Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 95

Search results for: Tarek A. Mekail

95 Experimental and CFD of Desgined Small Wind Turbine

Authors: Tarek A. Mekail, Walid M. A. Elmagid

Abstract:

Many researches have concentrated on improving the aerodynamic performance of wind turbine blade through testing and theoretical studies. A small wind turbine blade is designed, fabricated and tested. The power performance of small horizontal axis wind turbines is simulated in details using Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD). The three-dimensional CFD models are presented using ANSYS-CFX v13 software for predicting the performance of a small horizontal axis wind turbine. The simulation results are compared with the experimental data measured from a small wind turbine model, which designed according to a vehicle-based test system. The analysis of wake effect and aerodynamic of the blade can be carried out when the rotational effect was simulated. Finally, comparison between experimental, numerical and analytical performance has been done. The comparison is fairly good.

Keywords: small wind turbine, CFD of wind turbine, CFD, performance of wind turbine, test of small wind turbine, wind turbine aerodynamic, 3D model

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94 Determination of the Axial-Vector from an Extended Linear Sigma Model

Authors: Tarek Sayed Taha Ali

Abstract:

The dependence of the axial-vector coupling constant gA on the quark masses has been investigated in the frame work of the extended linear sigma model. The field equations have been solved in the mean-field approximation. Our study shows a better fitting to the experimental data compared with the existing models.

Keywords: extended linear sigma model, nucleon properties, axial coupling constant, physic

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93 Mechanical Behavior of 16NC6 Steel Hardened by Burnishing

Authors: Litim Tarek, Taamallah Ouahiba

Abstract:

This work relates to the physico-geometrical aspect of the surface layers of 16NC6 steel having undergone the burnishing treatment by hard steel ball. The results show that the optimal effects of burnishing are closely linked to the shape and the material of the active part of the device as well as to the surface plastic deformation ability of the material to be treated. Thus the roughness is improved by more than 70%, and the consolidation rate is increased by 30%. In addition, modeling of the rational traction curves provides a work hardening coefficient of up to 0.3 in the presence of burnishing.

Keywords: 16NC6 steel, burnishing, hardening, roughness

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92 Protection of the Valves against AC Faults Using the Fast-Acting HVDC Controls

Authors: Mesbah Tarek, Kelaiaia Samia, Chiheb Sofien, Kelaiaia Mounia Samira, Labar Hocine

Abstract:

Short circuit causes important damage in power systems. The aim of this paper is the investigation of the effect of short circuit at the AC side inverter in HVDC transmission line. The cutoff of HVDC transmission line implies important economic losses. In this paper it is proposed an efficient procedure which can protect and eliminate the fault quickly. The theoretical development and simulation are well detailed and illustrated.

Keywords: AC inverter, HVDC, short circuit, switcher gate, power system

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91 A Novel Parametric Chaos-Based Switching System PCSS for Image Encryption

Authors: Mohamed Salah Azzaz, Camel Tanougast, Tarek Hadjem

Abstract:

In this paper, a new low-cost image encryption technique is proposed and analyzed. The developed chaos-based key generator provides complex behavior and can change it automatically via a random-like switching rule. The designed encryption scheme is called PCSS (Parametric Chaos-based Switching System). The performances of this technique were evaluated in terms of data security and privacy. Simulation results have shown the effectiveness of this technique, and it can thereafter, ready for a hardware implementation.

Keywords: chaos, encryption, security, image

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90 The Response of LCC to DC System Faults and HVDC Re-Establishment

Authors: Mesbah Tarek, Kelaiaia Samia, Chiheb Sofien, Kelaiaia Mounia Samira, Labar Hocine

Abstract:

As every power systems short circuit failure can occur for HVDC at the DC link. So, the power devices should be protected against over heath produced by this over-current. This can be achieved through the power switchers or fast breaker. After short circuit the system is unable to restart, only after a time delay, because of the potential distribution along the DC link line. An appropriate fast and safety control is proposed and tested successfully. The detailed development and discussion of these faults is presented in this paper.

