Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 387

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Structural and Construction Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

387 Weaknesses and Performance Defects of Steel Structures According to the Executive Criteria

Authors: Ehsan Sadie


Despite the experience of heavy losses and damages of recent earthquakes such as 8 km E of Pāhala, Hawaii, 11 km W of Salvaleón de Higüey, Dominican Republic and 49 km SSE of Punta Cana, Dominican Republic earthquakes, the possibility of large earthquakes in most populated areas of any country and the serious need for quality control in the design and implementation of buildings, not enough attention has been paid to the proper construction. Steel structures constitute a significant part of construction in any metropolitan area. This article gives a brief overview of the implementation status of these buildings in urban areas and considers the weaknesses of performance that typically occur due to negligence or insufficient mastery of the building supervisor in the principles of operation of earthquake-resistant buildings, and provide appropriate and possible solutions to improve the construction.

Keywords: bracing member, concentrated load, diaphragm system, earthquake engineering, load-bearing system, shear force, seismic retrofitting, steel building, strip foundation, supervising engineer, vulnerability of building

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386 Design Challenges for Severely Skewed Steel Bridges

Authors: Muna Mitchell, Akshay Parchure, Krishna Singaraju


There is an increasing need for medium- to long-span steel bridges with complex geometry due to site restrictions in developed areas. One of the solutions to grade separations in congested areas is to use longer spans on skewed supports that avoid at-grade obstructions limiting impacts to the foundation. Where vertical clearances are also a constraint, continuous steel girders can be used to reduce superstructure depths. Combining continuous long steel spans on severe skews can resolve the constraints at a cost. The behavior of skewed girders is challenging to analyze and design with subsequent complexity during fabrication and construction. As a part of a corridor improvement project, Walter P Moore designed two 1700-foot side-by-side bridges carrying four lanes of traffic in each direction over a railroad track. The bridges consist of prestressed concrete girder approach spans and three-span continuous steel plate girder units. The roadway design added complex geometry to the bridge with horizontal and vertical curves combined with superelevation transitions within the plate girder units. The substructure at the steel units was skewed approximately 56 degrees to satisfy the existing railroad right-of-way requirements. A horizontal point of curvature (PC) near the end of the steel units required the use flared girders and chorded slab edges. Due to the flared girder geometry, the cross-frame spacing in each bay is unique. Staggered cross frames were provided based on AASHTO LRFD and NCHRP guidelines for high skew steel bridges. Skewed steel bridges develop significant forces in the cross frames and rotation in the girder websdue to differential displacements along the girders under dead and live loads. In addition, under thermal loads, skewed steel bridges expand and contract not along the alignment parallel to the girders but along the diagonal connecting the acute corners, resulting in horizontal displacement both along and perpendicular to the girders. AASHTO LRFD recommends a 95 degree Fahrenheit temperature differential for the design of joints and bearings. The live load and the thermal loads resulted in significant horizontal forces and rotations in the bearings that necessitated the use of HLMR bearings. A unique bearing layout was selected to minimize the effect of thermal forces. The span length, width, skew, and roadway geometry at the bridges also required modular bridge joint systems (MBJS) with inverted-T bent caps to accommodate movement in the steel units. 2D and 3D finite element analysis models were developed to accurately determine the forces and rotations in the girders, cross frames, and bearings and to estimate thermal displacements at the joints. This paper covers the decision-making process for developing the framing plan, bearing configurations, joint type, and analysis models involved in the design of the high-skew three-span continuous steel plate girder bridges.

Keywords: complex geometry, continuous steel plate girders, finite element structural analysis, high skew, HLMR bearings, modular joint

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385 How to Support the Rise of 3D Printing in Construction

Authors: Andrea Palazzo, Daniel Macek, Veronika Malinova, Lucie Jirotkova


Contour crafting is a new challenge that architects and engineers will face in the future. The enormous advantages in terms of design, low cost, low waste, and short timing make this new generation of buildings one of the greatest potentials for the future of architecture and construction. Contour crafting is useful in a wide range of circumstances, from helping poor communities in undeveloped countries- applying it in case of future pandemics like the one we recently experienced -to being used by NASA for projects on other planets. The prices for real estate are constantly increasing, and the lack of availability of construction materials as well as the speculation that has been created around it in 2021, is bringing prices to such a level that in the future real estate developers risk not being able to find customers for these ultra-expensive homes. Hence, this paper starts with the introduction of the 3D printing, which now has the potential to gain an important position in the market, becoming a valid alternative to the classic construction. This technology is not only beneficial from an economic point of view, but it is also a great opportunity to have an impact on the environment reducing CO2 emissions. Further on in the article, we will also understand if, after the COP 26 (2021 United Nations Climate Change Conference), world governments could also push towards building technologies that reduce the waste materials to be disposed of and at the same time reduce emissions with the contribution of governmental funds. This paper will give us insight on the multiple benefits of 3D printing and emphasize the importance for authorities around the globe to establish new regulations supporting this way of constructing to enable the rise and development of this technology in Europe and in the rest of the world on actual housing projects and not only on prototypes.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, contour crafting, development, green construction, new regulation

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384 Mechanical Behaviour of High Strength Steel Thin-Walled Profiles for Automated Rack Supported Warehouses

Authors: Agnese Natali, Francesco Morelli, Walter Salvatore, José Humberto Matias de Paula Filho, Patrick Pol


In the framework of the evaluation of the applicability of high strength steel to produce thin-walled elements to be used in Automated Rack Supported Warehouses, an experimental campaign is carried outto evaluate the structural performance of typical profile shapes adopted for such purposes and made of high strength steel. Numerical models are developed to fit the observed failure modes, stresses, and deformation patterns, and proper directions are proposed to simplify the numerical simulations to be used in further applications and to evaluate the mechanical behavior and performance of profiles.

