Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1358

Search results for: wind turbine aerodynamic

1358 Experimental and CFD of Desgined Small Wind Turbine

Authors: Tarek A. Mekail, Walid M. A. Elmagid

Abstract:

Many researches have concentrated on improving the aerodynamic performance of wind turbine blade through testing and theoretical studies. A small wind turbine blade is designed, fabricated and tested. The power performance of small horizontal axis wind turbines is simulated in details using Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD). The three-dimensional CFD models are presented using ANSYS-CFX v13 software for predicting the performance of a small horizontal axis wind turbine. The simulation results are compared with the experimental data measured from a small wind turbine model, which designed according to a vehicle-based test system. The analysis of wake effect and aerodynamic of the blade can be carried out when the rotational effect was simulated. Finally, comparison between experimental, numerical and analytical performance has been done. The comparison is fairly good.

Keywords: small wind turbine, CFD of wind turbine, CFD, performance of wind turbine, test of small wind turbine, wind turbine aerodynamic, 3D model

Procedia PDF Downloads 419
1357 A Design Method for Wind Turbine Blade to Have Uniform Strength and Optimum Power Generation Performance

Authors: Pengfei Liu, Yiyi Xu

Abstract:

There have been substantial incidents of wind turbine blade fractures and failures due to the lack of systematic blade strength design method incorporated with the aerodynamic forces and power generation efficiency. This research was to develop a methodology and procedure for the wind turbine rotor blade strength taking into account the strength, integration, and aerodynamic performance in terms of power generation efficiency. The wind turbine blade designed using this method and procedure will have a uniform strength across the span to save unnecessary thickness in many blade radial locations and yet to maintain the optimum power generation performance. A turbine rotor code, taking into account both aerodynamic and structural properties, was developed. An existing wind turbine blade was used as an example. For a condition of extreme wind speed of 100 km per hour, the design reduced about 19% of material usage while maintaining the optimum power regeneration efficiency.

Keywords: renewable energy, wind turbine, turbine blade strength, aerodynamics-strength coupled optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
1356 Development of Low Noise Savonius Wind Turbines

Authors: Sanghyeon Kim, Cheolung Cheong

Abstract:

Savonius wind turbines are a drag-type of vertical-axis wind turbine that has been used most commonly as a small-scale wind generator. However, noise is a main hindrance to wide spreading of Savonius wind turbines, just like other wind turbines. Although noise levels radiating from Savonius wind turbines may be relatively low because of their small size, they induce relatively high annoyance due to their prolonged noise exposure to the near community. Therefore, aerodynamic noise of small vertical-axis wind turbines is one of most important design parameters. In this paper, aerodynamic noise characteristics of Savonius wind turbines are investigated using the hybrid CAA techniques, and their low noise designs are proposed based on understanding of noise generation mechanism. First, flow field around the turbine are analyzed by solving 3-D unsteady incompressible RANS equations. Then, noise radiation is predicted using the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation. Two distinct harmonic noise components, the well-know BPF components and the harmonics whose fundamental frequency is much higher than the BPF are identified. On a basis of this finding, S-shaped blades are proposed as low noise designs and it can reduce the noise levels of Savonius wind turbines by up to 2.7 dB.

Keywords: aerodynamic noise, Savonius wind turbine, vertical-axis wind turbine

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
1355 Experimental Study of Near Wake of Wind Turbines

Authors: Ramin Rezaei, Terry Ng, Abdollah Afjeh

Abstract:

Near wake development of a wind turbine affects the aerodynamic loads on the tower and the wind turbine. Design considerations of both isolated wind turbines and wind farms must include unsteady wake flow conditions under which the turbines must operate. The consequent aerodynamic loads could lead to over design of wind turbines and adversely affect the cost of wind turbines and, in turn, the cost of energy produced by wind turbines. Reducing the weight of turbine rotors is particularly desirable since larger wind turbine rotors can be utilized without significantly increasing the cost of the supporting structure. Larger rotor diameters produce larger swept areas and consequently greater energy production from the wind thereby reducing the levelized cost of wind energy. To understand the development and structure of the near tower wake of a wind turbine, an experimental study was conducted to describe the flow field of the near wake for both upwind and downwind turbines. The study was conducted under controlled environment of a wind tunnel using a scaled model of a turbine. The NREL 5 MW reference wind turbine was used as a baseline design and was modified as necessary to design and build upwind and downwind scaled wind turbine models. This paper presents the results of the wind tunnel study using turbine models to quantify the near wake of upwind and downwind wind turbine configurations for various lengths of tower-to-turbine spacing. The variations of mean velocity and turbulence are measured using a computer-controlled, traversing hot wire probe. Additionally, smoke flow visualizations were conducted to qualitatively study the wake. The results show a more rapid dissipation of the near wake for an upwind configuration. The results can readily be incorporated into low fidelity system level turbine simulation tools to more accurately account for the wake on the aerodynamic loads of a upwind and downwind turbines.

