Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 783

Search results for: foot drop

783 Functional Electrical Stimulator and Neuromuscular Electro Stimulator System Analysis for Foot Drop

Authors: Gül Fatma Türker, Hatice Akman

Abstract:

Portable muscle stimulators for real-time applications has first introduced by Liberson in 1961. Now these systems has been advanced. In this study, FES (Functional Electrical Stimulator) and NMES (Neuromuscular Electrostimulator) systems are analyzed through their hardware and their quality of life improvements for foot drop patients. FES and NMES systems are used for people whose leg muscles and leg neural connections are healty but not able to walk properly because of their injured central nervous system like spinal cord injuries. These systems are used to stimulate neurons or muscles by getting information from other movements and programming these stimulations to get natural walk and it is accepted as a rehabilitation method for the correction of drop foot. This systems support person to approach natural form of walking. Foot drop is characterized by steppage gait. It is a gait abnormality. This systems helps to person for plantar and dorse reflection movements which are hard to done for foot drop patients.

Keywords: FES, foot drop, NMES, stimulator

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
782 A Rare Case of Popliteal Artery Aneurysm Presenting with Foot Drop

Authors: John Yahng, Riteesh Bookun

Abstract:

Popliteal artery aneurysms (PAAs) are the most common arterial aneurysm of the periphery. It is defined as focal dilation of the artery more than 50% of the normal vessel diameter which usually varies between 7 mm to 11 mm. The most common presentation for PAAs is claudication due to luminal stenmosis secondary to mural thrombus or acute limb ischaemia due to occlusive thrombosis or distal thromboembolism. It is less common for patients to present with non-ischaemic symptoms secondary to mass effect and compression of adjacent structures, and of these, presentation with common peroneal nerve compression is particularly uncommon. We present a rare case of a 92-year-old female patient presenting with 4-month history of left foot drop with radiological evidence of common peroneal nerve compression secondary to PAA of 22 mm by21mm in size. To the best of our knowledge, this is the smallest reported popliteal aneurysm presenting with foot drop. We also present the endovascular treatment option taken in our case.

Keywords: aneurysm, foot drop, peroneal nerve, popliteal

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
781 Case Report: A Rare Case of Popliteal Artery Aneurysm Presenting with Foot Drop

Authors: John Yahng, Hansraj Riteesh Bookun

Abstract:

Popliteal artery aneurysms (PAAs) are the most common arterial aneurysm of the periphery. It is defined as focal dilation of the artery more than 50% of the normal vessel diameter which usually varies between 7 mm to 11 mm. The most common presentation for PAAs is claudication due to luminal stenosis secondary to mural thrombus or acute limb ischaemia due to occlusive thrombosis or distal thromboembolism. It is less common for patients to present with non-ischaemic symptoms secondary to mass effect and compression of adjacent structures, and of these, presentation with common peroneal nerve compression is particularly uncommon. We present a rare case of a 92-year-old female patient presenting with 4-month history of left foot drop with radiological evidence of common peroneal nerve compression secondary to PAA of 22 mm by 21mm in size. To the best of our knowledge, this is the smallest reported popliteal aneurysm presenting with foot drop. We also present the endovascular treatment option taken in our case.

Keywords: aneurysm, foot drop, peroneal nerve, popliteal

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
780 Effects of EMS on Foot Drop Associated with Grade III Wound: A Case Report

Authors: Mirza Obaid Baig, MaimoonaYaqub

Abstract:

A 51 year old lady; known case of diabetes mellitus, post wound debridement i.e. 4 open wounds of grade III presented to us with foot drop, with prominent sensory deficit over right lower leg/foot i.e. 0 on Nottingham scale for impaired sensation, marked pedal edema and 5/10 – 6/10 pain on VAS during day and night respectively, Wounds were poorly granulated and foul smelling. Physiotherapy sessions were planned including twice a day electrical muscle stimulation sessions, strategies to decrease edema and improve muscle action which resulted in noticeable improvement in motor and sensory ability, pain levels, edema and psychological status of patient. Thus, this study gives evidence of the effect of Electrical muscle stimulation in grade III open wounds associated with motor/sensory weakness post-surgery.

Keywords: EMS, foot drop, grade III wound, diabetes mellitus

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
779 A Robust System for Foot Arch Type Classification from Static Foot Pressure Distribution Data Using Linear Discriminant Analysis

Authors: R. Periyasamy, Deepak Joshi, Sneh Anand

Abstract:

Foot posture assessment is important to evaluate foot type, causing gait and postural defects in all age groups. Although different methods are used for classification of foot arch type in clinical/research examination, there is no clear approach for selecting the most appropriate measurement system. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a system for evaluation of foot type as clinical decision-making aids for diagnosis of flat and normal arch based on the Arch Index (AI) and foot pressure distribution parameter - Power Ratio (PR) data. The accuracy of the system was evaluated for 27 subjects with age ranging from 24 to 65 years. Foot area measurements (hind foot, mid foot, and forefoot) were acquired simultaneously from foot pressure intensity image using portable PedoPowerGraph system and analysis of the image in frequency domain to obtain foot pressure distribution parameter - PR data. From our results, we obtain 100% classification accuracy of normal and flat foot by using the linear discriminant analysis method. We observe there is no misclassification of foot types because of incorporating foot pressure distribution data instead of only arch index (AI). We found that the mid-foot pressure distribution ratio data and arch index (AI) value are well correlated to foot arch type based on visual analysis. Therefore, this paper suggests that the proposed system is accurate and easy to determine foot arch type from arch index (AI), as well as incorporating mid-foot pressure distribution ratio data instead of physical area of contact. Hence, such computational tool based system can help the clinicians for assessment of foot structure and cross-check their diagnosis of flat foot from mid-foot pressure distribution.

