Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1028

Search results for: Adaptive threshold

1028 Multi-threshold Approach for License Plate Recognition System

Authors: Siti Norul Huda Sheikh Abdullah, Farshid Pirahan Siah, Nor Hanisah Haji Zainal Abidin, Shahnorbanun Sahran

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to propose an adaptive multi threshold for image segmentation precisely in object detection. Due to the different types of license plates being used, the requirement of an automatic LPR is rather different for each country. The proposed technique is applied on Malaysian LPR application. It is based on Multi Layer Perceptron trained by back propagation. The proposed adaptive threshold is introduced to find the optimum threshold values. The technique relies on the peak value from the graph of the number object versus specific range of threshold values. The proposed approach has improved the overall performance compared to current optimal threshold techniques. Further improvement on this method is in progress to accommodate real time system specification.

Keywords: Multi-threshold approach, license plate recognition system.

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1027 Shot Detection Using Modified Dugad Model

Authors: Lenka Krulikovská, Jaroslav Polec

Abstract:

In this paper we present a modification to existed model of threshold for shot cut detection, which is able to adapt itself to the sequence statistics and operate in real time, because it use for calculation only previously evaluated frames. The efficiency of proposed modified adaptive threshold scheme was verified through extensive test experiment with several similarity metrics and achieved results were compared to the results reached by the original model. According to results proposed threshold scheme reached higher accuracy than existed original model.

Keywords: Abrupt cut, shot cut detection, adaptive threshold.

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1026 Performance Analysis of an Adaptive Threshold Hybrid Double-Dwell System with Antenna Diversity for Acquisition in DS-CDMA Systems

Authors: H. Krouma, M. Barkat, K. Kemih, M. Benslama, Y. Yacine

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider the analysis of the acquisition process for a hybrid double-dwell system with antenna diversity for DS-CDMA (direct sequence-code division multiple access) using an adaptive threshold. Acquisition systems with a fixed threshold value are unable to adapt to fast varying mobile communications environments and may result in a high false alarm rate, and/or low detection probability. Therefore, we propose an adaptively varying threshold scheme through the use of a cellaveraging constant false alarm rate (CA-CFAR) algorithm, which is well known in the field of radar detection. We derive exact expressions for the probabilities of detection and false alarm in Rayleigh fading channels. The mean acquisition time of the system under consideration is also derived. The performance of the system is analyzed and compared to that of a hybrid single dwell system.

Keywords: Adaptive threshold, hybrid double-dwell system, CA-CFAR algorithm, DS-CDMA.

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1025 Elimination Noise by Adaptive Wavelet Threshold

Authors: Iman Elyasi, Sadegh Zarmehi

Abstract:

Due to some reasons, observed images are degraded which are mainly caused by noise. Recently image denoising using the wavelet transform has been attracting much attention. Waveletbased approach provides a particularly useful method for image denoising when the preservation of edges in the scene is of importance because the local adaptivity is based explicitly on the values of the wavelet detail coefficients. In this paper, we propose several methods of noise removal from degraded images with Gaussian noise by using adaptive wavelet threshold (Bayes Shrink, Modified Bayes Shrink and Normal Shrink). The proposed thresholds are simple and adaptive to each subband because the parameters required for estimating the threshold depend on subband data. Experimental results show that the proposed thresholds remove noise significantly and preserve the edges in the scene.

Keywords: Image denoising, Bayes Shrink, Modified Bayes Shrink, Normal Shrink.

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1024 Determining of Threshold Levels of Burst by Burst AQAM/CDMA in Slow Rayleigh Fading Environments

Authors: F. Nejadebrahimi, M. ArdebiliPour

Abstract:

In this paper, we are going to determine the threshold levels of adaptive modulation in a burst by burst CDMA system by a suboptimum method so that the above method attempts to increase the average bit per symbol (BPS) rate of transceiver system by switching between the different modulation modes in variable channel condition. In this method, we choose the minimum values of average bit error rate (BER) and maximum values of average BPS on different values of average channel signal to noise ratio (SNR) and then calculate the relative threshold levels of them, so that when the instantaneous SNR increases, a higher order modulation be employed for increasing throughput and vise-versa when the instantaneous SNR decreases, a lower order modulation be employed for improvement of BER. In transmission step, by this adaptive modulation method, in according to comparison between obtained estimation of pilot symbols and a set of above suboptimum threshold levels, above system chooses one of states no transmission, BPSK, 4QAM and square 16QAM for modulation of data. The expected channel in this paper is a slow Rayleigh fading.

