Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31181
The Comparison of Parental Childrearing Styles and Anxiety in Children with Stuttering and Normal Population

Authors: Pegah Farokhzad


Family has a crucial role in maintaining the physical, social and mental health of the children. Most of the mental and anxiety problems of children reflect the complex interpersonal situations among family members, especially parents. In other words, anxiety problems of the children are correlated with deficit relationships of family members and improper childrearing styles. The parental child rearing styles leads to positive and negative consequences which affect the children’s mental health. Therefore, the present research was aimed to compare the parental childrearing styles and anxiety of children with stuttering and normal population. It was also aimed to study the relationship between parental child rearing styles and anxiety of children. The research sample included 54 boys with stuttering and 54 normal boys who were selected from the children (boys) of Tehran, Iran in the age range of 5 to 8 years in 2013. In order to collect data, Baum-rind Childrearing Styles Inventory and Spence Parental Anxiety Inventory were used. Appropriate descriptive statistical methods and multivariate variance analysis and t test for independent groups were used to test the study hypotheses. Statistical data analyses demonstrated that there was a significant difference between stuttering boys and normal boys in anxiety (t = 7.601, p< 0.01); but there was no significant difference between stuttering boys and normal boys in parental childrearing styles (F = 0.129). There was also not found significant relationship between parental childrearing styles and children anxiety (F = 0.135, p< 0.05). It can be concluded that the influential factors of children’s society are parents, school, teachers, peers and media. So, parental childrearing styles are not the only influential factors on anxiety of children, and other factors including genetic, environment and child experiences are effective in anxiety as well. Details are discussed.

Keywords: Anxiety, Stuttering, Childrearing Styles

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2289


[1] L. Burk, “Developmental Psychology”, Translated by Y. Seyed Mohamadi, 2004. Tehran: Arasbaran Publication, 2001.
[2] H. Ahadi and F. Jomehri, “Developmental Psychology”, Qum: Ayandeh Derakhshan Publication, 1999.
[3] H. Ahadi and N. Mohseni, “Fundamental Concepts in Psychology of Adolescence and Adulthood”, Tehran: Pardis Publication, 1998.
[4] H. Azad, “Psychopathology”, Tehran: Be’sat Publication, 1996.
[5] M. Seifi, “Styles of Parenting”, Research Journal of Basics in Mental Health of Tehran, 2009, Vol. 3, pp. 40-45.
[6] K. Hoseinpour, “Effect of Parenting Styles on Children Anxiety”, Thesis Submitted to Department of Education and Psychology, 2002, Mashhad University.
[7] T. Taghavi, “Patterns of Parenting Styles”, Journal of Nursing Department of Tehran, 2005, Vol. 4, pp. 30-34.
[8] S. Ghanbari, “Children Anxiety”, Journal of Behavioral Science, 2009, Vol. 7.
[9] G. Karimi, “Anxiety in Stuttering”, Quarterly Journal of Rehabilitation, 2003, Vol. 5.
[10] M. Amiri, “Effect of Anxiety on Stuttering”, Tehran: Payam-e-Nour University, 2009.
[11] Z. Khanjani, “Anxious Thoughts of Children”, Research Journal of Medical Department of Sadoughi, 2012, Yazd.
[12] A. Craig and T. Ivonnc, “Fear of Speaking: Chronic Anxiety and Stammering”, Journal of Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 2006, Vol. 12, pp. 63-68.
[13] G. Blood; I.M. Blood; K. Maloney; C. Meyer and C.D. Qualls, “Anxiety Levels in Adolescents who Stutters”, Journal of Communication Disorders, 2007, Vol. 40, pp. 452-469.
[14] K. Mulcahy; N. Hennessey; J. Beilby and M. Byrnes, “Social Anxiety and Severity and Typography of Stuttering”, Journal of Fluency Disorders, 2008, Vol. 33, pp. 306-319.
[15] B. Vander Merwe; M.P. Roob; J.G. Lewis and T. Ormond, “Anxiety Measures and Salivary Cortisol Response in Preschool Children who Stutters”, Journal of Contemporary Issues in Communication Science and Disorders, 2011, Vol. 38, pp. 1-10.
[16] N.R. Thergaonkar and A.J. Wadkar, “Relationship between Test Anxiety and Parenting Style”, Journal of Indian Association for Children and Adolescents Mental Health, 2007, Vol. 2(4), pp. 10-12.
[17] J.J. Wood; B.D. Mcleod; M. Sigman; W.C. Hwang and B.C. Chu, “Parenting and Childhood Anxiety: Theory, Empirical Findings, and Future Directions”, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 2003, Vol. 44(1), pp. 134-151.
[18] K. Aunola and J.E. Nurmi, “The Role of Parenting Styles in Children’s Problem Behavior”, Child Development, 2005, Vol. 76(6), pp. 1144- 1159.
[19] P. Heaven and J. Clarrochi, “Parental Styles, Gender and Development of Hope and Self-esteem”, European Journal of Personality, 2008, Vol. 22, pp. 707-724.
[20] S. Brand; M. Hatzinger; J. Beck and E. Holsboer-Trachsler, “Perceived Parenting Styles, Personality Traits and Sleep Patterns in Adolescents”, Journal of Adolescence, 2009, Vol. 32, pp. 1189-1207.
[21] K.E. Benoit, “The Relationship between Parenting Styles and Childhood Anxiety in an Ethnically Diverse South African Sample”, Theses submitted to the faculty of the Virginia polytechnic institute and state university in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Psychology, 2009, Blacksburg, V.A.
[22] R. Radfar, “Role and Effects of Mothers’ Parenting Styles on Children Anxiety”, Thesis Submitted to Department of Education and Psychology, 2011, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran.
[23] S. Bagherpour, “Relationship between Parenting Styles with Mental Health and Educational Achievement of Military and Normal Employees”, Thesis Submitted for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology, 2006, Tehran University.
[24] K. Farahmanpour, “Secret of Stuttering”, Tehran: Nasle No-andish Publication, 2010.
[25] E. Aslami, “Study of Marital Adjustment and Styles of Parenting with General Health of Children”, Thesis Submitted for Master of Art in Psychology, 2006, Tehran University.
[26] L. Iverach; S. O’Brain; M. Jones; S. Block; M. Lincoln et al. “Prevalence of Anxiety Disorders among Adults Seeking Speech Therapy for Stuttering”, Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 2009, Vol. 23, pp. 928-934.