Keywords: Steel racks, Automated Rack Supported Warehouse, thin walled cold-formed elements, high strength steel.

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383 Innovative Dissipative Bracings for Seismic-Resistant Automated Rack Supported Warehouses

Authors: Agnese Natali, Francesco Morelli, Walter Salvatore


Automated Rack Supported Warehouses (ARSWs) are storage buildings whose structure is made of the same racks where goods are placed. The possibility of designing dissipative seismic-resistant ARSWs is investigated. Diagonals are the dissipative elements, arranged as tense-only X bracings. Local optimization is numerically performed to satisfy the over-resistant connection request for the dissipative element, that is hard to be reached due the geometrical limits of the thin-walled diagonals and must be balanced with resistance, the limit of slenderness, and ductility requests.

Keywords: steel racks, thin-walled cold-formed elements, structural optimization, hierarchy rules, dog-bone philosophy

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382 Failure Simulation of Small-scale Walls with Chases Using the Lattic Discrete Element Method

Authors: Karina C. Azzolin, Luis E. Kosteski, Alisson S. Milani, Raquel C. Zydeck


This work aims to represent Numerically tests experimentally developed in reduced scale walls with horizontal and inclined cuts by using the Lattice Discrete Element Method (LDEM) implemented On de Abaqus/explicit environment. The cuts were performed with depths of 20%, 30%, and 50% On the walls subjected to centered and eccentric loading. The parameters used to evaluate the numerical model are its strength, the failure mode, and the in-plane and out-of-plane displacements.

Keywords: structural masonry, wall chases, small scale, numerical model, lattice discrete element method

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381 Hygrothermal Properties of Raw Earth Material

Authors: Ichrak Hamrouni, Tariq Ouahbi, Natalija Lhuissier, Saïd Taibi, Mehrez Jemai, Olivier Crumeyrolle, Hatem Zenzri


Raw earth is the oldest building technique used for over 11 centuries, thanks to its various benefits. The most known raw earth construction technics are compressed earth blocks, rammed earth, raw earth concrete, and daub. The raw earth can be stabilized with hydraulic binders, mixed by fibers, or hyper-compacted in order to improve its mechanical behaviour. Moreover, raw earth is characterized by a low thermal conductivity what make it a good thermal insulator, and it has a very important capacity to condense and evaporate relative humidity. In this context, many researches have been developed. They have shown that the mechanical characteristics of earth materials increase with the hyper-compaction and adding fibers or hydraulic binders. Besides, other researches have been determined the thermal and hygroscopic properties of raw earth. They have shown that this material able to contribute to moisture and heat control in constructions. Its hygrothermal properties are better than fired earth bricks and concrete. The aim of this study is to evaluate the thermal and hygrometric behavior of raw earth material using experimental tests allows to determine the main Hygrothermal properties such as the water Vapour permeability and thermal conductivity and compare the results with those of other building materials such as fired clay bricks and cement concrete is presented.

Keywords: raw earth material, hygro-thermal, thermal conductivity, water vapour permeability, building materials, building materials

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380 Lime Based Products as a Maintainable Option for Repair And Restoration of Historic Buildings in India

Authors: Adedayo Jeremiah Adeyekun, Samuel Oluwagbemiga Ishola


This research aims to study the use of traditional building materials for the repair and refurbishment of historic buildings in India and to provide an authentic treatment of historical buildings that will be highly considered by taking into consideration the new standards of rehabilitating process. This can be proven to be an effective solution over modern impervious material due to its compatibility with traditional building methods and materials. For example, their elastoplastic properties allow accommodating movement due to settlement or moisture/temperature changes without cracking. The use of lime also enhances workability, water retention and bond characteristics. Lime is considered to be a natural, traditional material, but it is also sustainable and energy-efficient, with production powered by biomass and emissions up to 25% less than cementitious materials. However, there is a lack of comprehensive data on the impact of lime‐based materials on the energy efficiency and thermal properties of traditional buildings and structures. Although lime mortars, renders and plasters were largely superseded by cement-based products in the first half of the 20th century, lime has a long and proven track record dating back to ancient times. This was used by the Egyptians in 4000BC to construct the pyramids. This doesn't mean that lime is an outdated technology, nor is it difficult to be used as a material. In fact, lime has a growing place in modern construction, with increasing numbers of designers choosing to use lime-based products because of their special properties. To carry out this research, some historic buildings will be surveyed and information will be derived from the textbooks and journals related to Architectural restoration.

