Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6368

Search results for: ultimate load reduction

6368 Numerical Study on the Ultimate Load of Offshore Two-Planar Tubular KK-Joints at Fire-Induced Elevated Temperatures

Authors: Hamid Ahmadi, Neda Azari-Dodaran


A total of 270 nonlinear steady-state finite element (FE) analyses were performed on 54 FE models of two-planar circular hollow section (CHS) KK-joints subjected to axial loading at five different temperatures (20 ºC, 200 ºC, 400 ºC, 550 ºC, and 700 ºC). The primary goal was to investigate the effects of temperature and geometrical characteristics on the ultimate strength, modes of failure, and initial stiffness of the KK-joints. Results indicated that on an average basis, the ultimate load of a two-planar tubular KK-joint at 200 ºC, 400 ºC, 550 ºC, and 700 ºC is 90%, 75%, 45%, and 16% of the joint’s ultimate load at ambient temperature, respectively. Outcomes of the parametric study showed that replacing the yield stress at ambient temperature with the corresponding value at elevated temperature to apply the EN 1993-1-8 equations for the calculation of the joint’s ultimate load at elevated temperatures may lead to highly unconservative results that might endanger the safety of the structure. Results of the parametric study were then used to develop a set of design formulas, through nonlinear regression analyses, to calculate the ultimate load of two-planar tubular KK-joints subjected to axial loading at elevated temperatures.

Keywords: ultimate load, two-planar tubular KK-joint, axial loading, elevated temperature, parametric equation

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6367 Comparison of ANN and Finite Element Model for the Prediction of Ultimate Load of Thin-Walled Steel Perforated Sections in Compression

Authors: Zhi-Jun Lu, Qi Lu, Meng Wu, Qian Xiang, Jun Gu


The analysis of perforated steel members is a 3D problem in nature, therefore the traditional analytical expressions for the ultimate load of thin-walled steel sections cannot be used for the perforated steel member design. In this study, finite element method (FEM) and artificial neural network (ANN) were used to simulate the process of stub column tests based on specific codes. Results show that compared with those of the FEM model, the ultimate load predictions obtained from ANN technique were much closer to those obtained from the physical experiments. The ANN model for the solving the hard problem of complex steel perforated sections is very promising.

Keywords: artificial neural network (ANN), finite element method (FEM), perforated sections, thin-walled Steel, ultimate load

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
6366 Effect of Elastic Modulus Varieties on Helical Pile Behavior in Sand

Authors: Javad Shamsi Soosahab, Reza Ziaie Moayed


The compressive and tensile bearing capacity of helical piles in sand is investigated by means of numerical modeling. The analyses are carried out using two-dimensional finite-element software, Optum G2. The load–displacement behavior under compression and tension is compared in different relative densities for constant and various elastic modulus. The criterion used to find the ultimate axial load is the load corresponding to 5% of the helical diameter. The results show that relative density of sand plays an essential role in the response of ultimate capacities towards various condition. Increase in elastic modulus with depth is found to play a relatively more significant role to the increase in ultimate compressive load capacities, however tension bearing capacity decreases.

Keywords: helical piles, Optum G2, relative density, constant and various elastic modulus

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
6365 A Simple Design Procedure for Calculating the Column Ultimate Load of Steel Frame Structures

Authors: Abdul Hakim Chikho


Calculating the ultimate load of a column in a sway framed structure involves, in the currently used design method, the calculation of the column effective length and utilizing the interaction formulas or tables. Therefore, no allowance is usually made for the effects of the presence of semi rigid connections or the presence of infill panels. In this paper, a new and simple design procedure is recommend to calculate the ultimate load of a framed Column allowing for the presence of rotational end restraints, semi rigid connections, the column end moments resulted from the applied vertical and horizontal loading and infill panels in real steel structure. In order to verify the accuracy of the recommended method to predict good and safe estimations of framed column ultimate loads, several examples have been solved utilizing the recommended procedure, and the results were compared to those obtained using a second order computer program, and good correlation had been obtained. Therefore, the accuracy of the proposed method to predict the Behaviour of practical steel columns in framed structures has been verified.

Keywords: column ultimate load, semi rigid connections, steel column, infill panel, steel structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
6364 Effects of Geometrical Parameters on Static Strength of Tubular KT-Joints at Fire Condition

Authors: Hamid Ahmadi, Neda Azari Dodaran


This paper aims to study the structural behavior of tubular KT-joints subjected to axial loading at fire induced elevated temperatures. At first, a finite element (FE) model was developed and validated against the data available from experimental tests. Then, a set of 810 FE analyses were performed to study the influence of temperature and dimensionless geometrical parameters (β, γ, θ, and τ) on the ultimate strength and initial stiffness. The joints were analyzed under two types of axial loading and five different temperatures (20 ºC, 200 ºC, 400 ºC, 550 ºC, and 700 ºC). Results show that the ultimate strength and initial stiffness of KT-joints decrease considerably by increasing the temperature. In the joints having bigger values of the β, the temperature elevation leads to less reduction in ultimate strength; while in the joints with bigger values of the γ, the temperature elevation results in more reduction in ultimate strength. The influence of the θ on the ultimate strength is independent from the temperature. To our knowledge, there is no design formula available for determining the ultimate strength of KT-joints at elevated temperatures. Hence, after parametric study, two equations were developed through nonlinear regression, for calculating the ultimate strength of KT-joints at elevated temperatures.