Keywords: arch index, computational tool, static foot pressure intensity image, foot pressure distribution, linear discriminant analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 433
778 Effects of Modified Low-Dye Taping on First Ray Mobility Test and Sprint Time

Authors: Yu-Ju Tsai, Ching-Chun Wang, Wen-Tzu Tang, Huei-Ming Chai

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A pronated foot is frequently associated with a hypermobile first ray, then developing further severe foot problems. Low-Dye taping with athletic tape has been widely used to restrict excessive first ray motion and re-build height of the medial longitudinal arch in general population with pronated foot. It is not the case, however, for sprinters since they feel too much restriction of foot motions. Currently, the kinesio tape, more elastic than the athletic tape, has been widely used to re-adjust joint positions. It was interesting whether modified low-Dye taping using kinesio tape was beneficial for altering first ray mobility and still giving enough arch support. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of modified low-Dye taping on first ray mobility test and 60-m sprint time for sprinters with pronated foot. The significance of this study provides new insight into a treatment alternative of modified low-Dye taping for sprinter with pronated foot. Ten young male sprinters, aged 20.8±1.6 years, with pronated foot were recruited for this study. The pronated foot was defined as the foot that the navicular drop test was greater than 1.0 cm. Three optic shutters were placed at the start, 30-m, and 60-m sites to record sprint time. All participants were asked to complete 3 trials of the 60-m dash with both taping and non-taping conditions in a random order. The low-Dye taping was applied using the method postulated by Ralph Dye in 1939 except the kinesio tape was used instead. All outcome variables were recorded for taping and non-taping conditions. Paired t-tests were used to analyze all outcome variables between 2 conditions. Although there were no statistically significant differences in dorsal and plantar mobility between taping and non-taping conditions, a statistical significance was found in a total range of motion (dorsiflexion plus plantarflexion angle) of the first ray when a modified low-Dye taping was applied (p < 0.05). Time to complete 60-m sprint was significantly increased with low-Dye taping (p < 0.05) while no significance was found for time to 30-m. it indicated that modified low-Dye taping changed maximum sprint speed of 60-m dash. Conclusively, modified low-Dye taping was capable of increasing first ray mobility and further altered maximum sprint speed.

Keywords: first ray mobility, kinesio taping, pronated foot, sprint time

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
777 Assessment of Knowledge and Practices of Diabetic Patients Regarding Diabetic Foot Care, in Makkah, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Reda Goweda, Mokhtar Shatla, Arawa Alzaidi, Arij Alzaidi, Bashair Aldhawani, Hibah Alharbi, Noran Sultan, Daniah Alnemari, Badr Rawa

Abstract:

Background: 20.5% of Saudis between 20 and 79 years are diabetics. Diabetic foot is a chronic complication of diabetes. The incidence of non traumatic lower extremity amputations is at least 15 times greater in those with diabetes than non diabetics. Patient education is important to reduce lower extremity complications. Objective: To assess the knowledge and practices of the diabetic patients regarding foot care and diabetic foot complications. Methods: In Makkah hospitals, 350 diabetic patients who met the inclusion criteria were involved in this cross sectional study. Interviewing questionnaire and patients’ charts review were used to collect the data. Results: Mean age of patients was 53.0083±13.1 years, and mean duration of diabetes was 11.24±8.7 years. 35.1% had history of foot ulcer while 25.7% had ulcer on the time of interview. 11.7 % had history of amputation and 83.1% had numbness. 77.1 % examine their feet while 49.1% received foot care education and 34% read handouts on foot care. 34% walk around in bare feet. There is a significant statistical association between foot education, foot care practices, and diabetic foot ulcer (p-value < 0.022). Conclusion: Patient knowledge and practices regarding diabetic foot care is significantly associated with the reduction of diabetic foot ulcer.

Keywords: knowledge, practice, attitude, diabetes, foot, care

Procedia PDF Downloads 412
776 Dynamic Foot Pressure Measurement System Using Optical Sensors

Authors: Tanapon Keatsamarn, Chuchart Pintavirooj

Abstract:

Foot pressure measurement provides necessary information for diagnosis diseases, foot insole design, disorder prevention and other application. In this paper, dynamic foot pressure measurement is presented for pressure measuring with high resolution and accuracy. The dynamic foot pressure measurement system consists of hardware and software system. The hardware system uses a transparent acrylic plate and uses steel as the base. The glossy white paper is placed on the top of the transparent acrylic plate and covering with a black acrylic on the system to block external light. Lighting from LED strip entering around the transparent acrylic plate. The optical sensors, the digital cameras, are underneath the acrylic plate facing upwards. They have connected with software system to process and record foot pressure video in avi file. Visual Studio 2017 is used for software system using OpenCV library.

Keywords: foot, foot pressure, image processing, optical sensors

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
775 Foot Recognition Using Deep Learning for Knee Rehabilitation

Authors: Rakkrit Duangsoithong, Jermphiphut Jaruenpunyasak, Alba Garcia

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The use of foot recognition can be applied in many medical fields such as the gait pattern analysis and the knee exercises of patients in rehabilitation. Generally, a camera-based foot recognition system is intended to capture a patient image in a controlled room and background to recognize the foot in the limited views. However, this system can be inconvenient to monitor the knee exercises at home. In order to overcome these problems, this paper proposes to use the deep learning method using Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) for foot recognition. The results are compared with the traditional classification method using LBP and HOG features with kNN and SVM classifiers. According to the results, deep learning method provides better accuracy but with higher complexity to recognize the foot images from online databases than the traditional classification method.

