Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Search results for: fluid-structure interaction

21 Analysis of One-Way and Two-Way FSI Approaches to Characterise the Flow Regime and the Mechanical Behaviour during Closing Manoeuvring Operation of a Butterfly Valve

Authors: M. Ezkurra, J. A. Esnaola, M. Martinez-Agirre, U. Etxeberria, U. Lertxundi, L. Colomo, M. Begiristain, I. Zurutuza

Abstract:

Butterfly valves are widely used industrial piping components as on-off and flow controlling devices. The main challenge in the design process of this type of valves is the correct dimensioning to ensure proper mechanical performance as well as to minimise flow losses that affect the efficiency of the system. Butterfly valves are typically dimensioned in a closed position based on mechanical approaches considering uniform hydrostatic pressure, whereas the flow losses are analysed by means of CFD simulations. The main limitation of these approaches is that they do not consider either the influence of the dynamics of the manoeuvring stage or coupled phenomena. Recent works have included the influence of the flow on the mechanical behaviour for different opening angles by means of one-way FSI approach. However, these works consider steady-state flow for the selected angles, not capturing the effect of the transient flow evolution during the manoeuvring stage. Two-way FSI modelling approach could allow overcoming such limitations providing more accurate results. Nevertheless, the use of this technique is limited due to the increase in the computational cost. In the present work, the applicability of FSI one-way and two-way approaches is evaluated for the analysis of butterfly valves, showing that not considering fluid-structure coupling involves not capturing the most critical situation for the valve disc.

Keywords: Butterfly valves, fluid-structure interaction, one-way approach, two-way approach.

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20 Three Dimensional Dynamic Analysis of Water Storage Tanks Considering FSI Using FEM

Authors: S. Mahdi S. Kolbadi, Ramezan Ali Alvand, Afrasiab Mirzaei

Abstract:

In this study, to investigate and analyze the seismic behavior of concrete in open rectangular water storage tanks in two-dimensional and three-dimensional spaces, the Finite Element Method has been used. Through this method, dynamic responses can be investigated together in fluid storages system. Soil behavior has been simulated using tanks boundary conditions in linear form. In this research, in addition to flexibility of wall, the effects of fluid-structure interaction on seismic response of tanks have been investigated to account for the effects of flexible foundation in linear boundary conditions form, and a dynamic response of rectangular tanks in two-dimensional and three-dimensional spaces using finite element method has been provided. The boundary conditions of both rigid and flexible walls in two-dimensional finite element method have been considered to investigate the effect of wall flexibility on seismic response of fluid and storage system. Furthermore, three-dimensional model of fluid-structure interaction issue together with wall flexibility has been analyzed under the three components of earthquake. The obtained results show that two-dimensional model is also accurately near to the results of three-dimension as well as flexibility of foundation leads to absorb received energy and relative reduction of responses.

Keywords: Dynamic behavior, water storage tank, fluid-structure interaction, flexible wall.

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19 Validation of a Fluid-Structure Interaction Model of an Aortic Dissection versus a Bench Top Model

Authors: K. Khanafer

Abstract:

The aim of this investigation was to validate the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model of type B aortic dissection with our experimental results from a bench-top-model. Another objective was to study the relationship between the size of a septectomy that increases the outflow of the false lumen and its effect on the values of the differential of pressure between true lumen and false lumen. FSI analysis based on Galerkin’s formulation was used in this investigation to study flow pattern and hemodynamics within a flexible type B aortic dissection model using boundary conditions from our experimental data. The numerical results of our model were verified against the experimental data for various tear size and location. Thus, CFD tools have a potential role in evaluating different scenarios and aortic dissection configurations.

Keywords: Aortic dissection, fluid-structure interaction, in vitro model, numerical.