Keywords: axial loads, fire condition, parametric formula, static strength, tubular KT-joint

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
6363 Effect of Twin Cavities on the Axially Loaded Pile in Clay

Authors: Ali A. Al-Jazaairry, Tahsin T. Sabbagh


Presence of cavities in soil predictably induces ground deformation and changes in soil stress, which might influence adjacent existing pile foundations, though the effect of twin cavities on a nearby pile needs to be understood. This research is an attempt to identify the behaviour of piles subjected to axial load and embedded in cavitied clayey soil. A series of finite element modelling were conducted to investigate the performance of piled foundation located in such soils. The validity of the numerical simulation was evaluated by comparing it with available field test and alternative analytical model. The study involved many parameters such as twin cavities size, depth, spacing between cavities, and eccentricity of cavities from the pile axis on the pile performance subjected to axial load. The study involved many cases; in each case, a critical value has been found in which cavities’ presence has shown minimum impact on the behaviour of pile. Load-displacement relationships of the affecting parameters on the pile behaviour were presented to provide helpful information for designing piled foundation situated near twin underground cavities. It was concluded that the presence of the cavities within the soil mass reduces the ultimate capacity of pile. This reduction differs according to the size and location of the cavity.

Keywords: axial load, clay, finite element, pile, twin cavities, ultimate capacity

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
6362 Studying the Structural Behaviour of RC Beams with Circular Openings of Different Sizes and Locations Using FE Method

Authors: Ali Shubbar, Hasanain Alwan, Ee Yu Phur, John McLoughlin, Ameer Al-khaykan


This paper aims to investigate the structural behaviour of RC beams with circular openings of different sizes and locations modelled using ABAQUS FEM software. Seven RC beams with the dimensions of 1200 mm×150 mm×150 mm were tested under three-point loading. Group A consists of three RC beams incorporating circular openings with diameters of 40 mm, 55 mm and 65 mm in the shear zone. However, Group B consists of three RC beams incorporating circular openings with diameters of 40 mm, 55 mm and 65 mm in the flexural zone. The final RC beam did not have any openings, to provide a control beam for comparison. The results show that increasing the diameter of the openings increases the maximum deflection and the ultimate failure load decreases relative to the control beam. In the shear zone, the presence of the openings caused an increase in the maximum deflection ranging between 4% and 22% and a decrease in the ultimate failure load of between 26% and 36% compared to the control beam. However, the presence of the openings in the flexural zone caused an increase in the maximum deflection of between 1.5% and 19.7% and a decrease in the ultimate failure load of between 6% and 13% relative to the control beam. In this study, the optimum location for placing circular openings was found to be in the flexural zone of the beam with a diameter of less than 30% of the depth of the beam.

Keywords: ultimate failure load, maximum deflection, shear zone and flexural zone

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
6361 Numerical Study of Modulus of Subgrade Reaction in Eccentrically Loaded Circular Footing Resting

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, Mohammad Hossein Zade


This article is an attempt to present a numerically study of the behaviour of an eccentrically loaded circular footing resting on sand to determine ‎its ultimate bearing capacity. A surface circular footing of diameter 12 cm (D) was used as ‎shallow foundation. For this purpose, three dimensional models consist of foundation, and medium sandy soil was modelled by ABAQUS software. Bearing capacity of footing was evaluated and the ‎effects of the load eccentricity on bearing capacity, its settlement, and modulus of subgrade reaction were studied. Three different values of load eccentricity with equal space from inside the core on the core boundary and outside the core boundary, which were respectively e=0.75, 1.5, and 2.25 cm, were considered. The results show that by increasing the load eccentricity, the ultimate load and the ‎modulus of subgrade reaction decreased.

Keywords: circular foundation, sand, eccentric loading, modulus of subgrade reaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
6360 Effect of Fire Exposure on the Ultimate Strength of Loaded Columns

Authors: Hatem Hamdy Ghieth


In the recent time many fires happened in many skeleton buildings. The fire may be continues for a long time. This fire may cause a collapse of the building. This collapse may be happened due to the time of exposure to fire as well as the rate of the loading to the carrying elements. In this research a laboratory study for reinforced concrete columns under effect of fire with temperature reaches (650 ْ C) on the behavior of columns which loaded with axial load and with exposing to fire temperature only from all sides of columns. the main parameters of this study are level of load applying to the column, and the temperature applied to the fire, this temperatures was 500oC and 650oc. Nine concrete columns with dimensions 20x20x100 cms were casted one of these columns was tested to determine the ultimate load while the least were fired according to the experimental schedule.