Keywords: foot recognition, deep learning, knee rehabilitation, convolutional neural network

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
774 Stature and Gender Estimation Using Foot Measurements in South Indian Population

Authors: Jagadish Rao Padubidri, Mehak Bhandary, Sowmya J. Rao

Abstract:

Introduction: The significance of the human foot and its measurements in identifying an individual has been proved a lot of times by different studies in different geographical areas and its association to the stature and gender of the individual has been justified by many researches. In our study we have used different foot measurements including the length, width, malleol height and navicular height for establishing its association to stature and gender and to find out its accuracy. The purpose of this study is to show the relation of foot measurements with stature and gender, and to derive Multiple and Logistic regression equations for stature and gender estimation in South Indian population. Materials and Methods: The subjects for this study were 200 South Indian students out of which 100 were females and 100 were males, aged between 18 to 24 years. The data for the present study included the stature, foot length, foot breath, foot malleol height, foot navicular height of both right and left foot. Descriptive statistics, T-test and Pearson correlation coefficients were derived between stature, gender and foot measurements. The stature was estimated from right and left foot measurements for both male and female South Indian population using multiple regression analysis and logistic regression analysis for gender estimation. Results: The means, standard deviation, stature, right and left foot measurements and T-test in male population were higher than in females. LFL (Left foot length) is more than RFL (Right Foot length) in male groups, but in female groups the length of both foot are almost equal [RFL=226.6, LFL=227.1]. There is not much of difference in means of RFW (Right foot width) and LFW (Left foot width) in both the genders. Significant difference were seen in mean values of malleol and navicular height of right and left feet in male gender. No such difference was seen in female subjects. Conclusions: The study has successfully demonstrated the correlation of foot length in stature estimation in all the three study groups in both right and left foot. Next in parameters are Foot width and malleol height in estimating stature among male and female groups. Navicular height of both right and left foot showed poor relationship with stature estimation in both male and female groups. Multiple regression equations for both right and left foot measurements to estimate stature were derived with standard error ranging from 11-12 cm in males and 10-11 cm in females. The SEE was 5.8 when both male and female groups were pooled together. The logistic regression model which was derived to determine gender showed 85% accuracy and 92.5% accuracy using right and left foot measurements respectively. We believe that stature and gender can be estimated with foot measurements in South Indian population.

Keywords: foot length, gender, stature, South Indian

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
773 Foot Self-Monitoring Knowledge, Attitude, Practice, and Related Factors among Diabetic Patients: A Descriptive and Correlational Study in a Taiwan Teaching Hospital

Authors: Li-Ching Lin, Yu-Tzu Dai

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Recurrent foot ulcers or foot amputation have a major impact on patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), medical professionals, and society. A critical procedure for foot care is foot self-monitoring. Medical professionals’ understanding of patients’ foot self-monitoring knowledge, attitude, and practice is beneficial for raising patients’ disease awareness. This study investigated these and related factors among patients with DM through a descriptive study of the correlations. A scale for measuring the foot self-monitoring knowledge, attitude, and practice of patients with DM was used. Purposive sampling was adopted, and 100 samples were collected from the respondents’ self-reports or from interviews. The statistical methods employed were an independent-sample t-test, one-way analysis of variance, Pearson correlation coefficient, and multivariate regression analysis. The findings were as follows: the respondents scored an average of 12.97 on foot self-monitoring knowledge, and the correct answer rate was 68.26%. The respondents performed relatively lower in foot health screenings and recording, and awareness of neuropathy in the foot. The respondents held a positive attitude toward self-monitoring their feet and a negative attitude toward having others check the soles of their feet. The respondents scored an average of 12.64 on foot self-monitoring practice. Their scores were lower in their frequency of self-monitoring their feet, recording their self-monitoring results, checking their pedal pulse, and examining if their soles were red immediately after taking off their shoes. Significant positive correlations were observed among foot self-monitoring knowledge, attitude, and practice. The correlation coefficient between self-monitoring knowledge and self-monitoring practice was 0.20, and that between self-monitoring attitude and self-monitoring practice was 0.44. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that the main predictive factors of the foot self-monitoring practice in patients with DM were foot self-monitoring attitude, prior experience in foot care, and an educational attainment of college or higher. These factors predicted 33% of the variance. This study concludes that patients with DM lacked foot self-monitoring practice and advises that the patients’ self-monitoring abilities be evaluated first, including whether patients have poor eyesight, difficulties in bending forward due to obesity, and people who can assist them in self-monitoring. In addition, patient education should emphasize self-monitoring knowledge and practice, such as perceptions regarding the symptoms of foot neurovascular lesions, pulse monitoring methods, and new foot self-monitoring equipment. By doing so, new or recurring ulcers may be discovered in their early stages.

Keywords: diabetic foot, foot self-monitoring attitude, foot self-monitoring knowledge, foot self-monitoring practice

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
772 Neural Network and Support Vector Machine for Prediction of Foot Disorders Based on Foot Analysis

Authors: Monireh Ahmadi Bani, Adel Khorramrouz, Lalenoor Morvarid, Bagheri Mahtab

