Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 522

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Structural and Construction Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

522 Biochar Affects Compressive Strength of Portland Cement Composites: A Meta-Analysis

Authors: Zhihao Zhao, Ali El-Nagger, Johnson Kau, Chris Olson, Douglas Tomlinson, Scott X. Chang


One strategy to reduce CO₂ emissions from cement production is to reduce the amount of Portland cement produced by replacing it with supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs). Biochar is a potential SCM that is an eco-friendly and stable porous pyrolytic material. However, the effects of biochar addition on the performances of Portland cement composites are not fully understood. This meta-analysis investigated the impact of biochar addition on the 7- and 28-day compressive strength of Portland cement composites based on 606 paired observations. Biochar feedstock type, pyrolysis conditions, pre-treatments and modifications, biochar dosage, and curing type all influenced the compressive strength of Portland cement composites. Biochars obtained from plant-based feedstocks (except rice and hardwood) improved the 28-day compressive strength of Portland cement composites by 3-13%. Biochars produced at pyrolysis temperatures higher than 450 °C, with a heating rate of around 10 °C/min, increased the 28-day compressive strength more effectively. Furthermore, the addition of biochars with small particle sizes increased the compressive strength of Portland cement composites by 2-7% compared to those without biochar addition. Biochar dosage of < 2.5% of the binder weight enhanced both compressive strengths and common curing methods maintained the effect of biochar addition. However, when mixing the cement, adding fine and coarse aggregates such as sand and gravel affects the concrete and mortar's compressive strength, diminishing the effect of biochar addition and making the biochar effect nonsignificant. We conclude that appropriate biochar addition could maintain or enhance the mechanical performance of Portland cement composites, and future research should explore the mechanisms of biochar effects on the performance of cement composites.

Keywords: biochar, Portland cement, constructure, compressive strength, meta-analysis

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521 Behavior of Composite Reinforced Concrete Circular Columns with Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer I-Section

Authors: Hiba S. Ahmed, Abbas A. Allawi, Riyadh A. Hindi


Pultruded materials made of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) come in a broad range of shapes, such as bars, I-sections, C-sections, and other structural sections. These FRP materials are starting to compete with steel as structural materials because of their great resistance, low self-weight, and cheap maintenance costs-especially in corrosive conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) of the hybrid columns built by combining (GFRP) profiles with concrete columns because of their low cost and high structural efficiency. To achieve the aims of this study, nine circular columns with a diameter of (150 mm) and a height of (1000mm) were cast using normal concrete with compression strength equal to (35 MPa). The research involved three different types of reinforcement: hybrid circular columns type (IG) with GFRP I-section and 1% of the reinforcement ratio of steel bars, hybrid circular columns type (IS) with steel I-section and 1% of the reinforcement ratio of steel bars, (where the cross-section area of I-section for GFRP and steel was the same), compared with reference column (R) without I-section. To investigate the ultimate capacity, axial and lateral deformation, strain in longitudinal and transverse reinforcement, and failure mode of the circular column under different loading conditions (concentric and eccentric) with eccentricities of 25 mm and 50 mm, respectively. In the second part, an analytical finite element model will be performed using ABAQUS software to validate the experimental results.

Keywords: composite, columns, reinforced concrete, GFRP, axial load

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520 Detect Cable Force of Cable Stayed Bridge from Accelerometer Data of SHM as Real Time

Authors: Nguyen Lan, Le Tan Kien, Nguyen Pham Gia Bao


The cable-stayed bridge belongs to the combined system, in which the cables is a major strutual element. Cable-stayed bridges with large spans are often arranged with structural health monitoring systems to collect data for bridge health diagnosis. Cables tension monitoring is a structural monitoring content. It is common to measure cable tension by a direct force sensor or cable vibration accelerometer sensor, thereby inferring the indirect cable tension through the cable vibration frequency. To translate cable-stayed vibration acceleration data to real-time tension requires some necessary calculations and programming. This paper introduces the algorithm, labview program that converts cable-stayed vibration acceleration data to real-time tension. The research results are applied to the monitoring system of Tran Thi Ly cable-stayed bridge and Song Hieu cable-stayed bridge in Vietnam.

Keywords: cable-stayed bridge, cable fore, structural heath monitoring (SHM), fast fourie transformed (FFT), real time, vibrations

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519 An Assessment of Existing Material Management Process in Building Construction Projects in Nepal

Authors: Uttam Neupane, Narendra Budha, Subash Kumar Bhattarai


Material management is an essential part in construction project management. There are a number of material management problems in the Nepalese construction industry, which contribute to an inefficient material management system. Ineffective material management can cause waste of time and money thus increasing the problem of time and cost overrun. An assessment of material management system with gap and solution was carried out on 20 construction projects implemented by the Federal Level Project Implementation Unit (FPIU); Kaski district of Nepal. To improve the material management process, the respondents have provided possible solutions to overcome the gaps seen in the current material management process. The possible solutions are preparation of material schedule in line with the construction schedule for material requirement planning, verifications of material and locating of source, purchasing of the required material in advance before commencement of work, classifying the materials, and managing the inventory based on their usage value and eliminating and reduction in wastages during the overall material management process.

Keywords: material management, construction site, inventory, construction project

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518 Prediction of the Behavior of 304L Stainless Steel under Uniaxial and Biaxial Cyclic Loading

Authors: Aboussalih Amira, Zarza Tahar, Fedaoui Kamel, Hammoudi Saleh


This work focuses on the simulation of the prediction of the behaviour of austenitic stainless steel (SS) 304L under complex loading in stress and imposed strain. The Chaboche model is a cable to describe the response of the material by the combination of two isotropic and nonlinear kinematic work hardening, the model is implemented in the ZébuLon computer code. First, we represent the evolution of the axial stress as a function of the plastic strain through hysteresis loops revealing a hardening behaviour caused by the increase in stress by stress in the direction of tension/compression. In a second step, the study of the ratcheting phenomenon takes a key place in this work by the appearance of the average stress. In addition to the solicitation of the material in the biaxial direction in traction / torsion.