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18 Automatic Fluid-Structure Interaction Modeling and Analysis of Butterfly Valve Using Python Script

Authors: N. Guru Prasath, Sangjin Ma, Chang-Wan Kim

Abstract:

A butterfly valve is a quarter turn valve which is used to control the flow of a fluid through a section of pipe. Generally, butterfly valve is used in wide range of applications such as water distribution, sewage, oil and gas plants. In particular, butterfly valve with larger diameter finds its immense applications in hydro power plants to control the fluid flow. In-lieu with the constraints in cost and size to run laboratory setup, analysis of large diameter values will be mostly studied by computational method which is the best and inexpensive solution. For fluid and structural analysis, CFD and FEM software is used to perform large scale valve analyses, respectively. In order to perform above analysis in butterfly valve, the CAD model has to recreate and perform mesh in conventional software’s for various dimensions of valve. Therefore, its limitation is time consuming process. In-order to overcome that issue, python code was created to outcome complete pre-processing setup automatically in Salome software. Applying dimensions of the model clearly in the python code makes the running time comparatively lower and easier way to perform analysis of the valve. Hence, in this paper, an attempt was made to study the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) of butterfly valves by varying the valve angles and dimensions using python code in pre-processing software, and results are produced.

Keywords: Butterfly valve, fluid-structure interaction, automatic CFD analysis, flow coefficient.

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17 Implicit Eulerian Fluid-Structure Interaction Method for the Modeling of Highly Deformable Elastic Membranes

Authors: Aymen Laadhari, Gábor Székely

Abstract:

This paper is concerned with the development of a fully implicit and purely Eulerian fluid-structure interaction method tailored for the modeling of the large deformations of elastic membranes in a surrounding Newtonian fluid. We consider a simplified model for the mechanical properties of the membrane, in which the surface strain energy depends on the membrane stretching. The fully Eulerian description is based on the advection of a modified surface tension tensor, and the deformations of the membrane are tracked using a level set strategy. The resulting nonlinear problem is solved by a Newton-Raphson method, featuring a quadratic convergence behavior. A monolithic solver is implemented, and we report several numerical experiments aimed at model validation and illustrating the accuracy of the presented method. We show that stability is maintained for significantly larger time steps.

Keywords: Fluid-membrane interaction, stretching, Eulerian, finite element method, Newton, implicit.

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16 Numerical Simulation of Fluid Structure Interaction Using Two-Way Method

Authors: Samira Laidaoui, Mohammed Djermane, Nazihe Terfaya

Abstract:

The fluid-structure coupling is a natural phenomenon which reflects the effects of two continuums: fluid and structure of different types in the reciprocal action on each other, involving knowledge of elasticity and fluid mechanics. The solution for such problems is based on the relations of continuum mechanics and is mostly solved with numerical methods. It is a computational challenge to solve such problems because of the complex geometries, intricate physics of fluids, and complicated fluid-structure interactions. The way in which the interaction between fluid and solid is described gives the largest opportunity for reducing the computational effort. In this paper, a problem of fluid structure interaction is investigated with two-way coupling method. The formulation Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) was used, by considering a dynamic grid, where the solid is described by a Lagrangian formulation and the fluid by a Eulerian formulation. The simulation was made on the ANSYS software.

Keywords: ALE, coupling, FEM, fluid-structure interaction, one-way method, two-way method.

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15 Numerical Simulation of Fluid-Structure Interaction on Wedge Slamming Impact Using Particle Method

Authors: Sung-Chul Hwang, Di Ren, Sang-Moon Yoon, Jong-Chun Park, Abbas Khayyer, Hitoshi Gotoh

Abstract:

This paper presents a fully Lagrangian coupled Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) solver for simulations of fluid-structure interactions, which is based on the Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) method to solve the governing equations corresponding to incompressible flows as well as elastic structures. The developed solver is verified by reproducing the high velocity impact loads of deformable thin wedges with three different materials such as mild steel, aluminium and tin during water entry. The present simulation results for aluminium are compared with analytical solution derived from the hydrodynamic Wagner model and linear Wan’s theory. And also, the impact pressure and strain on the water entry wedge with three different materials, such as mild steel, aluminium and tin, are simulated and the effects of hydro-elasticity are discussed.

Keywords: Fluid-structure interaction (FSI), Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) method, Elastic structure, Incompressible fluid Wedge slamming impact.