Keywords: AQAM, burst, BER, BPS, CDMA, threshold.

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1023 Fast Algorithm of Infrared Point Target Detection in Fluctuant Background

Authors: Yang Weiping, Zhang Zhilong, Li Jicheng, Chen Zengping, He Jun

Abstract:

The background estimation approach using a small window median filter is presented on the bases of analyzing IR point target, noise and clutter model. After simplifying the two-dimensional filter, a simple method of adopting one-dimensional median filter is illustrated to make estimations of background according to the characteristics of IR scanning system. The adaptive threshold is used to segment canceled image in the background. Experimental results show that the algorithm achieved good performance and satisfy the requirement of big size image-s real-time processing.

Keywords: Point target, background estimation, median filter, adaptive threshold, target detection.

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1022 A new Adaptive Approach for Histogram based Mouth Segmentation

Authors: Axel Panning, Robert Niese, Ayoub Al-Hamadi, Bernd Michaelis

Abstract:

The segmentation of mouth and lips is a fundamental problem in facial image analyisis. In this paper we propose a method for lip segmentation based on rg-color histogram. Statistical analysis shows, using the rg-color-space is optimal for this purpose of a pure color based segmentation. Initially a rough adaptive threshold selects a histogram region, that assures that all pixels in that region are skin pixels. Based on that pixels we build a gaussian model which represents the skin pixels distribution and is utilized to obtain a refined, optimal threshold. We are not incorporating shape or edge information. In experiments we show the performance of our lip pixel segmentation method compared to the ground truth of our dataset and a conventional watershed algorithm.

Keywords: Feature extraction, Segmentation, Image processing, Application

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1021 Modeling and Analysis of Adaptive Buffer Sharing Scheme for Consecutive Packet Loss Reduction in Broadband Networks

Authors: Sakshi Kausha, R.K Sharma

Abstract:

High speed networks provide realtime variable bit rate service with diversified traffic flow characteristics and quality requirements. The variable bit rate traffic has stringent delay and packet loss requirements. The burstiness of the correlated traffic makes dynamic buffer management highly desirable to satisfy the Quality of Service (QoS) requirements. This paper presents an algorithm for optimization of adaptive buffer allocation scheme for traffic based on loss of consecutive packets in data-stream and buffer occupancy level. Buffer is designed to allow the input traffic to be partitioned into different priority classes and based on the input traffic behavior it controls the threshold dynamically. This algorithm allows input packets to enter into buffer if its occupancy level is less than the threshold value for priority of that packet. The threshold is dynamically varied in runtime based on packet loss behavior. The simulation is run for two priority classes of the input traffic – realtime and non-realtime classes. The simulation results show that Adaptive Partial Buffer Sharing (ADPBS) has better performance than Static Partial Buffer Sharing (SPBS) and First In First Out (FIFO) queue under the same traffic conditions.

Keywords: Buffer Management, Consecutive packet loss, Quality-of-Service, Priority based packet discarding, partial buffersharing.

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1020 Ultrasonic Echo Image Adaptive Watermarking Using the Just-Noticeable Difference Estimation

Authors: Amnach Khawne, Kazuhiko Hamamoto, Orachat Chitsobhuk

Abstract:

Most of the image watermarking methods, using the properties of the human visual system (HVS), have been proposed in literature. The component of the visual threshold is usually related to either the spatial contrast sensitivity function (CSF) or the visual masking. Especially on the contrast masking, most methods have not mention to the effect near to the edge region. Since the HVS is sensitive what happens on the edge area. This paper proposes ultrasound image watermarking using the visual threshold corresponding to the HVS in which the coefficients in a DCT-block have been classified based on the texture, edge, and plain area. This classification method enables not only useful for imperceptibility when the watermark is insert into an image but also achievable a robustness of watermark detection. A comparison of the proposed method with other methods has been carried out which shown that the proposed method robusts to blockwise memoryless manipulations, and also robust against noise addition.

