Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 221

Search results for: Air passenger rights

221 Conciliation Bodies as an Effective Tool for the Enforcement of Air Passenger Rights: Examination of an Exemplary Model in Germany

Authors: C. Hipp

Abstract:

The EU Regulation (EC) No 261/2004 under which air passengers can claim compensation in the event of denied boarding, cancellation or long delay of flights has to be regarded as a substantial progress for the consumer protection in the field of air transport since it went into force in February 2005. Nevertheless, different reviews of its effective functioning demonstrate that most passengers affected by service disruptions do not enforce their complaints and claims towards the airline. The main cause of this is not only the unclear legal situation due to the fact that the regulation itself suffers from many undetermined terms and loopholes it is also attributable to the strategy of the airlines which do not handle the complaints of the passengers or exclude their duty to compensate them. Economically contemplated, reasons like the long duration of a trial and the cost risk in relation to the amount of compensation make it comprehensible that passengers are deterred from enforcing their rights by filing a lawsuit. The paper focusses on the alternative dispute resolution namely the recently established conciliation bodies which deal with air passenger rights. In this paper, the Conciliation Body for Public Transport in Germany (Schlichtungsstelle für den öffentlichen Personenverkehr – SÖP) is examined as a successful example of independent consumer arbitration service. It was founded in 2009 and deals with complaints in the field of air passenger rights since November 2013. According to the current situation one has to admit that due to its structure and operation it meets on the one hand the needs of the airlines by giving them an efficient tool of their customer relation management and on the other hand that it contributes to the enforcement of air passenger rights effectively.

Keywords: Air passenger rights, alternative dispute resolution (ADR), consumer protection, EU law regulation (EC) No 261/2004.

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220 Analysis of the CO2 Emissions of Public Passenger Transport in Tianjin City of China

Authors: Tao Zhao, Xianshuo Xu

Abstract:

Low-carbon public passenger transport is an important part of low carbon city. The CO2 emissions of public passenger transport in Tianjin from 1995 to 2010 are estimated with IPCC CO2 counting method, which shows that the total CO2 emissions of Tianjin public passenger transport have gradually become stable at 1,425.1 thousand tons. And then the CO2 emissions of the buses, taxies, and rail transits are calculated respectively. A CO2 emission of 829.9 thousand tons makes taxies become the largest CO2 emissions source among the public passenger transport in Tianjin. Combining with passenger volume, this paper analyzes the CO2 emissions proportion of the buses, taxies, and rail transits compare the passenger transport rate with the proportion of CO2 emissions, as well as the CO2 emissions change of per 10,000 people. The passenger volume proportion of bus among the three public means of transport is 72.62% which is much higher than its CO2 emissions proportion of 36.01%, with the minimum number of CO2 emissions per 10,000 people of 4.90 tons. The countermeasures to reduce CO2 emissions of public passenger transport in Tianjin are to develop rail transit, update vehicles and use alternative fuel vehicles.

Keywords: Public passenger transport, carbon emissions, countermeasures.

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219 Active Vibration Control of Passenger Seat with HFPIDCR Controlled Suspension Alternatives

Authors: Devdutt, M. L. Aggarwal

Abstract:

In this paper, passenger ride comfort issues are studied taking active quarter car model with three degrees of freedom. A hybrid fuzzy – PID controller with coupled rules (HFPIDCR) is designed for vibration control of passenger seat. Three different control strategies are considered. In first case, main suspension is controlled. In second case, passenger seat suspension is controlled. In third case, both main suspension and passenger seat suspensions are controlled. Passenger seat acceleration and displacement results are obtained using bump and sinusoidal type road disturbances. Finally, obtained simulation results of designed uncontrolled and controlled quarter car models are compared and discussed to select best control strategy for achieving high level of passenger ride comfort.

Keywords: Active suspension system, HFPIDCR controller, passenger ride comfort, quarter car model.