Keywords: damage, 304L, Ratcheting, plastic strain

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517 Analysis of High-Velocity Impacts on Concrete

Authors: Conceição, J. F. M., Rebelo H., Corneliu C., Pereira L.


This research analyses the response of two distinct types of concrete blocks, each possessing an approximate unconfined compressive strength of 30MPa, when exposed to high-velocity impacts produced by an Explosively Formed Penetrator (EFP) traveling at an initial velocity of 1200 m/s. Given the scarcity of studies exploring high-velocity impacts on concrete, the primary aim of this research is to scrutinize how concrete behaves under high-speed impacts, ultimately contributing valuable insights to the development of protective structures. To achieve this objective, a comprehensive numerical analysis was carried out in LS-DYNA to delve into the fracture mechanisms inherent in concrete under such extreme conditions. Subsequently, the obtained numerical outcomes were compared and validated through eight experimental field tests. The methodology employed involved a robust combination of numerical simulations and real-world experiments, ensuring a comprehensive understanding of concrete behavior in scenarios involving rapid, high-energy impacts.

Keywords: high-velocity, impact, numerical analysis, experimental tests, concrete

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516 The Use of Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) in Improving the Measurement System on the Example of Textile Heaps

Authors: Arkadiusz Zurek


The potential of using drones is visible in many areas of logistics, especially in terms of their use for monitoring and control of many processes. The technologies implemented in the last decade concern new possibilities for companies that until now have not even considered them, such as warehouse inventories. Unmanned aerial vehicles are no longer seen as a revolutionary tool for Industry 4.0, but rather as tools in the daily work of factories and logistics operators. The research problem is to develop a method for measuring the weight of goods in a selected link of the clothing supply chain by drones. However, the purpose of this article is to analyze the causes of errors in traditional measurements, and then to identify adverse events related to the use of drones for the inventory of a heap of textiles intended for production purposes. On this basis, it will be possible to develop guidelines to eliminate the causes of these events in the measurement process using drones. In a real environment, work was carried out to determine the volume and weight of textiles, including, among others, weighing a textile sample to determine the average density of the assortment, establishing a local geodetic network, terrestrial laser scanning and photogrammetric raid using an unmanned aerial vehicle. As a result of the analysis of measurement data obtained in the facility, the volume and weight of the assortment and the accuracy of their determination were determined. In this article, this work presents how such heaps are currently being tested, what adverse events occur, indicate and describes the current use of photogrammetric techniques of this type of measurements so far performed by external drones for the inventory of wind farms or construction of the station and compare them with the measurement system of the aforementioned textile heap inside a large-format facility.

Keywords: drones, unmanned aerial system, UAS, indoor system, security, process automation, cost optimization, photogrammetry, risk elimination, industry 4.0

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515 Analysis of the Behavior of the Structure Under Internal Anfo Explosion

Authors: Seung-Min Ko, Seung-Jai Choi, Gun Jung, Jang-Ho Jay Kim


Although extensive explosion-related research has been performed in the past several decades, almost no research has focused on internal blasts. However, internal blast research is needed to understand about the behavior of a containment structure or building under internal blast loading, as in the case of the Chornobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents. Therefore, the internal blast study concentrated on RC and PSC structures is performed. The test data obtained from reinforced concrete (RC) and prestressed concrete (PSC) tubular structures applied with an internal explosion using ammonium nitrate/fuel oil (ANFO) charge are used to assess their deformation resistance and ultimate failure load based on the structural stiffness change under various charge weight. For the internal blast charge weight, ANFO explosive charge weights of 15.88, 20.41, 22.68 and 24.95 kg were selected for the RC tubular structures, and 22.68, 24.95, 27.22, 29.48, and 31.75 kg were selected for PSC tubular structures, which were detonated at the center of cross section at the mid-span with a standoff distance of 1,000mm to the inner wall surface. Then, the test data were used to predict the internal charge weight required to fail a real scale reinforced concrete containment vessels (RCCV) and prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV). Then, the analytical results based on the experimental data were derived using the simple assumptions of the models, and another approach using the stiffness, deformation and explosion weight relationship was used to formulate a general method for analyzing internal blasted tubular structures. A model of the internal explosion of a steel tube was used as an example for validation. The proposed method can be used generically, using factors according to the material characteristics of the target structures. The results of the study are discussed in detail in the paper.

Keywords: internal blast, reinforced concrete, RCCV, PCCV, stiffness, blast safety

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514 Fiber Based Pushover Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Frame

Authors: Shewangizaw Tesfaye Wolde


The current engineering community has developed a method called performance based seismic design in which we design structures based on predefined performance levels set by the parties. Since we design our structures economically for the maximum actions expected in the life of structures they go beyond their elastic limit, in need of nonlinear analysis. In this paper conventional pushover analysis (nonlinear static analysis) is used for the performance assessment of the case study Reinforced Concrete (RC) Frame building located in Addis Ababa City, Ethiopia where proposed peak ground acceleration value by RADIUS 1999 project and others is more than twice as of EBCS-8:1995 (RADIUS 1999 project) by taking critical planar frame. Fiber beam-column model is used to control material nonlinearity with tension stiffening effect. The reliability of the fiber model and validation of software outputs are checked under verification chapter. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to propose a way for structural performance assessment of existing reinforced concrete frame buildings as well as design check.