Keywords: HVDC, DC link, switchers, short circuit, faults

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89 The Protection and Enhancement of the Roman Roads in Algeria

Authors: Tarek Ninouh, Ahmed Rouili

Abstract:

The Roman paths or roads offer a very interesting archaeological material, because they allow us to understand the history of human settlement and are also factors that increase territorial identity. Roman roads are one of the hallmarks of the Roman empire, which extends to North Africa. The objective of this investigation is to attract the attention of researchers to the importance of Roman roads and paths, which are found in Algeria, according to the quality of the materials and techniques used in this period of our history, and to encourage other decision makers to protect and enhance these routes because the current urbanization, intensive agricultural practices, or simply forgotten, decreases the sustainability of this important historical heritage.

Keywords: Roman paths, quality of materials, property, valuation

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88 Burnishing Effect on the Mechanical Characteristics of 100C6

Authors: Ouahiba Taamallah, Tarek Litim

Abstract:

This work relates to the physico-geometrical aspect of the surface layers of 100C6 steel having undergone the burnishing treatment by hard steel ball. The application of tip diamond burnishing promotes better roughness compared to turning. In addition, it allows the surface layers to be consolidated by work hardening phenomena. The optimal effects are closely related to the parameters of the treatment and the active part of the device. With an 80% improvement in roughness resulting from the treatment, burnishing can be defined as a finishing operation within the machining range. With a 40% gain in consolidation rate, this treatment is an efficient process for material consolidation.

Keywords: 100C6 steel, burnishing, hardening, roughness

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87 A Survey on a Critical Infrastructure Monitoring Using Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Khelifa Benahmed, Tarek Benahmed

Abstract:

There are diverse applications of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in the real world, typically invoking some kind of monitoring, tracking, or controlling activities. In an application, a WSN is deployed over the area of interest to sense and detect the events and collect data through their sensors in a geographical area and transmit the collected data to a Base Station (BS). This paper presents an overview of the research solutions available in the field of environmental monitoring applications, more precisely the problems of critical area monitoring using wireless sensor networks.

Keywords: critical infrastructure monitoring, environment monitoring, event region detection, wireless sensor networks

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86 A Fast, Reliable Technique for Face Recognition Based on Hidden Markov Model

Authors: Sameh Abaza, Mohamed Ibrahim, Tarek Mahmoud

Abstract:

Due to the development in the digital image processing, its wide use in many applications such as medical, security, and others, the need for more accurate techniques that are reliable, fast and robust is vehemently demanded. In the field of security, in particular, speed is of the essence. In this paper, a pattern recognition technique that is based on the use of Hidden Markov Model (HMM), K-means and the Sobel operator method is developed. The proposed technique is proved to be fast with respect to some other techniques that are investigated for comparison. Moreover, it shows its capability of recognizing the normal face (center part) as well as face boundary.

Keywords: HMM, K-Means, Sobel, accuracy, face recognition

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85 Diagnosis of Avian Pathology in the East of Algeria

Authors: Khenenou Tarek, Benzaoui Hassina, Melizi Mohamed

Abstract:

The diagnosis requires a background of current knowledge in the field and also complementary means in which the laboratory occupies the central place for a better investigation. A correct diagnosis allows to establish the most appropriate treatment as soon as possible and avoids both the economic losses associated with mortality and growth retardation often observed in poultry furthermore it may reduce the high cost of treatment. Epedemiologic survey, hematologic and histopathologic study’s are three aspects of diagnosis heavily used in both human and veterinary pathology and the advanced researches in human medicine would be exploited to be applied in veterinary medicine with given modification .Whereas, the diagnostic methods in the east of Algeria are limited to the clinical signs and necropsy finding. Therefore, the diagnosis is based simply on the success or the failure of the therapeutic methods (therapeutic diagnosis).

Keywords: chicken, diagnosis, hematology, histopathology

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84 Time Compression in Engineer-to-Order Industry: A Case Study of a Norwegian Shipbuilding Industry

Authors: Tarek Fatouh, Chehab Elbelehy, Alaa Abdelsalam, Eman Elakkad, Alaa Abdelshafie

Abstract:

This paper aims to explore the possibility of time compression in Engineer to Order production networks. A case study research method is used in a Norwegian shipbuilding project by implementing a value stream mapping lean tool with total cycle time as a unit of analysis. The analysis resulted in demonstrating the time deviations for the planned tasks in one of the processes in the shipbuilding project. So, authors developed a future state map by removing time wastes from value stream process.