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14 The Application of FSI Techniques in Modeling of Realist Pulmonary Systems

Authors: Abdurrahim Bolukbasi, Hassan Athari, Dogan Ciloglu

Abstract:

The modeling lung respiratory system that has complex anatomy and biophysics presents several challenges including tissue-driven flow patterns and wall motion. Also, the pulmonary lung system because of that they stretch and recoil with each breath, has not static walls and structures. The direct relationship between air flow and tissue motion in the lung structures naturally prefers an FSI simulation technique. Therefore, in order to toward the realistic simulation of pulmonary breathing mechanics the development of a coupled FSI computational model is an important step. A simple but physiologically relevant three-dimensional deep long geometry is designed and fluid-structure interaction (FSI) coupling technique is utilized for simulating the deformation of the lung parenchyma tissue that produces airflow fields. The real understanding of respiratory tissue system as a complex phenomenon have been investigated with respect to respiratory patterns, fluid dynamics and tissue viscoelasticity and tidal breathing period. 

Keywords: Lung deformation and mechanics, tissue mechanics, viscoelasticity, fluid-structure interactions, ANSYS.

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13 Three Dimensional Large Eddy Simulation of Blood Flow and Deformation in an Elastic Constricted Artery

Authors: Xi Gu, Guan Heng Yeoh, Victoria Timchenko

Abstract:

In the current work, a three-dimensional geometry of a 75% stenosed blood vessel is analyzed. Large eddy simulation (LES) with the help of a dynamic subgrid scale Smagorinsky model is applied to model the turbulent pulsatile flow. The geometry, the transmural pressure and the properties of the blood and the elastic boundary were based on clinical measurement data. For the flexible wall model, a thin solid region is constructed around the 75% stenosed blood vessel. The deformation of this solid region was modelled as a deforming boundary to reduce the computational cost of the solid model. Fluid-structure interaction is realized via a twoway coupling between the blood flow modelled via LES and the deforming vessel. The information of the flow pressure and the wall motion was exchanged continually during the cycle by an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian method. The boundary condition of current time step depended on previous solutions. The fluctuation of the velocity in the post-stenotic region was analyzed in the study. The axial velocity at normalized position Z=0.5 shows a negative value near the vessel wall. The displacement of the elastic boundary was concerned in this study. In particular, the wall displacement at the systole and the diastole were compared. The negative displacement at the stenosis indicates a collapse at the maximum velocity and the deceleration phase.

Keywords: Large Eddy Simulation, Fluid Structural Interaction, Constricted Artery, Computational Fluid Dynamics.

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12 Multi-fidelity Fluid-Structure Interaction Analysis of a Membrane Wing

Authors: M. Saeedi, R. Wuchner, K.-U. Bletzinger

Abstract:

In order to study the aerodynamic performance of a semi-flexible membrane wing, Fluid-Structure Interaction simulations have been performed. The fluid problem has been modeled using two different approaches which are the vortex panel method and the numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations. Nonlinear analysis of the structural problem is performed using the Finite Element Method. Comparison between the two fluid solvers has been made. Aerodynamic performance of the wing is discussed regarding its lift and drag coefficients and they are compared with those of the equivalent rigid wing.

Keywords: CFD, FSI, Membrane wing, Vortex panel method.

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11 Haemodynamics Study in Subject Specific Carotid Bifurcation Using FSI

Authors: S. M. Abdul Khader, Anurag Ayachit, Raghuvir Pai, K. A. Ahmed, V. R. K. Rao, S. Ganesh Kamath

Abstract:

The numerical simulation has made tremendous advances in investigating the blood flow phenomenon through elastic arteries. Such study can be useful in demonstrating the disease progression and hemodynamics of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. In the present study, patient specific case diagnosed with partially stenosed complete right ICA and normal left carotid bifurcation without any atherosclerotic plaque formation is considered. 3D patient specific carotid bifurcation model is generated based on CT scan data using MIMICS-4.0 and numerical analysis is performed using FSI solver in ANSYS-14.5. The blood flow is assumed to be incompressible, homogenous and Newtonian, while the artery wall is assumed to be linearly elastic. The two-way sequentially coupled transient FSI analysis is performed using FSI solver for three pulse cycles. The hemodynamic parameters such as flow pattern, Wall Shear Stress, pressure contours and arterial wall deformation are studied at the bifurcation and critical zones such as stenosis. The variation in flow behavior is studied throughout the pulse cycle. Also, the simulation results reveal that there is a considerable increase in the flow behavior in stenosed carotid in contrast to the normal carotid bifurcation system. The investigation also demonstrates the disturbed flow pattern especially at the bifurcation and stenosed zone elevating the hemodynamics, particularly during peak systole and later part of the pulse cycle. The results obtained agree well with the clinical observation and demonstrates the potential of patient specific numerical studies in prognosis of disease progression and plaque rupture.

