Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5483

Search results for: wind loads simulation

5483 Modeling of Wind Loads on Heliostats Installed in South Algeria of Various Pylon Height

Authors: Hakim Merarda, Mounir Aksas, Toufik Arrif, Abd Elfateh Belaid, Amor Gama, Reski Khelifi


Knowledge of wind loads is important to develop a heliostat with good performance. These loads can be calculated by mathematical equations based on several parameters: the density, wind velocity, the aspect ratio of the mirror (height/width) and the coefficient of the height of the tower. Measurement data of the wind velocity and the density of the air are used in a numerical simulation of wind profile that was performed on heliostats with different pylon heights, with 1m^2 mirror areas and with aspect ratio of mirror equal to 1. These measurement data are taken from the meteorological station installed in Ghardaia, Algeria. The main aim of this work is to find a mathematical correlation between the wind loads and the height of the tower.

Keywords: heliostat, solar tower power, wind loads simulation, South Algeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 408
5482 Effect of Wind Braces to Earthquake Resistance of Steel Structures

Authors: H. Gokdemir


All structures are subject to vertical and lateral loads. Under these loads, structures make deformations and deformation values of structural elements mustn't exceed their capacity for structural stability. Especially, lateral loads cause critical deformations because of their random directions and magnitudes. Wind load is one of the lateral loads which can act in any direction and any magnitude. Although wind has nearly no effect on reinforced concrete structures, it must be considered for steel structures, roof systems and slender structures like minarets. Therefore, every structure must be able to resist wind loads acting parallel and perpendicular to any side. One of the effective methods for resisting lateral loads is assembling cross steel elements between columns which are called as wind bracing. These cross elements increases lateral rigidity of a structure and prevent exceeding of deformation capacity of the structural system. So, this means cross elements are also effective in resisting earthquake loads too. In this paper; Effects of wind bracing to earthquake resistance of structures are studied. Structure models (with and without wind bracing) are generated and these models are solved under both earthquake and wind loads with different seismic zone parameters. It is concluded by the calculations that; in low-seismic risk zones, wind bracing can easily resist earthquake loads and no additional reinforcement for earthquake loads is necessary. Similarly; in high-seismic risk zones, earthquake cross elements resist wind loads too.

Keywords: wind bracings, earthquake, steel structures, vertical and lateral loads

Procedia PDF Downloads 375
5481 Dynamic Behaviors of a Floating Bridge with Mooring Lines under Wind and Wave Excitations

Authors: Chungkuk Jin, Moohyun Kim, Woo Chul Chung


This paper presents global performance and dynamic behaviors of a discrete-pontoon-type floating bridge with mooring lines in time domain under wind and wave excitations. The structure is designed for long-distance and deep-water crossing and consists of the girder, columns, pontoons, and mooring lines. Their functionality and behaviors are investigated by using elastic-floater/mooring fully-coupled dynamic simulation computer program. Dynamic wind, first- and second-order wave forces, and current loads are considered as environmental loads. Girder’s dynamic responses and mooring tensions are analyzed under different analysis methods and environmental conditions. Girder’s lateral responses are highly influenced by the second-order wave and wind loads while the first-order wave load mainly influences its vertical responses.

Keywords: floating bridge, mooring line, pontoon, wave excitation

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
5480 Dynamic Mode Decomposition and Wake Flow Modelling of a Wind Turbine

Authors: Nor Mazlin Zahari, Lian Gan, Xuerui Mao


The power production in wind farms and the mechanical loads on the turbines are strongly impacted by the wake of the wind turbine. Thus, there is a need for understanding and modelling the turbine wake dynamic in the wind farm and the layout optimization. Having a good wake model is important in predicting plant performance and understanding fatigue loads. In this paper, the Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD) was applied to the simulation data generated by a Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of flow around a turbine, perturbed by upstream inflow noise. This technique is useful in analyzing the wake flow, to predict its future states and to reflect flow dynamics associated with the coherent structures behind wind turbine wake flow. DMD was employed to describe the dynamic of the flow around turbine from the DNS data. Since the DNS data comes with the unstructured meshes and non-uniform grid, the interpolation of each occurring within each element in the data to obtain an evenly spaced mesh was performed before the DMD was applied. DMD analyses were able to tell us characteristics of the travelling waves behind the turbine, e.g. the dominant helical flow structures and the corresponding frequencies. As the result, the dominant frequency will be detected, and the associated spatial structure will be identified. The dynamic mode which represented the coherent structure will be presented.