Keywords: engineer to order, total cycle time, value stream mapping, shipbuilding

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83 Non-Destructive Visual-Statistical Approach to Detect Leaks in Water Mains

Authors: Alaa Al Hawari, Mohammad Khader, Tarek Zayed, Osama Moselhi

Abstract:

In this paper, an effective non-destructive, non-invasive approach for leak detection was proposed. The process relies on analyzing thermal images collected by an IR viewer device that captures thermo-grams. In this study a statistical analysis of the collected thermal images of the ground surface along the expected leak location followed by a visual inspection of the thermo-grams was performed in order to locate the leak. In order to verify the applicability of the proposed approach the predicted leak location from the developed approach was compared with the real leak location. The results showed that the expected leak location was successfully identified with an accuracy of more than 95%.

Keywords: thermography, leakage, water pipelines, thermograms

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82 Individual Actuators of a Car-Like Robot with Back Trailer

Authors: Tarek El-Derini, Ahmed El-Shenawy

Abstract:

This paper presents the hardware implemented and validation for a special system to assist the unprofessional users of car with back trailers. The system consists of two platforms; the front car platform (C) and the trailer platform (T). The main objective is to control the Trailer platform using the actuators found in the front platform (c). The mobility of the platform (C) is investigated and inverse and forward kinematics model is obtained for both platforms (C) and (T). The system is simulated using Matlab M-file and the simulation examples results illustrated the system performance. The system is constructed with a hardware setup for the front and trailer platform. The hardware experimental results and the simulated examples outputs showed the validation of the hardware setup.

Keywords: kinematics, modeling, robot, MATLAB

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81 Design Channel Non Persistent CSMA MAC Protocol Model for Complex Wireless Systems Based on SoC

Authors: Ibrahim A. Aref, Tarek El-Mihoub, Khadiga Ben Musa

Abstract:

This paper presents Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) communication model based on SoC design methodology. Such model can be used to support the modelling of the complex wireless communication systems, therefore use of such communication model is an important technique in the construction of high performance communication. SystemC has been chosen because it provides a homogeneous design flow for complex designs (i.e. SoC and IP based design). We use a swarm system to validate CSMA designed model and to show how advantages of incorporating communication early in the design process. The wireless communication created through the modeling of CSMA protocol that can be used to achieve communication between all the agents and to coordinate access to the shared medium (channel).

Keywords: systemC, modelling, simulation, CSMA

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80 Mathematical Modeling of District Cooling Systems

Authors: Dana Alghool, Tarek ElMekkawy, Mohamed Haouari, Adel Elomari

Abstract:

District cooling systems have captured the attentions of many researchers recently due to the enormous benefits offered by such system in comparison with traditional cooling technologies. It is considered a major component of urban cities due to the significant reduction of energy consumption. This paper aims to find the optimal design and operation of district cooling systems by developing a mixed integer linear programming model to minimize the annual total system cost and satisfy the end-user cooling demand. The proposed model is experimented with different cooling demand scenarios. The results of the very high cooling demand scenario are only presented in this paper. A sensitivity analysis on different parameters of the model was performed.

Keywords: Annual Cooling Demand, Compression Chiller, Mathematical Modeling, District Cooling Systems, Optimization

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79 Wind Speed Prediction Using Passive Aggregation Artificial Intelligence Model

Authors: Tarek Aboueldahab, Amin Mohamed Nassar

Abstract:

Wind energy is a fluctuating energy source unlike conventional power plants, thus, it is necessary to accurately predict short term wind speed to integrate wind energy in the electricity supply structure. To do so, we present a hybrid artificial intelligence model of short term wind speed prediction based on passive aggregation of the particle swarm optimization and neural networks. As a result, improvement of the prediction accuracy is obviously obtained compared to the standard artificial intelligence method.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, neural networks, particle swarm optimization, passive aggregation, wind speed prediction

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78 A Novel Comparison Scheme for Thermal Conductivity Enhancement of Heat Transfer

Authors: Islam Tarek, Moataz Soliman

Abstract:

With the amazing development of nanoscience’s and the discovery of the unique properties of nanometric materials, the ideas of scientists and researchers headed to take advantage of this progress in various fields, and one of the most important of these areas is the field of heat transfer and benefit from it in saving energy used for heat transfer, so nanometric materials were used to improve the properties of heat transfer fluids and increase the efficiency of the liquid. In this paper, we will compare two types of heat transfer fluid, one industrial type (the base fluid is a mix of ethylene glycol and deionized water ) and another natural oils(the base fluid is a mix of jatropha oil and expired olive oil), explaining the method of preparing each of them, starting from the method of preparing CNT, collecting and sorting jatropha seeds, and the most appropriate method for extracting oil from them, and characterization the both of two fluids and when to use both.