Keywords: seismic, performance, fiber model, tension stiffening, reinforced concrete

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513 2D Nanomaterials-Based Geopolymer as-Self-Sensing Buildings in Construction Industry

Authors: Maryam Kiani


The self-sensing capability opens up new possibilities for structural health monitoring, offering real-time information on the condition and performance of constructions. The synthesis and characterization of these functional 2D material geopolymers will be explored in this study. Various fabrication techniques, including mixing, dispersion, and coating methods, will be employed to ensure uniform distribution and integration of the 2D materials within the geopolymers. The resulting composite materials will be evaluated for their mechanical strength, electrical conductivity, and sensing capabilities through rigorous testing and analysis. The potential applications of these self-sensing geopolymers are vast. They can be used in infrastructure projects, such as bridges, tunnels, and buildings, to provide continuous monitoring and early detection of structural damage or degradation. This proactive approach to maintenance and safety can significantly improve the lifespan and efficiency of constructions, ultimately reducing maintenance costs and enhancing overall sustainability. In conclusion, the development of functional 2D material geopolymers as self-sensing materials presents an exciting advancement in the construction industry. By integrating these innovative materials into structures, we can create a new generation of intelligent, self-monitoring constructions that can adapt and respond to their environment.

Keywords: 2D materials, geopolymers, electrical properties, self-sensing

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512 Exploring Hydrogen Embrittlement and Fatigue Crack Growth in API 5L X52 Steel Pipeline Under Cyclic Internal Pressure

Authors: Omar Bouledroua, Djamel Zelmati, Zahreddine Hafsi, Milos B. Djukic


Transporting hydrogen gas through the existing natural gas pipeline network offers an efficient solution for energy storage and conveyance. Hydrogen generated from excess renewable electricity can be conveyed through the API 5L steel-made pipelines that already exist. In recent years, there has been a growing demand for the transportation of hydrogen through existing gas pipelines. Therefore, numerical and experimental tests are required to verify and ensure the mechanical integrity of the API 5L steel pipelines that will be used for pressurized hydrogen transportation. Internal pressure loading is likely to accelerate hydrogen diffusion through the internal pipe wall and consequently accentuate the hydrogen embrittlement of steel pipelines. Furthermore, pre-cracked pipelines are susceptible to quick failure, mainly under a time-dependent cyclic pressure loading that drives fatigue crack propagation. Meanwhile, after several loading cycles, the initial cracks will propagate to a critical size. At this point, the remaining service life of the pipeline can be estimated, and inspection intervals can be determined. This paper focuses on the hydrogen embrittlement of API 5L steel-made pipeline under cyclic pressure loading. Pressurized hydrogen gas is transported through a network of pipelines where demands at consumption nodes vary periodically. The resulting pressure profile over time is considered a cyclic loading on the internal wall of a pre-cracked pipeline made of API 5L steel-grade material. Numerical modeling has allowed the prediction of fatigue crack evolution and estimation of the remaining service life of the pipeline. The developed methodology in this paper is based on the ASME B31.12 standard, which outlines the guidelines for hydrogen pipelines.

Keywords: hydrogen embrittlement, pipelines, transient flow, cyclic pressure, fatigue crack growth

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511 Modern Technology for Strengthening Concrete Structures Makes Them Resistant to Earthquakes