Keywords: coherent structure, Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS), dominant frequency, Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD)

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
5479 Wind Power Forecast Error Simulation Model

Authors: Josip Vasilj, Petar Sarajcev, Damir Jakus


One of the major difficulties introduced with wind power penetration is the inherent uncertainty in production originating from uncertain wind conditions. This uncertainty impacts many different aspects of power system operation, especially the balancing power requirements. For this reason, in power system development planing, it is necessary to evaluate the potential uncertainty in future wind power generation. For this purpose, simulation models are required, reproducing the performance of wind power forecasts. This paper presents a wind power forecast error simulation models which are based on the stochastic process simulation. Proposed models capture the most important statistical parameters recognized in wind power forecast error time series. Furthermore, two distinct models are presented based on data availability. First model uses wind speed measurements on potential or existing wind power plant locations, while the seconds model uses statistical distribution of wind speeds.

Keywords: wind power, uncertainty, stochastic process, Monte Carlo simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
5478 Evaluation of Wind Fragility for Set Anchor Used in Sign Structure in Korea

Authors: WooYoung Jung, Buntheng Chhorn, Min-Gi Kim


Recently, damage to domestic facilities by strong winds and typhoons are growing. Therefore, this study focused on sign structure among various vulnerable facilities. The evaluation of the wind fragility was carried out considering the destruction of the anchor, which is one of the various failure modes of the sign structure. The performance evaluation of the anchor was carried out to derive the wind fragility. Two parameters were set and four anchor types were selected to perform the pull-out and shear tests. The resistance capacity was estimated based on the experimental results. Wind loads were estimated using Monte Carlo simulation method. Based on these results, we derived the wind fragility according to anchor type and wind exposure category. Finally, the evaluation of the wind fragility was performed according to the experimental parameters such as anchor length and anchor diameter. This study shows that the depth of anchor was more significant for the safety of structure compare to diameter of anchor.

Keywords: sign structure, wind fragility, set anchor, pull-out test, shear test, Monte Carlo simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
5477 Experimental Study of Near Wake of Wind Turbines

Authors: Ramin Rezaei, Terry Ng, Abdollah Afjeh


Near wake development of a wind turbine affects the aerodynamic loads on the tower and the wind turbine. Design considerations of both isolated wind turbines and wind farms must include unsteady wake flow conditions under which the turbines must operate. The consequent aerodynamic loads could lead to over design of wind turbines and adversely affect the cost of wind turbines and, in turn, the cost of energy produced by wind turbines. Reducing the weight of turbine rotors is particularly desirable since larger wind turbine rotors can be utilized without significantly increasing the cost of the supporting structure. Larger rotor diameters produce larger swept areas and consequently greater energy production from the wind thereby reducing the levelized cost of wind energy. To understand the development and structure of the near tower wake of a wind turbine, an experimental study was conducted to describe the flow field of the near wake for both upwind and downwind turbines. The study was conducted under controlled environment of a wind tunnel using a scaled model of a turbine. The NREL 5 MW reference wind turbine was used as a baseline design and was modified as necessary to design and build upwind and downwind scaled wind turbine models. This paper presents the results of the wind tunnel study using turbine models to quantify the near wake of upwind and downwind wind turbine configurations for various lengths of tower-to-turbine spacing. The variations of mean velocity and turbulence are measured using a computer-controlled, traversing hot wire probe. Additionally, smoke flow visualizations were conducted to qualitatively study the wake. The results show a more rapid dissipation of the near wake for an upwind configuration. The results can readily be incorporated into low fidelity system level turbine simulation tools to more accurately account for the wake on the aerodynamic loads of a upwind and downwind turbines.

Keywords: hot wire anemometry, near wake, upwind and downwind turbine. Hot wire anemometry, near wake, upwind and downwind turbine

Procedia PDF Downloads 538
5476 Reliability-based Condition Assessment of Offshore Wind Turbines using SHM data

Authors: Caglayan Hizal, Hasan Emre Demirci, Engin Aktas, Alper Sezer


Offshore wind turbines consist of a long slender tower with a heavy fixed mass on the top of the tower (nacelle), together with a heavy rotating mass (blades and hub). They are always subjected to environmental loads including wind and wave loads in their service life. This study presents a three-stage methodology for reliability-based condition assessment of offshore wind-turbines against the seismic, wave and wind induced effects considering the soil-structure interaction. In this context, failure criterions are considered as serviceability limits of a monopile supporting an Offshore Wind Turbine: (a) allowable horizontal displacement at pile head should not exceed 0.2 m, (b) rotations at pile head should not exceed 0.5°. A Bayesian system identification framework is adapted to the classical reliability analysis procedure. Using this framework, a reliability assessment can be directly implemented to the updated finite element model without performing time-consuming methods. For numerical verification, simulation data of the finite model of a real offshore wind-turbine structure is investigated using the three-stage methodology.

