Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 107

Search results for: gram positive

107 Antimicrobial Properties of Copper in Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria

Authors: Travis J. Meyer, Jasodra Ramlall, Phyo Thu, Nidhi Gadura

Abstract:

For centuries humans have used the antimicrobial properties of copper to their advantage. Yet, after all these years the underlying mechanisms of copper mediated cell death in various microbes remain unclear. We had explored the hypothesis that copper mediated increased levels of lipid peroxidation in the membrane fatty acids is responsible for increased killing in Escherichia coli. In this study we show that in both gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria there is a strong correlation between copper mediated cell death and increased levels of lipid peroxidation. Interestingly, the non-spore forming gram positive bacteria as well as gram negative bacteria show similar patterns of cell death, increased levels of lipid peroxidation, as well as genomic DNA degradation, however there is some difference in loss in membrane integrity upon exposure to copper alloy surface.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, copper, gram positive, gram negative.

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106 Sterility Examination and Comparative Analyses of Inhibitory Effect of Honey on Some Gram Negative and Gram Positive Food Borne Pathogens in South West Nigeria

Authors: F. O. Omoya

Abstract:

Food borne illnesses have been reported to be a global health challenge. Annual incidences of food–related diseases involve 76 million cases, of which only 14 million can be traced to known pathogens. Poor hygienic practices have contributed greatly to this. It has been reported that in the year 2000 about 2.1 million people died from diarrheal diseases, hence, there is a need to ensure food safety at all level. This study focused on the sterility examination and inhibitory effect of honey samples on selected gram negative and gram positive food borne pathogen from South West Nigeria. The laboratory examinations revealed the presence of some bacterial and fungal contaminations of honey samples and that inhibitory activity of the honey sample was more pronounced on the gram negative bacteria than the gram positive bacterial isolates. Antibiotic sensitivity test conducted on the different bacterial isolates also showed that honey was able to inhibit the proliferation of the tested bacteria than the employed antibiotics.

Keywords: Food borne illness, gram positive and gram negative bacteria, honey, and inhibitory activity.

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105 Early Onset Neonatal Sepsis Pathogens in Malaysian Hospitals: Determining Empiric Antibiotic

Authors: Nazedah Ain Ibrahim, Mohamed Mansor Manan

Abstract:

Information regarding early onset neonatal sepsis (EONS) pathogens may vary between regions. Global perspectives showed Group B Streptococcal (GBS) as the most common causative pathogens, but the widespread use of intrapartum antibiotics has changed the pathogens pattern towards gram negative microorganisms, especially E. coli. Objective of this study is to describe the pathogens isolated, to assess current treatment and risk of EONS. Records of 899 neonates born in three General Hospitals between 2009 until 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Proven was found in 22 (3%) neonates. The majority was isolated with gram positive organisms, 17 (2.3%). All grams positive and most gram negative organisms showed sensitivity to the tested antibiotics. Only two rare gram negative organisms showed total resistant. Male was possible risk of proven EONS. Although proven EONS remains uncommon in Malaysia, nonetheless, the effect of intrapartum antibiotics still required continuous surveillance.

Keywords: Early onset neonatal sepsis, neonates, pathogens, gram positive, gram negative.

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104 Identification of the Antimicrobial Effect of Liquorice Extracts on Gram-Positive Bacteria: Determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration and Mechanism of Action Using a luxABCDE Reporter Strain

Authors: Madiha El Awamie, Catherine Rees

Abstract:

Natural preservatives have been used as alternatives to traditional chemical preservatives; however, a limited number have been commercially developed and many remain to be investigated as sources of safer and effective antimicrobials. In this study, we have been investigating the antimicrobial activity of an extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra (liquorice) that was provided as a waste material from the production of liquorice flavourings for the food industry, and to investigate if this retained the expected antimicrobial activity so it could be used as a natural preservative. Antibacterial activity of liquorice extract was screened for evidence of growth inhibition against eight species of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria innocua, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Bacillus subtilis. The Gram-negative bacteria tested include Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium but none of these were affected by the extract. In contrast, for all of the Gram-positive bacteria tested, growth was inhibited as monitored using optical density. However parallel studies using viable count indicated that the cells were not killed meaning that the extract was bacteriostatic rather than bacteriocidal. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration [MIC] and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration [MBC] of the extract was also determined and a concentration of 50 µg ml-1 was found to have a strong bacteriostatic effect on Gram-positive bacteria. Microscopic analysis indicated that there were changes in cell shape suggesting the cell wall was affected. In addition, the use of a reporter strain of Listeria transformed with the bioluminescence genes luxABCDE indicated that cell energy levels were reduced when treated with either 12.5 or 50 µg ml-1 of the extract, with the reduction in light output being proportional to the concentration of the extract used. Together these results suggest that the extract is inhibiting the growth of Gram-positive bacteria only by damaging the cell wall and/or membrane.

Keywords: Antibacterial activity, bioluminescence, Glycyrrhiza glabra, natural preservative.

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103 Advanced Information Extraction with n-gram based LSI

Authors: Ahmet Güven, Ö. Özgür Bozkurt, Oya Kalıpsız

Abstract:

Number of documents being created increases at an increasing pace while most of them being in already known topics and little of them introducing new concepts. This fact has started a new era in information retrieval discipline where the requirements have their own specialties. That is digging into topics and concepts and finding out subtopics or relations between topics. Up to now IR researches were interested in retrieving documents about a general topic or clustering documents under generic subjects. However these conventional approaches can-t go deep into content of documents which makes it difficult for people to reach to right documents they were searching. So we need new ways of mining document sets where the critic point is to know much about the contents of the documents. As a solution we are proposing to enhance LSI, one of the proven IR techniques by supporting its vector space with n-gram forms of words. Positive results we have obtained are shown in two different application area of IR domain; querying a document database, clustering documents in the document database.

Keywords: Document clustering, Information Extraction, Information Retrieval, LSI, n-gram.

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102 Tolerance of Heavy Metals by Gram Positive Soil Bacteria

Authors: I. V. N. Rathnayake, Mallavarapu Megharaj, Nanthi Bolan, Ravi Naidu

Abstract:

With the intention of screening for heavy metal tolerance, a number of bacteria were isolated and characterized from a pristine soil. Two Gram positive isolates were identified as Paenibacillus sp. and Bacillus thuringeinsis. Tolerance of Cd2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ by these bacteria was studied and found that both bacteria were highly sensitive to Cu2+ compared to other two metals. Both bacteria showed the same pattern of metal tolerance in the order Zn+ > Cd2+ > Cu2+. When the metal tolerance in both bacteria was compared, Paenibacillus sp. showed the highest sensitivity to Cu2+ where as B. thuringiensis showed highest sensitivity to Cd2+ and Zn2+ .These findings revealed the potential of Paenibacillus sp. in developing a biosensor to detect Cu2+ in environmental samples.

Keywords: Heavy metals, bacteria, soil, tolerance.

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101 Fast Database Indexing for Large Protein Sequence Collections Using Parallel N-Gram Transformation Algorithm

Authors: Jehad A. H. Hammad, Nur'Aini binti Abdul Rashid

Abstract:

With the rapid development in the field of life sciences and the flooding of genomic information, the need for faster and scalable searching methods has become urgent. One of the approaches that were investigated is indexing. The indexing methods have been categorized into three categories which are the lengthbased index algorithms, transformation-based algorithms and mixed techniques-based algorithms. In this research, we focused on the transformation based methods. We embedded the N-gram method into the transformation-based method to build an inverted index table. We then applied the parallel methods to speed up the index building time and to reduce the overall retrieval time when querying the genomic database. Our experiments show that the use of N-Gram transformation algorithm is an economical solution; it saves time and space too. The result shows that the size of the index is smaller than the size of the dataset when the size of N-Gram is 5 and 6. The parallel N-Gram transformation algorithm-s results indicate that the uses of parallel programming with large dataset are promising which can be improved further.