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Background:- Foot disorders are common in musculoskeletal problems. Plantar pressure distribution measurement is one the most important part of foot disorders diagnosis for quantitative analysis. However, the association of plantar pressure and foot disorders is not clear. With the growth of dataset and machine learning methods, the relationship between foot disorders and plantar pressures can be detected. Significance of the study:- The purpose of this study was to predict the probability of common foot disorders based on peak plantar pressure distribution and center of pressure during walking. Methodologies:- 2323 participants were assessed in a foot therapy clinic between 2015 and 2021. Foot disorders were diagnosed by an experienced physician and then they were asked to walk on a force plate scanner. After the data preprocessing, due to the difference in walking time and foot size, we normalized the samples based on time and foot size. Some of force plate variables were selected as input to a deep neural network (DNN), and the probability of any each foot disorder was measured. In next step, we used support vector machine (SVM) and run dataset for each foot disorder (classification of yes or no). We compared DNN and SVM for foot disorders prediction based on plantar pressure distributions and center of pressure. Findings:- The results demonstrated that the accuracy of deep learning architecture is sufficient for most clinical and research applications in the study population. In addition, the SVM approach has more accuracy for predictions, enabling applications for foot disorders diagnosis. The detection accuracy was 71% by the deep learning algorithm and 78% by the SVM algorithm. Moreover, when we worked with peak plantar pressure distribution, it was more accurate than center of pressure dataset. Conclusion:- Both algorithms- deep learning and SVM will help therapist and patients to improve the data pool and enhance foot disorders prediction with less expense and error after removing some restrictions properly.

Keywords: deep neural network, foot disorder, plantar pressure, support vector machine

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
771 The Biomechanical Consequences of Pes Planus

Authors: Mariette Swanepoel, Terry Ellapen, Henriette Hammil, Juandre Williams, Timothy Qumbu

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The biomechanical consequence of pes planus is a topic seldom reviewed in regards to energy expenditure and predisposition to injury. However its comprehension in the field of foot rehabilitation, pre-and post-surgery is fundamental to successful patient management. This short communication unites the present literature to provide the reader with better insight on the consequence of pes planus, foot mechanics and its predisposition to injury at the foot and tibiofemoral joint. Further, the consideration of synergistic dominance of the foot invertors to compensate for the ineffective torque production of the fibularis longus due pes planus is presented.

Keywords: pes planus, fibularis longus, synergistic dominance, injury

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770 Outcomes in New-Onset Diabetic Foot Ulcers Stratified by Etiology

Authors: Pedro Gomes, Lia Ferreira, Sofia Garcia, Jaime Babulal, Luís Costa, Luís Castelo, José Muras, Isabel Gonçalves, Rui Carvalho

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Introduction: Foot ulcers and their complications are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetes. Objectives: The present study aims to evaluate the outcomes in terms of need for hospitalization, amputation, healing time and mortality in patients with new-onset diabetic foot ulcers in subgroups stratified by etiology. Methods: A retrospective study based on clinical assessment of patients presenting with new ulcers to a multidisciplinary diabetic foot consult during 2012. Outcomes were determined until September 2014, from hospital registers. Baseline clinical examination was done to classify ulcers as neuropathic, ischemic or neuroischemic. Results: 487 patients with new diabetic foot ulcers were observed; 36%, 15% and 49% of patients had neuropathic, ischemic and neuroischemic ulcers, respectively. For analysis, patients were classified as having predominantly neuropathic (36%) or ischemic foot (64%). The mean age was significantly higher in the group with ischemic foot (70±12 vs 63±12 years; p <0.001), as well as the duration of diabetes (18±10 vs 16 ± 10years, p <0.05). A history of previous amputation was also significantly higher in this group (24.7% vs 15.6%, p <0.05). The evolution of ischemic ulcers was significantly worse, with a greater need for hospitalization (27.2% vs 18%, p <0.05), amputation (11.5% vs 3.6% p <0.05) mainly major amputation (3% vs. 0%; p <0.001) and higher mean healing time (151 days vs 89 days, p <0.05). The mortality rate at 18 months, was also significantly higher in the ischemic foot group (7.3% vs 1.8%, p <0.05). Conclusions: All types of diabetic foot ulcers are associated with high morbidity and mortality, however, the presence of arterial disease confers a poor prognosis. Diabetic foot can be successfully treated only by the multidisciplinary team which can provide more comprehensive and integrated care.

Keywords: diabetes, foot ulcers, etiology, outcome

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
769 Comparisons of Drop Jump and Countermovement Jump Performance for Male Basketball Players with and without Low-Dye Taping Application

Authors: Chung Yan Natalia Yeung, Man Kit Indy Ho, Kin Yu Stan Chan, Ho Pui Kipper Lam, Man Wah Genie Tong, Tze Chung Jim Luk

Abstract:

Excessive foot pronation is a well-known risk factor of knee and foot injuries such as patellofemoral pain, patellar and Achilles tendinopathy, and plantar fasciitis. Low-Dye taping (LDT) application is not uncommon for basketball players to control excessive foot pronation for pain control and injury prevention. The primary potential benefits of using LDT include providing additional supports to medial longitudinal arch and restricting the excessive midfoot and subtalar motion in weight-bearing activities such as running and landing. Meanwhile, restrictions provided by the rigid tape may also potentially limit functional joint movements and sports performance. Coaches and athletes need to weigh the potential benefits and harmful effects before making a decision if applying LDT technique is worthwhile or not. However, the influence of using LDT on basketball-related performance such as explosive and reactive strength is not well understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the change of drop jump (DJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ) performance before and after LDT application for collegiate male basketball players. In this within-subject crossover study, 12 healthy male basketball players (age: 21.7 ± 2.5 years) with at least 3-year regular basketball training experience were recruited. Navicular drop (ND) test was adopted as the screening and only those with excessive pronation (ND ≥ 10mm) were included. Participants with recent lower limb injury history were excluded. Recruited subjects were required to perform both ND, DJ (on a platform of 40cm height) and CMJ (without arms swing) tests in series during taped and non-taped conditions in the counterbalanced order. Reactive strength index (RSI) was calculated by using the flight time divided by the ground contact time measured. For DJ and CMJ tests, the best of three trials was used for analysis. The difference between taped and non-taped conditions for each test was further calculated through standardized effect ± 90% confidence intervals (CI) with clinical magnitude-based inference (MBI). Paired samples T-test showed significant decrease in ND (-4.68 ± 1.44mm; 95% CI: -3.77, -5.60; p < 0.05) while MBI demonstrated most likely beneficial and large effect (standardize effect: -1.59 ± 0.27) in LDT condition. For DJ test, significant increase in both flight time (25.25 ± 29.96ms; 95% CI: 6.22, 44.28; p < 0.05) and RSI (0.22 ± 0.22; 95% CI: 0.08, 0.36; p < 0.05) were observed. In taped condition, MBI showed very likely beneficial and moderate effect (standardized effect: 0.77 ± 0.49) in flight time, possibly beneficial and small effect (standardized effect: -0.26 ± 0.29) in ground contact time and very likely beneficial and moderate effect (standardized effect: 0.77 ± 0.42) in RSI. No significant difference in CMJ was observed (95% CI: -2.73, 2.08; p > 0.05). For basketball players with pes planus, applying LDT could substantially support the foot by elevating the navicular height and potentially provide acute beneficial effects in reactive strength performance. Meanwhile, no significant harmful effect on CMJ was observed. Basketball players may consider applying LDT before the game or training to enhance the reactive strength performance. However since the observed effects in this study could not generalize to other players without excessive foot pronation, further studies on players with normal foot arch or navicular height are recommended.

Keywords: flight time, pes planus, pronated foot, reactive strength index

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768 The Design and Development of Foot Massage Plate from Coconut Shell

Authors: Chananchida Yuktirat, Nichanant Sermsri

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The objectives of this research were to design and develop foot massage plate from coconut shell. The research investigated on the satisfaction of the users on the developed foot massage plate on 4 aspects; usage, practical in use, safety, and materials & production process. The sample group included 64 people joining the service at Wat Paitan Health Center, Bangkok. The samples were randomly tried on the massage plate and evaluated according to the 4 aspects. The data were analyzed to find mean, percentage, and standard deviation. The result showed that the overall satisfaction was at good level (mean = 3.80). When considering in details, it was found that the subjects reported their highest satisfaction on the practical usage (mean = 4.16), followed by safety (mean = 3.82); then, materials and production process (mean = 3.78). The least satisfaction aspect was on function and usage (mean = 3.45) or moderate level.

Keywords: coconut shell, design, foot massage, foot massage plate

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
767 Risk Factors for Diabetic Foot: Upper Egypt Experience

Authors: Ali Kassem, Mohamed Alsenbasy, Ahmed Nagaah

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Background: Diabetic foot is one of the often neglected complications of diabetes mellitus It was reported that patients of diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) have considerable morbidity and mortality. Due to arterial abnormalities, diabetic neuropathy, as well as the tendency to delayed wound healing, foot infection and or gangrene is relatively common in diabetic patients. Foot related problems are responsible for up to 50% of diabetic related hospital admissions. Aim of work: The aim of the present study is to assess the risk factors for DFU in diabetic patients attending Sohag University Hospitals (Upper Egypt) Material and methods: The present study includes 100 diabetic foot patients attending the diabetic outpatient clinic of Sohag University Hospitals. For all of the studied patients the following were done: Full medical history and clinical examination; thorough foot examination; Laboratory tests including: Blood glucose level, HBA1c, serum lipids and renal function tests, ECG and Echocardiography, Doppler study on the lower limbs. Results: Sixty eight percent of the affected patients were males versus 32 % female patients. All male patients and none of the female were smoker. Seventy nine percent of patients were living in rural areas versus 14 % in urban areas. Duration of diabetes was more than 12 years in 74%, less than 12 years in 26% of patients. Fifty percent of patients have associated hypertension, 46% have dyslipidemia, 18% have ischemic heart disease or old myocardial infarction and 8% have impaired renal function. History of previous foot ulcers was reported in 11 % and foot amputation in 2% of patients. Conclusion: Male gender, low socioeconomic status, smoking, long duration of diabetes, other cardiovascular risk factors particularly hypertension and previous history of foot ulceration are the major risk factors for diabetic foot in our locality.

Keywords: diabetic foot, diabetic neuropathy, foot gangrene, risk factors for diabetic complications

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766 Correlation between Clinical Measurements of Static Foot Posture in Young Adults

Authors: Phornchanok Motantasut, Torkamol Hunsawong, Lugkana Mato, Wanida Donpunha

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Identifying abnormal foot posture is important for prescribing appropriate management in patients with lower limb disorders and chronic non-specific low back pain. The normalized navicular height truncated (NNHt) and the foot posture index-6 (FPI-6) have been recommended as the common, simple, valid, and reliable static measures for clinical application. The NNHt is a single plane measure while the FPI-6 is a triple plane measure. At present, there is inadequate information about the correlation between the NNHt and the FPI-6 for categorizing foot posture that leads to a difficulty of choosing the appropriate assessment. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the correlation between the NNHt and the FPI-6 measures in adult participants with asymptomatic feet. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in 47 asymptomatic individuals (23 males and 24 females) aged 28.89 ± 7.67 years with body mass index 21.73 ± 1.76 kg/m². The right foot was measured twice by the experienced rater using the NNHt and the FPI-6. A sequence of the measures was randomly arranged for each participant with a 10-minute rest between the tests. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r) was used to determine the relationship between the measures. Results: The mean NNHt score was 0.23 ± 0.04 (ranged from 0.15 to 0.36) and the mean FPI-6 score was 4.42 ± 4.36 (ranged from -6 to +11). The Pearson’s correlation coefficient among the NNHt score and the FPI-6 score was -0.872 (p < 0.01). Conclusion: The present finding demonstrates the strong correlation between the NNHt and FPI-6 in adult feet and implies that both measures could be substituted for each other in identifying foot posture.