Authors: Mohsen Abdelrazek Khorshid Ali Selim


Disadvantages and errors of current concrete reinforcement methodsL: Current concrete reinforcement methods are adopted in most parts of the world in their various doctrines and names. They adopt the so-called concrete slab system, where these slabs are semi-independent and isolated from each other and from the surrounding environment of concrete columns or beams, so that the reinforcing steel does not cross from one slab to another or from one slab to adjacent columns. It or the beams surrounding it and vice versa are only a few centimeters and no more. The same applies exactly to the concrete columns that support the building, where the reinforcing steel does not extend from the slabs or beams to the inside of the columns or vice versa except for a few centimeters and no more, just as the reinforcing steel does not extend from inside the column at the top. The ceiling is only a few centimetres, and the same thing is literally repeated in the concrete beams that connect the columns and separate the slabs, where the reinforcing steel does not cross from one beam to another or from one beam to the slabs or columns adjacent to it and vice versa, except for a few centimeters, which makes the basic building elements of columns, slabs and beams They all work in isolation from each other and from the environment surrounding them from all sides. This traditional method of reinforcement may be valid and lasting in geographical areas that are not exposed to earthquakes and earthquakes, where all the loads and tensile forces in the building are constantly directed vertically downward due to gravity and are borne directly by the vertical reinforcement of the building. However, in the case of earthquakes and earthquakes, the loads and tensile forces in the building shift from the vertical direction to the horizontal direction at an angle of inclination that depends on the strength of the earthquake, and most of them are borne by the horizontal reinforcement extending between the basic elements of the building, such as columns, slabs and beams, and since the crossing of the reinforcement between each of the columns, slabs and beams between them And each other, and vice versa, does not exceed several centimeters. In any case, the tensile strength, cohesion and bonding between the various parts of the building are very weak, which causes the buildings to disintegrate and collapse in the horrific manner that we saw in the earthquake in Turkey and Syria in February 2023, which caused the collapse of tens of thousands of buildings in A few seconds later, it left more than 50,000 dead, hundreds of thousands injured, and millions displaced. Description of the new earthquake-resistant model: The idea of the new model in the reinforcement of concrete buildings and constructions is based on the theory that we have formulated as follows: [The tensile strength, cohesion and bonding between the basic parts of the concrete building (columns, beams and slabs) increases as the lengths of the reinforcing steel bars increase and they extend and branch and the different parts of the building share them with each other.] . In other words, the strength, solidity, and cohesion of concrete buildings increase and they become resistant to earthquakes as the lengths of the reinforcing steel bars increase, extend, branch, and share with the various parts of the building, such as columns, beams, and slabs. That is, the reinforcing skewers of the columns must extend in their lengths without cutting to cross from one floor to another until their end. Likewise, the reinforcing skewers of the beams must extend in their lengths without cutting to cross from one beam to another. The ends of these skewers must rest at the bottom of the columns adjacent to the beams. The same thing applies to the reinforcing skewers of the slabs where they must These skewers should be extended in their lengths without cutting to cross from one tile to another, and the ends of these skewers should rest either under the adjacent columns or inside the beams adjacent to the slabs as follows: First, reinforce the columns: The columns have the lion's share of the reinforcing steel in this model in terms of type and quantity, as the columns contain two types of reinforcing bars. The first type is large-diameter bars that emerge from the base of the building, which are the nerves of the column. These bars must extend over their normal length of 12 meters or more and extend to a height of three floors, if desired. In raising other floors, bars with the same diameter and the same length are added to the top after the second floor. The second type is bars with a smaller diameter, and they are the same ones that are used to reinforce beams and slabs, so that the bars that reinforce the beams and slabs facing each column are bent down inside this column and along the entire length of the column. This requires an order. Most engineers do not prefer it, which is to pour the entire columns and pour the roof at once, but we prefer this method because it enables us to extend the reinforcing bars of both the beams and slabs to the bottom of the columns so that the entire building becomes one concrete block that is cohesive and resistant to earthquakes. Secondly, arming the cameras: The beams' reinforcing skewers must also extend to a full length of 12 meters or more without cutting. The ends of the skewers are bent and dropped inside the column at the beginning of the beam to its bottom. Then the skewers are extended inside the beam so that their other end falls under the facing column at the end of the beam. The skewers may cross over the head of a column. Another passes through another adjacent beam and rests at the bottom of a third column, according to the lengths of each of the skewers and beams. Third, reinforcement of slabs: The slab reinforcing skewers must also extend their entire length, 12 meters or more, without cutting, distinguishing between two cases. The first case is the skewers opposite the columns, and their ends are dropped inside one of the columns. Then the skewers cross inside the adjacent slab and their other end falls below the opposite column. The skewers may cross over The head of the adjacent column passes through another adjacent slab and rests at the bottom of a third column, according to the dimensions of the slabs and the lengths of the skewers. The second case is the skewers opposite the beams, and their ends must be bent in the form of a square or rectangle according to the dimensions of the beam’s width and height, and this square or rectangle is dropped inside the beam at the beginning of the slab, and it serves as The skewers are for the beams, then the skewers are extended along the length of the slab, and at the end of the slab, the skewers are bent down to the bottom of the adjacent beam in the shape of the letter U, after which the skewers are extended inside the adjacent slab, and this is repeated in the same way inside the other adjacent beams until the end of the skewer, then it is bent downward in the form of a square or rectangle inside the beam, as happened. In its beginning.

Keywords: earthquake resistant buildings, earthquake resistant concrete constructions, new technology for reinforcement of concrete buildings, new technology in concrete reinforcement

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510 Structural Behaviour of Small-Scale Fibre-Filled Steel Tubular Planar Frames

Authors: Sadaf Karkoodi, Hassan Karampour


There is a growing interest in the construction industry towards hybrid systems. The hybrid systems use construction materials such as timber, steel, and concrete smartly, can be prefabricated, and are cost-effective and sustainable solutions to an industry targeting reduced carbon footprint. Moreover, in case of periodical shortage in timber resources, reusable and waste wood such as fibres can be used in the hybrid modules, which facilitates the circular economy. In this research, a hybrid frame is proposed and experimentally validated by introducing dried wood fibre products inside cold-formed steel square hollow sections without using any adhesives. As such, fibre-filled steel tubular (FFST) columns, beams, and 2D frames are manufactured and tested. The results show that the FFST columns have stiffness and strength 44% and 55% higher than cold-formed steel columns, respectively. The bearing strength of the FFST beams shows an increase of 39.5% compared to steel only. The flexural stiffness and strength of the FFST beams are 8.5% and 28% higher than the bare steel beams, respectively. The FFST frame depicted an 18.4% higher ultimate load capacity than the steel-only frame under a mid-point concentrated load. Moreover, the FFST beam-to-column bolted connection showed high ductile performance. The initial results and the proposed simple manufacturing process suggest that the proposed FFST concept can be upscaled and used in real structures.

Keywords: wood fibre, reusing wood, fibre-filled steel, hybrid construction

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509 Corrosion Resistance Evaluation of Reinforcing Bars: A Comparative Study of Fusion Bonded Epoxy Coated, Cement Polymer Composite Coated and Dual Zinc Epoxy Coated Rebar for Application in Reinforced Concrete Structures

Authors: Harshit Agrawal, Salman Muhammad


Degradation to reinforced concrete (RC), primarily due to corrosion of embedded reinforcement, has been a major cause of concern worldwide. Among several ways to control corrosion, the use of coated reinforcement has gained significant interest in field applications. However, the choice of proper coating material and the effect of damage over coating are yet to be addressed for effective application of coated reinforcements. The present study aims to investigate and compare the performance of three different types of coated reinforcements —Fusion-Bonded Epoxy Coating (FBEC), Cement Polymer Composite Coating (CPCC), and Dual Zinc-Epoxy Coating (DZEC) —in concrete structures. The aim is to assess their corrosion resistance, durability, and overall effectiveness as coated reinforcement materials both in undamaged and simulated damaged conditions. Through accelerated corrosion tests, electrochemical analysis, and exposure to aggressive marine environments, the study evaluates the long-term performance of each coating system. This research serves as a crucial guide for engineers and construction professionals in selecting the most suitable corrosion protection for reinforced concrete, thereby enhancing the durability and sustainability of infrastructure.