Keywords: lime, materials, historic, buildings, sustainability

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379 Effect of Impulse Fans Clearance Height on Smoke Behavior in enclosed Car Parks: Comparative Study using CFD

Authors: Khaled Abou Hweij, Adnan Akhdar


Recently, in many cities, car parks are commonly contracted below ground level in commercial, public, and residential buildings, which creates significant challenges for managing the smoke release from critical fire events such as car fire due to ceiling height limitations in these enclosed car parks. In fact, if not properly ventilated, a large amount of very hot smoke will be generated, filling the car park volume rapidly, thus compromising the egress of occupants and the access of fire fighters to the seat of the fire. As such, ventilating enclosed car parks is crucial as to deliver fresh air that helps in renewing air and expelling harmful gasses in normal mode of operation, and diluting smoke while reducing its temperature in emergency fire mode of operation. Traditionally, during car fire scenarios, smoke is controlled and exhausted mechanically via ducting system where louvers are commonly provided at high level and make-up air at low level. However, this strategy becomes very cumbersome in car parks where the available ceiling height and space is limited (especially in large towers with multiple services in the basements), rendering ducts installation almost impossible. In these cases, it is more efficient to use jet fans fixed under the car park ceiling to direct the fresh air/make-up air towards the designated extraction points and achieve the required ventilation performance both in normal and emergency fire modes. If not properly designed, the momentum generated by the jet fans can induce significant turbulence levels, which can force smoke to recirculate and spread behind the fire source in a phenomenon know as back-layering, compromising the safe routes used to distinguish the fire. This study will use Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation on a full 3D model of an underground car park basement in order to understand how the jet fans clearance height from the ceiling affect the ventilation of the car park in normal mode and the propagation of smoke in emergency mode considering a typical 4MW car fire event based on the findings of BRE research program for car fires in basements. The simulations are carried using the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) software to check the achieved visibility levels, air speeds, carbon monoxide concentrations, and temperatures for the investigated jet fans clearance heights and to elucidate the smoke behavior and air movement in the car park in both normal and emergency modes of operation.

Keywords: carparks, computational fluid dynamics, cfd, fire, jet fans, smoke, turbulence, air change effectiveness

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378 Toughness of a Silt-Based Construction Material Reinforced with Fibers

Authors: Y. Shamas, S. Imanzadeh, A. Jarno, S. Taibi


Silt-based construction material is acknowledged since forever and lately received the researchers’ attention more than before as being an ecological and economical alternative for typical cement-based concrete. Silt-based material is known for its worldwide availability, cheapness, and various applications. Some rules should be defined to obtain a standardized method for the use of raw earth as a modern construction material; but first, its mechanical properties should be precisely studied to better understand its behavior in order to find new aspects in making it a better competitor for the cement concrete that is high energy-demanding in terms of gray energy. Some researches were performed on the raw earth material to enhance its characteristics as strength and ductility for their importance and their wide use for various materials. Yet, many other mechanical properties can be used to study the mechanical behavior of raw earth materials such as Young’smodulus and toughness. Studies concerning the toughness of material were rarely conducted previously except for metals despite its significant role associated to the energy absorbed by the material under loading before fracturing. The purpose of this paper is to restate different toughness definitions used in the literature and propose a new definition.

Keywords: silt-based material, raw earth concrete, stress-strain curve, energy, toughness

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377 Design of Sustainable Concrete Pavement by Incorporating RAP Aggregates

Authors: Selvam. M, Vadthya Poornachandar, Surender Singh


These Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) aggregates are generally dumped in the open area after the demolition of Asphalt Pavements. The utilization of RAP aggregates in cement concrete pavements may provide several socio-economic-environmental benefits and could embrace the circular economy. The cross recycling of RAP aggregates in the concrete pavement could reduce the consumption of virgin aggregates and saves the fertile land. However, the structural, as well as functional properties of RAP-concrete could be significantly lower than the conventional Pavement Quality Control (PQC) pavements. This warrants judicious selection of RAP fraction (coarse and fine aggregates) along with the accurate proportion of the same for PQC highways. Also, the selection of the RAP fraction and its proportion shall not be solely based on the mechanical properties of RAP-concrete specimens but also governed by the structural and functional behavior of the pavement system. In this study, an effort has been made to predict the optimum RAP fraction and its corresponding proportion for cement concrete pavements by considering the low-volume and high-volume roads. Initially, the effect of inclusions of RAP on the fresh and mechanical properties of concrete pavement mixes is mapped through an extensive literature survey. Almost all the studies available to date are considered for this study. Generally, Indian Roads Congress (IRC) methods are the most widely used design method in India for the analysis of concrete pavements, and the same has been considered for this study. Subsequently, fatigue damage analysis is performed to evaluate the required safe thickness of pavement slab for different fractions of RAP (coarse RAP). Consequently, the performance of RAP-concrete is predicted by employing the AASHTO-1993 model for the following distresses conditions: faulting, cracking, and smoothness. The performance prediction and total cost analysis of RAP aggregates depict that the optimum proportions of coarse RAP aggregates in the PQC mix are 35% and 50% for high volume and low volume roads, respectively.