Keywords: foot posture index, foot type, measurement of foot posture, navicular height

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765 Coalescence Cascade of Vertically-aligned Water Drops on a Super-hydrophobic Surface in Silicone Oil

Authors: M. Brik, S. Harmand, I. Zaaroura

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This report, an experimental investigation, concerns the sessile daughter drop remaining during the coalescence of water drops in a liquid-liquid (LL) system. The two drops are initially vertically aligned where the sessile drop is deposited on a chemically treated super-hydrophobic surface of a cube fill of silicone oil. In order to analyze the coalescence dynamics, a series of experiments have been performed using a generation droplets system (KRUSS) that measures contact angles as well coupled with a high-speed camera (Keyence VW-9000E) to record the process at a frame rate of 15000s-1. It’s depicted that in such configuration, the head drop volume has a primordial impact on the dynamics of the coalescence process, especially at the last stage. It’s found that for a sessile drop deposited on a super-hydrophobic surface, where the contact angle is about θ ≈ 145°, the coalescence process is remarked to be complete without any recoiling of the coalesced drop or a generation of a sessile daughter drop at the super-hydrophobic surface when the head drop volume is small enough (Vₐᵦ< Vₛ up to Vₐᵦ = 3Vₛ). On the other side, the coalescence process starts to be followed by jumping off the resulted drop as well as a remaining of a small sessile daughter drop on the bottom surface of the cube from a head drop volume Vₐᵦ of about 4 times than that of the sessile drop Vₛ.

Keywords: drops coalescence, dispersed multiphase flow, drops dynamics, liquid-liquid system

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764 Development and Comparative Analysis of a New C-H Split and Recombine Micromixer

Authors: Vladimir Viktorov, Readul Mahmud, Carmen Visconte

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In the present study, a new passive micromixer based on SAR principle, combining the operation concepts of known Chain and H mixers, called C-H micromixer, is developed and studied. The efficiency and the pressure drop of the C-H mixer along with two known SAR passive mixers named Chain and Tear-drop were investigated numerically at Reynolds numbers up to 100, taking into account species transport. At the same time experimental tests of the Chain and Tear-drop mixers were carried out at low Reynolds number, in the 0.1≤Re≤4.2 range. Numerical and experimental results coincide considerably, which validate the numerical simulation approach. Results show that mixing efficiency of the Tear-drop mixer is good except at the middle range of Reynolds number but pressure drop is too high; conversely the Chain mixer has moderate pressure drop but relatively low mixing efficiency at low and middle Re numbers. Whereas, the C-H mixer gives excellent mixing efficiency at all range of Re numbers. In addition, the C-H mixer shows respectively about 3 and 2 times lower pressure drop than the Tear-drop mixer and the Chain mixer.

Keywords: CFD, micromixing, passive micromixer, SAR

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763 Simulation Analysis of Optical Add Drop Multiplexer in a Ring Network

Authors: Surinder Singh, Meenakshi

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In this paper MZI-FBG based optical add drop multiplexer is designed and its performance is analyzed in the ring network. In the ring network nodes are composed of optical add drop multiplexer, transmitter and receiver. OADM is used to add or drop any frequency at intermediate nodes without affecting other channels. In this paper the performance of the ring network is carried out by varying various kinds of fiber with or without amplifiers.

Keywords: OADM, ring network, MZI-FBG, transmitter

Procedia PDF Downloads 413
762 [Keynote Speech]: Experimental Study on the Effects of Water-in-Oil Emulsions to the Pressure Drop in Pipeline Flow

Authors: S. S. Dol, M. S. Chan, S. F. Wong, J. S. Lim

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Emulsion formation is unavoidable and can be detrimental to an oil field production. The presence of stable emulsions also reduces the quality of crude oil and causes more problems in the downstream refinery operations, such as corrosion and pipeline pressure drop. Hence, it is important to know the effects of emulsions in the pipeline. Light crude oil was used for the continuous phase in the W/O emulsions where the emulsions pass through a flow loop to test the pressure drop across the pipeline. The results obtained shows that pressure drop increases as water cut is increased until it peaks at the phase inversion of the W/O emulsion between 30% to 40% water cut. Emulsions produced by gradual constrictions show a lower stability as compared to sudden constrictions. Lower stability of emulsions in gradual constriction has the higher influence of pressure drop compared to a sudden sharp decrease in diameter in sudden constriction. Generally, sudden constriction experiences pressure drop of 0.013% to 0.067% higher than gradual constriction of the same ratio. Lower constriction ratio cases cause larger pressure drop ranging from 0.061% to 0.241%. Considering the higher profitability in lower emulsion stability and lower pressure drop at the developed flow region of different constrictions, an optimum design of constriction is found to be gradual constriction with a ratio of 0.5.

Keywords: constriction, pressure drop, turbulence, water-in-oil emulsions

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761 Simulation Studies of Solid-Particle and Liquid-Drop Erosion of NiAl Alloy

Authors: Rong Liu, Kuiying Chen, Ju Chen, Jingrong Zhao, Ming Liang

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This article presents modeling studies of NiAl alloy under solid-particle erosion and liquid-drop erosion. In the solid particle erosion simulation, attention is paid to the oxide scale thickness variation on the alloy in high-temperature erosion environments. The erosion damage is assumed to be deformation wear and cutting wear mechanisms, incorporating the influence of the oxide scale on the eroded surface; thus the instantaneous oxide thickness is the result of synergetic effect of erosion and oxidation. For liquid-drop erosion, special interest is in investigating the effects of drop velocity and drop size on the damage of the target surface. The models of impact stress wave, mean depth of penetration, and maximum depth of erosion rate (Max DER) are employed to develop various maps for NiAl alloy, including target thickness vs. drop size (diameter), rate of mean depth of penetration (MDRP) vs. drop impact velocity, and damage threshold velocity (DTV) vs. drop size.

