, Kazuo Mori, Takeo Saga, Katsuhiro Naito

Abstract:

The asymmetric trafc between uplink and downlink over recent mobile communication systems has been conspicuous because of providing new communication services. This paper proposes an asymmetric trafc accommodation scheme adopting a multihop cooperative transmission technique for CDMA/FDD cellular networks. The proposed scheme employs the cooperative transmission technique in the already proposed downlink multihop transmissions for the accommodation of the asymmetric trafc, which utilizes the vacant uplink band for the downlink relay transmissions. The proposed scheme reduces the transmission power at the downlink relay transmissions and then suppresses the interference to the uplink communications, and thus, improves the uplink performance. The proposed scheme is evaluated by computer simulation and the results show that it can achieve better throughput performance.

Keywords: CDMA, Cellular Systems, FDD, asymmetric traffic, cooperative transmissions, multihop transmissions

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122 About Analysis and Modelling of the Open Message Switching System

Authors: Saulius Minkevicius, Genadijus Kulvietis

Abstract:

The modern queueing theory is one of the powerful tools for a quantitative and qualitative analysis of communication systems, computer networks, transportation systems, and many other technical systems. The paper is designated to the analysis of queueing systems, arising in the networks theory and communications theory (called open queueing network). The authors of this research in the sphere of queueing theory present the theorem about the law of the iterated logarithm (LIL) for the queue length of a customers in open queueing network and its application to the mathematical model of the open message switching system.

Keywords: heavy traffic, models of information systems, open queueing network, open message switching system, queue length of a customers, a law of the iterated logarithm

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121 3D Network-on-Chip with on-Chip DRAM: An Empirical Analysis for Future Chip Multiprocessor

Authors: Bo Yang, Thomas Canhao Xu, Alexander Wei Yin, Pasi Liljeberg, Hannu Tenhunen

Abstract:

With the increasing number of on-chip components and the critical requirement for processing power, Chip Multiprocessor (CMP) has gained wide acceptance in both academia and industry during the last decade. However, the conventional bus-based onchip communication schemes suffer from very high communication delay and low scalability in large scale systems. Network-on-Chip (NoC) has been proposed to solve the bottleneck of parallel onchip communications by applying different network topologies which separate the communication phase from the computation phase. Observing that the memory bandwidth of the communication between on-chip components and off-chip memory has become a critical problem even in NoC based systems, in this paper, we propose a novel 3D NoC with on-chip Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM) in which different layers are dedicated to different functionalities such as processors, cache or memory. Results show that, by using our proposed architecture, average link utilization has reduced by 10.25% for SPLASH-2 workloads. Our proposed design costs 1.12% less execution cycles than the traditional design on average.

Keywords: DRAM, Network-On-Chip, memory-on-chip, chip multiprocessor

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120 Simulation Study for Performance Comparison of Routing Protocols in Mobile Adhoc Network

Authors: Ahmad Anzaar, Husain Shahnawaz, Chand Mukesh, S. C. Gupta, R. Gowri, H. L. Mandoria

Abstract:

Due to insufficient frequency band and tremendous growth of the mobile users, complex computation is needed for the use of resources. Long distance communication began with the introduction of telegraphs and simple coded pulses, which were used to transmit short messages. Since then numerous advances have rendered reliable transfer of information both easier and quicker. Wireless network refers to any type of computer network that is wireless, and is commonly associated with a telecommunications network whose interconnections between nodes is implemented without the use of wires. Wireless network can be broadly categorized in infrastructure network and infrastructure less network. Infrastructure network is one in which we have a base station to serve the mobile users and in the infrastructure less network is one in which no infrastructure is available to serve the mobile users this kind of networks are also known as mobile Adhoc networks. In this paper we have simulated the result for different scenarios with protocols like AODV and DSR; we simulated the result for throughput, delay and receiving traffic in the given scenario.

Keywords: AODV, Adhoc network, DSR. mobility

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119 Recognition of Obstacles and Providing Different Guidelines and Promotion of Electronic Government in Iran

Authors: E. Asgharizadeh, M. Ajalli, S.R. Safavi.M.M, A. Medghalchi

Abstract:

Electronic Government is one of the special concepts which has been performed successfully within recent decades. Electronic government is a digital, wall-free government with a virtual organization for presenting of online governmental services and further cooperation in different political/social activities. In order to have a successful implementation of electronic government strategy and benefiting from its complete potential and benefits and generally for establishment and applying of electronic government, it is necessary to have different infrastructures as the basics of electronic government with lack of which it is impossible to benefit from mentioned services. For this purpose, in this paper we have managed to recognize relevant obstacles for establishment of electronic government in Iran. All required data for recognition of obstacles were collected from statistical society of involved specialists of Ministry of Communications & Information Technology of Iran and Information Technology Organization of Tehran Municipality through questionnaire. Then by considering of five-point Likert scope and μ =3 as the index of relevant factors of proposed model, we could specify current obstacles against electronic government in Iran along with some guidelines and proposal in this regard. According to the results, mentioned obstacles for applying of electronic government in Iran are as follows: Technical & technological problems, Legal, judicial & safety problems, Economic problems and Humanistic Problems.