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218 Passenger Seat Vibration Comparison Using ANFIS Control in Active Quarter Car Model

Authors: Devdutt

Abstract:

In this paper, vibration control response of passenger seat in quarter car model having three degrees of freedom is studied. Three different control strategies are taken into account using Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) controller. In first case, ANFIS controller is applied in main suspension of active quarter car model. In second case, passenger seat suspension is assembled with ANFIS controller. Finally, both main and passenger seat suspensions are integrated with ANFIS controller. Simulation work under random road excitations is performed using passive and controlled quarter car models for performance comparison of passenger ride comfort. Ride comfort analysis is also compared as per ISO 2631-1 criterion. The obtained simulation responses are compared taking passenger seat acceleration and displacement response in time and frequency domain for the selection of best control strategy in designed quarter car model.

Keywords: Active suspension system, ANFIS controller, passenger ride comfort, quarter car model.

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217 Economic Growth Relations to Domestic and International Air Passenger Transport in Brazil

Authors: Manoela Cabo da Silva, Elton Fernandes, Ricardo Pacheco, Heloisa Pires

Abstract:

This study examined cointegration and causal relationships between economic growth and regular domestic and international passenger air transport in Brazil. Total passengers embarked and disembarked were used as a proxy for air transport activity and gross domestic product (GDP) as a proxy for economic development. The test spanned the period from 2000 to 2015 for domestic passenger traffic and from 1995 to 2015 for international traffic. The results confirm the hypothesis that there is cointegration between passenger traffic series and economic development, showing a bi-directional Granger causal relationship between domestic traffic and economic development and unidirectional influence by economic growth on international passenger air transport demand. Variance decomposition of the series showed that domestic air transport was far more important than international transport to promoting economic development in Brazil.

Keywords: Air passenger transport, cointegration, economic growth, GDP, granger causality.

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216 Summing ANFIS PID Control of Passenger Seat Vibrations in Active Quarter Car Model

Authors: Devdutt

Abstract:

In this paper, passenger seat vibration control of an active quarter car model under random road excitations is considered. The designed ANFIS and Summing ANFIS PID controllers are assembled in primary suspension system of quarter car model. Simulation work is performed in time and frequency domain to obtain passenger seat acceleration and displacement responses. Simulation results show that Summing ANFIS PID based controller is highly suitable to suppress the road induced vibrations in quarter car model to achieve desired passenger ride comfort and safety compared to ANFIS and passive system.

Keywords: Quarter car model, Active suspension system, Summing ANFIS PID controller, Passenger ride comfort.

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215 Passenger Flow Characteristics of Seoul Metropolitan Subway Network

Authors: Kang Won Lee, Jung Won Lee

Abstract:

Characterizing the network flow is of fundamental importance to understand the complex dynamics of networks. And passenger flow characteristics of the subway network are very relevant for an effective transportation management in urban cities. In this study, passenger flow of Seoul metropolitan subway network is investigated and characterized through statistical analysis. Traditional betweenness centrality measure considers only topological structure of the network and ignores the transportation factors. This paper proposes a weighted betweenness centrality measure that incorporates monthly passenger flow volume. We apply the proposed measure on the Seoul metropolitan subway network involving 493 stations and 16 lines. Several interesting insights about the network are derived from the new measures. Using Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, we also find out that monthly passenger flow between any two stations follows a power-law distribution and other traffic characteristics such as congestion level and throughflow traffic follow exponential distribution.

Keywords: Betweenness centrality, correlation coefficient, power-law distribution, Korea traffic data base.

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214 Equivalent Transformation for Heterogeneous Traffic Cellular Automata

Authors: Shih-Ching Lo

Abstract:

Understanding driving behavior is a complicated researching topic. To describe accurate speed, flow and density of a multiclass users traffic flow, an adequate model is needed. In this study, we propose the concept of standard passenger car equivalent (SPCE) instead of passenger car equivalent (PCE) to estimate the influence of heavy vehicles and slow cars. Traffic cellular automata model is employed to calibrate and validate the results. According to the simulated results, the SPCE transformations present good accuracy.

