Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 28

Search results for: Tabu search

28 Routing Medical Images with Tabu Search and Simulated Annealing: A Study on Quality of Service

Authors: Mejía M. Paula, Ramírez L. Leonardo, Puerta A. Gabriel

Abstract:

In telemedicine, the image repository service is important to increase the accuracy of diagnostic support of medical personnel. This study makes comparison between two routing algorithms regarding the quality of service (QoS), to be able to analyze the optimal performance at the time of loading and/or downloading of medical images. This study focused on comparing the performance of Tabu Search with other heuristic and metaheuristic algorithms that improve QoS in telemedicine services in Colombia. For this, Tabu Search and Simulated Annealing heuristic algorithms are chosen for their high usability in this type of applications; the QoS is measured taking into account the following metrics: Delay, Throughput, Jitter and Latency. In addition, routing tests were carried out on ten images in digital image and communication in medicine (DICOM) format of 40 MB. These tests were carried out for ten minutes with different traffic conditions, reaching a total of 25 tests, from a server of Universidad Militar Nueva Granada (UMNG) in Bogotá-Colombia to a remote user in Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH) - Chile. The results show that Tabu search presents a better QoS performance compared to Simulated Annealing, managing to optimize the routing of medical images, a basic requirement to offer diagnostic images services in telemedicine.

Keywords: Medical image, QoS, simulated annealing, Tabu search, telemedicine.

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27 Non-Population Search Algorithms for Capacitated Material Requirement Planning in Multi-Stage Assembly Flow Shop with Alternative Machines

Authors: Watcharapan Sukkerd, Teeradej Wuttipornpun

Abstract:

This paper aims to present non-population search algorithms called tabu search (TS), simulated annealing (SA) and variable neighborhood search (VNS) to minimize the total cost of capacitated MRP problem in multi-stage assembly flow shop with two alternative machines. There are three main steps for the algorithm. Firstly, an initial sequence of orders is constructed by a simple due date-based dispatching rule. Secondly, the sequence of orders is repeatedly improved to reduce the total cost by applying TS, SA and VNS separately. Finally, the total cost is further reduced by optimizing the start time of each operation using the linear programming (LP) model. Parameters of the algorithm are tuned by using real data from automotive companies. The result shows that VNS significantly outperforms TS, SA and the existing algorithm.

Keywords: Capacitated MRP, non-population search algorithms, linear programming, assembly flow shop.

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26 Synthesis of Dispersion-Compensating Triangular Lattice Index-Guiding Photonic Crystal Fibers Using the Directed Tabu Search Method

Authors: F. Karim

Abstract:

In this paper, triangular lattice index-guiding photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) are synthesized to compensate the chromatic dispersion of a single mode fiber (SMF-28) for an 80 km optical link operating at 1.55 µm, by using the directed tabu search algorithm. Hole-to-hole distance, circular air-hole diameter, solid-core diameter, ring number and PCF length parameters are optimized for this purpose. Three Synthesized PCFs with different physical parameters are compared in terms of their objective functions values, residual dispersions and compensation ratios.

Keywords: Triangular lattice index-guiding photonic crystal fiber, dispersion compensation, directed tabu search, synthesis.

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25 Energy Efficient Data Aggregation in Sensor Networks with Optimized Cluster Head Selection

Authors: D. Naga Ravi Kiran, C. G. Dethe

Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) routing is complex due to its dynamic nature, computational overhead, limited battery life, non-conventional addressing scheme, self-organization, and sensor nodes limited transmission range. An energy efficient routing protocol is a major concern in WSN. LEACH is a hierarchical WSN routing protocol to increase network life. It performs self-organizing and re-clustering functions for each round. This study proposes a better sensor networks cluster head selection for efficient data aggregation. The algorithm is based on Tabu search.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), LEACH, Clustering, Tabu Search.