Keywords: liquid-drop erosion, NiAl alloy, oxide scale thickness, solid-particle erosion

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760 Effect of Number of Baffles on Pressure Drop and Heat Transfer in a Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

Authors: A. Falavand Jozaei, A. Ghafouri, M. Mosavi Navaei

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In this paper for a given heat duty, study of number of baffles on pressure drop and heat transfer is considered in a STHX (Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger) with single segmental baffles. The effect of number of baffles from 9 to 52 baffles (baffle spacing variations from 4 to 24 inches) over OHTC (Overall Heat Hransfer Coefficient) to pressure drop ratio (U/Δp ratio). The results show that U/Δp ratio is low when baffle spacing is minimum (4 inches) because pressure drop is high; however, heat transfer coefficient is very significant. Then, with the increase of baffle spacing, pressure drop rapidly decreases and OHTC also decreases, but the decrease of OHTC is lower than pressure drop, so (U/Δp) ratio increases. After increasing baffles more than 12 inches, variation in pressure drop is gradual and approximately constant and OHTC decreases; Consequently, U/Δp ratio decreases again. If baffle spacing reaches to 24 inches, STHX will have minimum pressure drop, but OHTC decreases, so required heat transfer surface increases and U/Δp ratio decreases. After baffle spacing more than 12 inches, variation of shell side pressure drop is negligible. So optimum baffle spacing is suggested between 8 to 12 inches (43 to 63 percent of inside shell diameter) for a sufficient heat duty and low pressure drop.

Keywords: shell and tube heat exchanger, single segmental baffle, overall heat transfer coefficient, pressure drop

Procedia PDF Downloads 385
759 A Convolution Neural Network Approach to Predict Pes-Planus Using Plantar Pressure Mapping Images

Authors: Adel Khorramrouz, Monireh Ahmadi Bani, Ehsan Norouzi, Morvarid Lalenoor

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Background: Plantar pressure distribution measurement has been used for a long time to assess foot disorders. Plantar pressure is an important component affecting the foot and ankle function and Changes in plantar pressure distribution could indicate various foot and ankle disorders. Morphologic and mechanical properties of the foot may be important factors affecting the plantar pressure distribution. Accurate and early measurement may help to reduce the prevalence of pes planus. With recent developments in technology, new techniques such as machine learning have been used to assist clinicians in predicting patients with foot disorders. Significance of the study: This study proposes a neural network learning-based flat foot classification methodology using static foot pressure distribution. Methodologies: Data were collected from 895 patients who were referred to a foot clinic due to foot disorders. Patients with pes planus were labeled by an experienced physician based on clinical examination. Then all subjects (with and without pes planus) were evaluated for static plantar pressures distribution. Patients who were diagnosed with the flat foot in both feet were included in the study. In the next step, the leg length was normalized and the network was trained for plantar pressure mapping images. Findings: From a total of 895 image data, 581 were labeled as pes planus. A computational neural network (CNN) ran to evaluate the performance of the proposed model. The prediction accuracy of the basic CNN-based model was performed and the prediction model was derived through the proposed methodology. In the basic CNN model, the training accuracy was 79.14%, and the test accuracy was 72.09%. Conclusion: This model can be easily and simply used by patients with pes planus and doctors to predict the classification of pes planus and prescreen for possible musculoskeletal disorders related to this condition. However, more models need to be considered and compared for higher accuracy.

Keywords: foot disorder, machine learning, neural network, pes planus

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758 Effect of Drop Impact Behavior on Spray Retention

Authors: Hassina Hafida Boukhalfa, Mathieu Massinon, Fréderic Lebeau, Mohamed Belhamra

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Drop behaviour during impact affects retention. The increase of adhesion is usually seen as the objective when applying crop protection products, while bouncing and shattering are seen as detrimental to spray retention. However, observation of drop impacts using high speed shadow graphy shows that fragmentation can occur in Wenzel wetting regime. In this case, a part of the drop sticks on the surface, what contributes to retention. Using simultaneous measurements of drop impacts with high speed imaging and of retention with fluorometry for 3 spray mixtures on excised barley leaves allowed us to observe that about 50% of the drops fragmented in Wenzel state remain on the leaf. Depending on spray mixture, these impact outcomes accounted for 25 to 50% of retention, the higher contribution being correlated with bigger VMD (Volume Median Diameter). This contribution is non-negligible and should be considered when a modelling of spray retention process is performed.

Keywords: drop impact, retention, fluorometry, high speed imaging

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
757 Empirical Study and Modelling of Three-Dimensional Pedestrian Flow in Railway Foot-Over-Bridge Stair

Authors: Ujjal Chattaraj, M. Raviteja, Chaitanya Aemala

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Over the years vehicular traffic has been given priority over pedestrian traffic. With the increase of population in cities, pedestrian traffic is increasing day by day. Pedestrian safety has become a matter of concern for the Traffic Engineers. Pedestrian comfort is primary important for the Engineers who design different pedestrian facilities. Pedestrian comfort and safety can be measured in terms of different level of service (LOS) of the facilities. In this study video data on pedestrian movement have been collected from different railway foot over bridges (FOB) in India. The level of service of those facilities has been analyzed. A cellular automata based model has been formulated to mimic the route choice behaviour of the pedestrians on the foot over bridges.