Keywords: Government, Iran, obstacles, electronic government, InformationTechnology

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118 Device for 3D Analysis of Basic Movements of the Lower Extremity

Authors: Jiménez Villanueva Mayra Alejandra, Ortíz Casallas Diana Carolina, Luengas Contreras Lely Adriana

Abstract:

This document details the process of developing a wireless device that captures the basic movements of the foot (plantar flexion, dorsal flexion, abduction, adduction.), and the knee movement (flexion). It implements a motion capture system by using a hardware based on optical fiber sensors, due to the advantages in terms of scope, noise immunity and speed of data transmission and reception. The operating principle used by this system is the detection and transmission of joint movement by mechanical elements and their respective measurement by optical ones (in this case infrared). Likewise, Visual Basic software is used for reception, analysis and signal processing of data acquired by the device, generating a 3D graphical representation in real time of each movement. The result is a boot in charge of capturing the movement, a transmission module (Implementing Xbee Technology) and a receiver module for receiving information and sending it to the PC for their respective processing. The main idea with this device is to help on topics such as bioengineering and medicine, by helping to improve the quality of life and movement analysis.

Keywords: Virtual Reality, Optical Fiber, Interface, extension, flexion, driver, abduction, adduction, A / D converter, Autodesk 3DMax, Infrared Diode, Infrared LEDs, Modeling OPENGL, USB CDC(Communications Device Class)

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117 Encrypted Audio Communication Based On Synchronized Unified Chaotic Systems

Authors: C. Cruz-Hernández, E.E.García-Guerrero, E. Inzunza-González, R.M. López-Gutiérrez H. Serrano-Guerrero

Abstract:

In this paper, encrypted audio communications based on synchronization of coupled unified chaotic systems in master-slave configuration is numerically studied. We transmit the encrypted audio messages by using two unsecure channels. Encoding, transmission, and decoding audio messages in chaotic communication is presented.

Keywords: Chaos, Synchronization, Audio encrypted

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116 Evaluation Techniques of Photography in Visual Communications in Iran

Authors: Firouzeh Keshavarzi

Abstract:

Although a picture can be automatically a graphic work, but especially in the field of graphics and images based on the idea of advertising and graphic design will be prepared and photographers to realize the design using his own knowledge and skills to help does. It is evident that knowledge of photography, photographer and designer of the facilities, fields of reaching a higher level of quality offers. At the same time do not have a graphic designer is also skilled photographer, but can execute your idea may delegate to an expert photographer. Using technology and methods in all fields of photography, graphic art may be applicable. But most of its application in Iran, in works such as packaging, posters, Bill Board, advertising, brochures and catalogs are. In this study, we review how the images and techniques in the chart should be used in Iranian graphic photo what impact has left. Using photography techniques and procedures can be designed and helped advance the goals graphic. Technique could not determine the idea. But what is important to think about design and photography and his creativity can flourish as a tool to be effective graphic designer in mind. Computer software to help it's very promotes creativity techniques shall graphic designer but also it is as a tool. Using images in various fields, especially graphic arts and only because it is not being documented, but applications are beautiful. As to his photographic style from today is graphics. Graphic works try to affect impacts on their audience. Hence the photo as an important factor is attention. The other hand saw the man with the extent of forgiving and understanding people's image, instead of using the word to your files, allows large messages and concepts should be sent in the shortest time. Posters, advertisements, brochures, catalog and packaging products very diverse agricultural, industrial and food could not be self-image. Today, the use of graphic images for a big score and the photos to richen the role graphic design plays a major.

Keywords: photo, Iran, contacts, visual communications, Photography Techniques, GraphicDesigner

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115 The Effect of Organizational Communications System on Interpersonal Conflict in Physical Education Offices of Isfahan Province, IRAN

Authors: H. Eshraghi., L. Salehi.

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to survey the effect of organizational communication system on the conflict in physical education offices of Isfahan province. The research methodology of this research was a descriptive study. All employees working in physical education offices of Isfahan province were included in the sample for this study (N= 236). Researcher made questionnaire and demographic questionnaire were used as investigation instruments. Based on the result of chi square test, there is significant difference between organizational communication system and interpersonal conflict. The most of participants evaluate communication in an informal way and pointed out that the communication channels were not open. Based on the result of binomial test, interpersonal conflict exists in physical education offices of Isfahan.