Keywords: columns, fire duration, concrete strength, level of loading

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
6359 Axial Load Capacity of Drilled Shafts from In-Situ Test Data at Semani Site, in Albania

Authors: Neritan Shkodrani, Klearta Rrushi, Anxhela Shaha


Generally, the design of axial load capacity of deep foundations is based on the data provided from field tests, such as SPT (Standard Penetration Test) and CPT (Cone Penetration Test) tests. This paper reports the results of axial load capacity analysis of drilled shafts at a construction site at Semani, in Fier county, Fier prefecture in Albania. In this case, the axial load capacity analyses are based on the data of 416 SPT tests and 12 CPTU tests, which are carried out in this site construction using 12 boreholes (10 borings of a depth 30.0 m and 2 borings of a depth of 80.0m). The considered foundation widths range from 0.5m to 2.5 m and foundation embedment lengths is fixed at a value of 25m. SPT – based analytical methods from the Japanese practice of design (Building Standard Law of Japan) and CPT – based analytical Eslami and Fellenius methods are used for obtaining axial ultimate load capacity of drilled shafts. The considered drilled shaft (25m long and 0.5m - 2.5m in diameter) is analyzed for the soil conditions of each borehole. The values obtained from sets of calculations are shown in different charts. Then the reported axial load capacity values acquired from SPT and CPTU data are compared and some conclusions are found related to the mentioned methods of calculations.

Keywords: deep foundations, drilled shafts, axial load capacity, ultimate load capacity, allowable load capacity, SPT test, CPTU test

Procedia PDF Downloads 15
6358 Behavior of Helical Piles as Foundation of Photovoltaic Panels in Tropical Soils

Authors: Andrea J. Alarcón, Maxime Daulat, Raydel Lorenzo, Renato P. Da Cunha, Pierre Breul


Brazil has increased the use of renewable energy during the last years. Due to its sunshine and large surface area, photovoltaic panels founded in helical piles have been used to produce solar energy. Since Brazilian territory is mainly cover by highly porous structured tropical soils, when the helical piles are installed this structure is broken and its soil properties are modified. Considering the special characteristics of these soils, helical foundations behavior must be extensively studied. The first objective of this work is to determine the most suitable method to estimate the tensile capacity of helical piles in tropical soils. The second objective is to simulate the behavior of these piles in tropical soil. To obtain the rupture to assess load-displacement curves and the ultimate load, also a numerical modelling using Plaxis software was conducted. Lastly, the ultimate load and the load-displacements curves are compared with experimental values to validate the implemented model.

Keywords: finite element, helical piles, modelling, tropical soil, uplift capacity

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
6357 Behavior of Composite Construction Precast Reactive Powder RC Girder and Ordinary RC Deck Slab

Authors: Nameer A. Alwash, Dunia A. Abd AlRadha, Arshed M. Aljanaby


This study present an experimental investigation of composite behavior for hybrid reinforced concrete slab on girder from locale material in Iraq, ordinary concrete, NC, in slab and reactive powder concrete in girder ,RPC, with steel fibers of different types(straight, hook, and mix between its), tested as simply supported span subjected under two point loading, also study effects on overall behavior such as the ultimate load, crack width and deflection. The result shows that the most suitable for production girder from RPC by using 2% micro straight steel fiber, in terms of ultimate strength and min crack width. Also the results shows that using RPC in girder of composite section increased ultimate load by 79% when compared with same section made of NC, and increased the shear strength which erased the effect of changing reinforcement in shear, and using RPC in girder and epoxy (in shear transfer between composite section) (meaning no stirrups) equivalent presence of shear reinforcement by 90% when compared with same section using Φ[email protected] as shear reinforcement. And the result shows that changing the cross section girder shape of the composite section to inverted T, with same section area, increased the ultimate load by 5% when compared with same section of rectangular shape girder.

Keywords: reactive powder concrete, RPC, hybrid concrete, composite section, RC girder, RC slab, shear connecters, inverted T section, shear reinforcment, shear span over effective depth

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
6356 Lessons from Vernacular Architecture for Lightweight Construction

Authors: Alireza Taghdiri, Sara Ghanbarzade Ghomi


With the gravity load reduction in the structural and non-structural components, the lightweight construction will be achieved as well as the improvement of efficiency and functional specifications. The advantages of lightweight construction can be examined in two levels. The first is the mass reduction of load bearing structure which results in increasing internal useful space and the other one is the mass reduction of building which decreases the effects of seismic load as a result. In order to achieve this goal, the essential building materials specifications and also optimum load bearing geometry of structural systems and elements have to be considered, so lightweight materials selection particularly with lightweight aggregate for building components will be the first step of lightweight construction. In the next step, in addition to selecting the prominent samples of Iran's traditional architecture, the process of these works improvement is analyzed through the viewpoints of structural efficiency and lightweighting and also the practical methods of lightweight construction have been extracted. The optimum design of load bearing geometry of structural system has to be considered not only in the structural system elements, but also in their composition and the selection of dimensions, proportions, forms and optimum orientations, can lead to get a maximum materials efficiency for loads and stresses bearing.

