Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 38

Search results for: Load balancing

38 A Neural Network Control for Voltage Balancing in Three-Phase Electric Power System

Authors: Dana M. Ragab, Jasim A. Ghaeb

Abstract:

The three-phase power system suffers from different challenging problems, e.g. voltage unbalance conditions at the load side. The voltage unbalance usually degrades the power quality of the electric power system. Several techniques can be considered for load balancing including load reconfiguration, static synchronous compensator and static reactive power compensator. In this work an efficient neural network is designed to control the unbalanced condition in the Aqaba-Qatrana-South Amman (AQSA) electric power system. It is designed for highly enhanced response time of the reactive compensator for voltage balancing. The neural network is developed to determine the appropriate set of firing angles required for the thyristor-controlled reactor to balance the three load voltages accurately and quickly. The parameters of AQSA power system are considered in the laboratory model, and several test cases have been conducted to test and validate the proposed technique capabilities. The results have shown a high performance of the proposed Neural Network Control (NNC) technique for correcting the voltage unbalance conditions at three-phase load based on accuracy and response time.

Keywords: Three-phase power system, reactive power control, voltage unbalance factor, neural network, power quality.

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37 Distributed Cost-Based Scheduling in Cloud Computing Environment

Authors: Rupali, Anil Kumar Jaiswal

Abstract:

Cloud computing can be defined as one of the prominent technologies that lets a user change, configure and access the services online. it can be said that this is a prototype of computing that helps in saving cost and time of a user practically the use of cloud computing can be found in various fields like education, health, banking etc.  Cloud computing is an internet dependent technology thus it is the major responsibility of Cloud Service Providers(CSPs) to care of data stored by user at data centers. Scheduling in cloud computing environment plays a vital role as to achieve maximum utilization and user satisfaction cloud providers need to schedule resources effectively.  Job scheduling for cloud computing is analyzed in the following work. To complete, recreate the task calculation, and conveyed scheduling methods CloudSim3.0.3 is utilized. This research work discusses the job scheduling for circulated processing condition also by exploring on this issue we find it works with minimum time and less cost. In this work two load balancing techniques have been employed: ‘Throttled stack adjustment policy’ and ‘Active VM load balancing policy’ with two brokerage services ‘Advanced Response Time’ and ‘Reconfigure Dynamically’ to evaluate the VM_Cost, DC_Cost, Response Time, and Data Processing Time. The proposed techniques are compared with Round Robin scheduling policy.

Keywords: Physical machines, virtual machines, support for repetition, self-healing, highly scalable programming model.

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36 Performance Assessment of Carrier Aggregation-Based Indoor Mobile Networks

Authors: Viktor R. Stoynov, Zlatka V. Valkova-Jarvis

Abstract:

The intelligent management and optimisation of radio resource technologies will lead to a considerable improvement in the overall performance in Next Generation Networks (NGNs). Carrier Aggregation (CA) technology, also known as Spectrum Aggregation, enables more efficient use of the available spectrum by combining multiple Component Carriers (CCs) in a virtual wideband channel. LTE-A (Long Term Evolution–Advanced) CA technology can combine multiple adjacent or separate CCs in the same band or in different bands. In this way, increased data rates and dynamic load balancing can be achieved, resulting in a more reliable and efficient operation of mobile networks and the enabling of high bandwidth mobile services. In this paper, several distinct CA deployment strategies for the utilisation of spectrum bands are compared in indoor-outdoor scenarios, simulated via the recently-developed Realistic Indoor Environment Generator (RIEG). We analyse the performance of the User Equipment (UE) by integrating the average throughput, the level of fairness of radio resource allocation, and other parameters, into one summative assessment termed a Comparative Factor (CF). In addition, comparison of non-CA and CA indoor mobile networks is carried out under different load conditions: varying numbers and positions of UEs. The experimental results demonstrate that the CA technology can improve network performance, especially in the case of indoor scenarios. Additionally, we show that an increase of carrier frequency does not necessarily lead to improved CF values, due to high wall-penetration losses. The performance of users under bad-channel conditions, often located in the periphery of the cells, can be improved by intelligent CA location. Furthermore, a combination of such a deployment and effective radio resource allocation management with respect to user-fairness plays a crucial role in improving the performance of LTE-A networks.