Keywords: hot wire anemometry, near wake, upwind and downwind turbine. Hot wire anemometry, near wake, upwind and downwind turbine

Procedia PDF Downloads 528
1354 Aerodynamic Devices Development for Model Aircraft Control and Wind-Driven Bicycle

Authors: Yuta Moriyama, Tsuyoshi Yamazaki, Etsuo Morishita

Abstract:

Several aerodynamic devices currently attract engineers and research students. The plasma actuator is one of them, and it is very effective to control the flow. The actuator recovers a separated flow to an attached one. The actuator is also inversely applied to a spoiler. The model aircraft might be controlled by this actuator. We develop a model aircraft with the plasma actuator. Another interesting device is the Wells turbine which rotates in one direction. The present authors propose a bicycle with the Wells turbine in the wheels. Power reduction is measured when the turbine is driven by an electric motor at the exit of a wind tunnel. Several Watts power reduction might be possible. This means that the torque of the bike can be augmented by the turbine in the cross wind. These devices are tested in the wind tunnel with a three-component balance and the aerodynamic forces and moment are obtained. In this paper, we introduce these devices and their aerodynamic characteristics. The control force and moment of the plasma actuator are clarified and the power reduction of the bicycle is quantified.

Keywords: aerodynamics, model aircraft, plasma actuator, Wells turbine

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
1353 Numerical Study of 5kW Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Using DOE Method

Authors: Yan-Ting Lin, Wei-Nian Su

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the design of 5kW vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) using DOE method. The NACA0015 airfoil was implemented for the design and 3D simulation. The critical design parameters are chord length, tip speed ratio (TSR), aspect ratio (AR) and pitch angle in this investigation. The RNG k-ε turbulent model and the sliding mesh method are adopted in the CFD simulation. The results show that the model with zero pitch, 0.3 m in chord length, TSR of 3, and AR of 10 demonstrated the optimum aerodynamic power under the uniform 10m/s inlet velocity. The aerodynamic power is 3.61kW and 3.89kW under TSR of 3 and 4 respectively. The aerodynamic power decreased dramatically while TSR increased to 5.

Keywords: vertical axis wind turbine, CFD, DOE, VAWT

Procedia PDF Downloads 344
1352 Emulation of a Wind Turbine Using Induction Motor Driven by Field Oriented Control

Authors: L. Benaaouinate, M. Khafallah, A. Martinez, A. Mesbahi, T. Bouragba

Abstract:

This paper concerns with the modeling, simulation, and emulation of a wind turbine emulator for standalone wind energy conversion systems. By using emulation system, we aim to reproduce the dynamic behavior of the wind turbine torque on the generator shaft: it provides the testing facilities to optimize generator control strategies in a controlled environment, without reliance on natural resources. The aerodynamic, mechanical, electrical models have been detailed as well as the control of pitch angle using Fuzzy Logic for horizontal axis wind turbines. The wind turbine emulator consists mainly of an induction motor with AC power drive with torque control. The control of the induction motor and the mathematical models of the wind turbine are designed with MATLAB/Simulink environment. The simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the induction motor control system and the functionality of the wind turbine emulator for providing all necessary parameters of the wind turbine system such as wind speed, output torque, power coefficient and tip speed ratio. The findings are of direct practical relevance.