Keywords: cellular automata model, foot over bridge, level of service, pedestrian

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756 Effects of Applying Low-Dye Taping in Performing Double-Leg Squat on Electromyographic Activity of Lower Extremity Muscles for Collegiate Basketball Players with Excessive Foot Pronation

Authors: I. M. K. Ho, S. K. Y. Chan, K. H. P. Lam, G. M. W. Tong, N. C. Y. Yeung, J. T. C. Luk

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Low-dye taping (LDT) is commonly used for treating foot problems, such as plantar fasciitis, and supporting foot arch for runners and non-athletes patients with pes planus. The potential negative impact of pronated feet leading to tibial and femoral internal rotation via the entire kinetic chain reaction was postulated and identified. The changed lower limb biomechanics potentially leading to poor activation of hip and knee stabilizers, such as gluteus maximus and medius, may associate with higher risk of knee injuries including patellofemoral pain syndrome and ligamentous sprain in many team sports players. It is therefore speculated that foot arch correction with LDT might enhance the use of gluteal muscles. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of applying LDT on surface electromyographic (sEMG) activity of superior gluteus maximus (SGMax), inferior gluteus maximus (IGMax), gluteus medius (GMed) and tibialis anterior (TA) during double-leg squat. 12 male collegiate basketball players (age: 21.72.5 years; body fat: 12.43.6%; navicular drop: 13.72.7mm) with at least three years regular basketball training experience participated in this study. Participants were excluded if they had recent history of lower limb injuries, over 16.6% body fat and lesser than 10mm drop in navicular drop (ND) test. Recruited subjects visited the laboratory once for the within-subject crossover study. Maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) tests on all selected muscles were performed in randomized order followed by sEMG test on double-leg squat during LDT and non-LDT conditions in counterbalanced order. SGMax, IGMax, GMed and TA activities during the entire 2-second concentric and 2-second eccentric phases were normalized and interpreted as %MVIC. The magnitude of the difference between taped and non-taped conditions of each muscle was further assessed via standardized effect90% confidence intervals (CI) with non-clinical magnitude-based inference. Paired samples T-test showed a significant decrease (4.71.4mm) in ND (95% CI: 3.8, 5.6; p < 0.05) while no significant difference was observed between taped and non-taped conditions in sEMG tests for all muscles and contractions (p > 0.05). On top of traditional significant testing, magnitude-based inference showed possibly increase in IGMax activity (small standardized effect: 0.270.44), likely increase in GMed activity (small standardized effect: 0.340.34) and possibly increase in TA activity (small standardized effect: 0.220.29) during eccentric phase. It is speculated that the decrease of navicular drop supported by LDT application could potentially enhance the use of inferior gluteus maximus and gluteus medius especially during eccentric phase in this study. As the eccentric phase of double-leg squat is an important component of landing activities in basketball, further studies on the onset and amount of gluteal activation during jumping and landing activities with LDT are recommended. Since both hip and knee kinematics were not measured in this study, the underlying cause of the observed increase in gluteal activation during squat after LDT is inconclusive. In this regard, the investigation of relationships between LDT application, ND, hip and knee kinematics, and gluteal muscle activity during sports specific jumping and landing tasks should be focused in the future.

Keywords: flat foot, gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, injury prevention

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755 'Call Drop': A Problem for Handover Minimizing the Call Drop Probability Using Analytical and Statistical Method

Authors: Anshul Gupta, T. Shankar

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In this paper, we had analyzed the call drop to provide a good quality of service to user. By optimizing it we can increase the coverage area and also the reduction of interference and congestion created in a network. Basically handover is the transfer of call from one cell site to another site during a call. Here we have analyzed the whole network by two method-statistic model and analytic model. In statistic model we have collected all the data of a network during busy hour and normal 24 hours and in analytic model we have the equation through which we have to find the call drop probability. By avoiding unnecessary handovers we can increase the number of calls per hour. The most important parameter is co-efficient of variation on which the whole paper discussed.

Keywords: coefficient of variation, mean, standard deviation, call drop probability, handover

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
754 Evaluation of Postural Stability in Patients with Flat Feet: A Controlled Trial

Authors: Ghada Mohamed Rashad, Doaa Ayoub Elimy, Mohamed Hussein Elgendy, Ahmed Mohamed Fathi Elshiwi, Mahmoud Ghazy

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Background: Flat feet cause changes in foot mobility, foot posture, and load distribution under the foot which influences dynamic balance, that is essential in activities of daily living and for optimal performance in sports activity. Purpose: To investigate the effect of flat feet on dynamic balance including overall stability index (OAI), anteroposterior stability index (APSI) and mediolateral stability index (MLSI). Study Design: The design of the study was an experimental design. Subjects: Forty subjects from both sexes were selected from the Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, their mean age (23.55 ± 1.74 ) years, divided into two groups, group A (8 males and 12 females) with flat feet, and group B (9 males and 11 females) with normal feet. Methods: The Navicular Drop Test was used to determine if the feet were pronated and Biodex Balance System was used to assess dynamic balance at level 8 and level 4 for both groups. Results: There was no significant difference in dynamic balance including (OSI, APSI and MLSI) of the Biodex at stability level (8) (most stable) (p = 0.56). While there was a significant difference between both groups in all dependent variables at stability level (4) (less stable level) (p = 0.0001). Conclusion: It may be concluded that flat feet have an effect on dynamic balance and there is balance affection in subjects with flat feet.

Keywords: flat feet, dynamic balance, postural stability, types of flat feet, eversion strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 422