Keywords: Comparative factor, carrier aggregation, indoor mobile network, resource allocation.

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35 Research on Load Balancing Technology for Web Service Mobile Host

Authors: Yao Lu, Xiuguo Zhang, Zhiying Cao

Abstract:

In this paper, Load Balancing idea is used in the Web service mobile host. The main idea of Load Balancing is to establish a one-to-many mapping mechanism: An entrance-mapping request to plurality of processing node in order to realize the dividing and assignment processing. Because the mobile host is a resource constrained environment, there are some Web services which cannot be completed on the mobile host. When the mobile host resource is not enough to complete the request, Load Balancing scheduler will divide the request into a plurality of sub-requests and transfer them to different auxiliary mobile hosts. Auxiliary mobile host executes sub-requests, and then, the results will be returned to the mobile host. Service request integrator receives results of sub-requests from the auxiliary mobile host, and integrates the sub-requests. In the end, the complete request is returned to the client. Experimental results show that this technology adopted in this paper can complete requests and have a higher efficiency.

Keywords: Dinic, load balancing, mobile host, web service.

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34 Fuzzy Based Particle Swarm Optimization Routing Technique for Load Balancing in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: S. Balaji, E. Golden Julie, M. Rajaram, Y. Harold Robinson

Abstract:

Network lifetime improvement and uncertainty in multiple systems are the issues of wireless sensor network routing. This paper presents fuzzy based particle swarm optimization routing technique to improve the network scalability. Significantly, in the cluster formation procedure, fuzzy based system is used to solve the uncertainty and network balancing. Cluster heads play an important role to reduce the energy consumption using particle swarm optimization algorithm, the cluster head sends its information along data packets to the heads with link. The simulation results show that the presented routing protocol can perform load balancing effectively and reduce the energy consumption of cluster heads.

Keywords: Wireless sensor networks, fuzzy logic, PSO, LEACH.

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33 Cooperative Cross Layer Topology for Concurrent Transmission Scheduling Scheme in Broadband Wireless Networks

Authors: Gunasekaran Raja, Ramkumar Jayaraman

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider CCL-N (Cooperative Cross Layer Network) topology based on the cross layer (both centralized and distributed) environment to form network communities. Various performance metrics related to the IEEE 802.16 networks are discussed to design CCL-N Topology. In CCL-N topology, nodes are classified as master nodes (Master Base Station [MBS]) and serving nodes (Relay Station [RS]). Nodes communities are organized based on the networking terminologies. Based on CCL-N Topology, various simulation analyses for both transparent and non-transparent relays are tabulated and throughput efficiency is calculated. Weighted load balancing problem plays a challenging role in IEEE 802.16 network. CoTS (Concurrent Transmission Scheduling) Scheme is formulated in terms of three aspects – transmission mechanism based on identical communities, different communities and identical node communities. CoTS scheme helps in identifying the weighted load balancing problem. Based on the analytical results, modularity value is inversely proportional to that of the error value. The modularity value plays a key role in solving the CoTS problem based on hop count. The transmission mechanism for identical node community has no impact since modularity value is same for all the network groups. In this paper three aspects of communities based on the modularity value which helps in solving the problem of weighted load balancing and CoTS are discussed.

Keywords: Cross layer network topology, concurrent scheduling, modularity value, network communities and weighted load balancing.