Keywords: concrete pavement, RAP aggregate, performance prediction, pavement design

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376 Sustainable Engineering: Synergy of BIM and Environmental Assessment Tools in Hong Kong Construction Industry

Authors: Kwok Tak Kit


The construction industry plays an important role in environmental and carbon emissions as it consumes a huge amount of natural resources and energy. Sustainable engineering involves the process of planning, design, procurement, construction and delivery in which the whole building and construction process resulting from building and construction can be effectively and sustainability managed to achieve the use of natural resources. Implementation of sustainable technology development and innovation, adoption of the advanced construction process and facilitate the facilities management to implement the energy and waste control more accurately and effectively. Study and research in the relationship of BIM and environment assessment tools lack a clear discussion. In this paper, we will focus on the synergy of BIM technology and sustainable engineering in the AEC industry and outline the key factors which enhance the use of advanced innovation, technology and method and define the role of stakeholders to achieve zero-carbon emission toward the Paris Agreement to limit global warming to well below 2ᵒC above pre-industrial levels. A case study of the adoption of Building Information Modeling (BIM) and environmental assessment tools in Hong Kong will be discussed in this paper.

Keywords: sustainability, sustainable engineering, BIM, LEED

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375 Experimental Investigation of Cementitious Materials in Low Strength Range for Sustainability and Affordability

Authors: Mulubrhan Berihu, Supratic Gupta, Adisu Demmewoz


Due to the design versatility, availability, and cost-efficiency, concrete is continuing to be the most used construction material on earth. However, the production of Portland cement, the primary component of concrete mix, is causing to have a serious effect on environmental and economic impacts. This shows there is a need to study using of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs). The most commonly used supplementary cementitious materials are wastes and the use of these industrial waste products has technical, economic and environmental benefits besides the reduction of CO2 emission from cement production. This paper aims to document the effect on the strength property of concrete due to the use of low cement by maximizing supplementary cementitious materials like fly ash. The amount of cement content was below 250 kg/m3 and in all the mixes, the quantity powder (cement + fly ash) is almost kept at about 500 kg. According to this seven different cement content (250 kg/m3, 195 kg/m3, 150 kg/m3, 125 kg/m3, 100 kg/m3, 85 kg/m3, 70 kg/m3) with different amount of replacement of SCMs was conducted. The mix proportion was prepared by keeping the water content constant and varying the cement content, SCMs and water to binder ratio. Based on the different mix proportions of pozzolana (Fly ash), a range of mix designs was formulated. The test results showed that using up to 85 kg/m3 of cement is possible for plain concrete works like hollow block concrete to achieve 9.8 Mpa and the experimental results indicate that strength is a function of w/b.

Keywords: efficiency factor, cement content, compressive strength, mix proportion, w/c ratio, water permeability, SCMs

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374 Supplemental VisCo-friction Damping for Dynamical Structural Systems

Authors: Sharad Singh, Ajay Kumar Sinha


Coupled dampers like viscoelastic-frictional dampers for supplemental damping are a newer technique. In this paper, innovative Visco-frictional damping models have been presented and investigated. This paper attempts to couple frictional and fluid viscous dampers into a single unit of supplemental dampers. Visco-frictional damping model is developed by series and parallel coupling of frictional and fluid viscous dampers using Maxwell and Kelvin-Voigat models. The time analysis has been performed using numerical simulation on an SDOF system with varying fundamental periods, subject to a set of 12 ground motions. The simulation was performed using the direct time integration method. MATLAB programming tool was used to carry out the numerical simulation. The response behavior has been analyzed for the varying time period and added damping. This paper compares the response reduction behavior of the two modes of coupling. This paper highlights the performance efficiency of the suggested damping models. It also presents a mathematical modeling approach to visco-frictional dampers and simultaneously suggests the suitable mode of coupling between the two sub-units.

Keywords: hysteretic damping, Kelvin model, Maxwell model, parallel coupling, series coupling, viscous damping

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373 Comparative Life Cycle Analysis of Selected Modular Timber Construction and Assembly Typologies

Authors: Benjamin Goldsmith, Felix Heisel


The building industry must reduce its emissions in order to meet 2030 neutrality targets, and modular and/or offsite construction is seen as an alternative to conventional construction methods which could help achieve this goal. Modular construction has previously been shown to be less wasteful and has a lower global warming potential (GWP). While many studies have been conducted investigating the life cycle impacts of modular and conventional construction, few studies have compared different types of modular assembly and construction in order to determine which offer the greatest environmental benefits over their whole life cycle. This study seeks to investigate three different modular construction types -infill frame, core, and podium- in order to determine environmental impacts such as GWP as well as circularity indicators. The study will focus on the emissions of the production, construction, and end-of-life phases. The circularity of the various approaches will be taken into consideration in order to acknowledge the potential benefits of the ability to reuse and/or reclaim materials, products, and assemblies. The study will conduct hypothetical case studies for the three different modular construction types, and in doing so, control the parameters of location, climate, program, and client. By looking in-depth at the GWP of the beginning and end phases of various simulated modular buildings, it will be possible to make suggestions on which type of construction has the lowest global warming potential.