Keywords: traffic flow, passenger car equivalent, cellular automata

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213 Evaluating Accessibility to Bangkok Mass Transit System: Case Study of Saphan Taksin BTS Station

Authors: Rungpansa Noichan, Bart Julien Dewancker

Abstract:

Access to the mass transit system, including rapid elevated and underground transport has become an outstanding issue for many cities. The mass transit access development should focus on behavioral responses of the different passenger groups. Moreover, it should consider about the appearance of intent-oriented action related accessibility that was explored from user’s satisfaction and attitudes related to services quality. This study aims to evaluate mass transit accessibility from passenger’s satisfaction, therefore, understanding the passenger’s attitudes about mass transit accessibility. The study area of this research is Bangkok Mass Transit system (BTS Skytrain) at Saphan Taksin station. 200 passengers at Saphan Taksin station were asked to rate the questionnaires survey that considers accessibility aspects of convenience, safety, feeder connectivity, and other dimensions. The survey was to find out the passenger attitudes and satisfaction for access to the BTS station, and the result shows several factors that influence the passenger choice of using the BTS as a public transportation mode and passenger’s opinion that needs to concern for the development mass transit system and accessibility performance.

Keywords: Urban transportation, user satisfaction, accessibility, Bangkok mass transit.

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212 Stop Forced Child Marriage: A Comparative Global Law Analysis

Authors: Michelle J. Miller

Abstract:

Millions of girls are forcibly married during the transitional period between puberty and adulthood. At a stage of vulnerability cultural practices, religious rights and social standards place her in a position where she is catapult into womanhood. An advocate against forced child marriage could argue that child rights, cultural rights, religious rights, right to marry, right to life, right to health, right to education, right to be free from slavery, right to be free from torture, right to consent to marriage are all violated by the practice of child marriage. The author is this advocate and this paper will present how some of these rights are violated and establish the need for change.

Keywords: Child marriage, forced child marriage, child rights, protection, religious rights, cultural rights, right to life, human rights.

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211 OFDM and Fingerprint Authentication for Efficient Airport Security

Authors: K.Amrithavarshini, S.Chandrachudeswaran

Abstract:

This paper presents an idea to improve the efficiency of security checks in airports through the active tracking and monitoring of passengers and staff using OFDM modulation technique and Finger print authentication. The details of the passenger are multiplexed using OFDM .To authenticate the passenger, the fingerprint along with important identification information is collected. The details of the passenger can be transmitted after necessary modulation, and received using various transceivers placed within the premises of the airport, and checked at the appropriate check points, thereby increasing the efficiency of checking. OFDM has been employed for spectral efficiency.

Keywords: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing, FFT Algorithm, Fingerprint Authentication, Airport Security

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210 Women’s Rights in Conflict with People’s Cultural Autonomy: Problems of Cultural Accommodation

Authors: Nazia Khan

Abstract:

The paper explores the cultural rights accommodation by the state which has left many unresolved problems. The cultural rights sometimes violate the basic individual rights of the members inside the community like women. The paper further explicates certain cultural norms and practices which violates the rights of women inside the community in the name of culture.

Keywords: Culture, Patriarchy, Rights, Women.

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209 Comparison of Noise Emissions in the Interior of Passenger Cars

Authors: Martin Kendra, Tomas Skrucany, Jaroslav Masek

Abstract:

The noise is one of the negative elements which affects the human health. This article presents the measurement of emitted noise by road vehicle and its parts during the operation. Measurement was done in the interior of common passenger cars with a digital sound meter. The results compare the noise value in different cars with different body shape, which influences the driver’s health. Transport has considerable ecological effects; many of them are detrimental to environmental sustainability. Roads and traffic exert a variety of direct and mostly detrimental effects on nature.

Keywords: Driver, noise measurement, passenger road vehicle, road transport.

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208 Robust Human Rights Governance: Developing International Criteria

Authors: Helen P. Greatrex

Abstract:

Many states are now committed to implementing international human rights standards domestically. In terms of practical governance, how might effectiveness be measured? A facevalue answer can be found in domestic laws and institutions relating to human rights. However, this article provides two further tools to help states assess their status on the spectrum of robust to fragile human rights governance. The first recognises that each state has its own 'human rights history' and the ideal end stage is robust human rights governance, and the second is developing criteria to assess robustness. Although a New Zealand case study is used to illustrate these tools, the widespread adoption of human rights standards by many states inevitably means that the issues are relevant to other countries. This is even though there will always be varying degrees of similarity-difference in constitutional background and developed or emerging human rights systems.