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32 A Two Level Load Balancing Approach for Cloud Environment

Authors: Anurag Jain, Rajneesh Kumar

Abstract:

Cloud computing is the outcome of rapid growth of internet. Due to elastic nature of cloud computing and unpredictable behavior of user, load balancing is the major issue in cloud computing paradigm. An efficient load balancing technique can improve the performance in terms of efficient resource utilization and higher customer satisfaction. Load balancing can be implemented through task scheduling, resource allocation and task migration. Various parameters to analyze the performance of load balancing approach are response time, cost, data processing time and throughput. This paper demonstrates a two level load balancer approach by combining join idle queue and join shortest queue approach. Authors have used cloud analyst simulator to test proposed two level load balancer approach. The results are analyzed and compared with the existing algorithms and as observed, proposed work is one step ahead of existing techniques.

Keywords: Cloud Analyst, Cloud Computing, Join Idle Queue, Join Shortest Queue, Load balancing, Task Scheduling.

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31 Interplay of Power Management at Core and Server Level

Authors: Jörg Lenhardt, Wolfram Schiffmann, Jörg Keller

Abstract:

While the feature sizes of recent Complementary Metal Oxid Semiconductor (CMOS) devices decrease the influence of static power prevails their energy consumption. Thus, power savings that benefit from Dynamic Frequency and Voltage Scaling (DVFS) are diminishing and temporal shutdown of cores or other microchip components become more worthwhile. A consequence of powering off unused parts of a chip is that the relative difference between idle and fully loaded power consumption is increased. That means, future chips and whole server systems gain more power saving potential through power-aware load balancing, whereas in former times this power saving approach had only limited effect, and thus, was not widely adopted. While powering off complete servers was used to save energy, it will be superfluous in many cases when cores can be powered down. An important advantage that comes with that is a largely reduced time to respond to increased computational demand. We include the above developments in a server power model and quantify the advantage. Our conclusion is that strategies from datacenters when to power off server systems might be used in the future on core level, while load balancing mechanisms previously used at core level might be used in the future at server level.

Keywords: Power efficiency, static power consumption, dynamic power consumption, CMOS.

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30 A Budget and Deadline Constrained Fault Tolerant Load Balanced Scheduling Algorithm for Computational Grids

Authors: P. Keerthika, P. Suresh

Abstract:

Grid is an environment with millions of resources which are dynamic and heterogeneous in nature. A computational grid is one in which the resources are computing nodes and is meant for applications that involves larger computations. A scheduling algorithm is said to be efficient if and only if it performs better resource allocation even in case of resource failure. Resource allocation is a tedious issue since it has to consider several requirements such as system load, processing cost and time, user’s deadline and resource failure. This work attempts in designing a resource allocation algorithm which is cost-effective and also targets at load balancing, fault tolerance and user satisfaction by considering the above requirements. The proposed Budget Constrained Load Balancing Fault Tolerant algorithm with user satisfaction (BLBFT) reduces the schedule makespan, schedule cost and task failure rate and improves resource utilization. Evaluation of the proposed BLBFT algorithm is done using Gridsim toolkit and the results are compared with the algorithms which separately concentrates on all these factors. The comparison results ensure that the proposed algorithm works better than its counterparts.

Keywords: Grid Scheduling, Load Balancing, fault tolerance, makespan, cost, resource utilization.

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29 Model-Based Automotive Partitioning and Mapping for Embedded Multicore Systems

Authors: Robert H¨ottger, Lukas Krawczyk, Burkhard Igel

Abstract:

This paper introduces novel approaches to partitioning and mapping in terms of model-based embedded multicore system engineering and further discusses benefits, industrial relevance and features in common with existing approaches. In order to assess and evaluate results, both approaches have been applied to a real industrial application as well as to various prototypical demonstrative applications, that have been developed and implemented for different purposes. Evaluations show, that such applications improve significantly according to performance, energy efficiency, meeting timing constraints and covering maintaining issues by using the AMALTHEA platform and the implemented approaches. Furthermore, the model-based design provides an open, expandable, platform independent and scalable exchange format between OEMs, suppliers and developers on different levels. Our proposed mechanisms provide meaningful multicore system utilization since load balancing by means of partitioning and mapping is effectively performed with regard to the modeled systems including hardware, software, operating system, scheduling, constraints, configuration and more data.