Keywords: modular construction, offsite construction, life cycle analysis, global warming potential, environmental impact, circular economy

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372 Risk Identification of Investment Feasibility in Indonesia’s Toll Road Infrastructure Investment

Authors: Christo Februanto Putra


This paper presents risk identification that affects investment feasibility on toll road infrastructure in Indonesia using qualitative methods survey based on the expert practitioner in investor, contractor, and state officials. The problems on infrastructure investment in Indonesia, especially on KPBU model contract, is many risk factors in the investment plan is not calculated in detail thoroughly. Risk factor is a value used to provide an overview of the risk level assessment of an event which is a function of the probability of the occurrence and the consequences of the risks that arise. As results of the survey which is to show which risk factors impacts directly to the investment feasibility and rank them by their impacts on the investment.

Keywords: risk identification, indonesia toll road, investment feasibility

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371 Carbon Sequestering and Structural Capabilities of Eucalyptus Cloeziana

Authors: Holly Sandberg, Christina McCoy, Khaled Mansy


Eucalyptus Cloeziana, commonly known as Gympie Messmate, is a fast-growing hardwood native to Australia. Its quick growth makes it advantageous for carbon sequestering, while its strength class lends itself to structural applications. Market research shows that the demand for timber is growing, especially mass timber. An environmental product declaration, or EPD, for eucalyptus Cloeziana in the Australian market has been evaluated and compared to the EPD’s of steel and Douglas fir of the same region. An EPD follows a product throughout its life cycle, stating values for global warming potential, ozone depletion potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential, photochemical ozone creation potential, and abiotic depletion potential. This paper highlights the market potential, as well as the environmental benefits and challenges to using Gympie Messmate as a structural building material. In addition, a case study is performed to compare steel, Douglas fir, and eucalyptus in terms of embodied carbon and structural weight within a single structural bay. Comparisons among the three materials highlight both the differences in structural capabilities as well as environmental impact.

Keywords: eucalyptus, timber, construction, structural, material

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370 A New Macro Model for Steel-Concrete Shear Walls using CSI PERFORM-3D

Authors: Nakisa Haghi, Siamak Epackachi


Although there exist, several macro models to simulate the global response of steel plate and reinforced concrete shear walls, no robust macro model has been developed yet for the simulation of the cyclic inelastic response of steel-concrete (SC) composite shear walls. Herein, a novel macro model is proposed for steel-concrete shear walls in order to expand the application of such systems to the building industry and infrastructures. The proposed model is implemented in the CSI PERFORM-3D program to simulate the nonlinear seismic response of the SC shear walls. The proposed model is validated using available test data of SC wall specimens consisting of various geometries. This new model is proven to appropriately predict the global response of SC shear walls.

Keywords: composite shear walls, PERFORM-3D, macro model, cyclic response

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369 Holistic Approach to Assess the Potential of Using Traditional and Advance Insulation Materials for Energy Retrofit of Office Buildings

Authors: Marco Picco, Mahmood Alam


Improving the energy performance of existing buildings can be challenging, particularly when facades cannot be modified, and the only available option is internal insulation. In such cases, the choice of the most suitable material becomes increasingly complex, as in addition to thermal transmittance and capital cost, the designer needs to account for the impact of the intervention on the internal spaces, and in particular the loss of usable space due to the additional layers of materials installed. This paper explores this issue by analysing a case study of an average office building needing to go through a refurbishment in order to reach the limits imposed by current regulations to achieve energy efficiency in buildings. The building is simulated through dynamic performance simulation under three different climate conditions in order to evaluate its energy needs. The use of Vacuum Insulated Panels as an option for energy refurbishment is compared to traditional insulation materials (XPS, Mineral Wool). For each scenario, energy consumptions are calculated and, in combination with their expected capital costs, used to perform a financial feasibility analysis. A holistic approach is proposed, taking into account the impact of the intervention on internal space by quantifying the value of the lost usable space and used in the financial feasibility analysis. The proposed approach highlights how taking into account different drivers will lead to the choice of different insulation materials, showing how accounting for the economic value of space can make VIPs an attractive solution for energy retrofitting under various climate conditions.

Keywords: vacuum insulated panels, building performance simulation, payback period, building energy retrofit

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368 Experimental Study of Infill Walls with Joint Reinforcement Subjected to In-Plane Lateral Load

Authors: J. Martin Leal-Graciano, Juan J. Pérez-Gavilán, A. Reyes-Salazar, J. H. Castorena, J. L. Rivera-Salas