Keywords: robust human rights governance, fragile states.

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207 Analysis of Train Passenger Seat Using Ergonomic Function Deployment Method

Authors: Robertoes K. K. Wibowo, Siswoyo Soekarno, Irma Puspitasari

Abstract:

Indonesian people use trains for their transportation, especially they use economy class train transportation because it is cheaper and has a more precise schedule than any other ground transportation. Nevertheless, the economy class passenger seat raises some inconvenience issues for passengers. This is due to the design of the chair on the economic class of trains that did not adjusted to the shape of anthropometry of Indonesian people. Thus, research needs to be conducted on the design of the seats in the economic class of trains. The purpose of this research is to make the design of economy class passenger seats ergonomic. This research method uses questionnaires and anthropometry measurements. The data obtained is processed using House of Quality of Ergonomic Function Development. From the results of analysis and data processing were obtained important changes from the original design. Ergonomic chair design according to the analysis is a stainless steel frame, seat height 390 mm, with a seat width for each passenger of 400 mm and a depth of 400 mm. Design of the backrest has a height of 840 mm, width of 430 mm and length of 300 mm that can move at the angle of 105-115 degrees. The width of the footrest is 42 mm and 400 mm length. The thickness of the seat cushion is 100 mm.

Keywords: Chair, ergonomics, function development, train passenger.

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206 Dynamic Analyses for Passenger Volume of Domestic Airline and High Speed Rail

Authors: Shih-Ching Lo

Abstract:

Discrete choice model is the most used methodology for studying traveler-s mode choice and demand. However, to calibrate the discrete choice model needs to have plenty of questionnaire survey. In this study, an aggregative model is proposed. The historical data of passenger volumes for high speed rail and domestic civil aviation are employed to calibrate and validate the model. In this study, different models are compared so as to propose the best one. From the results, systematic equations forecast better than single equation do. Models with the external variable, which is oil price, are better than models based on closed system assumption.

Keywords: forecasting, passenger volume, dynamic competition model, external variable, oil price

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205 Horizontal Dimension of Constitutional Social Rights

Authors: Monika Florczak-Wątor

Abstract:

The main purpose of this paper is to determine the applicability of the constitutional social rights in the so-called horizontal relations, i.e. the relations between private entities. Nowadays the constitutional rights are more and more often violated by private entities and not only by the state. The private entities interfere with the privacy of individuals, limit their freedom of expression or disturb their peaceful gatherings. International corporations subordinate individuals in a way which may limit their constitutional rights. These new realities determine the new role of the constitution in protecting human rights. The paper will aim at answering two important questions. Firstly, are the private entities obliged to respect the constitutional social rights of other private entities and can they be liable for violation of these rights? Secondly, how the constitutional social rights can receive horizontal effect? Answers to these questions will have a significant meaning for the popularisation of the practice of applying the Constitution among the citizens as well as for the courts which settle disputes between them.

Keywords: Constitution, horizontal application, private relations, social rights.

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204 Self-Tuning Fuzzy Control of Seat Vibrations of Active Quarter Car Model

Authors: Devdutt

Abstract:

An active quarter car model with three degrees of freedom is presented for vibration reduction of passenger seat. The designed Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) and Self-Tuning Fuzzy Logic Controller (STFLC) are applied in seat suspension. Vibration control performance of active and passive quarter car systems are determined using simulation work. Simulation results in terms of passenger seat acceleration and displacement responses are compared for controlled and uncontrolled cases. Simulation results showed the improved results of both FLC and STFLC controllers in improving passenger ride comfort compared to uncontrolled case. Furthermore, the best performance in simulation studies is achieved by STFLC controlled suspension system compared to FLC controlled and uncontrolled cases.

Keywords: Active suspension system, quarter car model, passenger ride comfort, self-tuning fuzzy logic controller.

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203 A Constitutional Approach to the Rights to Water and Energy

Authors: Antonios Maniatis

Abstract:

The present paper focuses on human rights to the water and to the energy and has a scope to promote the legal status on sustainable construction. The right to water constitutes a typical example of 3G fundamental rights, like the right to enjoyment of energy, particularly of electricity, whilst the right to energy efficiency is a right of fourth generation. Both rights to water and energy are examined through their consecration in the framework of the above-mentioned generations. It results that not only decision-makers but also citizens should fight for the further consecration and adequate use of these crucial rights, having to do with the urgent problem of climate change and the sustainable development. The time for the principle of water and energy “rule of law” has come.