Keywords: Offshore wind turbines, SHM, reliability assessment, soil-structure interaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
5475 Mitigation of Wind Loads on a Building Using Small Wind Turbines

Authors: Arindam Chowdhury, Andres Tremante, Mohammadtaghi Moravej, Bodhisatta Hajra, Ioannis Zisis, Peter Irwin


Extreme wind events, such as hurricanes, have caused significant damage to buildings, resulting in losses worth millions of dollars. The roof of a building is most vulnerable to wind-induced damage due to the high suctions experienced by the roof in extreme wind conditions. Wind turbines fitted to buildings can help generate energy, but to our knowledge, their application to wind load mitigation is not well known. This paper presents results from an experimental study to assess the effect of small wind turbines (developed and patented by the first and second authors) on the wind loads on a low rise building roof. The tests were carried out for an open terrain at the Wall of Wind (WOW) experimental facility at Florida International University (FIU), Miami, Florida, USA, for three cases – bare roof, roof fitted with wind turbines placed closer to the roof edges, and roof with wind turbines placed away from the roof edges. Results clearly indicate that the presence of the wind turbines reduced the mean and peak pressure coefficients (less suction) on the roof when compared to the bare deck case. Furthermore, the peak pressure coefficients were found to be lower (less suction) when the wind turbines were placed closer to the roof, than away from the roof. Flow visualization studies using smoke and gravel clearly showed that the presence of the turbines disrupted the formation of vortices formed by cornering winds, thereby reducing roof suctions and preventing lift off of roof coverings. This study shows that the wind turbines besides generating wind energy, can be used for mitigating wind induced damage to the building roof. Future research must be directed towards understanding the effect of these wind turbines on other roof geometries (e.g. hip/gable) in different terrain conditions.

Keywords: wall of wind, wind loads, wind turbine, building

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
5474 Ambient Vibration Test and Numerical Modelling of Wind Turbine Towers including Soil Structure Interaction

Authors: Heba Kamal, Ghada Saudi


Due to The rapid expansion of energy and growing number of wind turbines construction in earthquake areas, a design method for simple and accurate evaluation of seismic load to ensure structural integrity is required. In Egypt, there are some appropriate places to build wind turbine towers lie in active seismically regions, so accurate analysis is necessary for prediction of seismic loads with consideration of intensity of the earthquake, soil and structural characteristics. In this research, seismic behavior of wind turbine towers Gamesa Type G52 in Zafarana Wind Farm Egypt is investigated using experimental work by ambient vibration test, and fully dynamic analysis based on time history from El Aqaba Earthquake 1995 using 3D by PLAXIS 3D software, including the soil structure interaction effect. The results obtained from dynamic analyses are discussed. From this study, it is concluded that, the fully dynamic seismic analysis based on used PLAXIS 3D with the aid of the full scale ambient vibration test gives almost good simulation for the seismic loads that can be applied to wind turbine tower design in Egypt.

Keywords: Wind turbine towers, Zafarana Wind Farm, Gamesa Type G52, ambient vibration test

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
5473 Software Development for Both Small Wind Performance Optimization and Structural Compliance Analysis with International Safety Regulations

Authors: K. M. Yoo, M. H. Kang


Conventional commercial wind turbine design software is limited to large wind turbines due to not incorporating with low Reynold’s Number aerodynamic characteristics typically for small wind turbines. To extract maximum annual energy product from an intermediately designed small wind turbine associated with measured wind data, numerous simulation is highly recommended to have a best fitting planform design with proper airfoil configuration. Since depending upon wind distribution with average wind speed, an optimal wind turbine planform design changes accordingly. It is theoretically not difficult, though, it is very inconveniently time-consuming design procedure to finalize conceptual layout of a desired small wind turbine. Thus, to help simulations easier and faster, a GUI software is developed to conveniently iterate and change airfoil types, wind data, and geometric blade data as well. With magnetic generator torque curve, peak power tracking simulation is also available to better match with the magnetic generator. Small wind turbine often lacks starting torque due to blade optimization. Thus this simulation is also embedded along with yaw design. This software provides various blade cross section details at user’s design convenience such as skin thickness control with fiber direction option, spar shape, and their material properties. Since small wind turbine is under international safety regulations with fatigue damage during normal operations and safety load analyses with ultimate excessive loads, load analyses are provided with each category mandated in the safety regulations.

Keywords: GUI software, Low Reynold’s number aerodynamics, peak power tracking, safety regulations, wind turbine performance optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
5472 Reducing Uncertainty of Monte Carlo Estimated Fatigue Damage in Offshore Wind Turbines Using FORM

Authors: Jan-Tore H. Horn, Jørgen Juncher Jensen


Uncertainties related to fatigue damage estimation of non-linear systems are highly dependent on the tail behaviour and extreme values of the stress range distribution. By using a combination of the First Order Reliability Method (FORM) and Monte Carlo simulations (MCS), the accuracy of the fatigue estimations may be improved for the same computational efforts. The method is applied to a bottom-fixed, monopile-supported large offshore wind turbine, which is a non-linear and dynamically sensitive system. Different curve fitting techniques to the fatigue damage distribution have been used depending on the sea-state dependent response characteristics, and the effect of a bi-linear S-N curve is discussed. Finally, analyses are performed on several environmental conditions to investigate the long-term applicability of this multistep method. Wave loads are calculated using state-of-the-art theory, while wind loads are applied with a simplified model based on rotor thrust coefficients.