Keywords: corrosion, reinforced concrete, coated reinforcement, seawater exposure, electrochemical analysis, service life, corrosion prevention

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508 A Study on Utilizing Temporary Water Treatment Facilities to Tackle Century-Long Drought and Emergency Water Supply

Authors: Yu-Che Cheng, Min-Lih Chang, Ke-Hao Cheng, Chuan-Cheng Wang


Taiwan is an island located along the southeastern coast of the Asian continent, located between Japan and the Philippines. It is surrounded by the sea on all sides. However, due to the presence of the Central Mountain Range, the rivers on the east and west coasts of Taiwan are relatively short. This geographical feature results in a phenomenon where, despite having rainfall that is 2.6 times the world average, 58.5% of the rainwater flows into the ocean. Moreover, approximately 80% of the annual rainfall occurs between May and October, leading to distinct wet and dry periods. To address these challenges, Taiwan relies on large reservoirs, storage ponds, and groundwater extraction for water resource allocation. It is necessary to construct water treatment facilities at suitable locations to provide the population with a stable and reliable water supply. In general, the construction of a new water treatment plant requires careful planning and evaluation. The process involves acquiring land and issuing contracts for construction in a sequential manner. With the increasing severity of global warming and climate change, there is a heightened risk of extreme hydrological events and severe water situations in the future. In cases of urgent water supply needs in a region, relying on traditional lengthy processes for constructing water treatment plants might not be sufficient to meet the urgent demand. Therefore, this study aims to explore the use of simplified water treatment procedures and the construction of rapid "temporary water treatment plants" to tackle the challenges posed by extreme climate conditions (such as a century-long drought) and situations where water treatment plant construction cannot keep up with the pace of water source development.

Keywords: temporary water treatment plant, emergency water supply, construction site groundwater, drought

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507 Getting to Know the Types of Concrete and its Production Methods

Authors: Mokhtar Nikgoo


Definition of Concrete and Concreting: Concrete (in French: Béton) in a broad sense is any substance or combination that consists of a sticky substance with the property of cementation. In general, concrete refers to concrete made by Portland cement, which is produced by mixing fine and coarse aggregates, Portland cement and water. After enough time, this mixture turns into a stone-like substance. During the hardening or processing of the concrete, cement is chemically combined with water to form strong crystals that bind the aggregates together, a process called hydration. During this process, significant heat is released called hydration heat. Additionally, concrete shrinks slightly, especially as excess water evaporates, a phenomenon known as drying shrinkage. The process of hardening and the gradual increase in concrete strength that occurs with it does not end suddenly unless it is artificially interrupted. Instead, it decreases more over long periods of time, although, in practical applications, concrete is usually set after 28 days and is considered at full design strength. Concrete may be made from different types of cement as well as pozzolans, furnace slag, additives, additives, polymers, fibers, etc. It may also be used in the way it is made, heating, water vapor, autoclave, vacuum, hydraulic pressures and various condensers.

Keywords: concrete, RCC, batching, cement, Pozzolan, mixing plan

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506 Suitability of Direct Strength Method (DSM)-Based Approach for Web Crippling Strength of Cold-Formed Steel (CFS) Channel Beams: A Comprehensive Investigation

Authors: Hari Krishnan K. P., Anil Kumar M. V.


The Direct Strength Method (DSM) is used for the computation of the design strength of members whose behavior is governed by any form of buckling. DSM-based semi-empirical equations have been successfully used for cold-formed steel (CFS) members subjected to compression, bending, and shear. The DSM equations for the strength of a CFS member are based on the parameters accounting for strength [yield load (Py), yield moment (My), and shear yield load (Vy) for compression, bending, and shear respectively] and stability [buckling load (Pcr), buckling moment (Mcr), and shear buckling load (Vcr) for compression, bending and shear respectively]. The buckling of column and beam shall be governed by local, distortional, or global buckling modes and their interaction. Recently DSM- based methods have extended for the web-crippling strength of CFS beams. Numerous DSM-based expressions were reported in the literature, which is the function of loading case, cross-section shape, and boundary condition. Unlike members subjected to axial load, bending, or shear, no unified expression for the design web crippling strength irrespective of the loading case, the shape of the cross-section, and end boundary conditions are available yet. This study, based on nonlinear finite element analysis results, shows that the slenderness of the web, which shall be represented either using web height to thickness ratio (h/t) or critical buckling load (Pcr) has negligible contribution to web crippling strength. Hence, the results in the paper question the suitability of DSM based approach for the web-crippling strength of CFS beams.

Keywords: cold-formed steel, beams, web crippling, DSM-based procedure, Interior Two Flange Loading

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505 Interaction of Local, Flexural-Torsional, and Flexural Buckling in Cold-Formed Steel Lipped-Angle Compression Members

Authors: K. C. Kalam Aswathy, M. V. Anil Kumar


The possible failure modes of cold-formed steel (CFS) lipped angle (LA) compression members are yielding, local, flexural-torsional, or flexural buckling, and any possible interaction between these buckling modes. In general, the strength estimated by current design guidelines is conservative for these members when flexural-torsional buckling (FTB) is the first global buckling mode, as the post-buckling strength of this mode is not accounted for in the global buckling strength equations. The initial part of this paper reports the results of an experimental and numerical study of CFS-LA members undergoing independent FTB. The modifications are suggested to global buckling strength equations based on these results. Subsequently, the reduction in the ultimate strength from strength corresponding to independent buckling modes for LA members undergoing interaction between buckling modes such as local-flexural torsional, flexural-flexural torsional, local-flexural, and local-flexural torsional-flexural are studied systematically using finite element analysis results. A simple and more accurate interaction equation that accounts for the above interactions between buckling modes in CFS-LA compression members is proposed.