Keywords: Medical image watermarking, Human Visual System, Image Adaptive Watermark

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1019 Wavelet-Based Despeckling of Synthetic Aperture Radar Images Using Adaptive and Mean Filters

Authors: Syed Musharaf Ali, Muhammad Younus Javed, Naveed Sarfraz Khattak

Abstract:

In this paper we introduced new wavelet based algorithm for speckle reduction of synthetic aperture radar images, which uses combination of undecimated wavelet transformation, wiener filter (which is an adaptive filter) and mean filter. Further more instead of using existing thresholding techniques such as sure shrinkage, Bayesian shrinkage, universal thresholding, normal thresholding, visu thresholding, soft and hard thresholding, we use brute force thresholding, which iteratively run the whole algorithm for each possible candidate value of threshold and saves each result in array and finally selects the value for threshold that gives best possible results. That is why it is slow as compared to existing thresholding techniques but gives best results under the given algorithm for speckle reduction.

Keywords: Brute force thresholding, directional smoothing, direction dependent mask, undecimated wavelet transformation.

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1018 An Efficient Adaptive Thresholding Technique for Wavelet Based Image Denoising

Authors: D.Gnanadurai, V.Sadasivam

Abstract:

This frame work describes a computationally more efficient and adaptive threshold estimation method for image denoising in the wavelet domain based on Generalized Gaussian Distribution (GGD) modeling of subband coefficients. In this proposed method, the choice of the threshold estimation is carried out by analysing the statistical parameters of the wavelet subband coefficients like standard deviation, arithmetic mean and geometrical mean. The noisy image is first decomposed into many levels to obtain different frequency bands. Then soft thresholding method is used to remove the noisy coefficients, by fixing the optimum thresholding value by the proposed method. Experimental results on several test images by using this method show that this method yields significantly superior image quality and better Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR). Here, to prove the efficiency of this method in image denoising, we have compared this with various denoising methods like wiener filter, Average filter, VisuShrink and BayesShrink.

Keywords: Wavelet Transform, Gaussian Noise, ImageDenoising, Filter Banks and Thresholding.

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1017 Noise-Improved Signal Detection in Nonlinear Threshold Systems

Authors: Youguo Wang, Lenan Wu

Abstract:

We discuss the signal detection through nonlinear threshold systems. The detection performance is assessed by the probability of error Per . We establish that: (1) when the signal is complete suprathreshold, noise always degrades the signal detection both in the single threshold system and in the parallel array of threshold devices. (2) When the signal is a little subthreshold, noise degrades signal detection in the single threshold system. But in the parallel array, noise can improve signal detection, i.e., stochastic resonance (SR) exists in the array. (3) When the signal is predominant subthreshold, noise always can improve signal detection and SR always exists not only in the single threshold system but also in the parallel array. (4) Array can improve signal detection by raising the number of threshold devices. These results extend further the applicability of SR in signal detection.

Keywords: Probability of error, signal detection, stochasticresonance, threshold system.

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1016 Threshold Stress of the Soil Subgrade Evaluation for Highway Formations

Authors: Elsa Eka Putri, N.S.V Kameswara Rao, M. A. Mannan

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to evaluate the threshold stress of the clay with sand subgrade soil. Threshold stress can be defined as the stress level above which cyclic loading leads to excessive deformation and eventual failure. The thickness determination of highways formations using the threshold stress approach is a more realistic assessment of the soil behaviour because it is subjected to repeated loadings from moving vehicles. Threshold stress can be evaluated by plastic strain criterion, which is based on the accumulated plastic strain behaviour during cyclic loadings [1]. Several conditions of the all-round pressure the subgrade soil namely, zero confinement, low all-round pressure and high all-round pressure are investigated. The threshold stresses of various soil conditions are determined. Threshold stress of the soil are 60%, 31% and 38.6% for unconfined partially saturated sample, low effective stress saturated sample, high effective stress saturated sample respectively.