Keywords: fatigue damage, FORM, monopile, Monte Carlo, simulation, wind turbine

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
5471 Adaptive Envelope Protection Control for the below and above Rated Regions of Wind Turbines

Authors: Mustafa Sahin, İlkay Yavrucuk


This paper presents a wind turbine envelope protection control algorithm that protects Variable Speed Variable Pitch (VSVP) wind turbines from damage during operation throughout their below and above rated regions, i.e. from cut-in to cut-out wind speed. The proposed approach uses a neural network that can adapt to turbines and their operating points. An algorithm monitors instantaneous wind and turbine states, predicts a wind speed that would push the turbine to a pre-defined envelope limit and, when necessary, realizes an avoidance action. Simulations are realized using the MS Bladed Wind Turbine Simulation Model for the NREL 5 MW wind turbine equipped with baseline controllers. In all simulations, through the proposed algorithm, it is observed that the turbine operates safely within the allowable limit throughout the below and above rated regions. Two example cases, adaptations to turbine operating points for the below and above rated regions and protections are investigated in simulations to show the capability of the proposed envelope protection system (EPS) algorithm, which reduces excessive wind turbine loads and expectedly increases the turbine service life.

Keywords: adaptive envelope protection control, limit detection and avoidance, neural networks, ultimate load reduction, wind turbine power control

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
5470 Analysis and Design of Offshore Met Mast Supported on Jacket Substructure

Authors: Manu Manu, Pardha J. Saradhi, Ramana M. V. Murthy


Wind Energy is accepted as one of the most developed, cost effective and proven renewable energy technologies to meet increasing electricity demands in a sustainable manner. Preliminary assessment studies along Indian Coastline by Ministry of New and Renewable Energy have indicated prospects for development of offshore wind power along Tamil Nadu Coast, India. The commercial viability of a wind project mainly depends on wind characteristics on site. Hence, it is internationally recommended to perform site-specific wind resource assessment based on two years’ wind profile as a part of the feasibility study. Conventionally, guy wire met mast are used onshore for the collection of wind profile. Installation of similar structure in offshore requires complex marine spread and are very expensive. In the present study, an attempt is made to develop 120 m long lattice tower supported on the jacket, piled to the seabed at Rameshwaram, Tamil Nadu, India. Offshore met-masts are subjected to combined wind and hydrodynamic loads, and these lateral loads should be safely transferred to soil. The wind loads are estimated based on gust factor method, and the hydrodynamic loads are estimated by Morison’s equation along with suitable wave theory. The soil is modeled as three nonlinear orthogonal springs based on API standards. The structure configuration and optimum member sizes are obtained for extreme cyclone events. The dynamic behavior of mast under coupled wind and wave loads is also studied. The static responses of a mast with jacket type offshore platform have been studied using a frame model in SESAM. It is found from the study that the maximum displacement at the top of the mast for the random wave is 0.003 m and that of the tower for wind is 0.08 m during the steady state. The dynamic analysis results indicate that the structure is safe against coupled wind and wave loading.

Keywords: offshore wind, mast, static, aerodynamic load, hydrodynamic load

Procedia PDF Downloads 108
5469 Wind Fragility for Soundproof Wall with the Variation of Section Shape of Frame

Authors: Seong Do Kim, Woo Young Jung


Recently, damages due to typhoons and strong wind are on the rise. Considering this issue, we evaluated the performance of soundproofing walls based on the strong wind fragility by means of numerical analysis. Among the components of the soundproof wall, aluminum frame was the most vulnerable member, thus we have considered different section of aluminum frame in the determination of wind fragility. Wind load was randomly generated using Monte Carlo Simulation method. Moreover, limit state was based on the test standard of road construction soundproofing wall. In this study, the strong wind fragility was determined by considering the influence factors of wind exposure category, soundproof wall’s installation position, and shape of aluminum frame section. Results of this study could be used to determine the section shape of the frame that has high resistance to the wind during construction of the soundproofing wall.