Keywords: nanoscience, heat transfer, thermal conductivity, jatropha oil

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77 Dilation Effect on 3D Passive Earth Pressure Coefficients for Retaining Wall

Authors: Khelifa Tarek, Benmebarek Sadok

Abstract:

The 2D passive earth pressures acting on rigid retaining walls problem has been widely treated in the literature using different approaches (limit equilibrium, limit analysis, slip line and numerical computation), however, the 3D passive earth pressures problem has received less attention. This paper is concerned with the numerical study of 3D passive earth pressures induced by the translation of a rigid rough retaining wall for associated and non-associated soils. Using the explicit finite difference code FLAC3D, the increase of the passive earth pressures due to the decrease of the wall breadth is investigated. The results given by the present numerical analysis are compared with other investigation. The influence of the angle of dilation on the coefficients is also studied.

Keywords: numerical modeling, FLAC3D, retaining wall, passive earth pressures, angle of dilation

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76 Improvement Perturb and Observe for a Fast Response MPPT Applied to Photovoltaic Panel

Authors: Labar Hocine, Kelaiaia Mounia Samira, Mesbah Tarek, Kelaiaia Samia

Abstract:

Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) techniques are used in photovoltaic (PV) systems to maximize the PV array output power by tracking continuously the maximum power point(MPP) which depends on panels temperature and on irradiance conditions. The main drawback of P&O is that, the operating point oscillates around the MPP giving rise to the waste of some amount of available energy; moreover, it is well known that the P&O algorithm can be confused during those time intervals characterized by rapidly changing atmospheric conditions. In this paper, it is shown that in order to limit the negative effects associated to the above drawbacks, the P&O MPPT parameters must be customized to the dynamic behavior of the specific converter adopted. A theoretical analysis allowing the optimal choice of such initial set parameters is also carried out. The fast convergence of the proposal is proven.

Keywords: P&O, Taylor’s series, MPPT, photovoltaic panel

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75 Modelling the Anaerobic Digestion of Esparto Paper Industry Wastewater Effluent in a Batch Digester Using IWA Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1)

Authors: Boubaker Fezzani, Ridha Ben Cheikh, Tarek Rouissi

Abstract:

In this work the original ADM1, implemented in the simulation software package MATLAB/Simulink, was modified and adapted and applied to reproduce the experimental results of the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of Esperto paper industry wastewater in a batch digester. The data set from lab-scale experiment runs were used to calibrate and validate the model. The simulations’ results indicated that the modified ADM1 was able to predict reasonably well the steady state results of gas flows, methane and carbon dioxide contents, pH and total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) observed with all influents concentrations.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, mathematical modelling, Simulation, ADM1, batch digester, esparto paper industry effluent, mesophilic temperature

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74 Mathematical Modeling and Optimization of Burnishing Parameters for 15NiCr6 Steel

Authors: Tarek Litim, Ouahiba Taamallah

Abstract:

The present paper is an investigation of the effect of burnishing on the surface integrity of a component made of 15NiCr6 steel. This work shows a statistical study based on regression, and Taguchi's design has allowed the development of mathematical models to predict the output responses as a function of the technological parameters studied. The response surface methodology (RSM) showed a simultaneous influence of the burnishing parameters and observe the optimal processing parameters. ANOVA analysis of the results resulted in the validation of the prediction model with a determination coefficient R=90.60% and 92.41% for roughness and hardness, respectively. Furthermore, a multi-objective optimization allowed to identify a regime characterized by P=10kgf, i=3passes, and f=0.074mm/rev, which favours minimum roughness and maximum hardness. The result was validated by the desirability of D= (0.99 and 0.95) for roughness and hardness, respectively.