The experimental results about the global behavior of twelve 1:2 scaled reinforced concrete frames subject to in-plane lateral load are presented. The main objective was to generate experimental evidence about the use of steel bars within mortar bed joints as shear reinforcement in infill walls. Similar to the Canadian and New Zealand standards, the Mexican code includes specifications for this type of reinforcement. However, these specifications were obtained through experimental studies of load-bearing walls, mainly confined walls. Little information is found in the existing literature about the effects of joint reinforcement on the seismic behavior of infill masonry walls. Consequently, the Mexican code establishes the same equations to estimate the contribution of joint reinforcement for both confined walls and infill walls. Confined masonry construction and a reinforced concrete frame infilled with masonry walls have similar appearances. However, substantial differences exist between these two construction systems, which are mainly related to the sequence of construction and to how these structures support vertical and lateral loads. To achieve the objective established, ten reinforced concrete frames with masonry infill walls were built and tested in pairs, having both specimens in the pair identical characteristics except that one of them included joint reinforcement. The variables between pairs were the type of units, the size of the columns of the frame, and the aspect ratio of the wall. All cases included tie columns and tie beams on the perimeter of the wall to anchor the joint reinforcement. Also, two bare frames with identical characteristics to the infilled frames were tested. The purpose was to investigate the effects of the infill wall on the behavior of the system to in-plane lateral load. In addition, the experimental results were compared with the prediction of the Mexican code. All the specimens were tested in a cantilever under reversible cyclic lateral load. To simulate gravity load, constant vertical load was applied on the top of the columns. The results indicate that the contribution of the joint reinforcement to lateral strength depends on the size of the columns of the frame. Larger size columns produce a failure mode that is predominantly a sliding mode. Sliding inhibits the production of new inclined cracks, which are necessary to activate (deform) the joint reinforcement. Regarding the effects of joint reinforcement in the performance of confined masonry walls, many facts were confirmed for infill walls. This type of reinforcement increases the lateral strength of the wall, produces a more distributed cracking, and reduces the width of the cracks. Moreover, it reduces the ductility demand of the system at maximum strength. The prediction of the lateral strength provided by the Mexican code is a property in some cases; however, the effect of the size of the columns on the contribution of joint reinforcement needs to be better understood.

Keywords: experimental study, infill wall, infilled frame, masonry wall

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367 Public-Private Partnership Transportation Projects: An Exploratory Study in the US

Authors: Medya Fathi


When public transportation projects were delivered through design-bid-build and later design-build, governments found a serious issue: inadequate funding. With population growth, governments began to develop new arrangements in which the private sectors were involved to cut the financial burden. This arrangement, known as Public-Private Partnership (PPP), has its own risks; however, performance outputs can motivate or discourage its use. On top of such output's list are time and budget, which can be affected by the type of project delivery methods. Project completion within or ahead of schedule as well as within or under budget is among any owner’s objectives. With a higher application of PPP in the highway industry in the US and insufficient PPP research, the current study addresses the schedule and cost performance of PPP highway projects and determines which one outperforms the other. To meet this objective, after collecting performance data of all PPP projects, schedule growth and cost growth are calculated, and finally, statistical analysis is conducted to evaluate the PPP performance. The results and conclusions will be provided. This study can assist practitioners in applying PPP for transportation projects by showing its ability to save time and/or cost.

Keywords: cost, delivery method, highway, public-private partnership, schedule, transportation

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366 Legal Issues of Implementing Public Projects through Civic Crowdfunding

Authors: Mahdieh Dehghan Nayeri, Hani Arbabi, Seid Pooyan Ghafoori


Civic crowdfunding- crowdfunding public projects- which goes beyond people management- as a significant part of public projects stakeholders- and requires the active engagement of the public in both the financing and decision-making processes of public projects, is expanding. However, in most countries of the world, no specific legal framework has been approved for governing and managing the implementation of projects through this method. Through a systematic literature review, following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews (PRISMA), this article has studied and discussed the legal issues of civic crowdfunded projects in the countries leading the use of this method, in four themes; one related to the legal environment and three related to three leading players in civic crowdfunded projects include the investor, the platform, and the investee. The review showed that despite the increasing attention to people's engagement in public projects -financial and non-financial- not much scientific research has been done to formulate fully structured legal structures. Finally, neglected areas in research have been discussed as a guide for future research.

Keywords: civic crowdfunding, equity crowdfunding, public projects, legal issues, crowdsourcing

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365 Fuel Cells Not Only for Cars: Technological Development in Railways

Authors: Marita Pigłowska, Beata Kurc, Paweł Daszkiewicz


Railway vehicles are divided into two groups: traction (powered) vehicles and wagons. The traction vehicles include locomotives (line and shunting), railcars (sometimes referred to as railbuses), and multiple units (electric and diesel), consisting of several or a dozen carriages. In vehicles with diesel traction, fuel energy (petrol, diesel, or compressed gas) is converted into mechanical energy directly in the internal combustion engine or via electricity. In the latter case, the combustion engine generator produces electricity that is then used to drive the vehicle (diesel-electric drive or electric transmission). In Poland, such a solution dominates both in heavy linear and shunting locomotives. The classic diesel drive is available for the lightest shunting locomotives, railcars, and passenger diesel multiple units. Vehicles with electric traction do not have their own source of energy -they use pantographs to obtain electricity from the traction network. To determine the competitiveness of the hydrogen propulsion system, it is essential to understand how it works. The basic elements of the construction of a railway vehicle drive system that uses hydrogen as a source of traction force are fuel cells, batteries, fuel tanks, traction motors as well as main and auxiliary converters. The compressed hydrogen is stored in tanks usually located on the roof of the vehicle. This resource is supplemented with the use of specialized infrastructure while the vehicle is stationary. Hydrogen is supplied to the fuel cell, where it oxidizes. The effect of this chemical reaction is electricity and water (in two forms -liquid and water vapor). Electricity is stored in batteries (so far, lithium-ion batteries are used). Electricity stored in this way is used to drive traction motors and supply onboard equipment. The current generated by the fuel cell passes through the main converter, whose task is to adjust it to the values required by the consumers, i.e., batteries and the traction motor. The work will attempt to construct a fuel cell with unique electrodes. This research is a trend that connects industry with science. The first goal will be to obtain hydrogen on a large scale in tube furnaces, to thoroughly analyze the obtained structures (IR), and to apply the method in fuel cells. The second goal is to create low-energy energy storage and distribution station for hydrogen and electric vehicles. The scope of the research includes obtaining a carbon variety and obtaining oxide systems on a large scale using a tubular furnace and then supplying vehicles. Acknowledgments: This work is supported by the Polish Ministry of Science and Education, project "The best of the best! 4.0", number 0911/MNSW/4968 – M.P. and grant 0911/SBAD/2102—B.K.