Keywords: Fluid-Structure Interaction, arterial stenosis, Wall Shear Stress, Carotid Artery Bifurcation.

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10 Sloshing-Induced Overflow Assessment of the Seismically-Isolated Nuclear Tanks

Authors: Kihyon Kwon, Hyun T. Park, Gil Y. Chung, Sang-Hoon Lee

Abstract:

This paper focuses on assessing sloshing-induced overflow of the seismically-isolated nuclear tanks based on Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) analysis. Typically, fluid motion in the seismically-isolated nuclear tank systems may be rather amplified and even overflowed under earthquake. Sloshing-induced overflow in those structures has to be reliably assessed and predicted since it can often cause critical damages to humans and environments. FSI analysis is herein performed to compute the total cumulative overflowed water volume more accurately, by coupling ANSYS with CFX for structural and fluid analyses, respectively. The approach is illustrated on a nuclear liquid storage tank, Spent Fuel Pool (SFP), forgiven conditions under consideration: different liquid levels, Peak Ground Accelerations (PGAs), and post earthquakes. 

Keywords: FSI analysis, seismically-isolated nuclear tank system, sloshing-induced overflow.

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9 Coupled Galerkin-DQ Approach for the Transient Analysis of Dam-Reservoir Interaction

Authors: S. A. Eftekhari

Abstract:

In this paper, a numerical algorithm using a coupled Galerkin-Differential Quadrature (DQ) method is proposed for the solution of dam-reservoir interaction problem. The governing differential equation of motion of the dam structure is discretized by the Galerkin method and the DQM is used to discretize the fluid domain. The resulting systems of ordinary differential equations are then solved by the Newmark time integration scheme. The mixed scheme combines the simplicity of the Galerkin method and high accuracy and efficiency of the DQ method. Its accuracy and efficiency are demonstrated by comparing the calculated results with those of the existing literature. It is shown that highly accurate results can be obtained using a small number of Galerkin terms and DQM sampling points. The technique presented in this investigation is general and can be used to solve various fluid-structure interaction problems.

Keywords: Dam-reservoir system, Differential quadrature method, Fluid-structure interaction, Galerkin method, Integral quadrature method.

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8 Hemodynamic Characteristics in the Human Carotid Artery Model Induced by Blood-Arterial Wall Interactions

Authors: Taewon Seo

Abstract:

The characteristics of physiological blood flow in human carotid arterial bifurcation model have been numerically studied using a fully coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analysis. This computational model with the fluid-structure interaction is constructed to investigate the flow characteristics and wall shear stress in the carotid artery. As the flow begins to decelerate after the peak flow, a large recirculation zone develops at the non-divider wall of both internal carotid artery (ICA) and external carotid artery (ECA) in FSI model due to the elastic energy stored in the expanding compliant wall. The calculated difference in wall shear stress (WSS) in both Non-FSI and FSI models is a range of between 5 and 11% at the mean WSS. The low WSS corresponds to regions of carotid artery that are more susceptible to atherosclerosis.

Keywords: Carotid artery, Fluid-structure interaction, Hemodynamics, Wall shear stress.