Keywords: Partitioning, mapping, distributed systems, scheduling, embedded multicore systems, model-based, system analysis.

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28 The Load Balancing Algorithm for the Star Interconnection Network

Authors: Ahmad M. Awwad, Jehad Al-Sadi

Abstract:

The star network is one of the promising interconnection networks for future high speed parallel computers, it is expected to be one of the future-generation networks. The star network is both edge and vertex symmetry, it was shown to have many gorgeous topological proprieties also it is owns hierarchical structure framework. Although much of the research work has been done on this promising network in literature, it still suffers from having enough algorithms for load balancing problem. In this paper we try to work on this issue by investigating and proposing an efficient algorithm for load balancing problem for the star network. The proposed algorithm is called Star Clustered Dimension Exchange Method SCDEM to be implemented on the star network. The proposed algorithm is based on the Clustered Dimension Exchange Method (CDEM). The SCDEM algorithm is shown to be efficient in redistributing the load balancing as evenly as possible among all nodes of different factor networks.

Keywords: Interconnection networks, Load balancing, Star network.

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27 Shopping Cart System: Load Balancing and Fault Tolerance in the OSGi Service Platform

Authors: Irina Astrova, Arne Koschel, Thole Schneider, Johannes Westhuis, Jürgen Westerkamp

Abstract:

The main purpose of this paper was to find a simple solution for load balancing and fault tolerance in OSGi. The challenge was to implement a highly available web application such as a shopping cart system with load balancing and fault tolerance, without having to change the core of OSGi.

Keywords: Fault tolerance, load balancing, OSGi, shopping cart system.

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26 Modeling and Analysis of Twelve-phase (Multi- Phase) DSTATCOM for Multi-Phase Load Circuits

Authors: Zakir Husain

Abstract:

This paper presents modeling and analysis of 12-phase distribution static compensator (DSTATCOM), which is capable of balancing the source currents in spite of unbalanced loading and phase outages. In addition to balance the supply current, the power factor can be set to a desired value. The theory of instantaneous symmetrical components is used to generate the twelve-phase reference currents. These reference currents are then tracked using current controlled voltage source inverter, operated in a hysteresis band control scheme. An ideal compensator in place of physical realization of the compensator is used. The performance of the proposed DTATCOM is validated through MATLAB simulation and detailed simulation results are given.

Keywords: DSTATCOM, Modeling, Load balancing, Multiphase, Power factor correction.

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25 Towards a Load Balancing Framework for an SMS–Based Service Invocation Environment

Authors: Mandla T. Nene, Edgar.Jembere, Matthew O. Adigun, Themba Shezi, Siyabonga S. Cebekhulu

Abstract:

The drastic increase in the usage of SMS technology has led service providers to seek for a solution that enable users of mobile devices to access services through SMSs. This has resulted in the proposal of solutions towards SMS-based service invocation in service oriented environments. However, the dynamic nature of service-oriented environments coupled with sudden load peaks generated by service request, poses performance challenges to infrastructures for supporting SMS-based service invocation. To address this problem we adopt load balancing techniques. A load balancing model with adaptive load balancing and load monitoring mechanisms as its key constructs is proposed. The load balancing model then led to realization of Least Loaded Load Balancing Framework (LLLBF). Evaluation of LLLBF benchmarked with round robin (RR) scheme on the queuing approach showed LLLBF outperformed RR in terms of response time and throughput. However, LLLBF achieved better result in the cost of high processing power.

Keywords: SMS (Short Message Service), LLLBF (Least Loaded Load Balancing Framework), Service Oriented Computing (SOC).

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24 Increasing Replica Consistency Performances with Load Balancing Strategy in Data Grid Systems

Authors: Sarra Senhadji, Amar Kateb, Hafida Belbachir

Abstract:

Data replication in data grid systems is one of the important solutions that improve availability, scalability, and fault tolerance. However, this technique can also bring some involved issues such as maintaining replica consistency. Moreover, as grid environment are very dynamic some nodes can be more uploaded than the others to become eventually a bottleneck. The main idea of our work is to propose a complementary solution between replica consistency maintenance and dynamic load balancing strategy to improve access performances under a simulated grid environment.