Keywords: buckling interactions, cold-formed steel, flexural-torsional buckling, lipped angle

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504 Comparison of Non-destructive Devices to Quantify the Moisture Content of Bio-Based Insulation Materials on Construction Sites

Authors: Léa Caban, Lucile Soudani, Julien Berger, Armelle Nouviaire, Emilio Bastidas-Arteaga


Improvement of the thermal performance of buildings is a high concern for the construction industry. With the increase in environmental issues, new types of construction materials are being developed. These include bio-based insulation materials. They capture carbon dioxide, can be produced locally, and have good thermal performance. However, their behavior with respect to moisture transfer is still facing some issues. With a high porosity, the mass transfer is more important in those materials than in mineral insulation ones. Therefore, they can be more sensitive to moisture disorders such as mold growth, condensation risks or decrease of the wall energy efficiency. For this reason, the initial moisture content on the construction site is a piece of crucial knowledge. Measuring moisture content in a laboratory is a mastered task. Diverse methods exist but the easiest and the reference one is gravimetric. A material is weighed dry and wet, and its moisture content is mathematically deduced. Non-destructive methods (NDT) are promising tools to determine in an easy and fast way the moisture content in a laboratory or on construction sites. However, the quality and reliability of the measures are influenced by several factors. Classical NDT portable devices usable on-site measure the capacity or the resistivity of materials. Water’s electrical properties are very different from those of construction materials, which is why the water content can be deduced from these measurements. However, most moisture meters are made to measure wooden materials, and some of them can be adapted for construction materials with calibration curves. Anyway, these devices are almost never calibrated for insulation materials. The main objective of this study is to determine the reliability of moisture meters in the measurement of biobased insulation materials. The determination of which one of the capacitive or resistive methods is the most accurate and which device gives the best result is made. Several biobased insulation materials are tested. Recycled cotton, two types of wood fibers of different densities (53 and 158 kg/m3) and a mix of linen, cotton, and hemp. It seems important to assess the behavior of a mineral material, so glass wool is also measured. An experimental campaign is performed in a laboratory. A gravimetric measurement of the materials is carried out for every level of moisture content. These levels are set using a climatic chamber and by setting the relative humidity level for a constant temperature. The mass-based moisture contents measured are considered as references values, and the results given by moisture meters are compared to them. A complete analysis of the uncertainty measurement is also done. These results are used to analyze the reliability of moisture meters depending on the materials and their water content. This makes it possible to determine whether the moisture meters are reliable, and which one is the most accurate. It will then be used for future measurements on construction sites to assess the initial hygrothermal state of insulation materials, on both new-build and renovation projects.

Keywords: capacitance method, electrical resistance method, insulation materials, moisture transfer, non-destructive testing

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503 The Importance of Fire Safety in Egypt

Authors: Omar Shakra


This paper contains a huge number of benefits that we can use it in several places and times in fire safety protection in the Middle East especially in Egypt . People here in Egypt did not consider the safety and fire protection as important as it is. But on the other hand, its very important for them to contain the fire systems and safety in every facility, the companies , hospitals , police stations , and even the super markets must use the fire system. It makes the facility safe to the visitors while they are using it.From my point of view as the owner Fire Safety Company called Deluge Egypt , i can say that not all of the companies use the fire system protection according to the high cost they prefer to build their company without the protection, and this is make the building totally unsafe to be used from the visitors or client.So, i am looking for new methods and technology to invest in Egypt, and this is through attending this Conference and let the audiences know more about the services i provide and [to let them know about the importance of the Fire Safety in Egypt. The Objectives of my research 1- The system that i used in my Company. 2- The benefits of the Fire System Protection. 3-The importance of the Fire System and safety. 4-The use of the new Technologies. 5-The hardships that i found while having new deals with new clients.

Keywords: fire, system, protection, fire hydrants, security, alarms

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502 The Acoustic Performance of Double-skin Wind Energy Facade

Authors: Sara Mota Carmo


Wind energy applied in architecture has been largely abandoned due to the uncomfortable noise it causes. This study aims to investigate the acoustical performance in the urban environment and indoor environment of a double-skin wind energy facade. Measurements for sound transmission were recorded by using a hand-held sound meter device on a reduced-scale prototype of a wind energy façade. The applied wind intensities ranged between 2m/s and 8m/s, and the increase sound produced were proportional to the wind intensity.The study validates the acoustic performance of wind energy façade using a double skin façade system, showing that noise reduction indoor by approximately 30 to 35 dB. However, the results found that above 6m/s win intensity, in urban environment, the wind energy system applied to the façade exceeds the maximum 50dB recommended by world health organization and needs some adjustments.

Keywords: double-skin wind energy facade, acoustic energy facade, wind energy in architecture, wind energy prototype

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501 Computational Material Modeling for Mechanical Properties Prediction of Nanoscale Carbon Based Cementitious Materials

Authors: Maryam Kiani, Abdul Basit Kiani


At larger scales, the performance of cementitious materials is impacted by processes occurring at the nanometer scale. These materials boast intricate hierarchical structures with random features that span from the nanometer to millimeter scale. It is fascinating to observe how the nanoscale processes influence the overall behavior and characteristics of these materials. By delving into and manipulating these processes, scientists and engineers can unlock the potential to create more durable and sustainable infrastructure and construction materials. It's like unraveling a hidden tapestry of secrets that hold the key to building stronger and more resilient structures. The present work employs simulations as the computational modeling methodology to predict mechanical properties for carbon/silica based cementitious materials at the molecular/nano scale level. Studies focused on understanding the effect of higher mechanical properties of cementitious materials with carbon silica nanoparticles via Material Studio materials modeling.

