Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 30135
Impact of Hard Limited Clipping Crest Factor Reduction Technique on Bit Error Rate in OFDM Based Systems
Abstract:In wireless communications, 3GPP LTE is one of the solutions to meet the greater transmission data rate demand. One issue inherent to this technology is the PAPR (Peak-to-Average Power Ratio) of OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) modulation. This high PAPR affects the efficiency of power amplifiers. One approach to mitigate this effect is the Crest Factor Reduction (CFR) technique. In this work, we simulate the impact of Hard Limited Clipping Crest Factor Reduction technique on BER (Bit Error Rate) in OFDM based Systems. In general, the results showed that CFR has more effects on higher digital modulation schemes, as expected. More importantly, we show the worst-case degradation due to CFR on QPSK, 16QAM, and 64QAM signals in a linear system. For example, hard clipping of 9 dB results in a 2 dB increase in signal to noise energy at a 1% BER for 64-QAM modulation.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1126764Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1229
 T. May and H. Rohling, "Reducing the Peak-to-Average Power Ratio in OFDM Radio Transmission Systems," 84th Vehicular Technology Conference, 1998, VTC 98, 18-21 May, 1998, pp 2474-2478.
 C. Zhao, R. Baxley, G. Zhou, D. Boppana, and J. Kenney, “Constrained clipping for crest factor reduction in multiple-user ofdm,” in Radio and Wireless Symposium, 2007 IEEE, Jan 2007, pp. 341–344.
 R.J. Baxley, C. Ahao, and G. Tong, “Constrained Clipping of Crest Factor Reduction in OFDM,” IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting, Dec. 2006, pp 570-575.
 H. Mahmond and H. Arslan, “Error Vector Magnitude to SNR Conversion for Nondata-Aided Receivers,” in IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, May 2009, pp 2694-2704.
 R.A. Sahfik, S. Rahmen and R Islam, “On the Extended Relationships Among EVM, BER and SNR as Performance Metrics,” 4th International Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering, ICECE 2006, 19-21 Dec. 2006. Pp 408-411
 R.J. Baxley, C. Ahao, and G. Tong, “Magnitude-Scaled Selected Mapping: A Crest Factor Reduction Scheme for OFDM Without Side-Information Transmission,” 2007 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing - ICASSP '07, April 15-20, 2007, pp III-373 – III-376.
 L. Freiberg, A, Annamalai, and V.K. Bhargava, “Crest Factor Reduction Using Orthogonal Spreading Codes in Multi-Carrier CDMA System,” Waves of the Year 2000, The 8th IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, 1-4 Sept, 1997, vol.1 pp 120-124.
 A. Molina, K. Azadet, and C. Li, “Crest factor reduction (cfr) using asymmetrical pulses,” Nov. 25 2014, US Patent 8,897,388. (Online). Available: http://www.google.com/patents/US8897388
 M. Lima, C. Gussen, B. Espindola, T. Ferreira, W. Martins, and P. Diniz, “Open-source physical-layer simulator for lte systems,” in Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), 2012 IEEE International Conference on, March 2012, pp. 2781–2784.