Keywords: Climate change law, energy (en + ergon) efficiency, fundamental rights, prosumer, water.

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202 Constitutionalisation and Judicial Protection of Social Rights - An Approach to Latin American Case

Authors: German Lopez Daza

Abstract:

Latin America is probably the region with greater social inequality, contrary to the amount of rights enshrined in their constitutions. In the last decade of the twentieth century, the area resulted in significant changes to democratization and constitutional changes. Through low-key public policy, political leaders activated participation in the culture of human rights. The struggle for social rights in Latin America has been a constant regulation. His consecration at the constitutional level has chained search application. The constitutionalization and judicial protection of these rights have been crucial in countries like Argentina, Venezuela, Peru and Colombia. This paper presents an analytical view on the constitutionalization of social rights in the Latin American context and its justiciability.

Keywords: Socials rights, public policy, justiciability, judicial protection, Latin America.

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201 The Exclusion of Consumer Rights in e-Auctions – Is an e-Auction Really an Auction at all?

Authors: Trish O'Sullivan

Abstract:

This paper considers the exclusion of consumer rights by the New Zealand Consumer Guarantees Act 1993 in eauctions. The paper asserts that the absence of an individual auctioneer conducting each e-auction means that e-auctions may not be auctions at all. The paper also questions the justification for excluding consumer rights in e-auctions because the rationale for excluding consumer rights in traditional auctions does not fit with e-auctions due to the significant differences in the sale processes. The paper recommends reform by way of statutory amendment.

Keywords: auction, auctioneer, consumer rights, e-auction.

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200 Energy Consumption and GHG Production in Railway and Road Passenger Regional Transport

Authors: Martin Kendra, Tomas Skrucany, Jozef Gnap, Jan Ponicky

Abstract:

Paper deals with the modeling and simulation of energy consumption and GHG production of two different modes of regional passenger transport – road and railway. These two transport modes use the same type of fuel – diesel. Modeling and simulation of the energy consumption in transport is often used due to calculation satisfactory accuracy and cost efficiency. Paper deals with the calculation based on EN standards and information collected from technical information from vehicle producers and characteristics of tracks. Calculation included maximal theoretical capacity of bus and train and real passenger’s measurement from operation. Final energy consumption and GHG production is calculated by using software simulation. In evaluation of the simulation is used system “well to wheel”.

Keywords: Bus, energy consumption, GHG, production, simulation, train.

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199 Analyzing the Factors Effecting the Passenger Car Breakdowns using Com-Poisson GLM

Authors: N. Mamode Khan, V. Jowaheer

Abstract:

Number of breakdowns experienced by a machinery is a highly under-dispersed count random variable and its value can be attributed to the factors related to the mechanical input and output of that machinery. Analyzing such under-dispersed count observations as a function of the explanatory factors has been a challenging problem. In this paper, we aim at estimating the effects of various factors on the number of breakdowns experienced by a passenger car based on a study performed in Mauritius over a year. We remark that the number of passenger car breakdowns is highly under-dispersed. These data are therefore modelled and analyzed using Com-Poisson regression model. We use quasi-likelihood estimation approach to estimate the parameters of the model. Under-dispersion parameter is estimated to be 2.14 justifying the appropriateness of Com-Poisson distribution in modelling under-dispersed count responses recorded in this study.

Keywords: Breakdowns, under-dispersion, com-poisson, generalized linear model, quasi-likelihood estimation

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198 Constitutional Complaint as an Instrument of Fulfilling the Worker ׳s Rights in Croatian Legal System

Authors: Dragana Bjelić, Mirela Mezak Stastny

Abstract:

This paper begins with formal defining of human rights and freedoms, and the basic document regarding the said subject is undoubtedly French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen from 789. This paper furthermore parses legal sources relevant for the workers' rights in legal system of the Republic of Croatia, international contracts and the Labour Act, which is also a master bill regarding workers' rights The authors are also dealing with issues of Constitutional Court of the Republic of Croatia and its' position in judicial system of the Republic of Croatia, as well as with the specifics of Constitutional Complaint, and the crucial part of the paper is based on the research conducted with an aim to determine implementation of rights and liberties guaranteed by the articles 54. and 55. of the Constitution of the Republic of Croatia by means of Constitutional Complaint.