Keywords: nanomaterials, SiO₂, carbon black, mechanical properties

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500 Enablers and Inhibitors of Effective Waste Management Measures in Informal Settlements in South Africa: A Case of Alaska

Authors: Lynda C. Mbadugha, Bankole Awuzie, Kwanda Khumalo, Lindokuhle Matsebula, Masenoke Kgaditsi


Inadequate waste management remains a fundamental issue in the majority of cities around the globe, but it becomes a threat when it concerns informal settlements. Although studies have evaluated the performance of waste management measures, only a few have addressed that with a focus on South African informal settlements and the reasons for their apparent ineffectiveness in such locations. However, there may be evidence of variations in the extant problems due to the uniqueness of each location and the factors influencing the performance. Thus, there is a knowledge deficit regarding implementing waste management measures in South African informal settlements. This study seeks to evaluate the efficacy of waste management measures in the Alaska informal settlement in South Africa to assess the previously collected data of other areas using the degree of correlation. The research investigated a real-world scenario in the specified location using a case study approach and multiple data sources. The findings described various waste management practices used in Alaska's informal settlements; however, a correlation was found between the performance of these measures and those already used. The observed differences are primarily attributable to the physical characteristics of the locations, the lack of understanding of the environmental and health consequences of careless waste disposal, and the negative attitudes of the residents toward waste management practices. This study elucidates waste management implementation in informal settlements. It contributes to the relevant bodies of knowledge by describing these practices in South Africa. This paper's practical value emphasizes the general waste management characteristics of South Africa's informal settlements to facilitate the planning and provision of necessary interventions. The study concludes that the enablers and inhibitors are mainly political, behavioral, and environmental concerns.

Keywords: factors, informal settlement, performance, waste management

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499 Seismic Response of Belt Truss System in Regular RC Frame Structure at the Different Positions of the Storey

Authors: Mohd Raish Ansari, Tauheed Alam Khan


This research paper is a comparative study of the belt truss in the Regular RC frame structure at the different positions of the floor. The method used in this research is the response spectrum method with the help of the ETABS Software, there are six models in this paper with belt truss. The Indian standard code used in this work are IS 456:2000, IS 800:2007, IS 875 part-1, IS 875 part-1, and IS 1893 Part-1:2016. The cross-section of the belt truss is the I-section, a grade of steel that is made up of Mild Steel. The basic model in this research paper is the same, only position of the belt truss is going to change, and the dimension of the belt truss is remain constant for all models. The plan area of all models is 24.5 meters x 28 meters, and the model has G+20, where the height of the ground floor is 3.5 meters, and all floor height is 3.0 meters remains constant. This comparative research work selected some important seismic parameters to check the stability of all models, the parameters are base shear, fundamental period, storey overturning moment, and maximum storey displacement.

Keywords: belt truss, RC frames structure, ETABS, response spectrum analysis, special moment resisting frame

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498 A Mixed 3D Finite Element for Highly Deformable Thermoviscoplastic Materials Under Ductile Damage

Authors: João Paulo Pascon


In this work, a mixed 3D finite element formulation is proposed in order to analyze thermoviscoplastic materials under large strain levels and ductile damage. To this end, a tetrahedral element of linear order is employed, considering a thermoviscoplastic constitutive law together with the neo-Hookean hyperelastic relationship and a nonlocal Gurson`s porous plasticity theory The material model is capable of reproducing finite deformations, elastoplastic behavior, void growth, nucleation and coalescence, thermal effects such as plastic work heating and conductivity, strain hardening and strain-rate dependence. The nonlocal character is introduced by means of a nonlocal parameter applied to the Laplacian of the porosity field. The element degrees of freedom are the nodal values of the deformed position, the temperature and the nonlocal porosity field. The internal variables are updated at the Gauss points according to the yield criterion and the evolution laws, including the yield stress of matrix, the equivalent plastic strain, the local porosity and the plastic components of the Cauchy-Green stretch tensor. Two problems involving 3D specimens and ductile damage are numerically analyzed with the developed computational code: the necking problem and a notched sample. The effect of the nonlocal parameter and the mesh refinement is investigated in detail. Results indicate the need of a proper nonlocal parameter. In addition, the numerical formulation can predict ductile fracture, based on the evolution of the fully damaged zone.

Keywords: mixed finite element, large strains, ductile damage, thermoviscoplasticity

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497 Rehabilitation of Orthotropic Steel Deck Bridges Using a Modified Ortho-Composite Deck System

Authors: Mozhdeh Shirinzadeh, Richard Stroetmann


Orthotropic steel deck bridge consists of a deck plate, longitudinal stiffeners under the deck plate, cross beams and the main longitudinal girders. Due to the several advantages, Orthotropic Steel Deck (OSD) systems have been utilized in many bridges worldwide. The significant feature of this structural system is its high load-bearing capacity while having relatively low dead weight. In addition, cost efficiency and the ability of rapid field erection have made the orthotropic steel deck a popular type of bridge worldwide. However, OSD bridges are highly susceptible to fatigue damage. A large number of welded joints can be regarded as the main weakness of this system. This problem is, in particular, evident in the bridges which were built before 1994 when the fatigue design criteria had not been introduced in the bridge design codes. Recently, an Orthotropic-composite slab (OCS) for road bridges has been experimentally and numerically evaluated and developed at Technische Universität Dresden as a part of AIF-FOSTA research project P1265. The results of the project have provided a solid foundation for the design and analysis of Orthotropic-composite decks with dowel strips as a durable alternative to conventional steel or reinforced concrete decks. In continuation, while using the achievements of that project, the application of a modified Ortho-composite deck for an existing typical OSD bridge is investigated. Composite action is obtained by using rows of dowel strips in a clothoid (CL) shape. Regarding Eurocode criteria for different fatigue detail categories of an OSD bridge, the effect of the proposed modification approach is assessed. Moreover, a numerical parametric study is carried out utilizing finite element software to determine the impact of different variables, such as the size and arrangement of dowel strips, the application of transverse or longitudinal rows of dowel strips, and local wheel loads. For the verification of the simulation technique, experimental results of a segment of an OCS deck are used conducted in project P1265. Fatigue assessment is performed based on the last draft of Eurocode 1993-2 (2024) for the most probable detail categories (Hot-Spots) that have been reported in the previous statistical studies. Then, an analytical comparison is provided between the typical orthotropic steel deck and the modified Ortho-composite deck bridge in terms of fatigue issues and durability. The load-bearing capacity of the bridge, the critical deflections, and the composite behavior are also evaluated and compared. Results give a comprehensive overview of the efficiency of the rehabilitation method considering the required design service life of the bridge. Moreover, the proposed approach is assessed with regard to the construction method, details and practical aspects, as well as the economic point of view.