Keywords: Communication, employees, Interpersonal conflict

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114 Utilization of Advanced Data Storage Technology to Conduct Construction Industry on Clear Environment

Authors: Javad Majrouhi Sardroud, Mukesh C. Limbachiya

Abstract:

Construction projects generally take place in uncontrolled and dynamic environments where construction waste is a serious environmental problem in many large cities. The total amount of waste and carbon dioxide emissions from transportation vehicles are still out of control due to increasing construction projects, massive urban development projects and the lack of effective tools for minimizing adverse environmental impacts in construction. This research is about utilization of the integrated applications of automated advanced tracking and data storage technologies in the area of environmental management to monitor and control adverse environmental impacts such as construction waste and carbon dioxide emissions. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) integrated with the Global Position System (GPS) provides an opportunity to uniquely identify materials, components, and equipments and to locate and track them using minimal or no worker input. The transmission of data to the central database will be carried out with the help of Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM).

Keywords: construction industry, RFID, Clear environment

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113 The Path to Web Intelligence Maturity

Authors: Zeljko Panian

Abstract:

Web intelligence, if made personal, can fuel the process of building communications around the interests and preferences of each individual customer or prospect, by providing specific behavioral insights about each individual. To become fully efficient, Web intelligence must reach a stage of a high-level maturity, passing throughout a process that involves five steps: (1) Web site analysis; (2) Web site and advertising optimization; (3) Segment targeting; (4) Interactive marketing (online only); and (5) Interactive marketing (online and offline). Discussing these steps in detail, the paper uncovers the real gold mine that is personal-level Web intelligence.

Keywords: Web Intelligence, Web Analytics, Interactive Marketing, informationtechnology (IT)

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112 A Lifetime-Guaranteed Routing Scheme in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Wan Yeon Lee, Jae Keun Park, Sung Je Hong, Kyong Hoon Kim, Tae Heum Kang

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a routing scheme that guarantees the residual lifetime of wireless sensor networks where each sensor node operates with a limited budget of battery energy. The scheme maximizes the communications QoS while sustaining the residual battery lifetime of the network for a specified duration. Communication paths of wireless nodes are translated into a directed acyclic graph(DAG) and the maximum-flow algorithm is applied to the graph. The found maximum flow are assigned to sender nodes, so as to maximize their communication QoS. Based on assigned flows, the scheme determines the routing path and the transmission rate of data packet so that any sensor node on the path would not exhaust its battery energy before a specified duration.

Keywords: Sensor Network, QoS, Battery, residual lifetime, routingscheme

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111 Development of Web-based Teams Management System in Construction

Authors: Yu-Cheng Lin

Abstract:

Construction project control attempts to obtain real-time information and effectively enhance dynamic control and management via information sharing and analysis among project participants to eliminate construction conflicts and project delays. However, survey results for Taiwan indicate that construction commercial project management software is not widely accepted for subcontractors and suppliers. To solve the project communications problems among participants, this study presents a novel system called the Construction Dynamic Teams Communication Management (Con-DTCM) system for small-to-medium sized subcontractors and suppliers in Taiwanese Construction industry, and demonstrates that the Con-DTCM system responds to the most recent project information efficiently and enhances management of project teams (general contractor, suppliers and subcontractors) through web-based environment. Web-based technology effectively enhances information sharing during construction project management, and generates cost savings via the Internet. The main unique characteristic of the proposed Con-DTCM system is extremely user friendly and easily design compared with current commercial project management applications. The Con-DTCM system is applied to a case study of construction of a building project in Taiwan to confirm the proposed methodology and demonstrate the effectiveness of information sharing during the construction phase. The advantages of the Con-DTCM system are in improving project control and management efficiency for general contractors, and in providing dynamic project tracking and management, which enables subcontractors and suppliers to acquire the most recent project-related information. Furthermore, this study presents and implements a generic system architecture.

Keywords: Web, Information System, Construction project management, portal, Small-to-medium enterprises

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110 A Grey-Fuzzy Controller for Optimization Technique in Wireless Networks

Authors: Yao-Tien Wang, Hsiang-Fu Yu, Dung Chen Chiou

Abstract:

In wireless and mobile communications, this progress provides opportunities for introducing new standards and improving existing services. Supporting multimedia traffic with wireless networks quality of service (QoS). In this paper, a grey-fuzzy controller for radio resource management (GF-RRM) is presented to maximize the number of the served calls and QoS provision in wireless networks. In a wireless network, the call arrival rate, the call duration and the communication overhead between the base stations and the control center are vague and uncertain. In this paper, we develop a method to predict the cell load and to solve the RRM problem based on the GF-RRM, and support the present facility has been built on the application-level of the wireless networks. The GF-RRM exhibits the better adaptability, fault-tolerant capability and performance than other algorithms. Through simulations, we evaluate the blocking rate, update overhead, and channel acquisition delay time of the proposed method. The results demonstrate our algorithm has the lower blocking rate, less updated overhead, and shorter channel acquisition delay.

Keywords: Wireless Networks, quality of service, Radio Resource Management, Grey prediction, fuzzylogic control

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