Keywords: Consistency, replication, data grid, load balancing.

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23 Network Reconfiguration for Load Balancing in Distribution System with Distributed Generation and Capacitor Placement

Authors: T. Lantharthong, N. Rugthaicharoencheep

Abstract:

This paper presents an efficient algorithm for optimization of radial distribution systems by a network reconfiguration to balance feeder loads and eliminate overload conditions. The system load-balancing index is used to determine the loading conditions of the system and maximum system loading capacity. The index value has to be minimum in the optimal network reconfiguration of load balancing. A method based on Tabu search algorithm, The Tabu search algorithm is employed to search for the optimal network reconfiguration. The basic idea behind the search is a move from a current solution to its neighborhood by effectively utilizing a memory to provide an efficient search for optimality. It presents low computational effort and is able to find good quality configurations. Simulation results for a radial 69-bus system with distributed generations and capacitors placement. The study results show that the optimal on/off patterns of the switches can be identified to give the best network reconfiguration involving balancing of feeder loads while respecting all the constraints.

Keywords: Network reconfiguration, Distributed generation Capacitor placement, Load balancing, Optimization technique

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22 A Fuzzy Dynamic Load Balancing Algorithm for Homogenous Distributed Systems

Authors: Ali M. Alakeel

Abstract:

Load balancing in distributed computer systems is the process of redistributing the work load among processors in the system to improve system performance. Most of previous research in using fuzzy logic for the purpose of load balancing has only concentrated in utilizing fuzzy logic concepts in describing processors load and tasks execution length. The responsibility of the fuzzy-based load balancing process itself, however, has not been discussed and in most reported work is assumed to be performed in a distributed fashion by all nodes in the network. This paper proposes a new fuzzy dynamic load balancing algorithm for homogenous distributed systems. The proposed algorithm utilizes fuzzy logic in dealing with inaccurate load information, making load distribution decisions, and maintaining overall system stability. In terms of control, we propose a new approach that specifies how, when, and by which node the load balancing is implemented. Our approach is called Centralized-But-Distributed (CBD).

Keywords: Dynamic load balancing, fuzzy logic, distributed systems, algorithm.

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21 A New Routing Algorithm: MIRAD

Authors: Amir Gholami Pastaki, Ali Reza Sahab, Seyed Mehdi Sadeghi

Abstract:

LSP routing is among the prominent issues in MPLS networks traffic engineering. The objective of this routing is to increase number of the accepted requests while guaranteeing the quality of service (QoS). Requested bandwidth is the most important QoS criterion that is considered in literatures, and a various number of heuristic algorithms have been presented with that regards. Many of these algorithms prevent flows through bottlenecks of the network in order to perform load balancing, which impedes optimum operation of the network. Here, a modern routing algorithm is proposed as MIRAD: having a little information of the network topology, links residual bandwidth, and any knowledge of the prospective requests it provides every request with a maximum bandwidth as well as minimum end-to-end delay via uniform load distribution across the network. Simulation results of the proposed algorithm show a better efficiency in comparison with similar algorithms.

Keywords: new generation networks, QoS, traffic engineering, MPLS, QoS based routing, LSP

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20 A Control Strategy Based on UTT and ISCT for 3P4W UPQC

Authors: Yash Pal, A.Swarup, Bhim Singh

Abstract:

This paper presents a novel control strategy of a threephase four-wire Unified Power Quality (UPQC) for an improvement in power quality. The UPQC is realized by integration of series and shunt active power filters (APFs) sharing a common dc bus capacitor. The shunt APF is realized using a thee-phase, four leg voltage source inverter (VSI) and the series APF is realized using a three-phase, three leg VSI. A control technique based on unit vector template technique (UTT) is used to get the reference signals for series APF, while instantaneous sequence component theory (ISCT) is used for the control of Shunt APF. The performance of the implemented control algorithm is evaluated in terms of power-factor correction, load balancing, neutral source current mitigation and mitigation of voltage and current harmonics, voltage sag and swell in a three-phase four-wire distribution system for different combination of linear and non-linear loads. In this proposed control scheme of UPQC, the current/voltage control is applied over the fundamental supply currents/voltages instead of fast changing APFs currents/voltages, there by reducing the computational delay and the required sensors. MATLAB/Simulink based simulations are obtained, which support the functionality of the UPQC. MATLAB/Simulink based simulations are obtained, which support the functionality of the UPQC.

Keywords: Power Quality, UPQC, Harmonics, Load Balancing, Power Factor Correction, voltage harmonic mitigation, currentharmonic mitigation, voltage sag, swell

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19 Star-Hexagon Transformer Supported UPQC

Authors: Yash Pal, A.Swarup, Bhim Singh

Abstract:

A new topology of unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) is proposed for different power quality (PQ) improvement in a three-phase four-wire (3P-4W) distribution system. For neutral current mitigation, a star-hexagon transformer is connected in shunt near the load along with three-leg voltage source inverters (VSIs) based UPQC. For the mitigation of source neutral current, the uses of passive elements are advantageous over the active compensation due to ruggedness and less complexity of control. In addition to this, by connecting a star-hexagon transformer for neutral current mitigation the over all rating of the UPQC is reduced. The performance of the proposed topology of 3P-4W UPQC is evaluated for power-factor correction, load balancing, neutral current mitigation and mitigation of voltage and currents harmonics. A simple control algorithm based on Unit Vector Template (UVT) technique is used as a control strategy of UPQC for mitigation of different PQ problems. In this control scheme, the current/voltage control is applied over the fundamental supply currents/voltages instead of fast changing APFs currents/voltages, thereby reducing the computational delay. Moreover, no extra control is required for neutral source current compensation; hence the numbers of current sensors are reduced. The performance of the proposed topology of UPQC is analyzed through simulations results using MATLAB software with its Simulink and Power System Block set toolboxes.

Keywords: Power-factor correction, Load balancing, UPQC, Voltage and Current harmonics, Neutral current mitigation, Starhexagon transformer.

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18 Dynamic Data Partition Algorithm for a Parallel H.264 Encoder

Authors: Juntae Kim, Jaeyoung Park, Kyoungkun Lee, Jong Tae Kim

Abstract:

The H.264/AVC standard is a highly efficient video codec providing high-quality videos at low bit-rates. As employing advanced techniques, the computational complexity has been increased. The complexity brings about the major problem in the implementation of a real-time encoder and decoder. Parallelism is the one of approaches which can be implemented by multi-core system. We analyze macroblock-level parallelism which ensures the same bit rate with high concurrency of processors. In order to reduce the encoding time, dynamic data partition based on macroblock region is proposed. The data partition has the advantages in load balancing and data communication overhead. Using the data partition, the encoder obtains more than 3.59x speed-up on a four-processor system. This work can be applied to other multimedia processing applications.

Keywords: H.264/AVC, video coding, thread-level parallelism, OpenMP, multimedia

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17 Application and Limitation of Parallel Modelingin Multidimensional Sequential Pattern

Authors: Mahdi Esmaeili, Mansour Tarafdar

Abstract:

The goal of data mining algorithms is to discover useful information embedded in large databases. One of the most important data mining problems is discovery of frequently occurring patterns in sequential data. In a multidimensional sequence each event depends on more than one dimension. The search space is quite large and the serial algorithms are not scalable for very large datasets. To address this, it is necessary to study scalable parallel implementations of sequence mining algorithms. In this paper, we present a model for multidimensional sequence and describe a parallel algorithm based on data parallelism. Simulation experiments show good load balancing and scalable and acceptable speedup over different processors and problem sizes and demonstrate that our approach can works efficiently in a real parallel computing environment.