Keywords: railway, hydrogen, fuel cells, hybrid vehicles

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364 Structural Behavior of Composite Hollow RC Column under Combined Loads

Authors: Abdul Qader Melhm, Hussein Elrafidi


This paper is dealing with studying the structural behavior of a steel-composite hollow reinforced concrete (RC) column model under combined eccentric loading. The composite model consists of an inner steel tube surrounded via a concrete core with longitudinal and circular transverse reinforcement. The radius of gyration according to American and Euro specifications be calculated, in order to calculate the thinnest ratio for this type of composite column model, in addition to the flexural rigidity. Formulas for interaction diagram is given for this type of model, which is a general loading conditions in which an element is exposed to an axial load with bending at the same time. The structural capacity of this model, elastic, plastic loads and strains will be computed and compared with experimental results. The total eccentric axial load of the column model is calculated based on the effective length KL available from several relationships provided in the paper. Furthermore, the inner tube experiences buckling failure after reaching its maximum strength will be investigated.

Keywords: column, composite, eccentric, inner tube, interaction, reinforcement

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363 Lateral Torsional Buckling: Tests on Glued Laminated Timber Beams

Authors: Vera Wilden, Benno Hoffmeister, Markus Feldmann


Glued laminated timber (glulam) is a preferred choice for long span girders, e.g., for gyms or storage halls. While the material provides sufficient strength to resist the bending moments, large spans lead to increased slenderness of such members and to a higher susceptibility to stability issues, in particular to lateral torsional buckling (LTB). Rules for the determination of the ultimate LTB resistance are provided by Eurocode 5. The verifications of the resistance may be performed using the so called equivalent member method or by means of theory 2nd order calculations (direct method), considering equivalent imperfections. Both methods have significant limitations concerning their applicability; the equivalent member method is limited to rather simple cases; the direct method is missing detailed provisions regarding imperfections and requirements for numerical modeling. In this paper, the results of a test series on slender glulam beams in three- and four-point bending are presented. The tests were performed in an innovative, newly developed testing rig, allowing for a very precise definition of loading and boundary conditions. The load was introduced by a hydraulic jack, which follows the lateral deformation of the beam by means of a servo-controller, coupled with the tested member and keeping the load direction vertically. The deformation-controlled tests allowed for the identification of the ultimate limit state (governed by elastic stability) and the corresponding deformations. Prior to the tests, the structural and geometrical imperfections were determined and used later in the numerical models. After the stability tests, the nearly undamaged members were tested again in pure bending until reaching the ultimate moment resistance of the cross-section. These results, accompanied by numerical studies, were compared to resistance values obtained using both methods according to Eurocode 5.

Keywords: experimental tests, glued laminated timber, lateral torsional buckling, numerical simulation

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362 Towards Optimising Building Information Modelling and Building Management System in Higher Education Institutions Facility Management: A Review

Authors: Zhuoqun Sun, Francisco Sierra, A. Booth


With BIM rapidly implemented in the design and construction stage of a project, researchers begin to focus on improving the operation and maintenance stage with the aid of BIM. Since the increasing amount of electronic equipment installed in the building, building management system becomes mainstream for controlling a building, especially in higher education institutions that can play an important role in terms of reducing carbon emission and improving energy efficiency. Currently, an approach to integrate BIM and BMS to improve HEIs facility management has not been established yet. Thus, this paper aims to analyse the benefits, issues, and trends of BIM and BMS integration and their application in HEIs. A systematic literature review was carried out on SCOPUS by applying the PRISMA methodology. 73 articles have been chosen based on keywords, abstracts, and the full content of the articles. The benefit and existed issues from the articles are analysed. The review shows the need to develop a tool to improve facility management through BIM BMS integration.

Keywords: BIM, BMS, HEIs, review

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361 A Comparative Analysis of Green Buildings Rating Systems

Authors: Shadi Motamedighazvini, Roohollah Taherkhani, Mahdi Mahdikhani, Najme Hashempour


Nowadays, green building rating systems are an inevitable necessity for managing environmental considerations to achieve green buildings. The aim of this paper is to deliver a detailed recognition of what has been the focus of green building policymakers around the world; It is important to conduct this study in a way that can provide a context for researchers who intend to establish or upgrade existing rating systems. In this paper, fifteen rating systems including four worldwide well-known plus eleven local rating systems which have been selected based on the answers to the questionnaires were examined. Their similarities and differences in mandatory and prerequisite clauses, highest and lowest scores for each criterion, the most frequent criteria, and most frequent sub-criteria are determined. The research findings indicated that although the criteria of energy, water, indoor quality (except Homestar), site and materials (except GRIHA) were common core criteria for all rating systems, their sub-criteria were different. This research, as a roadmap, eliminates the lack of a comprehensive reference that encompasses the key criteria of different rating systems. It shows the local systems need to be revised to be more comprehensive and adaptable to their own country’s conditions such as climate.