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7 Performance Prediction of a 5MW Wind Turbine Blade Considering Aeroelastic Effect

Authors: Dong-Hyun Kim, Yoo-Han Kim

Abstract:

In this study, aeroelastic response and performance analyses have been conducted for a 5MW-Class composite wind turbine blade model. Advanced coupled numerical method based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and computational flexible multi-body dynamics (CFMBD) has been developed in order to investigate aeroelastic responses and performance characteristics of the rotating composite blade. Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with k-ω SST turbulence model were solved for unsteady flow problems on the rotating turbine blade model. Also, structural analyses considering rotating effect have been conducted using the general nonlinear finite element method. A fully implicit time marching scheme based on the Newmark direct integration method is applied to solve the coupled aeroelastic governing equations of the 3D turbine blade for fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems. Detailed dynamic responses and instantaneous velocity contour on the blade surfaces which considering flow-separation effects were presented to show the multi-physical phenomenon of the huge rotating wind- turbine blade model.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Computational Multi-Body Dynamics (CMBD), Reynolds-averageNavier-Stokes (RANS), Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI), FiniteElement Method (FEM)

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6 A Finite Volume Procedure on Unstructured Meshes for Fluid-Structure Interaction Problems

Authors: P I Jagad, B P Puranik, A W Date

Abstract:

Flow through micro and mini channels requires relatively high driving pressure due to the large fluid pressure drop through these channels. Consequently the forces acting on the walls of the channel due to the fluid pressure are also large. Due to these forces there are displacement fields set up in the solid substrate containing the channels. If the movement of the substrate is constrained at some points, then stress fields are established in the substrate. On the other hand, if the deformation of the channel shape is sufficiently large then its effect on the fluid flow is important to be calculated. Such coupled fluid-solid systems form a class of problems known as fluidstructure interactions. In the present work a co-located finite volume discretization procedure on unstructured meshes is described for solving fluid-structure interaction type of problems. A linear elastic solid is assumed for which the effect of the channel deformation on the flow is neglected. Thus the governing equations for the fluid and the solid are decoupled and are solved separately. The procedure is validated by solving two benchmark problems, one from fluid mechanics and another from solid mechanics. A fluid-structure interaction problem of flow through a U-shaped channel embedded in a plate is solved.

Keywords: Finite volume method, flow induced stresses, fluidstructureinteraction, unstructured meshes.

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5 Effects of Sea Water Level Fluctuations on Seismic Response of Jacket Type Offshore Platforms

Authors: M. Rad, M. Dolatshahi Pirooz, M. Esmayili

Abstract:

To understand the seismic behavior of the offshore structures, the dynamic interaction of the water-structure-soil should be assessed. In this regard the role of the water dynamic properties in magnifying or reducing of the effects of earthquake induced motions on offshore structures haven't been investigated in precise manner in available literature. In this paper the sea water level fluctuations effects on the seismic behavior of a sample of offshore structures has been investigated by emphasizing on the water-structure interaction phenomenon. For this purpose a two dimensional finite element model of offshore structures as well as surrounded water has been developed using ANSYS software. The effect of soil interaction with embedded pile foundation has been imposed by using a series of nonlinear springs in horizontal and vertical directions in soil-piles contact points. In the model, the earthquake induced motions have been applied on springs and consequently the motions propagated upward to the structure and surrounded water. As a result of numerical study, the horizontal deformations of the offshore deck as well as internal force and buckling coefficient in structural elements have been recorded and controlled with and without water presence. In part of study a parametric study has been accomplished on sea water level fluctuations and effect of this parameter has been studied on the aforementioned numerical results.

Keywords: Fluid-Structure Interaction, Jacket, Sea Water Level, Seismic Loading.

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4 Fluid Structure Interaction Induced by Liquid Slosh in Partly Filled Road Tankers

Authors: Guorong Yan, Subhash Rakheja

Abstract:

The liquid cargo contained in a partly-filled road tank vehicle is prone to dynamic slosh movement when subjected to external disturbances. The slosh behavior has been identified as a significant factor impairing the safety of liquid cargo transportation. The laboratory experiments have been conducted for analyzing fluid slosh in partly filled tanks. The experiment results measured under forced harmonic excitations reveal the three-dimensional nature of the fluid motion and coupling between the lateral and longitudinal fluid slosh at resonance. Several spectral components are observed for the transient slosh forces, which can be associated with the excitation, resonance, and beat frequencies. The peak slosh forces and moments in the vicinity of resonance are significantly larger than those of the equivalent rigid mass. Due to the nature of coupling between sloshing fluid and vehicle body, the issue of the dynamic fluid-structure interaction is essential in the analysis of tank-vehicle dynamics. A dynamic pitch plane model of a Tridem truck incorporated the fluid slosh dynamics is developed to analyze the fluid-vehicle interaction under the straight-line braking maneuvers. The results show that the vehicle responses are highly associated with the characteristics of fluid slosh force and moment.