Keywords: aluminum frame soundproofing wall, Monte Carlo simulation, numerical simulation, wind fragility

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
5468 Using High Performance Concrete in Finite Element Modeling of Grouted Connections for Offshore Wind Turbine Structures

Authors: A. Aboubakr, E. Fehling, S. A. Mourad, M. Omar


Wind energy is one of the most effective renewable sources especially offshore wind energy although offshore wind technology is more costly to produce. It is well known that offshore wind energy can potentially be very cheap once infrastructure and researches improve. Laterally, the trend is to construct offshore wind energy to generate the electricity form wind. This leads to intensive research in order to improve the infrastructures. Offshore wind energy is the construction of wind farms in bodies of water to generate electricity from wind. The most important part in offshore wind turbine structure is the foundation and its connection with the wind tower. This is the main difference between onshore and offshore structures. Grouted connection between the foundation and the wind tower is the most important part of the building process when constructing wind offshore turbines. Most attention should be paid to the actual grout connection as this transfers the loads safely from tower to foundations and the soil also. In this paper, finite element analyses have been carried out for studying the behaviour of offshore grouted connection for wind turbine structures. ATENA program have been used for non-linear analysis simulation of the real structural behavior thus demonstrating the crushing, cracking, contact between the two materials and steel yielding. A calibration of the material used in the simulation has been carried out assuring an accurate model of the used material by ATENA program. This calibration was performed by comparing the results from the ATENA program with experimental results to validate the material properties used in ATENA program. Three simple patch test models with different properties have been performed. The research is concluded with a result that the calibration showing a good agreement between the ATENA program material behaviors and the experimental results.

Keywords: grouted connection, 3D modeling, finite element analysis, offshore wind energy turbines, stresses

Procedia PDF Downloads 411
5467 Dynamic Wind Effects in Tall Buildings: A Comparative Study of Synthetic Wind and Brazilian Wind Standard

Authors: Byl Farney Cunha Junior


In this work the dynamic three-dimensional analysis of a 47-story building located in Goiania city when subjected to wind loads generated using both the Wind Brazilian code, NBR6123 (ABNT, 1988) and the Synthetic-Wind method is realized. To model the frames three different methodologies are used: the shear building model and both bi and three-dimensional finite element models. To start the analysis, a plane frame is initially studied to validate the shear building model and, in order to compare the results of natural frequencies and displacements at the top of the structure the same plane frame was modeled using the finite element method through the SAP2000 V10 software. The same steps were applied to an idealized 20-story spacial frame that helps in the presentation of the stiffness correction process applied to columns. Based on these models the two methods used to generate the Wind loads are presented: a discrete model proposed in the Wind Brazilian code, NBR6123 (ABNT, 1988) and the Synthetic-Wind method. The method uses the Davenport spectrum which is divided into a variety of frequencies to generate the temporal series of loads. Finally, the 47- story building was analyzed using both the three-dimensional finite element method through the SAP2000 V10 software and the shear building model. The models were loaded with Wind load generated by the Wind code NBR6123 (ABNT, 1988) and by the Synthetic-Wind method considering different wind directions. The displacements and internal forces in columns and beams were compared and a comparative study considering a situation of a full elevated reservoir is realized. As can be observed the displacements obtained by the SAP2000 V10 model are greater when loaded with NBR6123 (ABNT, 1988) wind load related to the permanent phase of the structure’s response.

Keywords: finite element method, synthetic wind, tall buildings, shear building

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
5466 Dynamic Two-Way FSI Simulation for a Blade of a Small Wind Turbine

Authors: Alberto Jiménez-Vargas, Manuel de Jesús Palacios-Gallegos, Miguel Ángel Hernández-López, Rafael Campos-Amezcua, Julio Cesar Solís-Sanchez


An optimal wind turbine blade design must be able of capturing as much energy as possible from the wind source available at the area of interest. Many times, an optimal design means the use of large quantities of material and complicated processes that make the wind turbine more expensive, and therefore, less cost-effective. For the construction and installation of a wind turbine, the blades may cost up to 20% of the outline pricing, and become more important due to they are part of the rotor system that is in charge of transmitting the energy from the wind to the power train, and where the static and dynamic design loads for the whole wind turbine are produced. The aim of this work is the develop of a blade fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulation that allows the identification of the major damage zones during the normal production situation, and thus better decisions for design and optimization can be taken. The simulation is a dynamic case, since we have a time-history wind velocity as inlet condition instead of a constant wind velocity. The process begins with the free-use software NuMAD (NREL), to model the blade and assign material properties to the blade, then the 3D model is exported to ANSYS Workbench platform where before setting the FSI system, a modal analysis is made for identification of natural frequencies and modal shapes. FSI analysis is carried out with the two-way technic which begins with a CFD simulation to obtain the pressure distribution on the blade surface, then these results are used as boundary condition for the FEA simulation to obtain the deformation levels for the first time-step. For the second time-step, CFD simulation is reconfigured automatically with the next time-step inlet wind velocity and the deformation results from the previous time-step. The analysis continues the iterative cycle solving time-step by time-step until the entire load case is completed. This work is part of a set of projects that are managed by a national consortium called “CEMIE-Eólico” (Mexican Center in Wind Energy Research), created for strengthen technological and scientific capacities, the promotion of creation of specialized human resources, and to link the academic with private sector in national territory. The analysis belongs to the design of a rotor system for a 5 kW wind turbine design thought to be installed at the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, Mexico.