Keywords: composite action, fatigue, finite element method, steel deck, bridge

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496 Building Information Modelling: A Solution to the Limitations of Prefabricated Construction

Authors: Lucas Peries, Rolla Monib


The construction industry plays a vital role in the global economy, contributing billions of dollars annually. However, the industry has been struggling with persistently low productivity levels for years, unlike other sectors that have shown significant improvements. Modular and prefabricated construction methods have been identified as potential solutions to boost productivity in the construction industry. These methods offer time advantages over traditional construction methods. Despite their potential benefits, modular and prefabricated construction face hindrances and limitations that are not present in traditional building systems. Building information modelling (BIM) has the potential to address some of these hindrances, but barriers are preventing its widespread adoption in the construction industry. This research aims to enhance understanding of the shortcomings of modular and prefabricated building systems and develop BIM-based solutions to alleviate or eliminate these hindrances. The research objectives include identifying and analysing key issues hindering the use of modular and prefabricated building systems, investigating the current state of BIM adoption in the construction industry and factors affecting its successful implementation, proposing BIM-based solutions to address the issues associated with modular and prefabricated building systems, and assessing the effectiveness of the developed solutions in removing barriers to their use. The research methodology involves conducting a critical literature review to identify the key issues and challenges in modular and prefabricated construction and BIM adoption. Additionally, an online questionnaire will be used to collect primary data from construction industry professionals, allowing for feedback and evaluation of the proposed BIM-based solutions. The data collected will be analysed to evaluate the effectiveness of the solutions and their potential impact on the adoption of modular and prefabricated building systems. The main findings of the research indicate that the identified issues from the literature review align with the opinions of industry professionals, and the proposed BIM-based solutions are considered effective in addressing the challenges associated with modular and prefabricated construction. However, the research has limitations, such as a small sample size and the need to assess the feasibility of implementing the proposed solutions. In conclusion, this research contributes to enhancing the understanding of modular and prefabricated building systems' limitations and proposes BIM-based solutions to overcome these limitations. The findings are valuable to construction industry professionals and BIM software developers, providing insights into the challenges and potential solutions for implementing modular and prefabricated construction systems in future projects. Further research should focus on addressing the limitations and assessing the feasibility of implementing the proposed solutions from technical and legal perspectives.

Keywords: building information modelling, modularisation, prefabrication, technology

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495 Material Characterization of Medical Grade Woven Bio-Fabric for Use in ABAQUS *FABRIC Material Model

Authors: Lewis Wallace, William Dempster, David Nash, Alexandros Boukis, Craig Maclean


This paper, through traditional test methods and close adherence to international standards, presents a characterization study of a woven Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET). Testing is undergone in the axial, shear, and out-of-plane (bend) directions, and the results are fitted to the *FABRIC material model with ABAQUS FEA. The non-linear behaviors of the fabric in the axial and shear directions and behaviors on the macro scale are explored at the meso scale level. The medical grade bio-fabric is tested in untreated and heat-treated forms, and deviations are closely analyzed at the micro, meso, and macro scales to determine the effects of the process. The heat-treatment process was found to increase the stiffness of the fabric during axial and bending stiffness testing but had a negligible effect on the shear response. The ability of *FABRIC to capture behaviors unique to fabric deformation is discussed, whereby the unique phenomenological input can accurately represent the experimentally derived inputs.

Keywords: experimental techniques, FEA modelling, materials characterization, post-processing techniques

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494 Decision Support for Modularisation: Engineering Construction Case Studies

Authors: Rolla Monib, Chris Ian Goodier, Alistair Gibb


This paper aims to investigate decision support strategies in the EC sector to determine the most appropriate degree of modularization. This is achieved through three oil and gas (O&G) and two power plant case studies via semi-structured interviews (n=59 and n=27, respectively), analysis of project documents, and case study-specific semi-structured validation interviews (n=12 and n=8). New terminology to distinguish degrees of modularization is proposed, along with a decision-making support checklist and a diagrammatic decision-making support figure. Results indicate that the EC sub-sectors were substantially more satisfied with the application of component, structural, or traditional modularization compared with system modularization for some types of modules. Key drivers for decisions on the degree of modularization vary across module types. This paper can help the EC sector determine the most suitable degree of modularization via a decision-making support strategy.

Keywords: modularization, engineering construction, case study, decision support

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493 Modern Work Modules in Construction Practice

Authors: Robin Becker, Nane Roetmann, Manfred Helmus


Construction companies lack junior staff for construction management. According to a nationwide survey of students, however, the profession lacks attractiveness. The conflict between the traditional job profile and the current desires of junior staff for contemporary and flexible working models must be resolved. Increasing flexibility is essential for the future viability of small and medium-sized enterprises. The implementation of modern work modules can help here. The following report will present the validation results of the developed work modules in construction practice.

Keywords: modern construction management, construction industry, work modules, shortage of junior staff, sustainable personnel management, making construction management more attractive, working time model

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