Keywords: threshold stress, cyclic loading, pore water pressure.

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1015 Threshold Submergence of Flow over PK Weirs

Authors: A. Javaheri, A. R. Kabiri-Samani

Abstract:

In this study an extensive experimental research is carried out to develop a better understanding of the effects of Piano Key (PK) weir geometry on weir flow threshold submergence. Experiments were conducted in a 12 m long, 0.4 m wide and 0.7 m deep rectangular glass wall flume. The main objectives were to investigate the effect of the PK weir geometries including the weir length, weir height, inlet-outlet key widths, upstream and downstream apex overhangs, and slopped floors on threshold submergence and study the hydraulic flow characteristics. From the experimental results, a practical formula is proposed to evaluate the flow threshold submergence over PK weirs.

Keywords: Model experimentation, flow characteristics, Piano Key weir, threshold submergence.

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1014 Implementation of Edge Detection Based on Autofluorescence Endoscopic Image of Field Programmable Gate Array

Authors: Hao Cheng, Zhiwu Wang, Guozheng Yan, Pingping Jiang, Shijia Qin, Shuai Kuang

Abstract:

Autofluorescence Imaging (AFI) is a technology for detecting early carcinogenesis of the gastrointestinal tract in recent years. Compared with traditional white light endoscopy (WLE), this technology greatly improves the detection accuracy of early carcinogenesis, because the colors of normal tissues are different from cancerous tissues. Thus, edge detection can distinguish them in grayscale images. In this paper, based on the traditional Sobel edge detection method, optimization has been performed on this method which considers the environment of the gastrointestinal, including adaptive threshold and morphological processing. All of the processes are implemented on our self-designed system based on the image sensor OV6930 and Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), The system can capture the gastrointestinal image taken by the lens in real time and detect edges. The final experiments verified the feasibility of our system and the effectiveness and accuracy of the edge detection algorithm.

Keywords: AFI, edge detection, adaptive threshold, morphological processing, OV6930, FPGA.

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1013 Genetic-Based Multi Resolution Noisy Color Image Segmentation

Authors: Raghad Jawad Ahmed

Abstract:

Segmentation of a color image composed of different kinds of regions can be a hard problem, namely to compute for an exact texture fields. The decision of the optimum number of segmentation areas in an image when it contains similar and/or un stationary texture fields. A novel neighborhood-based segmentation approach is proposed. A genetic algorithm is used in the proposed segment-pass optimization process. In this pass, an energy function, which is defined based on Markov Random Fields, is minimized. In this paper we use an adaptive threshold estimation method for image thresholding in the wavelet domain based on the generalized Gaussian distribution (GGD) modeling of sub band coefficients. This method called Normal Shrink is computationally more efficient and adaptive because the parameters required for estimating the threshold depend on sub band data energy that used in the pre-stage of segmentation. A quad tree is employed to implement the multi resolution framework, which enables the use of different strategies at different resolution levels, and hence, the computation can be accelerated. The experimental results using the proposed segmentation approach are very encouraging.

Keywords: Color image segmentation, Genetic algorithm, Markov random field, Scale space filter.

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1012 A New Shock Model for Systems Subject to Random Threshold Failure

Authors: A. Rangan, A. Tansu

Abstract:

This paper generalizes Yeh Lam-s shock model for renewal shock arrivals and random threshold. Several interesting statistical measures are explicitly obtained. A few special cases and an optimal replacement problem are also discussed.

Keywords: shock model, optimal replacement, random threshold, shocks.