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24 Tabu Search to Draw Evacuation Plans in Emergency Situations

Authors: S. Nasri, H. Bouziri

Abstract:

Disasters are quite experienced in our days. They are caused by floods, landslides, and building fires that is the main objective of this study. To cope with these unexpected events, precautions must be taken to protect human lives. The emphasis on disposal work focuses on the resolution of the evacuation problem in case of no-notice disaster. The problem of evacuation is listed as a dynamic network flow problem. Particularly, we model the evacuation problem as an earliest arrival flow problem with load dependent transit time. This problem is classified as NP-Hard. Our challenge here is to propose a metaheuristic solution for solving the evacuation problem. We define our objective as the maximization of evacuees during earliest periods of a time horizon T. The objective provides the evacuation of persons as soon as possible. We performed an experimental study on emergency evacuation from the tunisian children’s hospital. This work prompts us to look for evacuation plans corresponding to several situations where the network dynamically changes.

Keywords: Dynamic network flow, Load dependent transit time, Evacuation strategy, Earliest arrival flow problem.

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23 The Optimal Indirect Vector Controller Design via an Adaptive Tabu Search Algorithm

Authors: P. Sawatnatee, S. Udomsuk, K-N. Areerak, K-L. Areerak, A. Srikaew

Abstract:

The paper presents how to design the indirect vector control of three-phase induction motor drive systems using the artificial intelligence technique called the adaptive tabu search. The results from the simulation and the experiment show that the drive system with the controller designed from the proposed method can provide the best output speed response compared with those of the conventional method. The controller design using the proposed technique can be used to create the software package for engineers to achieve the optimal controller design of the induction motor speed control based on the indirect vector concept.

 

Keywords: Indirect Vector Control, Induction Motor, Adaptive Tabu Search, Control Design, Artificial Intelligence.

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22 Reliability Improvement with Optimal Placement of Distributed Generation in Distribution System

Authors: N. Rugthaicharoencheep, T. Langtharthong

Abstract:

This paper presents the optimal placement and sizing of distributed generation (DG) in a distribution system. The problem is to reliability improvement of distribution system with distributed generations. The technique employed to solve the minimization problem is based on a developed Tabu search algorithm and reliability worth analysis. The developed methodology is tested with a distribution system of Roy Billinton Test System (RBTS) bus 2. It can be seen from the case study that distributed generation can reduce the customer interruption cost and therefore improve the reliability of the system. It is expected that our proposed method will be utilized effectively for distribution system operator.

Keywords: Distributed generation Optimization technique Reliability improvement, Distribution system.

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21 The Optimized Cascade PI Controllers of the Generator Control Unit in the Aircraft Power System

Authors: W. Chayinthu, K-N. Areerak, K-L. Areerak, A. Srikaew

Abstract:

This paper presents the optimal controller design of the generator control unit in the aircraft power system. The adaptive tabu search technique is applied to tune the controller parameters until the best terminal output voltage of generator is achieved. The output response from the system with the controllers designed by the proposed technique is compared with those from the conventional method. The transient simulations using the commercial software package show that the controllers designed from the adaptive tabu search algorithm can provide the better output performance compared with the result from the classical method. The proposed design technique is very flexible and useful for electrical aircraft engineers.

Keywords: Cascade PI controllers, DQ method, Adaptive tabusearch, Generator control unit, Aircraft power system, Modeling, Simulation, Artificial Intelligence.

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20 Optimal Based Damping Controllers of Unified Power Flow Controller Using Adaptive Tabu Search

Authors: Rungnapa Taithai, Anant Oonsivilai

Abstract:

This paper presents optimal based damping controllers of Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) for improving the damping power system oscillations. The design problem of UPFC damping controller and system configurations is formulated as an optimization with time domain-based objective function by means of Adaptive Tabu Search (ATS) technique. The UPFC is installed in Single Machine Infinite Bus (SMIB) for the performance analysis of the power system and simulated using MATLAB-s simulink. The simulation results of these studies showed that designed controller has an tremendous capability in damping power system oscillations.

Keywords: Adaptive Tabu Search (ATS), damping controller, Single Machine Infinite Bus (SMIB), Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC).

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19 Applying Tabu Search Algorithm in Public Transport: A Case Study for University Students in Mauritius

Authors: J. Cheeneebash, S. Jugee

Abstract:

In this paper, the Tabu search algorithm is used to solve a transportation problem which consists of determining the shortest routes with the appropriate vehicle capacity to facilitate the travel of the students attending the University of Mauritius. The aim of this work is to minimize the total cost of the distance travelled by the vehicles in serving all the customers. An initial solution is obtained by the TOUR algorithm which basically constructs a giant tour containing all the customers and partitions it in an optimal way so as to produce a set of feasible routes. The Tabu search algorithm then makes use of a search procedure, a swapping procedure and the intensification and diversification mechanism to find the best set of feasible routes.