Keywords: electrical generator, induction motor drive, modeling, pitch angle control, real time control, renewable energy, wind turbine, wind turbine emulator

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
1351 Effect of Thickness and Solidity on the Performance of Straight Type Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

Authors: Jianyang Zhu, Lin Jiang, Tixian Tian

Abstract:

Inspired by the increasing interesting on the wind power associated with production of clear electric power, a numerical experiment is applied to investigate the aerodynamic performance of straight type vertical axis wind turbine with different thickness and solidity, where the incompressible Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations coupled with dynamic mesh technique is solved. By analyzing the flow field, as well as energy coefficient of different thickness and solidity turbine, it is found that the thickness and solidity can significantly influence the performance of vertical axis wind turbine. For the turbine under low tip speed, the mean energy coefficient increase with the increasing of thickness and solidity, which may improve the self starting performance of the turbine. However for the turbine under high tip speed, the appropriate thickness and smaller solidity turbine possesses better performance. In addition, delay stall and no interaction of the blade and previous separated vortex are observed around appropriate thickness and solidity turbine, therefore lead better performance characteristics.

Keywords: vertical axis wind turbine, N-S equations, dynamic mesh technique, thickness, solidity

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
1350 Influence of Geometrical Parameters of a Wind Turbine on the Optimal Tip-Speed Ratio

Authors: Zdzislaw Piotr Kaminski, Miroslaw Wendeker, Zbigniew Czyz

Abstract:

The paper describes the geometric model, calculation algorithm and results of the CFD simulation of the airflow around a rotor in the vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) with the ANSYS Fluent computational solver. The CFD method enables creating aerodynamic characteristics of forces acting on rotor working surfaces and determining parameters such as torque or power generated by the rotor assembly. The object of the research was a rotor whose construction is based on patent no.PL219985. The conducted tests enabled a mathematical model with a description of the generation of aerodynamic forces acting on each rotor blade. Additionally, this model was compared to the results of the wind tunnel tests. The analysis also focused on the influence of the blade angle on turbine power and the TSR. The research has shown that the turbine blade angle has a significant impact on the optimal value of the TSR.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, numerical analysis, renewable energy, wind turbine

Procedia PDF Downloads 23
1349 Sensitivity Analysis Optimization of a Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine from Its Aerodynamic Profiles

Authors: Kevin Molina, Daniel Ortega, Manuel Martinez, Andres Gonzalez-Estrada, William Pinto

Abstract:

Due to the increasing environmental impact, the wind energy is getting strong. This research studied the relationship between the power produced by a horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) and the aerodynamic profiles used for its construction. The analysis is studied using the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD), presenting the parallel between the energy generated by a turbine designed with selected profiles and another one optimized. For the study, a selection process was carried out from profile NACA 6 digits recommended by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for the construction of this type of turbines. The selection was taken into account different characteristics of the wind (speed and density) and the profiles (aerodynamic coefficients Cl and Cd to different Reynolds and incidence angles). From the selected profiles, was carried out a sensitivity analysis optimization process between its geometry and the aerodynamic forces that are induced on it. The 3D model of the turbines was realized using the Blade Element Momentum method (BEM) and both profiles. The flow fields on the turbines were simulated, obtaining the forces induced on the blade, the torques produced and an increase of 3% in power due to the optimized profiles. Therefore, the results show that the sensitivity analysis optimization process can assist to increment the wind turbine power.

Keywords: blade element momentum, blade, fluid structure interaction, horizontal axis wind turbine, profile design

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
1348 Fluid–Structure Interaction Modeling of Wind Turbines

Authors: Andre F. A. Cyrino

Abstract:

Knowing that the technological advance is the focus on the efficient extraction of energy from wind, and therefore in the design of wind turbine structures, this work aims the study of the fluid-structure interaction of an idealized wind turbine. The blade was studied as a beam attached to a cylindrical Hub with rotation axis pointing the air flow that passes through the rotor. Using the calculus of variations and the finite difference method the blade will be simulated by a discrete number of nodes and the aerodynamic forces were evaluated. The study presented here was written on Matlab and performs a numeric simulation of a simplified model of windmill containing a Hub and three blades modeled as Euler-Bernoulli beams for small strains and under the constant and uniform wind. The mathematical approach is done by Hamilton’s Extended Principle with the aerodynamic loads applied on the nodes considering the local relative wind speed, angle of attack and aerodynamic lift and drag coefficients. Due to the wide range of angles of attack, a wind turbine blade operates, the airfoil used on the model was NREL SERI S809 which allowed obtaining equations for Cl and Cd as functions of the angle of attack, based on a NASA study. Tridimensional flow effects were no taken in part, as well as torsion of the beam, which only bends. The results showed the dynamic response of the system in terms of displacement and rotational speed as the turbine reached the final speed. Although the results were not compared to real windmills or more complete models, the resulting values were consistent with the size of the system and wind speed.