Keywords: Braking performance, fluid induced vibration, fluidslosh, fluid structure interaction, tank trucks, vehicle dynamics.

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3 Vortex-Induced Vibration Characteristics of an Elastic Circular Cylinder

Authors: T. Li, J.Y. Zhang, W.H. Zhang, M.H. Zhu

Abstract:

A numerical simulation of vortex-induced vibration of a 2-dimensional elastic circular cylinder with two degree of freedom under the uniform flow is calculated when Reynolds is 200. 2-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved with the space-time finite element method, the equation of the cylinder motion is solved with the new explicit integral method and the mesh renew is achieved by the spring moving mesh technology. Considering vortex-induced vibration with the low reduced damping parameter, the variety trends of the lift coefficient, the drag coefficient, the displacement of cylinder are analyzed under different oscillating frequencies of cylinder. The phenomena of locked-in, beat and phases-witch were captured successfully. The evolution of vortex shedding from the cylinder with time is discussed. There are very similar trends in characteristics between the results of the one degree of freedom cylinder model and that of the two degree of freedom cylinder model. The streamwise vibrations have a certain effect on the lateral vibrations and their characteristics.

Keywords: Fluid-structure interaction, Navier-Stokes equation, Space-time finite element method, vortex-induced vibration.

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2 Characteristics of Hemodynamics in a Bileaflet Mechanical Heart Valve using an Implicit FSI Method

Authors: Tae-Hyub Hong, Choeng-Ryul Choi, Chang-Nyung Kim

Abstract:

Human heart valves diseased by congenital heart defects, rheumatic fever, bacterial infection, cancer may cause stenosis or insufficiency in the valves. Treatment may be with medication but often involves valve repair or replacement (insertion of an artificial heart valve). Bileaflet mechanical heart valves (BMHVs) are widely implanted to replace the diseased heart valves, but still suffer from complications such as hemolysis, platelet activation, tissue overgrowth and device failure. These complications are closely related to both flow characteristics through the valves and leaflet dynamics. In this study, the physiological flow interacting with the moving leaflets in a bileaflet mechanical heart valve (BMHV) is simulated with a strongly coupled implicit fluid-structure interaction (FSI) method which is newly organized based on the Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) approach and the dynamic mesh method (remeshing) of FLUENT. The simulated results are in good agreement with previous experimental studies. This study shows the applicability of the present FSI model to the complicated physics interacting between fluid flow and moving boundary.

Keywords: Bileaflet Mechanical Heart Valve, Fluid- Structure Interaction.

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1 Blood Cell Dynamics in a Simple Shear Flow using an Implicit Fluid-Structure Interaction Method Based on the ALE Approach

Authors: Choeng-Ryul Choi, Chang-Nyung Kim, Tae-Hyub Hong

Abstract:

A numerical method is developed for simulating the motion of particles with arbitrary shapes in an effectively infinite or bounded viscous flow. The particle translational and angular motions are numerically investigated using a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) method based on the Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) approach and the dynamic mesh method (smoothing and remeshing) in FLUENT ( ANSYS Inc., USA). Also, the effects of arbitrary shapes on the dynamics are studied using the FSI method which could be applied to the motions and deformations of a single blood cell and multiple blood cells, and the primary thrombogenesis caused by platelet aggregation. It is expected that, combined with a sophisticated large-scale computational technique, the simulation method will be useful for understanding the overall properties of blood flow from blood cellular level (microscopic) to the resulting rheological properties of blood as a mass (macroscopic).

Keywords: Blood Flow, Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI), Micro-Channels, Arbitrary Shapes, Red Blood Cells (RBCs)

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