Keywords: Tabu Search, Vehicle Routing, Transport.

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18 Economical Operation of Hydro-Thermal Power System based on Multi-path Adaptive Tabu Search

Authors: J. Kluabwang

Abstract:

An economic operation scheduling problem of a hydro-thermal power generation system has been properly solved by the proposed multipath adaptive tabu search algorithm (MATS). Four reservoirs with their own hydro plants and another one thermal plant are integrated to be a studied system used to formulate the objective function under complicated constraints, eg water managements, power balance and thermal generator limits. MATS with four subsearch units (ATSs) and two stages of discarding mechanism (DM), has been setting and trying to solve the problem through 25 trials under function evaluation criterion. It is shown that MATS can provide superior results with respect to single ATS and other previous methods, genetic algorithms (GA) and differential evolution (DE).

Keywords: Hydro-thermal scheduling problem, economic dispatch, adaptive tabu search, multipath adaptive tabu search

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17 Network Reconfiguration for Load Balancing in Distribution System with Distributed Generation and Capacitor Placement

Authors: T. Lantharthong, N. Rugthaicharoencheep

Abstract:

This paper presents an efficient algorithm for optimization of radial distribution systems by a network reconfiguration to balance feeder loads and eliminate overload conditions. The system load-balancing index is used to determine the loading conditions of the system and maximum system loading capacity. The index value has to be minimum in the optimal network reconfiguration of load balancing. A method based on Tabu search algorithm, The Tabu search algorithm is employed to search for the optimal network reconfiguration. The basic idea behind the search is a move from a current solution to its neighborhood by effectively utilizing a memory to provide an efficient search for optimality. It presents low computational effort and is able to find good quality configurations. Simulation results for a radial 69-bus system with distributed generations and capacitors placement. The study results show that the optimal on/off patterns of the switches can be identified to give the best network reconfiguration involving balancing of feeder loads while respecting all the constraints.

Keywords: Network reconfiguration, Distributed generation Capacitor placement, Load balancing, Optimization technique

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16 The Application of Adaptive Tabu Search Algorithm and Averaging Model to the Optimal Controller Design of Buck Converters

Authors: T. Sopapirm, K-N. Areerak, K-L. Areerak, A. Srikaew

Abstract:

The paper presents the applications of artificial intelligence technique called adaptive tabu search to design the controller of a buck converter. The averaging model derived from the DQ and generalized state-space averaging methods is applied to simulate the system during a searching process. The simulations using such averaging model require the faster computational time compared with that of the full topology model from the software packages. The reported model is suitable for the work in the paper in which the repeating calculation is needed for searching the best solution. The results will show that the proposed design technique can provide the better output waveforms compared with those designed from the classical method.

Keywords: Buck converter, adaptive tabu search, DQ method, generalized state-space averaging method, modeling and simulation

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15 Optimization Technique in Scheduling Duck Tours

Authors: Norhazwani M. Y., Khoo, C. F., Hasrul Nisham R.

Abstract:

Tourism industries are rapidly increased for the last few years especially in Malaysia. In order to attract more tourists, Malaysian Governance encourages any effort to increase Malaysian tourism industry. One of the efforts in attracting more tourists in Malacca, Malaysia is a duck tour. Duck tour is an amphibious sightseeing tour that works in two types of engines, hence, it required a huge cost to operate and maintain the vehicle. To other country, it is not so new but in Malaysia, it is just introduced, thus it does not have any systematic routing yet. Therefore, this paper proposed an optimization technique to formulate and schedule this tour to minimize the operating costs by considering it into Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP). The problem is then can be solved by one of the optimization technique especially meta-heuristics approach such as Tabu Search (TS) and Reactive Tabu Search (RTS).