Keywords: blade, dynamic, fsi, wind turbine

Procedia PDF Downloads 382
5465 Solutions for Comfort and Safety on Vibrations Resulting from the Action of the Wind on the Building in the Form of Portico with Four Floors

Authors: G. B. M. Carvalho, V. A. C. Vale, E. T. L. Cöuras Ford


With the aim of increasing the levels of comfort and security structures, the study of dynamic loads on buildings has been one of the focuses in the area of control engineering, civil engineering and architecture. Thus, this work presents a study based on simulation of the dynamics of buildings in the form of portico subjected to wind action, besides presenting an action of passive control, using for this the dynamics of the structure, consequently representing a system appropriated on environmental issues. These control systems are named the dynamic vibration absorbers.

Keywords: dynamic vibration absorber, structure, comfort, safety, wind behavior, structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
5464 Studies on Performance of an Airfoil and Its Simulation

Authors: Rajendra Roul


The main objective of the project is to bring attention towards the performance of an aerofoil when exposed to the fluid medium inside the wind tunnel. This project aims at involvement of civil as well as mechanical engineering thereby making itself as a multidisciplinary project. The airfoil of desired size is taken into consideration for the project to carry out effectively. An aerofoil is the shape of the wing or blade of propeller, rotor or turbine. Lot of experiment have been carried out through wind-tunnel keeping aerofoil as a reference object to make a future forecast regarding the design of turbine blade, car and aircraft. Lift and drag now become the major identification factor for any design industry which shows that wind tunnel testing along with software analysis (ANSYS) becomes the mandatory task for any researchers to forecast an aerodynamics design. This project is an initiative towards the mitigation of drag, better lift and analysis of wake surface profile by investigating the surface pressure distribution. The readings has been taken on airfoil model in Wind Tunnel Testing Machine (WTTM) at different air velocity 20m/sec, 25m/sec, 30m/sec and different angle of attack 00,50,100,150,200. Air velocity and pressures are measured in several ways in wind tunnel testing machine by use to measuring instruments like Anemometer and Multi tube manometer. Moreover to make the analysis more accurate Ansys fluent contribution become substantial and subsequently the CFD simulation results. Analysis on an Aerofoil have a wide spectrum of application other than aerodynamics including wind loads in the design of buildings and bridges for structural engineers.

Keywords: wind-tunnel, aerofoil, Ansys, multitube manometer

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
5463 Fluid-Structure Interaction Analysis of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Blade Made with Natural Fiber Based Composite Material

Authors: Ivan D. Ortega, Juan D. Castro, Alberto Pertuz, Manuel Martinez


One of the problems considered when scientists talk about climate change is the necessity of utilizing renewable sources of energy, on this category there are many approaches to the problem, one of them is wind energy and wind turbines whose designs have frequently changed along many years trying to achieve a better overall performance on different conditions. From that situation, we get the two main types known today: Vertical and Horizontal axis wind turbines, which have acronyms VAWT and HAWT, respectively. This research aims to understand how well suited a composite material, which is still in development, made with natural origin fibers is for its implementation on vertical axis wind turbines blades under certain wind loads. The study consisted on acquiring the mechanical properties of the materials to be used which where bactris guineenis, also known as pama de lata in Colombia, and adhesive that acts as the matrix which had not been previously studied to the point required for this project. Then, a simplified 3D model of the airfoil was developed and tested under some preliminary loads using finite element analysis (FEA), these loads were acquired in the Colombian Chicamocha Canyon. Afterwards, a more realistic pressure profile was obtained using computational fluid dynamics which took into account the 3D shape of the complete blade and its rotation. Finally, the blade model was subjected to the wind loads using what is known as one way fluidstructure interaction (FSI) and its behavior analyzed to draw conclusions. The observed overall results were positive since the material behaved fairly as expected. Data suggests the material would be really useful in this kind of applications in small to medium size turbines if it is given more attention and time to develop.

Keywords: CFD, FEA, FSI, natural fiber, VAWT

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
5462 Design and Development of Wind Turbine Emulator to Operate with 1.5 kW Induction Generator

Authors: Himani Ratna Dahiya


This paper contributes to design a Wind Emulator coupled to 1.5 kW Induction generator for Wind Energy Conversion System. A wind turbine emulator (WTE) is important equipment for developing wind energy conversion systems. It offers a controllable test environment that allows the evaluation and improvement of control schemes for electric generators that is hard to achieve with an actual wind turbine since the wind speed varies randomly. In this paper a wind emulator is modeled and simulated using MATLAB. Verification of the simulation results is done by experimental setup using DC motor-Induction generator set, LABVIEW and data acquisition card.