Keywords: Biological sequence, Database index, N-gram indexing, Parallel computing, Sequence retrieval.

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100 Angiographic Evaluation of ETT (Treadmill) Positive Patients in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Bangladesh

Authors: Syed Dawood Md. Taimur, Saidur Rahman Khan, Farzana Islam

Abstract:

To evaluate the factors which predetermine the coronary artery disease in patients having positive Exercise Tolerance Test (ETT) that is treadmill results and coronary artery findings. This descriptive study was conducted at Department of Cardiology, Ibrahim Cardiac Hospital & Research Institute, Dhaka, Bangladesh from 1st January, 2014 to 31st August, 2014. All patients who had done ETT (treadmill) for chest pain diagnosis were studied. One hundred and four patients underwent coronary angiogram after positive treadmill result. Patients were divided into two groups depending upon the angiographic findings, i.e. true positive and false positive. Positive treadmill test patients who have coronary artery involvement these are called true positive and who have no involvement they are called false positive group. Both groups were compared with each other. Out of 104 patients, 81 (77.9%) patients had true positive ETT and 23 (22.1%) patients had false positive ETT. The mean age of patients in positive ETT was 53.46± 8.06 years and male mean age was 53.63±8.36 years and female was 52.87±7.0 years. Sixty nine (85.19%) male patients and twelve (14.81%) female patients had true positive ETT, whereas 15 (65.21%) males and 8 (34.79%) females had false positive ETT, this was statistically significant (p<0.032) in the two groups (sex) in comparison of true and false positive ETT. The risk factors of these patients like diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, family history and smoking were seen among these patients. Hypertensive patients having true positive which were statistically significant (p<0.004) and diabetic, dyslipidemic patients having true positive which were statistically significant (p<0.032 & 0.030).True positive patients had family history were 68(83.95%) and smoking were 52 (64.20%), where family history patients had statistically significant (p<0.017) between two groups of patients and smokers were significant (p<0.012). 46 true positive patients achieved THR which was not statistically significant (P<0.138) and 79 true patients had abnormal resting ECG whether it was significant (p<0.036). Amongst the vessels involvement the most common was LAD 55 (67.90 %) followed by LCX 42 (51.85%), RCA 36 (44.44%), and the LMCA was 9 (11.11%). 40 patients (49.38%) had SVD, 26 (30.10%) had DVD, 15(18.52%) had TVD and 23 had normal coronary arteries. It can be concluded that among the female patients who have positive ETT with normal resting ECG, who had achieved target heart rate are likely to have a false positive test result. Conversely male patients, resting abnormal ECG who had not achieved THR, symptom limited ETT, have a hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, family history and smoking are likely to have a true positive treadmill test result.

Keywords: Exercise tolerance test, Coronary artery disease, Coronary angiography, True positive, False positive.

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99 Enhanced Gram-Schmidt Process for Improving the Stability in Signal and Image Processing

Authors: Mario Mastriani, Marcelo Naiouf

Abstract:

The Gram-Schmidt Process (GSP) is used to convert a non-orthogonal basis (a set of linearly independent vectors) into an orthonormal basis (a set of orthogonal, unit-length vectors). The process consists of taking each vector and then subtracting the elements in common with the previous vectors. This paper introduces an Enhanced version of the Gram-Schmidt Process (EGSP) with inverse, which is useful for signal and image processing applications.

Keywords: Digital filters, digital signal and image processing, Gram-Schmidt Process, orthonormalization.