Keywords: gravity load, light-weighting structural system, load bearing geometry, seismic behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 462
6355 Pull-Out Analysis of Composite Loops Embedded in Steel Reinforced Concrete Retaining Wall Panels

Authors: Pierre van Tonder, Christoff Kruger


Modular concrete elements are used for retaining walls to provide lateral support. Depending on the retaining wall layout, these precast panels may be interlocking and may be tied into the soil backfill via geosynthetic strips. This study investigates the ultimate pull-out load increase, which is possible by adding varied diameter supplementary reinforcement through embedded anchor loops within concrete retaining wall panels. Full-scale panels used in practice have four embedded anchor points. However, only one anchor loop was embedded in the center of the experimental panels. The experimental panels had the same thickness but a smaller footprint (600mm x 600mm x 140mm) area than the full-sized panels to accommodate the space limitations of the laboratory and experimental setup. The experimental panels were also cast without any bending reinforcement as would typically be obtained in the full-scale panels. The exclusion of these reinforcements was purposefully neglected to evaluate the impact of a single bar reinforcement through the center of the anchor loops. The reinforcement bars had of 8 mm, 10 mm, 12 mm, and 12 mm. 30 samples of concrete panels with embedded anchor loops were tested. The panels were supported on the edges and the anchor loops were subjected to an increasing tensile force using an Instron piston. Failures that occurred were loop failures and panel failures and a mixture thereof. There was an increase in ultimate load vs. increasing diameter as expected, but this relationship persisted until the reinforcement diameter exceeded 10 mm. For diameters larger than 10 mm, the ultimate failure load starts to decrease due to the dependency of the reinforcement bond strength to the concrete matrix. Overall, the reinforced panels showed a 14 to 23% increase in the factor of safety. Using anchor loops of 66kN ultimate load together with Y10 steel reinforcement with bent ends had shown the most promising results in reducing concrete panel pull-out failure. The Y10 reinforcement had shown, on average, a 24% increase in ultimate load achieved. Previous research has investigated supplementary reinforcement around the anchor loops. This paper extends this investigation by evaluating supplementary reinforcement placed through the panel anchor loops.

Keywords: supplementary reinforcement, anchor loops, retaining panels, reinforced concrete, pull-out failure

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
6354 Applied Methods for Lightweighting Structural Systems

Authors: Alireza Taghdiri, Sara Ghanbarzade Ghomi


With gravity load reduction in the structural and non-structural components, the lightweight construction will be achieved as well as the improvement of efficiency and functional specifications. The advantages of lightweight construction can be examined in two levels. The first is the mass reduction of load bearing structure which results in increasing internal useful space and the other one is the mass reduction of building which decreases the effects of seismic load as a result. In order to achieve this goal, the essential building materials specifications and also optimum load bearing geometry of structural systems and elements have to be considered, so lightweight materials selection particularly with lightweight aggregate for building components will be the first step of lightweight construction. In the next step, in addition to selecting the prominent samples of Iran's traditional architecture, the process of these works improvement is analyzed through the viewpoints of structural efficiency and lightweighting and also the practical methods of lightweight construction have been extracted. The optimum design of load bearing geometry of structural system has to be considered not only in the structural system elements, but also in their composition and the selection of dimensions, proportions, forms and optimum orientations, can lead to get a maximum materials efficiency for loads and stresses bearing.

Keywords: gravity load, lightweighting structural system, load bearing geometry, seismic behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 446
6353 Load Management Using Multiple Sequential Load Shaping Techniques

Authors: Amira M. Attia, Karim H. Youssef, Nabil H. Abbasi


Demand Side Management (DSM) is an essential characteristic of current and future smart grid systems. As one of DSM functions, load management aims to control customers’ total electric consumption and utility’s load factor by using various load shaping techniques. However, applying load shaping techniques such as load shifting, peak clipping, or strategic conservation individually does not provide the desired level of improvement for load factor increment and/or customer’s bill reduction. In this paper, two load shaping techniques will be simulated as constrained optimization problems. The purpose is to reflect the application of combined load shifting and strategic conservation model together at the same time, and the application of combined load shifting and peak clipping model as well. The problem will be formulated and solved by using disciplined convex programming (CVX) based MATLAB® R2013b. Simulation results will be evaluated and compared for studying the most impactful multi-techniques model in improving load curve.