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1011 Average Switching Thresholds and Average Throughput for Adaptive Modulation using Markov Model

Authors: Essam S. Altubaishi

Abstract:

The motivation for adaptive modulation and coding is to adjust the method of transmission to ensure that the maximum efficiency is achieved over the link at all times. The receiver estimates the channel quality and reports it back to the transmitter. The transmitter then maps the reported quality into a link mode. This mapping however, is not a one-to-one mapping. In this paper we investigate a method for selecting the proper modulation scheme. This method can dynamically adapt the mapping of the Signal-to- Noise Ratio (SNR) into a link mode. It enables the use of the right modulation scheme irrespective of changes in the channel conditions by incorporating errors in the received data. We propose a Markov model for this method, and use it to derive the average switching thresholds and the average throughput. We show that the average throughput of this method outperforms the conventional threshold method.

Keywords: Adaptive modulation and coding, CDMA, Markov model.

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1010 Adaptive Early Packet Discarding Policy Based on Two Traffic Classes

Authors: Rawya Rizk, Rehab Abdel-Kader, Rabab Ramadan

Abstract:

Unlike the best effort service provided by the internet today, next-generation wireless networks will support real-time applications. This paper proposes an adaptive early packet discard (AEPD) policy to improve the performance of the real time TCP traffic over ATM networks and avoid the fragmentation problem. Three main aspects are incorporated in the proposed policy. First, providing quality-of-service (QoS) guaranteed for real-time applications by implementing a priority scheduling. Second, resolving the partially corrupted packets problem by differentiating the buffered cells of one packet from another. Third, adapting a threshold dynamically using Fuzzy logic based on the traffic behavior to maintain a high throughput under a variety of load conditions. The simulation is run for two priority classes of the input traffic: real time and non-real time classes. Simulation results show that the proposed AEPD policy improves throughput and fairness over that using static threshold under the same traffic conditions.

Keywords: Early packet discard, Fuzzy logic, packet dropping policies, quality-of-service (QoS), TCP over ATM

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1009 Threshold Concepts in TESOL: A Thematic Analysis of Disciplinary Guiding Principles

Authors: Neil Morgan

Abstract:

The notion of Threshold Concepts has offered a fertile new perspective on the transformative effects of mastery of particular concepts on student understanding of subject matter and their developing identities as inductees into disciplinary discourse communities. Only by successfully traversing essential knowledge thresholds can neophytes achieve the more sophisticated understandings of subject matter possessed by mature members of a discipline. This paper uses thematic analysis of disciplinary guiding principles to identify nine candidate Threshold Concepts that appear to underpin effective TESOL practice. The relationship between these candidate TESOL Threshold Concepts, TESOL principles, and TESOL instructional techniques appears to be amenable to a schematic representation based on superordinate categories of TESOL practitioner concern and, as such, offers an alternative to the view of Threshold Concepts as a privileged subset of disciplinary core concepts. The paper concludes by exploring the potential of a Threshold Concepts framework to productively inform TESOL initial teacher education (ITE) and in-service education and training (INSET).

Keywords: TESOL, threshold concepts, TESOL principles, TESOL ITE/INSET, community of practice.

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1008 C-V Characterization and Analysis of Temperature and Channel Thickness Effects on Threshold Voltage of Ultra-thin SOI MOSFET by Self-Consistent Model

Authors: Shuvro Chowdhury, Esmat Farzana, Rizvi Ahmed, A. T. M. Golam Sarwar, M. Ziaur Rahman Khan

Abstract:

The threshold voltage and capacitance voltage characteristics of ultra-thin Silicon-on-Insulator MOSFET are greatly influenced by the thickness and doping concentration of the silicon film. In this work, the capacitance voltage characteristics and threshold voltage of the device have been analyzed with quantum mechanical effects using the Self-Consistent model. Reduction of channel thickness and adding doping impurities cause an increase in the threshold voltage. Moreover, the temperature effects cause a significant amount of threshold voltage shift. The temperature dependence of threshold voltage has also been observed with Self- Consistent approach which are well supported from experimental performance of practical devices.

Keywords: C-V characteristics, Self-Consistent Analysis, Siliconon-Insulator, Ultra-thin film.