Keywords: blade aerodynamics, fluid–structure interaction, wind turbine aerodynamics, wind turbine blade

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
1347 CFD Simulation Research on a Double Diffuser for Wind Turbines

Authors: Krzysztof Skiba, Zdzislaw Kaminski

Abstract:

Wind power is based on a variety of construction solutions to convert wind energy into electrical energy. These constructions are constrained by the correlation between their energy conversion efficiency and the area they occupy. Their energy conversion efficiency can be improved by wind tunnel tests of a rotor as a diffuser to optimize shapes of aerodynamic elements, to adapt these elements to changing conditions and to increase airflow intensity. This paper discusses the results of computer simulations and aerodynamic analyzes of this innovative diffuser design. The research aims at determining the aerodynamic phenomena triggered by the airflow inside this construction, and developing a design to improve the efficiency of the wind turbine. The research results enable us to design a diffuser with a double Venturi nozzle and specially shaped blades. The design of this type uses Bernoulli’s law on the behavior of the flowing medium in the tunnel of a decreasing diameter. The air flowing along the tunnel changes its velocity so the rotor inside such a decreased tunnel diameter rotates faster in this airflow than does the wind outside this tunnel, which makes the turbine more efficient. Additionally, airflow velocity is improved by applying aerodynamic rings with extended trailing edges to achieve controlled turbulent vortices.

Keywords: wind turbine, renewable energy, cfd, numerical analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
1346 Aerodynamic Bicycle Torque Augmentation with a Wells Turbine in Wheels

Authors: Tsuyoshi Yamazaki, Etsuo Morishita

Abstract:

Cyclists often run through a crosswind and sometimes we experience the adverse pressure. We came to an idea that Wells turbine can be used as power augmentation device in the crosswind something like sails of a yacht. Wells turbine always rotates in the same direction irrespective of the incoming flow direction, and we use it in the small-scale power generation in the ocean where waves create an oscillating flow. We incorporate the turbine to the wheel of a bike. A commercial device integrates strain gauges in the crank of a bike and transmitted force and torque applied to the pedal of the bike as an e-mail to the driver’s mobile phone. We can analyze the unsteady data in a spreadsheet sent from the crank sensor. We run the bike with the crank sensor on the rollers at the exit of a low-speed wind tunnel and analyze the effect of the crosswind to the wheel with a Wells turbine. We also test the aerodynamic characteristics of the turbine separately. Although power gain depends on the flow direction, several Watts increase might be possible by the Wells turbine incorporated to a bike wheel.

Keywords: aerodynamics, Wells turbine, bicycle, wind engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
1345 A Stochastic Approach to Extreme Wind Speeds Conditions on a Small Axial Wind Turbine

Authors: Nkongho Ayuketang Arreyndip, Ebobenow Joseph

Abstract:

In this paper, to model a real life wind turbine, a probabilistic approach is proposed to model the dynamics of the blade elements of a small axial wind turbine under extreme stochastic wind speeds conditions. It was found that the power and the torque probability density functions even though decreases at these extreme wind speeds but are not infinite. Moreover, we also found that it is possible to stabilize the power coefficient (stabilizing the output power) above rated wind speeds by turning some control parameters. This method helps to explain the effect of turbulence on the quality and quantity of the harness power and aerodynamic torque.

Keywords: probability, probability density function, stochastic, turbulence

Procedia PDF Downloads 437
1344 Starting Torque Study of Darrieus Wind Turbine

Authors: M. Douak, Z. Aouachria

Abstract:

The aim of our study is to project an optimized wind turbine of Darrieus type. This type of wind turbine is characterized by a low starting torque in comparison with the Savonius rotor allowing them to operate for a period greater than wind speed. This led us to reconsider the Darrieus rotor to optimize a design which will increase its starting torque. The study of a system of monitoring and control of the angle of attack of blade profile, which allows an auto start to wind speeds as low as possible is presented for the straight blade of Darrieus turbine. The study continues to extend to other configurations namely those of parabolic type.