Keywords: convex programing, demand side management, load shaping, multiple, building energy optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
6352 Influence of Flexural Reinforcement on the Shear Strength of RC Beams Without Stirrups

Authors: Guray Arslan, Riza Secer Orkun Keskin


Numerical investigations were conducted to study the influence of flexural reinforcement ratio on the diagonal cracking strength and ultimate shear strength of reinforced concrete (RC) beams without stirrups. Three-dimensional nonlinear finite element analyses (FEAs) of the beams with flexural reinforcement ratios ranging from 0.58% to 2.20% subjected to a mid-span concentrated load were carried out. It is observed that the load-deflection and load-strain curves obtained from the numerical analyses agree with those obtained from the experiments. It is concluded that flexural reinforcement ratio has a significant effect on the shear strength and deflection capacity of RC beams without stirrups. The predictions of the diagonal cracking strength and ultimate shear strength of beams obtained by using the equations defined by a number of codes and researchers are compared with each other and with the experimental values.

Keywords: finite element, flexural reinforcement, reinforced concrete beam, shear strength

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6351 Mechanical Behavior of Corroded RC Beams Strengthened by NSM CFRP Rods

Authors: Belal Almassri, Amjad Kreit, Firas Al Mahmoud, Raoul François


Corrosion of steel in reinforced concrete leads to several major defects. Firstly, a reduction in the crosssectional area of the reinforcement and in its ductility results in premature bar failure. Secondly, the expansion of the corrosion products causes concrete cracking and steel–concrete bond deterioration and also affects the bending stiffness of the reinforced concrete members, causing a reduction in the overall load-bearing capacity of the reinforced concrete beams. This paper investigates the validity of a repair technique using Near Surface Mounted (NSM) carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) rods to restore the mechanical performance of corrosion-damaged RC beams. In the NSM technique, the CFRP rods are placed inside pre-cut grooves and are bonded to the concrete with epoxy adhesive. Experimental results were obtained on two beams: a corroded beam that had been exposed to natural corrosion for 25 years and a control beam, (both are 3 m long) repaired in bending only. Each beam was repaired with one 6-mm-diameter NSM CFRP rod. The beams were tested in a three-point bending test up to failure. Overall stiffness and crack maps were studied before and after the repair. Ultimate capacity, ductility and failure mode were also reviewed. Finally some comparisons were made between repaired and non-repaired beams in order to assess the effectiveness of the NSM technique. The experimental results showed that the NSM technique improved the overall characteristics (ultimate load capacity and stiffness) of the control and corroded beams and allowed sufficient ductility to be restored to the repaired corroded elements, thus restoring the safety margin, despite the non-classical mode of failure that occurred in the corroded beam, with the separation of the concrete cover due to corrosion products.

Keywords: carbon fibre, corrosion, strength, mechanical testing

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
6350 Numerical Simulation of Axially Loaded to Failure Large Diameter Bored Pile

Authors: M. Ezzat, Y. Zaghloul, T. Sorour, A. Hefny, M. Eid


Ultimate capacity of large diameter bored piles is usually determined from pile loading tests as recommended by several international codes and foundation design standards. However, loading of this type of piles till achieving apparent failure is practically seldom. In this paper, numerical analyses are carried out to simulate load test of a large diameter bored pile performed at the location of Alzey highway bridge project (Germany). Test results of pile load settlement relationship till failure as well as results of the base and shaft resistances are available. Apparent failure was indicated in this test by the significant increase of the induced settlement during the last load increment applied on the pile head. Measurements of this pile load test are used to assess the quality of the numerical models investigated. Three different material soil models are implemented in the analyses: Mohr coulomb (MC), Soft soil (SS), and Modified Mohr coulomb (MMC). Very good agreement is obtained between the field measured settlement and the calculated settlement using the MMC model. Results of analysis showed also that the MMC constitutive model is superior to MC, and SS models in predicting the ultimate base and shaft resistances of the large diameter bored pile. After calibrating the numerical model, behavior of large diameter bored piles under axial loads is discussed and the formation of the plastic zone around the pile is explored. Results obtained showed that the plastic zone below the base of the pile at failure extended laterally to about four times the pile diameter and vertically to about three times the pile diameter.