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1007 Adaptive Sliding Mode Observer for a Class of Systems

Authors: D.Elleuch, T.Damak

Abstract:

In this paper, the performance of two adaptive observers applied to interconnected systems is studied. The nonlinearity of systems can be written in a fractional form. The first adaptive observer is an adaptive sliding mode observer for a Lipchitz nonlinear system and the second one is an adaptive sliding mode observer having a filtered error as a sliding surface. After comparing their performances throughout the inverted pendulum mounted on a car system, it was shown that the second one is more robust to estimate the state.

Keywords: Adaptive observer, Lipchitz system, Interconnected fractional nonlinear system, sliding mode.

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1006 New Data Reuse Adaptive Filters with Noise Constraint

Authors: Young-Seok Choi

Abstract:

We present a new framework of the data-reusing (DR) adaptive algorithms by incorporating a constraint on noise, referred to as a noise constraint. The motivation behind this work is that the use of the statistical knowledge of the channel noise can contribute toward improving the convergence performance of an adaptive filter in identifying a noisy linear finite impulse response (FIR) channel. By incorporating the noise constraint into the cost function of the DR adaptive algorithms, the noise constrained DR (NC-DR) adaptive algorithms are derived. Experimental results clearly indicate their superior performance over the conventional DR ones.

Keywords: Adaptive filter, data-reusing, least-mean square (LMS), affine projection (AP), noise constraint.

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1005 Building and Tree Detection Using Multiscale Matched Filtering

Authors: Abdullah H. Özcan, Dilara Hisar, Yetkin Sayar, Cem Ünsalan

Abstract:

In this study, an automated building and tree detection method is proposed using DSM data and true orthophoto image. A multiscale matched filtering is used on DSM data. Therefore, first watershed transform is applied. Then, Otsu’s thresholding method is used as an adaptive threshold to segment each watershed region. Detected objects are masked with NDVI to separate buildings and trees. The proposed method is able to detect buildings and trees without entering any elevation threshold. We tested our method on ISPRS semantic labeling dataset and obtained promising results.

Keywords: Building detection, tree detection, matched filtering, multiscale, local maximum filtering, watershed segmentation.

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1004 Energy Efficiency of Adaptive-Rate Medium Access Control Protocols for Sensor Networks

Authors: Rooholah Hasanizadeh, Saadan Zokaei

Abstract:

Energy efficient protocol design is the aim of current researches in the area of sensor networks where limited power resources impose energy conservation considerations. In this paper we care for Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols and after an extensive literature review, two adaptive schemes are discussed. Of them, adaptive-rate MACs which were introduced for throughput enhancement show the potency to save energy, even more than adaptive-power schemes. Then we propose an allocation algorithm for getting accurate and reliable results. Through a simulation study we validated our claim and showed the power saving of adaptive-rate protocols.

Keywords: Adaptive-rate, adaptive-power, MAC protocol, energy efficiency, sensor networks.

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1003 Discrete and Stationary Adaptive Sub-Band Threshold Method for Improving Image Resolution

Authors: P. Joyce Beryl Princess, Y. Harold Robinson

Abstract:

Image Processing is a structure of Signal Processing for which the input is the image and the output is also an image or parameter of the image. Image Resolution has been frequently referred as an important aspect of an image. In Image Resolution Enhancement, images are being processed in order to obtain more enhanced resolution. To generate highly resoluted image for a low resoluted input image with high PSNR value. Stationary Wavelet Transform is used for Edge Detection and minimize the loss occurs during Downsampling. Inverse Discrete Wavelet Transform is to get highly resoluted image. Highly resoluted output is generated from the Low resolution input with high quality. Noisy input will generate output with low PSNR value. So Noisy resolution enhancement technique has been used for adaptive sub-band thresholding is used. Downsampling in each of the DWT subbands causes information loss in the respective subbands. SWT is employed to minimize this loss. Inverse Discrete wavelet transform (IDWT) is to convert the object which is downsampled using DWT into a highly resoluted object. Used Image denoising and resolution enhancement techniques will generate image with high PSNR value. Our Proposed method will improve Image Resolution and reached the optimized threshold.

Keywords: Image Processing, Inverse Discrete wavelet transform, PSNR.