Keywords: Optimization, Reactive Tabu Search, Tabu Search, Travelling Salesman Problem

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14 Capacitor Placement in Distribution Systems Using Simulating Annealing (SA)

Authors: Esmail Limouzade, Mahmood.Joorabian, Najaf Hedayat

Abstract:

This paper undertakes the problem of optimal capacitor placement in a distribution system. The problem is how to optimally determine the locations to install capacitors, the types and sizes of capacitors to he installed and, during each load level,the control settings of these capacitors in order that a desired objective function is minimized while the load constraints,network constraints and operational constraints (e.g. voltage profile) at different load levels are satisfied. The problem is formulated as a combinatorial optimization problem with a nondifferentiable objective function. Four solution mythologies based on algorithms (GA),tabu search (TS), and hybrid GA-SA algorithms are presented.The solution methodologies are preceded by a sensitivity analysis to select the candidate capacitor installation locations.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm (GA) , capacitor placement, voltage profile, network losses, Simulated Annealing, distribution network.

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13 Using Tabu Search to Analyze the Mauritian Economic Sectors

Authors: J. Cheeneebash, V. Beeharry, A. Gopaul

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to express the input-output matrix as a linear ordering problem which is classified as an NP-hard problem. We then use a Tabu search algorithm to find the best permutation among sectors in the input-output matrix that will give an optimal solution. This optimal permutation can be useful in designing policies and strategies for economists and government in their goal of maximizing the gross domestic product.

Keywords: Input-Output matrix, linear ordering problem, Tabusearch.

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12 A Tabu Search Heuristic for Scratch-Pad Memory Management

Authors: Maha Idrissi Aouad, Rene Schott, Olivier Zendra

Abstract:

Reducing energy consumption of embedded systems requires careful memory management. It has been shown that Scratch- Pad Memories (SPMs) are low size, low cost, efficient (i.e. energy saving) data structures directly managed at the software level. In this paper, the focus is on heuristic methods for SPMs management. A method is efficient if the number of accesses to SPM is as large as possible and if all available space (i.e. bits) is used. A Tabu Search (TS) approach for memory management is proposed which is, to the best of our knowledge, a new original alternative to the best known existing heuristic (BEH). In fact, experimentations performed on benchmarks show that the Tabu Search method is as efficient as BEH (in terms of energy consumption) but BEH requires a sorting which can be computationally expensive for a large amount of data. TS is easy to implement and since no sorting is necessary, unlike BEH, the corresponding sorting time is saved. In addition to that, in a dynamic perspective where the maximum capacity of the SPM is not known in advance, the TS heuristic will perform better than BEH.

Keywords: Energy consumption, memory allocation management, optimization, tabu search heuristic.

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11 Comparison of Three Meta Heuristics to Optimize Hybrid Flow Shop Scheduling Problem with Parallel Machines

Authors: Wahyudin P. Syam, Ibrahim M. Al-Harkan

Abstract:

This study compares three meta heuristics to minimize makespan (Cmax) for Hybrid Flow Shop (HFS) Scheduling Problem with Parallel Machines. This problem is known to be NP-Hard. This study proposes three algorithms among improvement heuristic searches which are: Genetic Algorithm (GA), Simulated Annealing (SA), and Tabu Search (TS). SA and TS are known as deterministic improvement heuristic search. GA is known as stochastic improvement heuristic search. A comprehensive comparison from these three improvement heuristic searches is presented. The results for the experiments conducted show that TS is effective and efficient to solve HFS scheduling problems.

Keywords: Flow shop, genetic algorithm, simulated annealing, tabu search.

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10 Predicting Bankruptcy using Tabu Search in the Mauritian Context

Authors: J. Cheeneebash, K. B. Lallmamode, A. Gopaul

Abstract:

Throughout this paper, a relatively new technique, the Tabu search variable selection model, is elaborated showing how it can be efficiently applied within the financial world whenever researchers come across the selection of a subset of variables from a whole set of descriptive variables under analysis. In the field of financial prediction, researchers often have to select a subset of variables from a larger set to solve different type of problems such as corporate bankruptcy prediction, personal bankruptcy prediction, mortgage, credit scoring and the Arbitrage Pricing Model (APM). Consequently, to demonstrate how the method operates and to illustrate its usefulness as well as its superiority compared to other commonly used methods, the Tabu search algorithm for variable selection is compared to two main alternative search procedures namely, the stepwise regression and the maximum R 2 improvement method. The Tabu search is then implemented in finance; where it attempts to predict corporate bankruptcy by selecting the most appropriate financial ratios and thus creating its own prediction score equation. In comparison to other methods, mostly the Altman Z-Score model, the Tabu search model produces a higher success rate in predicting correctly the failure of firms or the continuous running of existing entities.