Keywords: 15NiCr6 steel, burnishing, surface integrity, Taguchi, RSM, ANOVA

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73 Application of Nanofiltration Membrane for River Nile Water Treatment in Egypt

Authors: Tarek S. Jamil, Ahmed M. Shaban, Eman S. Mansor, Ahmed A. Karim, Azza M. Abdel Aty

Abstract:

In this manuscript, 35 m³/d NF unit was designed and applied for surface water treatment of river Nile water. Intake of Embaba drinking water treatment plant was selected to install that unit at since; it has the lowest water quality index value through the examined 6 sites in greater Cairo area. The optimized operating conditions were feed and permeate flow, 40 and 7 m³/d, feed pressure 2.68 bar and flux rate 37.7 l/m2.h. The permeate water was drinkable according to Egyptian Ministerial decree 458/2007 for the tested parameters (physic-chemical, heavy metals, organic, algal, bacteriological and parasitological). Single and double sand filters were used as pretreatment for NF membranes, but continuous clogging for sand filters moved us to use UF membrane as pretreatment for NF membrane.

Keywords: River Nile, NF membrane, pretreatment, UF membrane, water quality

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72 Optimal MPPT Charging Battery System for Photovoltaic Standalone Applications

Authors: Kelaiaia Mounia Samira, Labar Hocine, Mesbah Tarek, Kelaiaia samia

Abstract:

The photovoltaic panel produces green power, and because of its availability across the globe, it can supply isolated loads (site away of the electrical network or difficult of access). Unfortunately this energy remains very expensive. The most application of these types of power needs storage devices, the Lithium batteries are commonly used because of its powerful storage capability. Using a solar panel or an array of panels without a controller that can perform MPPT will often result in wasted power, which results in the need to install more panels for the same power requirement. For devices that have the battery connected directly to the panel, this will also result in premature battery failure or capacity loss. In this paper it is proposed a modified P&O algorithm for the MPPT which takes in account the battery’s internal resistance vs temperature and stage of charging. Of course the temperature variation and irradiation of the PV panel are also introduced.

Keywords: modeling, battery, MPPT, charging, PV Panel

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71 Klippel Feil Syndrome: A Case Report and Review of Literature

Authors: Rim Frikha, Nouha Bouayed Abdelmoula, Afifa Sellami, Salima Daoud, Tarek Rebai

Abstract:

Klippel-Feil Syndrome (KFS) is characterized by congenital vertebral fusion of the cervical spine resulting from faulty segmentation along the embryo's developing axis. A wide spectrum of associated anomalies may be present. This heterogeneity has complicated elucidation of the genetic etiology and management of the syndrome. We report a case of an isolated Klippel-Feil Syndrome with C5-C6 fusion on the cervical spine. It‘s the rarest form of congenital fused cervical vertebrae which is predisposed to the risk of spinal cord injury and neurologic problems. The aim of this paper was to review clinical heterogeneity; radiographic abnormalities and genetic etiology in Klippel-Feil Syndrome. We insist in comprehensive evaluation and delineation of diagnostic and prognostic classes.

Keywords: Klippel–Feil anomaly, genetic, clinical heterogeneity, radiographic abnormalities

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70 Discrete Breeding Swarm for Cost Minimization of Parallel Job Shop Scheduling Problem

Authors: Tarek Aboueldahab, Hanan Farag

Abstract:

Parallel Job Shop Scheduling Problem (JSP) is a multi-objective and multi constrains NP- optimization problem. Traditional Artificial Intelligence techniques have been widely used; however, they could be trapped into the local minimum without reaching the optimum solution, so we propose a hybrid Artificial Intelligence model (AI) with Discrete Breeding Swarm (DBS) added to traditional Artificial Intelligence to avoid this trapping. This model is applied in the cost minimization of the Car Sequencing and Operator Allocation (CSOA) problem. The practical experiment shows that our model outperforms other techniques in cost minimization.