Keywords: a right to work, a freedom of work, Constitutional Court of Republic of Croatia, Constitutional Complaint.

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197 Crash and Injury Characteristics of Riders in Motorcycle-Passenger Vehicle Crashes

Authors: Z. A. Ahmad Noor Syukri, A. J. Nawal Aswan, S. V. Wong

Abstract:

The motorcycle has become one of the most common type of vehicles used on the road, particularly in the Asia region, including Malaysia, due to its size-convenience and affordable price. This study focuses only on crashes involving motorcycles with passenger cars consisting 43 real world crashes obtained from in-depth crash investigation process from June 2016 till July 2017. The study collected and analyzed vehicle and site parameters obtained during crash investigation and injury information acquired from the patient-treating hospital. The investigation team, consisting of two personnel, is stationed at the Emergency Department of the treatment facility, and was dispatched to the crash scene once receiving notification of the related crashes. The injury information retrieved was coded according to the level of severity using the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and classified into different body regions. The data revealed that weekend crashes were significantly higher for the night time period and the crash occurrence was the highest during morning hours (commuting to work period) for weekdays. Bad weather conditions play a minimal effect towards the occurrence of motorcycle – passenger vehicle crashes and nearly 90% involved motorcycles with single riders. Riders up to 25 years old are heavily involved in crashes with passenger vehicles (60%), followed by 26-55 year age group with 35%. Male riders were dominant in each of the age segments. The majority of the crashes involved side impacts, followed by rear impacts and cars outnumbered the rest of the passenger vehicle types in terms of crash involvement with motorcycles. The investigation data also revealed that passenger vehicles were the most at-fault counterpart (62%) when involved in crashes with motorcycles and most of the crashes involved situations whereby both of the vehicles are travelling in the same direction and one of the vehicles is in a turning maneuver. More than 80% of the involved motorcycle riders had sustained yellow severity level during triage process. The study also found that nearly 30% of the riders sustained injuries to the lower extremities, while MAIS level 3 injuries were recorded for all body regions except for thorax region. The result showed that crashes in which the motorcycles were found to be at fault were more likely to occur during night and raining conditions. These types of crashes were also found to be more likely to involve other types of passenger vehicles rather than cars and possess higher likelihood in resulting higher ISS (>6) value to the involved rider. To reduce motorcycle fatalities, it first has to understand the characteristics concerned and focus may be given on crashes involving passenger vehicles as the most dominant crash partner on Malaysian roads.

Keywords: Motorcycle crash, passenger vehicle, in-depth crash investigation, injury mechanism.

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196 Analyzing Culture as an Obstacle to Gender Equality in a Non-Western Context: Key Areas of Conflict between International Women’s Rights and Cultural Rights in South Sudan

Authors: C. Leiber

Abstract:

International human rights treaties ensure basic rights to all people, regardless of nationality. These treaties have developed in a predominantly Western environment, and their implementation into non-western contexts often raises questions of the transfer-ability of value systems and governance structures. International human rights treaties also postulate the right to the full enjoyment and expression of one’s own culture, known as cultural rights. Many cultural practices and traditions in South Sudan serve as an obstacle to the adaptation of human rights and internationally agreed-upon standards, specifically those pertaining to women’s rights and gender equality. This paper analyzes the specific social, political, and economic conflicts between women’s rights and cultural rights within the context of South Sudan’s evolution into a sovereign nation. It comprehensively evaluates the legal status of South Sudanese women and –based on the empirical evidence- assesses gender equality in four key areas: Marriage, Education, Violence against Women, and Inheritance. This work includes an exploration into how South Sudanese culture influences, and indeed is intertwined with, social, political, and economic spheres, and how it limits gender equality and impedes the full implementation of international human rights treaties. Furthermore, any negative effects which systemic gender inequality and cultural practices that are oppressive to women have on South Sudan as a developing nation are explored. Finally, those areas of conflict between South Sudanese cultural rights and international women’s rights are outlined which can be mitigated or resolved in favor of elevating gender equality without imperializing or destroying South Sudanese culture.