Keywords: Predicting Bankruptcy, Tabu Search

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9 A hybrid Tabu Search Algorithm to Cell Formation Problem and its Variants

Authors: Tai-Hsi Wu, Jinn-Yi Yeh, Chin-Chih Chang

Abstract:

Cell formation is the first step in the design of cellular manufacturing systems. In this study, a general purpose computational scheme employing a hybrid tabu search algorithm as the core is proposed to solve the cell formation problem and its variants. In the proposed scheme, great flexibilities are left to the users. The core solution searching algorithm embedded in the scheme can be easily changed to any other meta-heuristic algorithms, such as the simulated annealing, genetic algorithm, etc., based on the characteristics of the problems to be solved or the preferences the users might have. In addition, several counters are designed to control the timing of conducting intensified solution searching and diversified solution searching strategies interactively.

Keywords: Cell formation problem, Tabu search

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8 Tabu Search Approach to Solve Routing Issues in Communication Networks

Authors: Anant Oonsivilai, Wichai Srisuruk, Boonruang Marungsri, Thanatchai Kulworawanichpong

Abstract:

Optimal routing in communication networks is a major issue to be solved. In this paper, the application of Tabu Search (TS) in the optimum routing problem where the aim is to minimize the computational time and improvement of quality of the solution in the communication have been addressed. The goal is to minimize the average delays in the communication. The effectiveness of Tabu Search method is shown by the results of simulation to solve the shortest path problem. Through this approach computational cost can be reduced.

Keywords: Communication networks, optimum routing network, tabu search algorithm, shortest path.

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7 Measurement Scheme Improving for State Estimation Using Stochastic Tabu Search

Authors: T. Kerdchuen

Abstract:

This paper proposes the stochastic tabu search (STS) for improving the measurement scheme for power system state estimation. If the original measured scheme is not observable, the additional measurements with minimum number of measurements are added into the system by STS so that there is no critical measurement pair. The random bit flipping and bit exchanging perturbations are used for generating the neighborhood solutions in STS. The Pδ observable concept is used to determine the network observability. Test results of 10 bus, IEEE 14 and 30 bus systems are shown that STS can improve the original measured scheme to be observable without critical measurement pair. Moreover, the results of STS are superior to deterministic tabu search (DTS) in terms of the best solution hit.

Keywords: Measurement Scheme, Power System StateEstimation, Network Observability, Stochastic Tabu Search (STS).

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6 A Hybrid Multi Objective Algorithm for Flexible Job Shop Scheduling

Authors: Parviz Fattahi

Abstract:

Scheduling for the flexible job shop is very important in both fields of production management and combinatorial optimization. However, it quit difficult to achieve an optimal solution to this problem with traditional optimization approaches owing to the high computational complexity. The combining of several optimization criteria induces additional complexity and new problems. In this paper, a Pareto approach to solve the multi objective flexible job shop scheduling problems is proposed. The objectives considered are to minimize the overall completion time (makespan) and total weighted tardiness (TWT). An effective simulated annealing algorithm based on the proposed approach is presented to solve multi objective flexible job shop scheduling problem. An external memory of non-dominated solutions is considered to save and update the non-dominated solutions during the solution process. Numerical examples are used to evaluate and study the performance of the proposed algorithm. The proposed algorithm can be applied easily in real factory conditions and for large size problems. It should thus be useful to both practitioners and researchers.

Keywords: Flexible job shop, Scheduling, Hierarchical approach, simulated annealing, tabu search, multi objective.

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5 Distribution Feeder Reconfiguration Considering Distributed Generators

Authors: R. Khorshidi , T. Niknam, M. Nayeripour

Abstract:

Recently, distributed generation technologies have received much attention for the potential energy savings and reliability assurances that might be achieved as a result of their widespread adoption. Fueling the attention have been the possibilities of international agreements to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, electricity sector restructuring, high power reliability requirements for certain activities, and concern about easing transmission and distribution capacity bottlenecks and congestion. So it is necessary that impact of these kinds of generators on distribution feeder reconfiguration would be investigated. This paper presents an approach for distribution reconfiguration considering Distributed Generators (DGs). The objective function is summation of electrical power losses A Tabu search optimization is used to solve the optimal operation problem. The approach is tested on a real distribution feeder.