Keywords: Wind Turbine Emulator, LABVIEW, matlab, induction generator

Procedia PDF Downloads 492
5461 Site Selection and Construction Mechanism of the Island Settlements in China Based on CFD-GIS Technology

Authors: Weng Jiantao, Wu Yiqun


The efficiency of natural ventilation, wind pressure distribution on building surface, wind comfort for pedestrians and buildings’ wind tolerance in traditional settlements are closely related to the pattern of terrain. On the basis of field research on the typical island terrain in China, the physical and mathematical models are established by using CFD software, and then the simulation results of the wind field are exported. We discuss the relationship between wind direction and wind field results. Furthermore simulation results are imported into ArcGIS platform. The evaluation model of island site selection is established with considering slope factor. We realize the visual model of site selection on complex island terrain. The multi-plans of certain residential are discussed based on wind simulation; at last the optimal project is selected. Results can provide the theory guidance for settlement planning and construction in China's traditional island.

Keywords: CFD, island terrain, site selection, construction mechanism

Procedia PDF Downloads 419
5460 Assessing Effectiveness of Outrigger and Belt Truss System for Tall Buildings under Wind Loadings

Authors: Nirand Anunthanakul


This paper is to investigate a 54-story reinforced concrete residential tall building structures—238.8 meters high. Shear walls, core walls, and columns are the primary vertical components. Other special lateral components—core-outrigger and belt trusses—are studied and combined with the structural system in order to increase the structural stability during severe lateral load events, particularly, wind loads. The wind tunnel tests are conducted using the force balance technique. The overall wind loads and dynamics response of the building are also measured for 360 degrees of azimuth—basis for 10-degree intervals. The results from numerical analysis indicate that an outrigger and belt truss system clearly engages perimeter columns to efficiently reduce acceleration index and lateral deformations at the top level so that the building structures achieve lateral stability, and meet standard provision values.

Keywords: outrigger, belt truss, tall buildings, wind loadings

Procedia PDF Downloads 479
5459 Wind Turbines Optimization: Shield Structure for a High Wind Speed Conditions

Authors: Daniyar Seitenov, Nazim Mir-Nasiri


Optimization of horizontal axis semi-exposed wind turbine has been performed using a shield protection that automatically protects the generator shaft at extreme wind speeds from over speeding, mechanical damage and continues generating electricity during the high wind speed conditions. A semi-exposed to wind generator has been designed and its structure has been described in this paper. The simplified point-force dynamic load model on the blades has been derived for normal and extreme wind conditions with and without shield involvement. Numerical simulation has been conducted at different values of wind speed to study the efficiency of shield application. The obtained results show that the maximum power generated by the wind turbine with shield does not exceed approximately the rated value of the generator, where shield serves as an automatic break for extreme wind speed values of 15 m/sec and above. Meantime the wind turbine without shield produced a power that is much larger than the rated value. The optimized horizontal axis semi-exposed wind turbine with shield protection is suitable for low and medium power generation when installed on the roofs of high rise buildings for harvesting wind energy. Wind shield works automatically with no power consumption. The structure of the generator with the protection, math simulation of kinematics and dynamics of power generation has been described in details in this paper.

Keywords: renewable energy, wind turbine, wind turbine optimization, high wind speed

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5458 Wind Turbine Wake Prediction and Validation under a Stably-Stratified Atmospheric Boundary Layer

Authors: Yilei Song, Linlin Tian, Ning Zhao


Turbulence energetics and structures in the wake of large-scale wind turbines under the stably-stratified atmospheric boundary layer (SABL) can be complicated due to the presence of low-level jets (LLJs), a region of higher wind speeds than the geostrophic wind speed. With a modified one-k-equation, eddy viscosity model specified for atmospheric flows as the sub-grid scale (SGS) model, a realistic atmospheric state of the stable ABL is well reproduced by large-eddy simulation (LES) techniques. Corresponding to the precursor stably stratification, the detailed wake properties of a standard 5-MW wind turbine represented as an actuator line model are provided. An engineering model is proposed for wake prediction based on the simulation statistics and gets validated. Results confirm that the proposed wake model can provide good predictions for wind turbines under the SABL.