Keywords: environmental assessment, green buildings, green building criteria, green building rating systems, sustainability, rating tools

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360 Virtual Reality and Other Real-Time Visualization Technologies for Architecture Energy Certifications

Authors: Román Rodríguez Echegoyen, Fernando Carlos López Hernández, José Manuel López Ujaque


Interactive management of energy certification ratings has remained on the sidelines of the evolution of virtual reality (VR) despite related advances in architecture in other areas such as BIM and real-time working programs. This research studies to what extent VR software can help the stakeholders to better understand energy efficiency parameters in order to obtain reliable ratings assigned to the parts of the building. To evaluate this hypothesis, the methodology has included the construction of a software prototype. Current energy certification systems do not follow an intuitive data entry system; neither do they provide a simple or visual verification of the technical values included in the certification by manufacturers or other users. This software, by means of real-time visualization and a graphical user interface, proposes different improvements to the current energy certification systems that ease the understanding of how the certification parameters work in a building. Furthermore, the difficulty of using current interfaces, which are not friendly or intuitive for the user, means that untrained users usually get a poor idea of the grounds for certification and how the program works. In addition, the proposed software allows users to add further information, such as financial and CO₂ savings, energy efficiency, and an explanatory analysis of results for the least efficient areas of the building through a new visual mode. The software also helps the user to evaluate whether or not an investment to improve the materials of an installation is worth the cost of the different energy certification parameters. The evaluated prototype (named VEE-IS) shows promising results when it comes to representing in a more intuitive and simple manner the energy rating of the different elements of the building. Users can also personalize all the inputs necessary to create a correct certification, such as floor materials, walls, installations, or other important parameters. Working in real-time through VR allows for efficiently comparing, analyzing, and improving the rated elements, as well as the parameters that we must enter to calculate the final certification. The prototype also allows for visualizing the building in efficiency mode, which lets us move over the building to analyze thermal bridges or other energy efficiency data. This research also finds that the visual representation of energy efficiency certifications makes it easy for the stakeholders to examine improvements progressively, which adds value to the different phases of design and sale.

Keywords: energetic certification, virtual reality, augmented reality, sustainability

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359 Investigations on the Influence of Web Openings on the Load Bearing Behavior of Steel Beams

Authors: Felix Eyben, Simon Schaffrath, Markus Feldmann


A building should maximize the potential for use through its design. Therefore, flexible use is always important when designing a steel structure. To create flexibility, steel beams with web openings are increasingly used, because these offer the advantage that cables, pipes and other technical equipment can easily be routed through without detours, allowing for more space-saving and aesthetically pleasing construction. This can also significantly reduce the height of ceiling systems. Until now, beams with web openings were not explicitly considered in the European standard. However, this is to be done with the new EN 1993-1-13, in which design rules for different opening forms are defined. In order to further develop the design concepts, beams with web openings under bending are therefore to be investigated in terms of damage mechanics as part of a German national research project aiming to optimize the verifications for steel structures based on a wider database and a validated damage prediction. For this purpose, first, fundamental factors influencing the load-bearing behavior of girders with web openings under bending load were investigated numerically without taking material damage into account. Various parameter studies were carried out for this purpose. For example, the factors under study were the opening shape, size and position as well as structural aspects as the span length, arrangement of stiffeners and loading situation. The load-bearing behavior is evaluated using resulting load-deformation curves. These results are compared with the design rules and critically analyzed. Experimental tests are also planned based on these results. Moreover, the implementation of damage mechanics in the form of the modified Bai-Wierzbicki model was examined. After the experimental tests will have been carried out, the numerical models are validated and further influencing factors will be investigated on the basis of parametric studies.

Keywords: damage mechanics, finite element, steel structures, web openings

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358 High Performance Wood Shear Walls and Dissipative Anchors for Damage Limitation

Authors: Vera Wilden, Benno Hoffmeister, Georgios Balaskas, Lukas Rauber, Burkhard Walter


Light-weight timber frame elements represent an efficient structural solution for wooden multistory buildings. The wall elements of such buildings – which act as shear diaphragms- provide lateral stiffness and resistance to wind and seismic loads. The tendency towards multi-story structures leads to challenges regarding the prediction of stiffness, strength and ductility of the buildings. Lightweight timber frame elements are built up of several structural parts (sheeting, fasteners, frame, support and anchorages); each of them contributing to the dynamic response of the structure. This contribution describes the experimental and numerical investigation and development of enhanced lightweight timber frame buildings. These developments comprise high-performance timber frame walls with the variable arrangements of sheathing planes and dissipative anchors at the base of the timber buildings, which reduce damages to the timber structure and can be exchanged after significant earthquakes. In order to prove the performance of the developed elements in the context of a real building a full-scale two-story building core was designed and erected in the laboratory and tested experimentally for its seismic performance. The results of the tests and a comparison of the test results to the predicted behavior are presented. Observation during the test also reveals some aspects of the design and details which need to consider in the application of the timber walls in the context of the complete building.

Keywords: dissipative anchoring, full scale test, push-over-test, wood shear walls

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