Keywords: ultimate capacity, large diameter bored piles, plastic zone, failure, pile load test

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
6349 Structural Performance Evaluation of Electronic Road Sign Panels Reflecting Damage Scenarios

Authors: Junwon Seo, Bipin Adhikari, Euiseok Jeong


This paper is intended to evaluate the structural performance of welded electronic road signs under various damage scenarios (DSs) using a finite element (FE) model calibrated with full-scale ultimate load testing results. The tested electronic road sign specimen was built with a back skin made of 5052 aluminum and two channels and a frame made of 6061 aluminum, where the back skin was connected to the frame by welding. The size of the tested specimen was 1.52 m long, 1.43 m wide, and 0.28 m deep. An actuator applied vertical loads at the center of the back skin of the specimen, resulting in a displacement of 158.7 mm and an ultimate load of 153.46 kN. Using these testing data, generation and calibration of a FE model of the tested specimen were executed in ABAQUS, indicating that the difference in the ultimate load between the calibrated model simulation and full-scale testing was only 3.32%. Then, six different DSs were simulated where the areas of the welded connection in the calibrated model were diminished for the DSs. It was found that the corners at the back skin-frame joint were prone to connection failure for all the DSs, and failure of the back skin-frame connection occurred remarkably from the distant edges.

Keywords: computational analysis, damage scenarios, electronic road signs, finite element, welded connections

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6348 Influence of Concrete Cracking in the Tensile Strength of Cast-in Headed Anchors

Authors: W. Nataniel, B. Lima, J. Manoel, M. P. Filho, H. Marcos, Oliveira Mauricio, P. Ferreira


Headed reinforcement bars are increasingly used for anchorage in concrete structures. Applications include connections in composite steel-concrete structures, such as beam-column joints, in several strengthening situations as well as in more traditional uses in cast-in-place and precast structural systems. This paper investigates the reduction in the ultimate tensile capacity of embedded cast-in headed anchors due to concrete cracking. A series of nine laboratory tests are carried out to evaluate the influence of cracking on the concrete breakout strength in tension. The experimental results show that cracking affects both the resistance and load-slip response of the headed bar anchors. The strengths measured in these tests are compared to theoretical resistances calculated following the recommendations presented by fib Bulletin no. 58 (2011), ETAG 001 (2010) and ACI 318 (2014). The influences of parameters such as the effective embedment depth (hef), bar diameter (ds), and the concrete compressive strength (fc) are analysed and discussed. The theoretical recommendations are shown to be over-conservative for both embedment depths and were, in general, inaccurate in comparison to the experimental trends. The ACI 318 (2014) was the design code which presented the best performance regarding to the predictions of the ultimate load, with an average of 1.42 for the ratio between the experimental and estimated strengths, standard deviation of 0.36, and coefficient of variation equal to 0.25.

Keywords: cast-in headed anchors, concrete cone failure, uncracked concrete, cracked concrete

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
6347 Optimal Placement and Sizing of Distributed Generation in Microgrid for Power Loss Reduction and Voltage Profile Improvement

Authors: Ferinar Moaidi, Mahdi Moaidi


Environmental issues and the ever-increasing in demand of electrical energy make it necessary to have distributed generation (DG) resources in the power system. In this research, in order to realize the goals of reducing losses and improving the voltage profile in a microgrid, the allocation and sizing of DGs have been used. The proposed Genetic Algorithm (GA) is described from the array of artificial intelligence methods for solving the problem. The algorithm is implemented on the IEEE 33 buses network. This study is presented in two scenarios, primarily to illustrate the effect of location and determination of DGs has been done to reduce losses and improve the voltage profile. On the other hand, decisions made with the one-level assumptions of load are not universally accepted for all levels of load. Therefore, in this study, load modelling is performed and the results are presented for multi-levels load state.

Keywords: distributed generation, genetic algorithm, microgrid, load modelling, loss reduction, voltage improvement

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
6346 Performance of Axially Loaded Single Pile Embedded in Cohesive Soil with Cavities

Authors: Ali A. Al-Jazaairry, Tahsin T. Sabbagh


The stability of a single model pile located adjacent to a continuous cavity was studied. This paper is an attempt to understand the behaviour of axially loaded single pile embedded in clayey soil with the presences of cavities. The performance of piles located in such soils was studied analytically. A verification analysis was carried out on available studies to assess the ability of analytical model to correctly interpret the system behaviour. The study was adopted by finite element program (PLAXIS). The study included many cases; in each case, there is a critical value in which the presence of cavities has shown minimum effect on the pile performance. Figures including the load carrying capacity of pile with the affecting factors are presented. These figures provide beneficial information for pile design constructed close to underground cavities. It was concluded that the load carrying capacity of the pile is reduced by the presence of the cavity within the soil mass. This reduction varies according to the size and location of cavity.