Keywords: Sequential Patterns, Data Mining, ParallelAlgorithm, Multidimensional Sequence Data

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16 A Practical Method for Load Balancing in the LV Distribution Networks Case Study: Tabriz Electrical Network

Authors: A. Raminfard, S. M. Shahrtash

Abstract:

In this paper, a new efficient method for load balancing in low voltage distribution systems is presented. The proposed method introduces an improved Leap-frog method for optimization. The proposed objective function includes the difference between three phase currents, as well as two other terms to provide the integer property of the variables; where the latter are the status of the connection of loads to different phases. Afterwards, a new algorithm is supplemented to undertake the integer values for the load connection status. Finally, the method is applied to different parts of Tabriz low voltage network, where the results have shown the good performance of the proposed method.

Keywords: Load balancing, improved leap-frog method, optimization algorithm, low voltage distribution systems.

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15 Resource Constraint Mobile Agent Framework For Ambient Intelligence

Authors: Yung-Chuan Lee, Shahram Rahimi, Bidyut Gupta

Abstract:

In this paper, we introduce an mobile agent framework with proactive load balancing for ambient intelligence (AmI) environments. One of the main obstacles of AmI is the scalability in which the openness of AmI environment introduces dynamic resource requirements on agencies. To mediate this scalability problem, our framework proposes a load balancing module to proactively analyze the resource consumption of network bandwidth and preferred agencies to suggest the optimal communication method to its user. The framework generally formulates an AmI environment that consists of three main components: (1) mobile devices, (2) hosts or agencies, and (3) directory service center (DSC). A preliminary implementation was conducted with NetLogo and the experimental results show that the proposed approach provides enhanced system performance by minimizing the network utilization to provide users with responsive services.

Keywords: Ambient intelligence, load balancing, multiagent systems, ubiquitous computing.

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14 An Agent Based Dynamic Resource Scheduling Model with FCFS-Job Grouping Strategy in Grid Computing

Authors: Raksha Sharma, Vishnu Kant Soni, Manoj Kumar Mishra, Prachet Bhuyan, Utpal Chandra Dey

Abstract:

Grid computing is a group of clusters connected over high-speed networks that involves coordinating and sharing computational power, data storage and network resources operating across dynamic and geographically dispersed locations. Resource management and job scheduling are critical tasks in grid computing. Resource selection becomes challenging due to heterogeneity and dynamic availability of resources. Job scheduling is a NP-complete problem and different heuristics may be used to reach an optimal or near optimal solution. This paper proposes a model for resource and job scheduling in dynamic grid environment. The main focus is to maximize the resource utilization and minimize processing time of jobs. Grid resource selection strategy is based on Max Heap Tree (MHT) that best suits for large scale application and root node of MHT is selected for job submission. Job grouping concept is used to maximize resource utilization for scheduling of jobs in grid computing. Proposed resource selection model and job grouping concept are used to enhance scalability, robustness, efficiency and load balancing ability of the grid.

Keywords: Agent, Grid Computing, Job Grouping, Max Heap Tree (MHT), Resource Scheduling.

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13 Heterogeneity-Aware Load Balancing for Multimedia Access over Wireless LAN Hotspots

Authors: Yen-Cheng Chen, Gong-Da Fang

Abstract:

Wireless LAN (WLAN) access in public hotspot areas becomes popular in the recent years. Since more and more multimedia information is available in the Internet, there is an increasing demand for accessing multimedia information through WLAN hotspots. Currently, the bandwidth offered by an IEEE 802.11 WLAN cannot afford many simultaneous real-time video accesses. A possible way to increase the offered bandwidth in a hotspot is the use of multiple access points (APs). However, a mobile station is usually connected to the WLAN AP with the strongest received signal strength indicator (RSSI). The total consumed bandwidth cannot be fairly allocated among those APs. In this paper, we will propose an effective load-balancing scheme via the support of the IAPP and SNMP in APs. The proposed scheme is an open solution and doesn-t need any changes in both wireless stations and APs. This makes load balancing possible in WLAN hotspots, where a variety of heterogeneous mobile devices are employed.