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98 Stability of a Special Class of Switched Positive Systems

Authors: Xiuyong Ding, Lan Shu, Xiu Liu

Abstract:

This paper is concerned with the existence of a linear copositive Lyapunov function(LCLF) for a special class of switched positive linear systems(SPLSs) composed of continuousand discrete-time subsystems. Firstly, by using system matrices, we construct a special kind of matrices in appropriate manner. Secondly, our results reveal that the Hurwitz stability of these matrices is equivalent to the existence of a common LCLF for arbitrary finite sets composed of continuous- and discrete-time positive linear timeinvariant( LTI) systems. Finally, a simple example is provided to illustrate the implication of our results.

Keywords: Linear co-positive Lyapunov functions, positive systems, switched systems.

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97 A Survey on Positive Real and Strictly Positive Real Scalar Transfer Functions

Authors: Mojtaba Hakimi-Moghaddam

Abstract:

Positive real and strictly positive real transfer functions are important concepts in the control theory. In this paper, the results of researches in these areas are summarized. Definitions together with their graphical interpretations are mentioned. The equivalent conditions in the frequency domain and state space representations are reviewed. Their equivalent electrical networks are explained. Also, a comprehensive discussion about a difference between behavior of real part of positive real and strictly positive real transfer functions in high frequencies is presented. Furthermore, several illustrative examples are given.

Keywords: Real rational transfer functions, positive realness property, strictly positive realness property, equivalent conditions.

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96 Using of Positive Psychotheraphy Narratives at School

Authors: Ali Eryılmaz

Abstract:

In this study, how affects the narrative of Positive Psychothreapy which is named “The Three Small Gold Statues "the adloescent-s perception is investigated The sample included 90 adolescents who were high school students. Firstly the narrative was read. Then three questions which were about the narrative were asked. The questions were: What kind of things did you recall what kind of results did you conculde, and also how could you use this narrative in your real life problems. Responds were analyzed by content analysis method. According to research findings the narrative had a great effect for adolescent perceptions, and also the tale could be used at school counselling programs.

Keywords: Narrative, Positive Psychotherapy, SchoolCounselling Programs

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95 On General Stability for Switched Positive Linear Systems with Bounded Time-varying Delays

Authors: Xiu Liu, Shouming Zhong, Xiuyong Ding

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the problem of a common linear copositive Lyapunov function(CLCLF) existence for discrete-time switched positive linear systems(SPLSs) with bounded time-varying delays. In particular, applying system matrices, a special class of matrices are constructed in an appropriate manner. Our results reveal that the existence of a common copositive Lyapunov function can be related to the Schur stability of such matrices. A simple example is provided to illustrate the implication of our results.

Keywords: Common linear co-positive Lyapunov functions, positive systems, switched systems, delays.

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94 Impact of Positive Psychology Education and Interventions on Well-Being: A Study of Students Engaged in Pastoral Care

Authors: Inna R. Edara, Haw-Lin Wu

Abstract:

Positive psychology investigates human strengths and virtues and promotes well-being. Relying on this assumption, positive interventions have been continuously designed to build pleasure and happiness, joy and contentment, engagement and meaning, hope and optimism, satisfaction and gratitude, spirituality, and various other positive measures of well-being. In line with this model of positive psychology and interventions, this study investigated certain measures of well-being in a group of 45 students enrolled in an 18-week positive psychology course and simultaneously engaged in service-oriented interventions that they chose for themselves based on the course content and individual interests. Students’ well-being was measured at the beginning and end of the course. The well-being indicators included positive automatic thoughts, optimism and hope, satisfaction with life, and spirituality. A paired-samples t-test conducted to evaluate the impact of class content and service-oriented interventions on students’ scores of well-being indicators indicated statistically significant increase from pre-class to post-class scores. There were also significant gender differences in post-course well-being scores, with females having higher levels of well-being than males. A two-way between groups analysis of variance indicated a significant interaction effect of age by gender on the post-course well-being scores, with females in the age group of 56-65 having the highest scores of well-being in comparison to the males in the same age group. Regression analyses indicated that positive automatic thought significantly predicted hope and satisfaction with life in the pre-course analysis. In the post-course regression analysis, spiritual transcendence made a significant contribution to optimism, and positive automatic thought made a significant contribution to both hope and satisfaction with life. Finally, a significant test between pre-course and post-course regression coefficients indicated that the regression coefficients at pre-course were significantly different from post-course coefficients, suggesting that the positive psychology course and the interventions were helpful in raising the levels of well-being. The overall results suggest a substantial increase in the participants’ well-being scores after engaging in the positive-oriented interventions, implying a need for designing more positive interventions in education to promote well-being.  