Keywords: Darrieus turbine, pitch angle, self stating, wind energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
1343 Numerical Investigation of Supertall Buildings and Using Aerodynamic Characteristics to Create New Wind Power Sources

Authors: Mohammad A. Masoumi, Mohammad Zare, Soroush Sabouki

Abstract:

This study investigates the aerodynamic characteristics of supertall buildings to evaluate wind turbine installation at high altitudes. Most recent studies have investigated supertall buildings at a horizontal plane, while a vertical plan could be as important, especially to install wind turbines. A typical square-plan building with a height of 500 m is investigated numerically at horizontal and vertical plans to evaluate wind power generation potentials. The results show good agreement with experimental data and past studies. Then four new geometries are proposed to improvise regions at high altitudes to install wind turbines. Evaluating the simulations shows two regions with high power density, which have the possibility to install wind turbines. Results show that improvised regions to install wind turbines at high altitudes contain significant power density while higher power density is found behind buildings in a far distance. In addition, power density fluctuations behind buildings are investigated, which show decreasing fluctuations by reaching 50 m altitude while altitudes lower than 20 m have the most fluctuations.

Keywords: wind power, supertall building, power density, aerodynamic characteristics, wind turbine mobile, quality assurance, testing, applications

Procedia PDF Downloads 20
1342 Design and Development of Wind Turbine Emulator to Operate with 1.5 kW Induction Generator

Authors: Himani Ratna Dahiya

Abstract:

This paper contributes to design a Wind Emulator coupled to 1.5 kW Induction generator for Wind Energy Conversion System. A wind turbine emulator (WTE) is important equipment for developing wind energy conversion systems. It offers a controllable test environment that allows the evaluation and improvement of control schemes for electric generators that is hard to achieve with an actual wind turbine since the wind speed varies randomly. In this paper a wind emulator is modeled and simulated using MATLAB. Verification of the simulation results is done by experimental setup using DC motor-Induction generator set, LABVIEW and data acquisition card.

Keywords: Wind Turbine Emulator, LABVIEW, matlab, induction generator

Procedia PDF Downloads 483
1341 Prediction of the Mechanical Power in Wind Turbine Powered Car Using Velocity Analysis

Authors: Abdelrahman Alghazali, Youssef Kassem, Hüseyin Çamur, Ozan Erenay

Abstract:

Savonius is a drag type vertical axis wind turbine. Savonius wind turbines have a low cut-in speed and can operate at low wind speed. This makes it suitable for electricity or mechanical generation in low-power applications such as individual domestic installations. Therefore, the primary purpose of this work was to investigate the relationship between the type of Savonius rotor and the torque and mechanical power generated. And it was to illustrate how the type of rotor might play an important role in the prediction of mechanical power of wind turbine powered car. The main purpose of this paper is to predict and investigate the aerodynamic effects by means of velocity analysis on the performance of a wind turbine powered car by converting the wind energy into mechanical energy to overcome load that rotates the main shaft. The predicted results based on theoretical analysis were compared with experimental results obtained from literature. The percentage of error between the two was approximately around 20%. Prediction of the torque was done at a wind speed of 4 m/s, and an angular velocity of 130 RPM according to meteorological statistics in Northern Cyprus.

Keywords: mechanical power, torque, Savonius rotor, wind car

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
1340 Adaptive Envelope Protection Control for the below and above Rated Regions of Wind Turbines

Authors: Mustafa Sahin, İlkay Yavrucuk

Abstract:

This paper presents a wind turbine envelope protection control algorithm that protects Variable Speed Variable Pitch (VSVP) wind turbines from damage during operation throughout their below and above rated regions, i.e. from cut-in to cut-out wind speed. The proposed approach uses a neural network that can adapt to turbines and their operating points. An algorithm monitors instantaneous wind and turbine states, predicts a wind speed that would push the turbine to a pre-defined envelope limit and, when necessary, realizes an avoidance action. Simulations are realized using the MS Bladed Wind Turbine Simulation Model for the NREL 5 MW wind turbine equipped with baseline controllers. In all simulations, through the proposed algorithm, it is observed that the turbine operates safely within the allowable limit throughout the below and above rated regions. Two example cases, adaptations to turbine operating points for the below and above rated regions and protections are investigated in simulations to show the capability of the proposed envelope protection system (EPS) algorithm, which reduces excessive wind turbine loads and expectedly increases the turbine service life.