Keywords: parallel job shop scheduling problem, artificial intelligence, discrete breeding swarm, car sequencing and operator allocation, cost minimization

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69 Copper Doping for Enhancing Photocatalytic Efficiency of Barium Ferrite in Degradation of Atrazine under Visible Light

Authors: Tarek S. Jamil, H. A. Abbas, Rabab A. Nasr, Eman S. Mansor, Rose-Noëlle Vannier

Abstract:

The citrate manner (Pechini method) was utilized in elaboration of a novel Nano-sized BaFe(1-x)CuxO3 (x=0.01, 0.05 and 0.10). The prepared photocatalysts were characterized by x-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance, TEM and the surface area. The prepared samples have a mixture of cubic perovskite structure (main) and orthorhombic phases. The effect of different loads of copper as dopant on the structural properties as well as the photocatalytic activity was demonstrated. The lattice parameter and the unit cell volume of the prepared materials are given. Doping with copper increased the photocatalytic activity of BaFeO3 several times in abstraction of hazardous atrazine that causes acute problems in drinking water treatment facilities. This may be reasoned to low band gap energy of copper doped BaFe(1-x)CuxO3 attributed to oxygen vacancies formation.

Keywords: photocatalysis, nano-sized, BaFeO3, copper doping, atrazine

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68 Performance Evaluation of Routing Protocols for Video Conference over MPLS VPN Network

Authors: Abdullah Al Mamun, Tarek R. Sheltami

Abstract:

Video conferencing is a highly demanding facility now a days in order to its real time characteristics, but faster communication is the prior requirement of this technology. Multi Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) IP Virtual Private Network (VPN) address this problem and it is able to make a communication faster than others techniques. However, this paper studies the performance comparison of video traffic between two routing protocols namely the Enhanced Interior Gateway Protocol(EIGRP) and Open Shortest Path First (OSPF). The combination of traditional routing and MPLS improve the forwarding mechanism, scalability and overall network performance. We will use GNS3 and OPNET Modeler 14.5 to simulate many different scenarios and metrics such as delay, jitter and mean opinion score (MOS) value are measured. The simulation result will show that OSPF and BGP-MPLS VPN offers best performance for video conferencing application.

Keywords: OSPF, BGP, EIGRP, MPLS, Video conference, Provider router, edge router, layer3 VPN

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67 Determination of Frequency Relay Setting during Distributed Generators Islanding

Authors: Tarek Kandil, Ameen Ali

Abstract:

Distributed generation (DG) has recently gained a lot of momentum in power industry due to market deregulation and environmental concerns. One of the most technical challenges facing DGs is islanding of distributed generators. The current industry practice is to disconnect all distributed generators immediately after the occurrence of islands within 200 to 350 ms after loss of main supply. To achieve such goal, each DG must be equipped with an islanding detection device. Frequency relays are one of the most commonly used loss of mains detection method. However, distribution utilities may be faced with concerns related to false operation of these frequency relays due to improper settings. The commercially available frequency relays are considering standard tight setting. This paper investigates some factors related to relays internal algorithm that contribute to their different operating responses. Further, the relay operation in the presence of multiple distributed at the same network is analyzed. Finally, the relay setting can be accurately determined based on these investigation and analysis.

Keywords: frequency relay, distributed generation, islanding detection, relay setting

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66 Diagnostic Evaluation of Micro Rna (miRNA-21, miRNA-215 and miRNA-378) in Patients with Colorectal Cancer

Authors: Ossama Abdelmotaal, Olfat Shaker, Tarek Salman, Lamiaa Nabeel, Mostafa Shabayek

Abstract:

Colorectal Cancer (CRC) is an important worldwide health problem. Colonoscopy is used in detecting CRC suffer from drawbacks where colonoscopy is an invasive method. This study validates easier and less time-consuming techniques to evaluate the usefulness of detecting miRNA-21, miRNA-215 and miRNA-378 in the sera of colorectal cancer patients as new diagnostic tools. This study includes malignant (Colo Rectal Cancer patients, n= 64)) and healthy (n=27) groups. The studied groups were subjected to colonoscopic examination and estimation of miRNA-21, miRNA-215 and miRNA-378 in sera by RT-PCR. miRNA-21 showed the statistically significantly highest median fold change. miRNA-378 showed statistically significantly lower value (Both showed over-expression). miRNA-215 showed the statistically significantly lowest median fold change (It showed down-regulation). Overall the miRNA (21-215 and 378) appear to be promising method of detecting CRC and evaluating its stages.

Keywords: colorectal cancer, miRNA-21, miRNA-215, miRNA-378

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