Keywords: Cultural rights, gender equality, international human rights, South Sudan.

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195 Fuzzy Logic Control of a Semi-Active Quarter Car System

Authors: Devdutt, M. L. Aggarwal

Abstract:

The development of vehicles having best ride comfort and safety of travelling passengers is of great interest for automotive manufacturers. The effect of transmitted vibrations from car body to passenger seat is required to be controlled for achieving the same. The application of magneto-rheological (MR) shock absorber in suspension system has been considered to achieve significant benefits in this regard. This paper introduces a secondary suspension controlled semi-active quarter car system using MR shock absorber for effective vibration control. Fuzzy logic control system is used for design of controller for actual damping force generation by MR shock absorber. Performance evaluations are done related to passenger seat acceleration and displacement in time and frequency domains, in order to see the effectiveness of the proposed semi-active suspension system. Simulation results show that the semi-active suspension system provides better results compared to passive suspension system in terms of passenger ride comfort improvement.

Keywords: Fuzzy logic control, MR shock absorber, Quarter car model, Semi-active suspension system.

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194 Numerical Investigation on the Interior Wind Noise of a Passenger Car

Authors: Liu Ying-jie, Lu Wen-bo, Peng Cheng-jian

Abstract:

With the development of the automotive technology and electric vehicle, the contribution of the wind noise on the interior noise becomes the main source of noise. The main transfer path which the exterior excitation is transmitted through is the greenhouse panels and side windows. Simulating the wind noise transmitted into the vehicle accurately in the early development stage can be very challenging. The basic methodologies of this study were based on the Lighthill analogy; the exterior flow field around a passenger car was computed using unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) firstly and then a Finite Element Method (FEM) was used to compute the interior acoustic response. The major findings of this study include: 1) The Sound Pressure Level (SPL) response at driver’s ear locations is mainly induced by the turbulence pressure fluctuation; 2) Peaks were found over the full frequency range. It is found that the methodology used in this study could predict the interior wind noise induced by the exterior aerodynamic excitation in industry.

Keywords: Wind noise, computational fluid dynamics, finite element method, passenger car.

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193 Human Rights in Armed Conflicts and Constitutional Law

Authors: Antonios Maniatis

Abstract:

The main purpose of this paper is to determine the impact of both International Humanitarian Law and anti-piracy International Law on Constitutional Law. International Law is endowed with a rich set of norms on the protection of private individuals in armed conflicts and copes with the diachronic crime of maritime piracy, which may be considered as a private war in the high seas. Constitutional Law has been traditionally geared at two generations of fundamental rights. The paper will aim at answering the question “Which is the profile of 3G constitutional rights, particularly in the light of International Humanitarian Law?”

Keywords: Constitution, Humanitarian International Law, Piracy, 3G fundamental rights.

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192 Ride Control of Passenger Cars with Semi-active Suspension System Using a Linear Quadratic Regulator and Hybrid Optimization Algorithm

Authors: Ali Fellah Jahromi, Wen Fang Xie, Rama B. Bhat

Abstract:

A semi-active control strategy for suspension systems of passenger cars is presented employing Magnetorheological (MR) dampers. The vehicle is modeled with seven DOFs including the, roll pitch and bounce of car body, and the vertical motion of the four tires. In order to design an optimal controller based on the actuator constraints, a Linear-Quadratic Regulator (LQR) is designed. The design procedure of the LQR consists of selecting two weighting matrices to minimize the energy of the control system. This paper presents a hybrid optimization procedure which is a combination of gradient-based and evolutionary algorithms to choose the weighting matrices with regards to the actuator constraint. The optimization algorithm is defined based on maximum comfort and actuator constraints. It is noted that utilizing the present control algorithm may significantly reduce the vibration response of the passenger car, thus, providing a comfortable ride.

Keywords: Full car model, Linear Quadratic Regulator, Sequential Quadratic Programming, Genetic Algorithm

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