Keywords: Hope, optimism, positive automatic thoughts, satisfaction with life, spirituality, well-being.

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93 Positive Solutions for Systems of Nonlinear Third-Order Differential Equations with p-Laplacian

Authors: Li Xiguang

Abstract:

In this paper, by constructing a special set and utilizing fixed point theory, we study the existence and multiplicity of the positive solutions for systems of nonlinear third-order differential equations with p-laplacian, which improve and generalize the result of related paper.

Keywords: p-Laplacian, cone, fixed point theorem, positive solution.

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92 Existence of Positive Solutions for Second-Order Difference Equation with Discrete Boundary Value Problem

Authors: Thanin Sitthiwirattham, Jiraporn Reunsumrit

Abstract:

We study the existence of positive solutions to the three points difference-summation boundary value problem. We show the existence of at least one positive solution if f is either superlinear or sublinear by applying the fixed point theorem due to Krasnoselskii in cones.

Keywords: Positive solution, Boundary value problem, Fixed point theorem, Cone.

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91 A Note on Potentially Power-Positive Sign Patterns

Authors: Ber-Lin Yu, Ting-Zhu Huang

Abstract:

In this note, some properties of potentially powerpositive sign patterns are established, and all the potentially powerpositive sign patterns of order ≤ 3 are classified completely.

Keywords: Sign pattern, potentially eventually positive sign pattern, potentially power-positive sign pattern.

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90 A Numerical Algorithm for Positive Solutions of Concave and Convex Elliptic Equation on R2

Authors: Hailong Zhu, Zhaoxiang Li

Abstract:

In this paper we investigate numerically positive solutions of the equation -Δu = λuq+up with Dirichlet boundary condition in a boundary domain ╬® for λ > 0 and 0 < q < 1 < p < 2*, we will compute and visualize the range of λ, this problem achieves a numerical solution.

Keywords: positive solutions, concave-convex, sub-super solution method, pseudo arclength method.

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89 Meta-Analysis of the Impact of Positive Psychological Capital on Employees Outcomes: The Moderating Role of Tenure

Authors: Hyeondal Jeong, Yoonjung Baek

Abstract:

This research examines the effects of positive psychological capital (or PsyCap) on employee’s outcomes (satisfaction, commitment, organizational citizenship behavior, innovation behavior and individual creativity). This study conducted a meta-analysis of articles published in the Republic of Korea. As a result, positive psychological capital has a positive effect on the behavior of employees. Heterogeneity was identified among the studies included in the analysis and the context factors were analyzed; the study proposes contextual factors such as team tenure. The moderating effect of team tenure was not statistically significant. The implications were discussed based on the analysis results.

Keywords: Positive psychological capital, satisfaction, commitment, OCB, creativity, meta-analysis.

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88 The Positive Solution for Singular Eigenvalue Problem of One-dimensional p-Laplace Operator

Authors: Lv Yuhua

Abstract:

In this paper, by constructing a special cone and using fixed point theorem and fixed point index theorem of cone, we get the existence of positive solution for a class of singular eigenvalue value problems with p-Laplace operator, which improved and generalized the result of related paper.

Keywords: Cone, fixed point index, eigenvalue problem, p-Laplace operator, positive solutions.