Keywords: adaptive envelope protection control, limit detection and avoidance, neural networks, ultimate load reduction, wind turbine power control

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
1339 Design a Small-Scale Irrigation Wind-Powered Water Pump Using a Savonius Type VAWT

Authors: Getnet Ayele Kebede, Tasew Tadiwose Zewdie

Abstract:

In this study, a novel design of a wind-powered water pump for small-scale irrigation application by using the Savonius wind turbine of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine(VAWT) with 2 blades has been used. Calculations have been made on the energy available in the wind and an energy analysis was then performed to see what wind speed is required for the system to work. The rotor has a radius of 0.53 m giving a swept area of 1.27 m2 and this gives a solidity of 0.5, which is the minimum theoretical optimum value for wind turbine. The average extracted torque of the wind turbine is 0.922 Nm and Tip speed ratio is one this shows, the tips are moving at equal the speed of the wind and by 2 rotating of blades. This is sufficient to sustain the desired flow rate of (0.3125X 10-3) m3 per second with a maximum head of 10m and the expected working is 4hr/day, and also overcome other barriers to motion such as friction. Based on this novel design, we are able to achieve a cost-effective solution and simultaneously effective in self-starting under low wind speeds and it can catch the wind from all directions.

Keywords: Savonius wind turbine, Small-scale irrigation, Vertical Axis Wind Turbine, Water pump

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
1338 Software Development for Both Small Wind Performance Optimization and Structural Compliance Analysis with International Safety Regulations

Authors: K. M. Yoo, M. H. Kang

Abstract:

Conventional commercial wind turbine design software is limited to large wind turbines due to not incorporating with low Reynold’s Number aerodynamic characteristics typically for small wind turbines. To extract maximum annual energy product from an intermediately designed small wind turbine associated with measured wind data, numerous simulation is highly recommended to have a best fitting planform design with proper airfoil configuration. Since depending upon wind distribution with average wind speed, an optimal wind turbine planform design changes accordingly. It is theoretically not difficult, though, it is very inconveniently time-consuming design procedure to finalize conceptual layout of a desired small wind turbine. Thus, to help simulations easier and faster, a GUI software is developed to conveniently iterate and change airfoil types, wind data, and geometric blade data as well. With magnetic generator torque curve, peak power tracking simulation is also available to better match with the magnetic generator. Small wind turbine often lacks starting torque due to blade optimization. Thus this simulation is also embedded along with yaw design. This software provides various blade cross section details at user’s design convenience such as skin thickness control with fiber direction option, spar shape, and their material properties. Since small wind turbine is under international safety regulations with fatigue damage during normal operations and safety load analyses with ultimate excessive loads, load analyses are provided with each category mandated in the safety regulations.

Keywords: GUI software, Low Reynold’s number aerodynamics, peak power tracking, safety regulations, wind turbine performance optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
1337 Thermal Assessment of Outer Rotor Direct Drive Gearless Small-Scale Wind Turbines

Authors: Yusuf Yasa, Erkan Mese

Abstract:

This paper investigates the thermal issue of permanent magnet synchronous generator which is frequently used in direct drive gearless small-scale wind turbine applications. Permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) is designed with 2.5 kW continuous and 6 kW peak power. Then considering generator geometry, mechanical design of wind turbine is performed. Thermal analysis and optimization is carried out considering all wind turbine components to reach realistic results. These issue is extremely important in research and development(R&D) process for wind turbine applications.

Keywords: direct drive, gearless wind turbine, permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG), small-scale wind turbine, thermal management

Procedia PDF Downloads 535
1336 Numerical Performance Evaluation of a Savonius Wind Turbines Using Resistive Torque Modeling

Authors: Guermache Ahmed Chafik, Khelfellah Ismail, Ait-Ali Takfarines

Abstract:

The Savonius vertical axis wind turbine is characterized by sufficient starting torque at low wind speeds, simple design and does not require orientation to the wind direction; however, the developed power is lower than other types of wind turbines such as Darrieus. To increase these performances several studies and researches have been developed, such as optimizing blades shape, using passive controls and also minimizing power losses sources like the resisting torque due to friction. This work aims to estimate the performance of a Savonius wind turbine introducing a User Defined Function to the CFD model analyzing resisting torque. This User Defined Function is developed to simulate the action of the wind speed on the rotor; it receives the moment coefficient as an input to compute the rotational velocity that should be imposed on computational domain rotating regions. The rotational velocity depends on the aerodynamic moment applied on the turbine and the resisting torque, which is considered a linear function. Linking the implemented User Defined Function with the CFD solver allows simulating the real functioning of the Savonius turbine exposed to wind. It is noticed that the wind turbine takes a while to reach the stationary regime where the rotational velocity becomes invariable; at that moment, the tip speed ratio, the moment and power coefficients are computed. To validate this approach, the power coefficient versus tip speed ratio curve is compared with the experimental one. The obtained results are in agreement with the available experimental results.