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1002 Location of Vortex Formation Threshold at Suction Inlets near Ground Planes – Ascending and Descending Conditions

Authors: Wei Hua Ho

Abstract:

Vortices can develop in intakes of turbojet and turbo fan aero engines during high power operation in the vicinity of solid surfaces. These vortices can cause catastrophic damage to the engine. The factors determining the formation of the vortex include both geometric dimensions as well as flow parameters. It was shown that the threshold at which the vortex forms or disappears is also dependent on the initial flow condition (i.e. whether a vortex forms after stabilised non vortex flow or vice-versa). A computational fluid dynamics study was conducted to determine the difference in thresholds between the two conditions. This is the first reported numerical investigation of the “memory effect". The numerical results reproduce the phenomenon reported in previous experimental studies and additional factors, which had not been previously studied, were investigated. They are the rate at which ambient velocity changes and the initial value of ambient velocity. The former was found to cause a shift in the threshold but not the later. It was also found that the varying condition thresholds are not symmetrical about the neutral threshold. The vortex to no vortex threshold lie slightly further away from the neutral threshold compared to the no vortex to vortex threshold. The results suggests that experimental investigation of vortex formation threshold performed either in vortex to no vortex conditions, or vice versa, solely may introduce mis-predictions greater than 10%.

Keywords: Jet Engine Test Cell, Unsteady flow, Inlet Vortex

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1001 Linear Pocket Profile based Threshold Voltage Model for sub-100 nm n-MOSFET

Authors: Muhibul Haque Bhuyan, Quazi Deen Mohd Khosru

Abstract:

This paper presents a threshold voltage model of pocket implanted sub-100 nm n-MOSFETs incorporating the drain and substrate bias effects using two linear pocket profiles. Two linear equations are used to simulate the pocket profiles along the channel at the surface from the source and drain edges towards the center of the n-MOSFET. Then the effective doping concentration is derived and is used in the threshold voltage equation that is obtained by solving the Poisson-s equation in the depletion region at the surface. Simulated threshold voltages for various gate lengths fit well with the experimental data already published in the literature. The simulated result is compared with the two other pocket profiles used to derive the threshold voltage models of n-MOSFETs. The comparison shows that the linear model has a simple compact form that can be utilized to study and characterize the pocket implanted advanced ULSI devices.

Keywords: Linear pocket profile, pocket implantation, nMOSFET, threshold voltage, short channel effect (SCE), reverse short channeleffect (RSCE).

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1000 Adaptive Pulse Coupled Neural Network Parameters for Image Segmentation

Authors: Thejaswi H. Raya, Vineetha Bettaiah, Heggere S. Ranganath

Abstract:

For over a decade, the Pulse Coupled Neural Network (PCNN) based algorithms have been successfully used in image interpretation applications including image segmentation. There are several versions of the PCNN based image segmentation methods, and the segmentation accuracy of all of them is very sensitive to the values of the network parameters. Most methods treat PCNN parameters like linking coefficient and primary firing threshold as global parameters, and determine them by trial-and-error. The automatic determination of appropriate values for linking coefficient, and primary firing threshold is a challenging problem and deserves further research. This paper presents a method for obtaining global as well as local values for the linking coefficient and the primary firing threshold for neurons directly from the image statistics. Extensive simulation results show that the proposed approach achieves excellent segmentation accuracy comparable to the best accuracy obtainable by trial-and-error for a variety of images.

Keywords: Automatic Selection of PCNN Parameters, Image Segmentation, Neural Networks, Pulse Coupled Neural Network

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999 Continuous Threshold Prey Harvesting in Predator-Prey Models

Authors: Jonathan Bohn, Jorge Rebaza, Kaitlin Speer

Abstract:

The dynamics of a predator-prey model with continuous threshold policy harvesting functions on the prey is studied. Theoretical and numerical methods are used to investigate boundedness of solutions, existence of bionomic equilibria, and the stability properties of coexistence equilibrium points and periodic orbits. Several bifurcations as well as some heteroclinic orbits are computed.

Keywords: Predator-prey models, threshold harvesting, dynamicalsystems

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