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87 Biodegradation of Carbazole By a Promising Gram-Negative Bacterium

Authors: G. B. Singh, S. Srivastava, N. Gupta

Abstract:

In the present work we report a gram negative bacterial isolate, from soil of a dye industry, with promising biorefining and bioremediation potential. This isolate (GBS.5) could utilize carbazole (nitrogen containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) as the sole source of nitrogen and carbon and utilize almost 98% of 3mM carbazole in 100 hours. The specific activity of our GBS.5 isolate for carbazole degradation at 30°C and pH 7.0 was found to be 11.36 μmol/min/g dry cell weight as compared to 10.4 μmol/min/g dry cell weight, the highest reported specific activity till date. The presence of car genes (the genes involved in denitrogenation of carbazole) was confirmed through PCR amplification.

Keywords: Biodenitrogenation, Biorefining, Carbazoledegradation, Crude oil.

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86 Tree Sign Patterns of Small Order that Allow an Eventually Positive Matrix

Authors: Ber-Lin Yu, Jie Cui, Hong Cheng, Zhengfeng Yu

Abstract:

A sign pattern is a matrix whose entries belong to the set {+,−, 0}. An n-by-n sign pattern A is said to allow an eventually positive matrix if there exist some real matrices A with the same sign pattern as A and a positive integer k0 such that Ak > 0 for all k ≥ k0. It is well known that identifying and classifying the n-by-n sign patterns that allow an eventually positive matrix are posed as two open problems. In this article, the tree sign patterns of small order that allow an eventually positive matrix are classified completely.

Keywords: Eventually positive matrix, sign pattern, tree.

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85 Body Composition Response to Lower Body Positive Pressure Training in Obese Children

Authors: Basant H. El-Refay, Nabeel T. Faiad

Abstract:

Background: The high prevalence of obesity in Egypt has a great impact on the health care system, economic and social situation. Evidence suggests that even a moderate amount of weight loss can be useful. Aim of the study: To analyze the effects of lower body positive pressure supported treadmill training, conducted with hypocaloric diet, on body composition of obese children. Methods: Thirty children aged between 8 and 14 years, were randomly assigned into two groups: intervention group (15 children) and control group (15 children). All of them were evaluated using body composition analysis through bioelectric impedance. The following parameters were measured before and after the intervention: body mass, body fat mass, muscle mass, body mass index (BMI), percentage of body fat and basal metabolic rate (BMR). The study group exercised with antigravity treadmill three times a week during 2 months, and participated in a hypocaloric diet program. The control group participated in a hypocaloric diet program only. Results: Both groups showed significant reduction in body mass, body fat mass and BMI. Only study group showed significant reduction in percentage of body fat (p = 0.0.043). Changes in muscle mass and BMR didn't reach statistical significance in both groups. No significant differences were observed between groups except for muscle mass (p = 0.049) and BMR (p = 0.042) favoring study group. Conclusion: Both programs proved effective in the reduction of obesity indicators, but lower body positive pressure supported treadmill training was more effective in improving muscle mass and BMR.

Keywords: Children, Hypocaloric diet, Lower body positive pressure supported treadmill, obesity.

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84 PI Control for Positive Output Elementary Super Lift Luo Converter

Authors: K. Ramash Kumar, S. Jeevananthan

Abstract:

The object of this paper is to design and analyze a proportional – integral (PI) control for positive output elementary super lift Luo converter (POESLLC), which is the start-of-the-art DC-DC converter. The positive output elementary super lift Luo converter performs the voltage conversion from positive source voltage to positive load voltage. This paper proposes a development of PI control capable of providing the good static and dynamic performance compared to proportional – integralderivative (PID) controller. Using state space average method derives the dynamic equations describing the positive output elementary super lift luo converter and PI control is designed. The simulation model of the positive output elementary super lift Luo converter with its control circuit is implemented in Matlab/Simulink. The PI control for positive output elementary super lift Luo converter is tested for transient region, line changes, load changes, steady state region and also for components variations.

Keywords: DC-DC converter, Positive output elementarysuper lift Luo converter (POESLLC), Proportional – Integral (PI)control.