Keywords: resistant torque modeling, Savonius wind turbine, user-defined function, vertical axis wind turbine performances

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1335 Investigations of Flow Field with Different Turbulence Models on NREL Phase VI Blade

Authors: T. Y. Liu, C. H. Lin, Y. M. Ferng

Abstract:

Wind energy is one of the clean renewable energy. However, the low frequency (20-200HZ) noise generated from the wind turbine blades, which bothers the residents, becomes the major problem to be developed. It is useful for predicting the aerodynamic noise by flow field and pressure distribution analysis on the wind turbine blades. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to use different turbulence models to analyse the flow field and pressure distributions of the wing blades. Three-dimensional Computation Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation of the flow field was used to calculate the flow phenomena for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Phase VI horizontal axis wind turbine rotor. Two different flow cases with different wind speeds were investigated: 7m/s with 72rpm and 15m/s with 72rpm. Four kinds of RANS-based turbulence models, Standard k-ε, Realizable k-ε, SST k-ω, and v2f, were used to predict and analyse the results in the present work. The results show that the predictions on pressure distributions with SST k-ω and v2f turbulence models have good agreements with experimental data.

Keywords: horizontal axis wind turbine, turbulence model, noise, fluid dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
1334 Numerical Investigation of the Operating Parameters of the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

Authors: Zdzislaw Kaminski, Zbigniew Czyz, Tytus Tulwin

Abstract:

This paper describes the geometrical model, algorithm and CFD simulation of an airflow around a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine rotor. A solver, ANSYS Fluent, was applied for the numerical simulation. Numerical simulation, unlike experiments, enables us to validate project assumptions when it is designed to avoid a costly preparation of a model or a prototype for a bench test. This research focuses on the rotor designed according to patent no PL 219985 with its blades capable of modifying their working surfaces, i.e. absorbing wind kinetic energy. The operation of this rotor is based on a regulation of blade angle α between the top and bottom parts of blades mounted on an axis. If angle α increases, the working surface which absorbs wind kinetic energy also increases. CFD calculations enable us to compare aerodynamic characteristics of forces acting on rotor working surfaces and specify rotor operation parameters like torque or turbine assembly power output. This paper is part of the research to improve an efficiency of a rotor assembly and it contains investigation of the impact of a blade angle of wind turbine working blades on the power output as a function of rotor torque, specific rotational speed and wind speed. The simulation was made for wind speeds ranging from 3.4 m/s to 6.2 m/s and blade angles of 30°, 60°, 90°. The simulation enables us to create a mathematical model to describe how aerodynamic forces acting each of the blade of the studied rotor are generated. Also, the simulation results are compared with the wind tunnel ones. This investigation enables us to estimate the growth in turbine power output if a blade angle changes. The regulation of blade angle α enables a smooth change in turbine rotor power, which is a kind of safety measures if the wind is strong. Decreasing blade angle α reduces the risk of damaging or destroying a turbine that is still in operation and there is no complete rotor braking as it is in other Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines. This work has been financed by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, mathematical model, numerical analysis, power, renewable energy, wind turbine

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
1333 Optimal Design of Wind Turbine Blades Equipped with Flaps

Authors: I. Kade Wiratama

Abstract:

As a result of the significant growth of wind turbines in size, blade load control has become the main challenge for large wind turbines. Many advanced techniques have been investigated aiming at developing control devices to ease blade loading. Amongst them, trailing edge flaps have been proven as effective devices for load alleviation. The present study aims at investigating the potential benefits of flaps in enhancing the energy capture capabilities rather than blade load alleviation. A software tool is especially developed for the aerodynamic simulation of wind turbines utilising blades equipped with flaps. As part of the aerodynamic simulation of these wind turbines, the control system must be also simulated. The simulation of the control system is carried out via solving an optimisation problem which gives the best value for the controlling parameter at each wind turbine run condition. Developing a genetic algorithm optimisation tool which is especially designed for wind turbine blades and integrating it with the aerodynamic performance evaluator, a design optimisation tool for blades equipped with flaps is constructed. The design optimisation tool is employed to carry out design case studies. The results of design case studies on wind turbine AWT 27 reveal that, as expected, the location of flap is a key parameter influencing the amount of improvement in the power extraction. The best location for placing a flap is at about 70% of the blade span from the root of the blade. The size of the flap has also significant effect on the amount of enhancement in the average power. This effect, however, reduces dramatically as the size increases. For constant speed rotors, adding flaps without re-designing the topology of the blade can improve the power extraction capability as high as of about 5%. However, with re-designing the blade pretwist the overall improvement can be reached as high as 12%.

Keywords: flaps, design blade, optimisation, simulation, genetic algorithm, WTAero

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
1332 Wind Turbine Control Performance Evaluation Based on Minimum-Variance Principles

Authors: Zheming Cao

Abstract:

Control loops are the most important components in the wind turbine system. Product quality, operation safety, and the economic performance are directly or indirectly connected to the performance of control systems. This paper proposed a performance evaluation method based on minimum-variance for wind turbine control system. This method can be applied on PID controller for pitch control system in the wind turbine. The good performance result demonstrated in the paper was achieved by retuning and optimizing the controller settings based on the evaluation result. The concepts presented in this paper are illustrated with the actual data of the industrial wind farm.

Keywords: control performance, evaluation, minimum-variance, wind turbine

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
1331 Expanding the Evaluation Criteria for a Wind Turbine Performance

Authors: Ivan Balachin, Geanette Polanco, Jiang Xingliang, Hu Qin

Abstract:

The problem of global warming raised up interest towards renewable energy sources. To reduce cost of wind energy is a challenge. Before building of wind park conditions such as: average wind speed, direction, time for each wind, probability of icing, must be considered in the design phase. Operation values used on the setting of control systems also will depend on mentioned variables. Here it is proposed a procedure to be include in the evaluation of the performance of a wind turbine, based on the amplitude of wind changes, the number of changes and their duration. A generic study case based on actual data is presented. Data analysing techniques were applied to model the power required for yaw system based on amplitude and data amount of wind changes. A theoretical model between time, amplitude of wind changes and angular speed of nacelle rotation was identified.

Keywords: field data processing, regression determination, wind turbine performance, wind turbine placing, yaw system losses

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
1330 Wind Turbine Powered Car Uses 3 Single Big C-Section Blades

Authors: K. Youssef, Ç. Hüseyin

Abstract:

The blades of a wind turbine have the most important job of any wind turbine component; they must capture the wind and convert it into usable mechanical energy. The objective of this work is to determine the mechanical power of single big C-section of vertical wind turbine for wind car in a two-dimensional model. The wind car has a vertical axis with 3 single big C-section blades mounted at an angle of 120°. Moreover, the three single big C-section blades are directly connected to wheels by using various kinds of links. Gears are used to convert the wind energy to mechanical energy to overcome the load exercised on the main shaft under low speed. This work allowed a comparison of drag characteristics and the mechanical power between the single big C-section blades with the previous work on 3 C-section and 3 double C-section blades for wind car. As a result obtained from the flow chart the torque and power curves of each case study are illustrated and compared with each other. In particular, drag force and torque acting on each types of blade was taken at an airflow speed of 4 m/s, and an angular velocity of 13.056 rad/s.

Keywords: blade, vertical wind turbine, drag characteristics, mechanical power

Procedia PDF Downloads 385
1329 Low Voltage Ride through Capability Techniques for DFIG-Based Wind Turbines

Authors: Sherif O. Zain Elabideen, Ahmed A. Helal, Ibrahim F. El-Arabawy

Abstract:

Due to the drastic increase of the wind turbines installed capacity; the grid codes are increasing the restrictions aiming to treat the wind turbines like other conventional sources sooner. In this paper, an intensive review has been presented for different techniques used to add low voltage ride through capability to Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) wind turbine. A system model with 1.5 MW DFIG wind turbine is constructed and simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK to explore the effectiveness of the reviewed techniques.

Keywords: DFIG, grid side converters, low voltage ride through, wind turbine

Procedia PDF Downloads 270