Keywords: Wireless LAN, Load balancing, IAPP, SNMP.

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12 Load Balancing in Genetic Zone Routing Protocol for MANETs

Authors: P. Sateesh Kumar , S. Ramachandram

Abstract:

Genetic Zone Routing Protocol (GZRP) is a new hybrid routing protocol for MANETs which is an extension of ZRP by using Genetic Algorithm (GA). GZRP uses GA on IERP and BRP parts of ZRP to provide a limited set of alternative routes to the destination in order to load balance the network and robustness during node/link failure during the route discovery process. GZRP is studied for its performance compared to ZRP in many folds like scalability for packet delivery and proved with improved results. This paper presents the results of the effect of load balancing on GZRP. The results show that GZRP outperforms ZRP while balancing the load.

Keywords: MANET, routing, ZRP, Genetic algorithm, GZRP, load balancing

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11 On the Analysis of Bandwidth Management for Hybrid Load Balancing Scheme in WLANs

Authors: Chutima Prommak, Airisa Jantaweetip

Abstract:

In wireless networks, bandwidth is scare resource and it is essential to utilize it effectively. This paper analyses effects of using different bandwidth management techniques on the network performances of the Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) that use hybrid load balancing scheme. In particular, we study three bandwidth management schemes, namely Complete Sharing (CS), Complete Partitioning (CP), and Partial Sharing (PS). Performances of these schemes are evaluated by simulation experiments in term of percentage of network association blocking. Our results show that the CS scheme can provide relatively low blocking percentage in various network traffic scenarios whereas the PS scheme can enhance quality of services of the multimedia traffic with rather small expenses on the blocking percentage of the best effort traffic.

Keywords: Bandwidth management, Load Balancing, WLANs.

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10 Load Balancing in Heterogeneous P2P Systems using Mobile Agents

Authors: Neeraj Nehra, R. B. Patel, V. K. Bhat

Abstract:

Use of the Internet and the World-Wide-Web (WWW) has become widespread in recent years and mobile agent technology has proliferated at an equally rapid rate. In this scenario load balancing becomes important for P2P systems. Beside P2P systems can be highly heterogeneous, i.e., they may consists of peers that range from old desktops to powerful servers connected to internet through high-bandwidth lines. There are various loads balancing policies came into picture. Primitive one is Message Passing Interface (MPI). Its wide availability and portability make it an attractive choice; however the communication requirements are sometimes inefficient when implementing the primitives provided by MPI. In this scenario we use the concept of mobile agent because Mobile agent (MA) based approach have the merits of high flexibility, efficiency, low network traffic, less communication latency as well as highly asynchronous. In this study we present decentralized load balancing scheme using mobile agent technology in which when a node is overloaded, task migrates to less utilized nodes so as to share the workload. However, the decision of which nodes receive migrating task is made in real-time by defining certain load balancing policies. These policies are executed on PMADE (A Platform for Mobile Agent Distribution and Execution) in decentralized manner using JuxtaNet and various load balancing metrics are discussed.

Keywords: Mobile Agents, Agent host, Agent Submitter, PMADE.

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9 Hybrid Association Control Scheme and Load Balancing in Wireless LANs

Authors: Chutima Prommak, Airisa Jantaweetip

Abstract:

This paper presents a hybrid association control scheme that can maintain load balancing among access points in the wireless LANs and can satisfy the quality of service requirements of the multimedia traffic applications. The proposed model is mathematically described as a linear programming model. Simulation study and analysis were conducted in order to demonstrate the performance of the proposed hybrid load balancing and association control scheme. Simulation results shows that the proposed scheme outperforms the other schemes in term of the percentage of blocking and the quality of the data transfer rate providing to the multimedia and real-time applications.

Keywords: Association control, Load balancing, Wireless LANs

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