Keywords: Distributed Generator, Daily Optimal Operation, Genetic Algorithm.

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4 Universal Method for Timetable Construction based on Evolutionary Approach

Authors: Maciej Norberciak

Abstract:

Timetabling problems are often hard and timeconsuming to solve. Most of the methods of solving them concern only one problem instance or class. This paper describes a universal method for solving large, highly constrained timetabling problems from different domains. The solution is based on evolutionary algorithm-s framework and operates on two levels – first-level evolutionary algorithm tries to find a solution basing on given set of operating parameters, second-level algorithm is used to establish those parameters. Tabu search is employed to speed up the solution finding process on first level. The method has been used to solve three different timetabling problems with promising results.

Keywords: Evolutionary algorithms, tabu search, timetabling.

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3 Bandwidth Optimization through Dynamic Routing in ATM Networks: Genetic Algorithm and Tabu Search Approach

Authors: Susmi Routray, A. M. Sherry, B. V. R. Reddy

Abstract:

Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is widely used in telecommunications systems to send data, video and voice at a very high speed. In ATM network optimizing the bandwidth through dynamic routing is an important consideration. Previous research work shows that traditional optimization heuristics result in suboptimal solution. In this paper we have explored non-traditional optimization technique. We propose comparison of two such algorithms - Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Tabu search (TS), based on non-traditional Optimization approach, for solving the dynamic routing problem in ATM networks which in return will optimize the bandwidth. The optimized bandwidth could mean that some attractive business applications would become feasible such as high speed LAN interconnection, teleconferencing etc. We have also performed a comparative study of the selection mechanisms in GA and listed the best selection mechanism and a new initialization technique which improves the efficiency of the GA.

Keywords: Asynchronous Transfer Mode(ATM), GeneticAlgorithm(GA), Tabu Search(TS).

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2 Learning FCM by Tabu Search

Authors: Somayeh Alizadeh, Mehdi Ghazanfari, Mostafa Jafari, Salman Hooshmand

Abstract:

Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs) is a causal graph, which shows the relations between essential components in complex systems. Experts who are familiar with the system components and their relations can generate a related FCM. There is a big gap when human experts cannot produce FCM or even there is no expert to produce the related FCM. Therefore, a new mechanism must be used to bridge this gap. In this paper, a novel learning method is proposed to construct causal graph based on historical data and by using metaheuristic such Tabu Search (TS). The efficiency of the proposed method is shown via comparison of its results of some numerical examples with those of some other methods.

Keywords: Fuzzy Cognitive Map (FCM), Learning, Meta heuristic, Genetic Algorithm, Tabu search.

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1 Split-Pipe Design of Water Distribution Networks Using a Combination of Tabu Search and Genetic Algorithm

Authors: J. Tospornsampan, I. Kita, M. Ishii, Y. Kitamura

Abstract:

In this paper a combination approach of two heuristic-based algorithms: genetic algorithm and tabu search is proposed. It has been developed to obtain the least cost based on the split-pipe design of looped water distribution network. The proposed combination algorithm has been applied to solve the three well-known water distribution networks taken from the literature. The development of the combination of these two heuristic-based algorithms for optimization is aimed at enhancing their strengths and compensating their weaknesses. Tabu search is rather systematic and deterministic that uses adaptive memory in search process, while genetic algorithm is probabilistic and stochastic optimization technique in which the solution space is explored by generating candidate solutions. Split-pipe design may not be realistic in practice but in optimization purpose, optimal solutions are always achieved with split-pipe design. The solutions obtained in this study have proved that the least cost solutions obtained from the split-pipe design are always better than those obtained from the single pipe design. The results obtained from the combination approach show its ability and effectiveness to solve combinatorial optimization problems. The solutions obtained are very satisfactory and high quality in which the solutions of two networks are found to be the lowest-cost solutions yet presented in the literature. The concept of combination approach proposed in this study is expected to contribute some useful benefits in diverse problems.

Keywords: GAs, Heuristics, Looped network, Least-cost design, Pipe network, Optimization, TS

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