Keywords: large-eddy simulation, stably-stratified atmospheric boundary layer, wake model, wind turbine wake

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5457 Emulation of a Wind Turbine Using Induction Motor Driven by Field Oriented Control

Authors: L. Benaaouinate, M. Khafallah, A. Martinez, A. Mesbahi, T. Bouragba


This paper concerns with the modeling, simulation, and emulation of a wind turbine emulator for standalone wind energy conversion systems. By using emulation system, we aim to reproduce the dynamic behavior of the wind turbine torque on the generator shaft: it provides the testing facilities to optimize generator control strategies in a controlled environment, without reliance on natural resources. The aerodynamic, mechanical, electrical models have been detailed as well as the control of pitch angle using Fuzzy Logic for horizontal axis wind turbines. The wind turbine emulator consists mainly of an induction motor with AC power drive with torque control. The control of the induction motor and the mathematical models of the wind turbine are designed with MATLAB/Simulink environment. The simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the induction motor control system and the functionality of the wind turbine emulator for providing all necessary parameters of the wind turbine system such as wind speed, output torque, power coefficient and tip speed ratio. The findings are of direct practical relevance.

Keywords: electrical generator, induction motor drive, modeling, pitch angle control, real time control, renewable energy, wind turbine, wind turbine emulator

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5456 Experimental and CFD of Desgined Small Wind Turbine

Authors: Tarek A. Mekail, Walid M. A. Elmagid


Many researches have concentrated on improving the aerodynamic performance of wind turbine blade through testing and theoretical studies. A small wind turbine blade is designed, fabricated and tested. The power performance of small horizontal axis wind turbines is simulated in details using Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD). The three-dimensional CFD models are presented using ANSYS-CFX v13 software for predicting the performance of a small horizontal axis wind turbine. The simulation results are compared with the experimental data measured from a small wind turbine model, which designed according to a vehicle-based test system. The analysis of wake effect and aerodynamic of the blade can be carried out when the rotational effect was simulated. Finally, comparison between experimental, numerical and analytical performance has been done. The comparison is fairly good.

Keywords: small wind turbine, CFD of wind turbine, CFD, performance of wind turbine, test of small wind turbine, wind turbine aerodynamic, 3D model

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5455 Simulation of Wind Generator with Fixed Wind Turbine under Matlab-Simulink

Authors: Mahdi Motahari, Mojtaba Farzaneh, Armin Parsian Nejad


The rapidly growing wind industry is highly expressing the need for education and training worldwide, particularly on the system level. Modelling and simulating wind generator system using Matlab-Simulink provides expert help in understanding wind systems engineering and system design. Working under Matlab-Simulink we present the integration of the developed WECS model with public electrical grid. A test of the calculated power and Cp related to the experimental equivalent data, using statistical analysis is performed. The statistical indicators of accuracy show better results of the presented method with RMSE: 21%, 22%, MBE : 0.77%, 0.12 % and MAE :3%, 4%.On the other hand we study its behavior when integrated in whole power system. Three level of wind speeds have been chosen: low with 5m/s as the mean value, medium with 8m/s as the mean value and high speed with 12m/s as the mean value. These allowed predicting and supervising the active power produced by the system, characterized respectively by the middle powers of -150 kW, -250kW and -480 kW which will be injected directly into the public electrical grid and the reactive power, characterized respectively by the middle powers of 60 kW, 180 kW and 320 kW and will be consumed by the wind generator.

Keywords: modelling, simulation, wind generator, fixed speed wind turbine, Matlab-Simulink

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5454 Fluid–Structure Interaction Modeling of Wind Turbines

Authors: Andre F. A. Cyrino


Knowing that the technological advance is the focus on the efficient extraction of energy from wind, and therefore in the design of wind turbine structures, this work aims the study of the fluid-structure interaction of an idealized wind turbine. The blade was studied as a beam attached to a cylindrical Hub with rotation axis pointing the air flow that passes through the rotor. Using the calculus of variations and the finite difference method the blade will be simulated by a discrete number of nodes and the aerodynamic forces were evaluated. The study presented here was written on Matlab and performs a numeric simulation of a simplified model of windmill containing a Hub and three blades modeled as Euler-Bernoulli beams for small strains and under the constant and uniform wind. The mathematical approach is done by Hamilton’s Extended Principle with the aerodynamic loads applied on the nodes considering the local relative wind speed, angle of attack and aerodynamic lift and drag coefficients. Due to the wide range of angles of attack, a wind turbine blade operates, the airfoil used on the model was NREL SERI S809 which allowed obtaining equations for Cl and Cd as functions of the angle of attack, based on a NASA study. Tridimensional flow effects were no taken in part, as well as torsion of the beam, which only bends. The results showed the dynamic response of the system in terms of displacement and rotational speed as the turbine reached the final speed. Although the results were not compared to real windmills or more complete models, the resulting values were consistent with the size of the system and wind speed.

Keywords: blade aerodynamics, fluid–structure interaction, wind turbine aerodynamics, wind turbine blade

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