Keywords: axial load, cavity, clay, pile, ultimate capacity

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
6345 Experimental Work to Estimate the Strength of Ferrocement Slabs Incorporating Silica Fume and Steel Fibre

Authors: Mohammed Mashrei


Ferrocement is a type of thin reinforced concrete made of cement-sand matrix with closely spaced relatively small diameter wire meshes, with or without steel bars of small diameter called skeletal steel. This work concerns on the behavior of square ferrocement slabs of dimensions (500) mm x (500) mm and 30 mm subjected to a central load. This study includes testing thirteen ferrocement slabs. The main variables considered in the experimental work are the number of wire mesh layers, percentage of silica fume and the presence of steel fiber. The effects of these variables on the behavior and load carrying capacity of tested slabs under central load were investigated. From the experimental results, it is found that by increasing the percentage of silica fume from (0 to 1.5, 3, 4.5 and 6) of weight of cement the ultimate loads are affected. Also From this study, it is observed that the load carrying capacity increases with the presence of steel fiber reinforcement, the ductility is high in the case of steel fibers. The increasing wire mesh layer from six to ten layers increased the load capacity by 76%. Also, a reduction in width of crack with increasing in number of cracks in the samples that content on steel fibers comparing with samples without steel fibers was observed from the results.

Keywords: ferrocement, fibre, silica fume, slab, strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
6344 Nonlinear Response of Infinite Beams on a Multilayer Tensionless Extensible Geosynthetic – Reinforced Earth Bed under Moving Load

Authors: K. Karuppasamy


In this paper analysis of an infinite beam resting on multilayer tensionless extensible geosynthetic reinforced granular fill - poor soil system overlying soft soil strata under moving the load with constant velocity is presented. The beam is subjected to a concentrated load moving with constant velocity. The upper reinforced granular bed is modeled by a rough membrane embedded in Pasternak shear layer overlying a series of compressible nonlinear Winkler springs representing the underlying the very poor soil. The multilayer tensionless extensible geosynthetic layer has been assumed to deform such that at the interface the geosynthetic and the soil have some deformation. Nonlinear behavior of granular fill and the very poor soil has been considered in the analysis by means of hyperbolic constitutive relationships. Governing differential equations of the soil foundation system have been obtained and solved with the help of appropriate boundary conditions. The solution has been obtained by employing finite difference method by means of Gauss-Siedel iterative scheme. Detailed parametric study has been conducted to study the influence of various parameters on the response of soil – foundation system under consideration by means of deflection and bending moment in the beam and tension mobilized in the geosynthetic layer. These parameters include the magnitude of applied load, the velocity of the load, damping, the ultimate resistance of the poor soil and granular fill layer. The range of values of parameters has been considered as per Indian Railways conditions. This study clearly observed that the comparisons of multilayer tensionless extensible geosynthetic reinforcement with poor foundation soil and magnitude of applied load, relative compressibility of granular fill and ultimate resistance of poor soil has significant influence on the response of soil – foundation system. However, for the considered range of velocity, the response has been found to be insensitive towards velocity. The ultimate resistance of granular fill layer has also been found to have no significant influence on the response of the system.

Keywords: infinite beams, multilayer tensionless extensible geosynthetic, granular layer, moving load and nonlinear behavior of poor soil

Procedia PDF Downloads 371
6343 Treatment of Grey Water from Different Restaurants in FUTA Using Fungi

Authors: F. A. Ogundolie, F. Okogue, D. V. Adegunloye


Greywater samples were obtained from three restaurants in the Federal University of Technology; Akure coded SSR, MGR and GGR. Fungi isolates obtained include Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, Mucor mucedo, Aspergillus flavus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Of these fungi isolates obtained, R. stolonifer, A. niger and A. flavus showed significant degradation ability on grey water and was used for this research. A simple bioreactor was constructed using biodegradation process in purification of waste water samples. Waste water undergoes primary treatment; secondary treatment involves the introduction of the isolated organisms into the waste water sample and the tertiary treatment which involved the use of filter candle and the sand bed filtration process to achieve the end product without the use of chemicals. A. niger brought about significant reduction in both the bacterial load and the fungi load of the greywater samples of the three respective restaurants with a reduction of (1.29 × 108 to 1.57 × 102 cfu/ml; 1.04 × 108 to 1.12 × 102 cfu/ml and 1.72 × 108 to 1.60 × 102 cfu/ml) for bacterial load in SSR, MGR and GGR respectively. Reduction of 2.01 × 104 to 1.2 × 101; 1.72 × 104 to 1.1 × 101, and 2.50 × 104 to 1.5 × 101 in fungi load from SSR, MGR and GGR respectively. Result of degradation of these selected waste water by the fungi showed that A. niger was probably more potent in the degradation of organic matter and hence, A. niger could be used in the treatment of wastewater.

Keywords: Aspergillus niger, greywater, bacterial, fungi, microbial load, bioreactor, biodegradation, purification, organic matter and filtration

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6342 Compilation of Load Spectrum of Loader Drive Axle

Authors: Wei Yongxiang, Zhu Haoyue, Tang Heng, Yuan Qunwei


In order to study the preparation method of gear fatigue load spectrum for loaders, the load signal of four typical working conditions of loader is collected. The signal that reflects the law of load change is obtained by preprocessing the original signal. The torque of the drive axle is calculated by using the rain flow counting method. According to the operating time ratio of each working condition, the two-dimensional load spectrum based on the real working conditions of the drive axle of loader is established by the cycle extrapolation and synthesis method. The two-dimensional load spectrum is converted into one-dimensional load spectrum by means of the mean of torque equal damage method. Torque amplification includes the maximum load torque of the main reduction gear. Based on the theory of equal damage, the accelerated cycles are calculated. In this way, the load spectrum of the loading condition of the drive axle is prepared to reflect loading condition of the loader. The load spectrum can provide reference for fatigue life test and life prediction of loader drive axle.