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83 On the Positive Definite Solutions of Nonlinear Matrix Equation

Authors: Tian Baoguang, Liang Chunyan, Chen Nan

Abstract:

In this paper, the nonlinear matrix equation is investigated. Based on the fixed-point theory, the boundary and the existence of the solution with the case r>-δi are discussed. An algorithm that avoids matrix inversion with the case -1<-δi<0 is proposed.

Keywords: Nonlinear matrix equation, Positive definite solution, The maximal-minimal solution, Iterative method, Free-inversion

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82 Moving towards Positive Security Model for Web Application Firewall

Authors: Asrul H. Yaacob, Nazrul M. Ahmad, Nurul N. Ahmad, Mardeni Roslee

Abstract:

The proliferation of web application and the pervasiveness of mobile technology make web-based attacks even more attractive and even easier to launch. Web Application Firewall (WAF) is an intermediate tool between web server and users that provides comprehensive protection for web application. WAF is a negative security model where the detection and prevention mechanisms are based on predefined or user-defined attack signatures and patterns. However, WAF alone is not adequate to offer best defensive system against web vulnerabilities that are increasing in number and complexity daily. This paper presents a methodology to automatically design a positive security based model which identifies and allows only legitimate web queries. The paper shows a true positive rate of more than 90% can be achieved.

Keywords: Intrusion Detection System, Positive Security Model, Web application Firewall

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81 On Positive Definite Solutions of Quaternionic Matrix Equations

Authors: Minghui Wang

Abstract:

The real representation of the quaternionic matrix is definited and studied. The relations between the positive (semi)define quaternionic matrix and its real representation matrix are presented. By means of the real representation, the relation between the positive (semi)definite solutions of quaternionic matrix equations and those of corresponding real matrix equations is established.

Keywords: Matrix equation, Quaternionic matrix, Real representation, positive (semi)definite solutions.

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80 The Role of Brand Loyalty in Generating Positive Word of Mouth among Malaysian Hypermarket Customers

Authors: S. R. Nikhashemi, L. Haj Paim, Ali Khatibi

Abstract:

Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to test a hypothesized model explaining Malaysian hypermarket customers’ perceptions of brand trust (BT), customer perceived value (CPV) and perceived service quality (PSQ) on building their brand loyalty (CBL) and generating positive word-of-mouth communication (WOM). Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data from 374 Malaysian hypermarket customers from Mydin, Tesco, Aeon Big and Giant in Kuala Lumpur, a metropolitan city of Malaysia. The data strongly supported the model exhibiting that BT, CPV and PSQ are prerequisite factors in building customer brand loyalty, while PSQ has the strongest effect on prediction of customer brand loyalty compared to other factors. Besides, the present study suggests the effect of the aforementioned factors via customer brand loyalty strongly contributes to generate positive word of mouth communication.

Keywords: Brand trust, perceived value, perceived service quality, brand loyalty, positive word of mouth communication.

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79 Unique Positive Solution of Nonlinear Fractional Differential Equation Boundary Value Problem

Authors: Fengxia Zheng

Abstract:

By using two new fixed point theorems for mixed monotone operators, the positive solution of nonlinear fractional differential equation boundary value problem is studied. Its existence and uniqueness is proved, and an iterative scheme is constructed to approximate it.

Keywords: Fractional differential equation, boundary value problem, positive solution, existence and uniqueness, fixed point theorem, mixed monotone operator.

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78 Positive Solutions for a Class of Semipositone Discrete Boundary Value Problems with Two Parameters

Authors: Benshi Zhu

Abstract:

In this paper, the existence, multiplicity and noexistence of positive solutions for a class of semipositone discrete boundary value problems with two parameters is studied by applying nonsmooth critical point theory and sub-super solutions method.

Keywords: Discrete boundary value problems, nonsmoothcritical point theory, positive solutions, semipositone, sub-super solutions method

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