Keywords: load spectrum, axle, torque, rain-flow counting method, extrapolation

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6341 A Numerical Study on the Seismic Performance of Built-Up Battened Columns

Authors: Sophia C. Alih, Mohammadreza Vafaei, Farnoud Rahimi Mansour, Nur Hajarul Falahi Abdul Halim


Built-up columns have been widely employed by practice engineers in the design and construction of buildings and bridges. However, failures have been observed in this type of columns in previous seismic events. This study analyses the performance of built-up columns with different configurations of battens when it is subjected to seismic loads. Four columns with different size of battens were simulated and subjected to three different intensities of axial load along with a lateral cyclic load. Results indicate that the size of battens influences significantly the seismic behavior of columns. Lower shear capacity of battens results in higher ultimate strength and ductility for built-up columns. It is observed that intensity of axial load has a significant effect on the ultimate strength of columns, but it is less influential on the yield strength. For a given drift value, the stress level in the centroid of smaller size battens is significantly more than that of larger size battens signifying damage concentration in battens rather than chords. It is concluded that design of battens for shear demand lower than code specified values only slightly reduces initial stiffness of columns; however, it improves seismic performance of battened columns.

Keywords: battened column, built-up column, cyclic behavior, seismic design, steel column

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6340 Vertical Uplift Capacity of a Group of Equally Spaced Helical Screw Anchors in Sand

Authors: Sanjeev Mukherjee, Satyendra Mittal


This paper presents the experimental investigations on the behaviour of a group of single, double and triple helical screw anchors embedded vertically at the same level in sand. The tests were carried out on one, two, three and four numbers of anchors in sand for different depths of embedment keeping shallow and deep mode of behaviour in mind. The testing program included 48 tests conducted on three model anchors installed in sand whose density kept constant throughout the tests. It was observed that the ultimate pullout load varied significantly with the installation depth of the anchor and the number of anchors. The apparent coefficient of friction (f*) between anchor and soil was also calculated based on the test results. It was found that the apparent coefficient of friction varies between 1.02 and 4.76 for 1, 2, 3, and 4 numbers of single, double and triple helical screw anchors. Plate load tests conducted on model soil showed that the value of ф increases from 35o for virgin soil to 48o for soil with four double screw helical anchors. The graphs of ultimate pullout capacity of a group of two, three and four no. of anchors with respect to one anchor were plotted and design equations have been proposed correlating them. Based on these findings, it has been concluded that the load-displacement relationships for all groups can be reduced to a common curve. A 3-D finite element model, PLAXIS, was used to confirm the results obtained from laboratory tests and the agreement is excellent.

Keywords: apparent coefficient of friction, helical screw anchor, installation depth, plate load test

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6339 Structural Behavior of Precast Foamed Concrete Sandwich Panel Subjected to Vertical In-Plane Shear Loading

Authors: Y. H. Mugahed Amran, Raizal S. M. Rashid, Farzad Hejazi, Nor Azizi Safiee, A. A. Abang Ali


Experimental and analytical studies were accomplished to examine the structural behavior of precast foamed concrete sandwich panel (PFCSP) under vertical in-plane shear load. PFCSP full-scale specimens with total number of six were developed with varying heights to study an important parameter slenderness ratio (H/t). The production technique of PFCSP and the procedure of test setup were described. The results obtained from the experimental tests were analysed in the context of in-plane shear strength capacity, load-deflection profile, load-strain relationship, slenderness ratio, shear cracking patterns and mode of failure. Analytical study of finite element analysis was implemented and the theoretical calculations of the ultimate in-plane shear strengths using the adopted ACI318 equation for reinforced concrete wall were determined aimed at predicting the in-plane shear strength of PFCSP. The decrease in slenderness ratio from 24 to 14 showed an increase of 26.51% and 21.91% on the ultimate in-plane shear strength capacity as obtained experimentally and in FEA models, respectively. The experimental test results, FEA models data and theoretical calculation values were compared and provided a significant agreement with high degree of accuracy. Therefore, on the basis of the results obtained, PFCSP wall has the potential use as an alternative to the conventional load-bearing wall system.

Keywords: deflection curves, foamed concrete (FC), load-strain relationships, precast foamed concrete sandwich panel (PFCSP), slenderness ratio, vertical in-plane shear strength capacity

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