Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 26245

Search results for: water based paints

26245 Development of Water-Based Thermal Insulation Paints Using Silica Aerogel

Authors: Lu Yanru, Handojo Djati Utomo, Yin Xi Jiang, Li Xiaodong

Abstract:

Insulation plays a key role in the sustainable building due to the contribution of energy consumption reduction. Without sufficient insulation, a great amount of the energy used to heat or cool a building will be lost to the outdoors. In this study, we developed a highly efficient thermal insulation paint with the incorporation of silica aerogel. Silica aerogel, with a low thermal conductivity of 0.01 W/mK, has been successfully prepared from the solid waste from the incineration plants. It has been added into water-based paints to increase its thermal insulation properties. To investigate the thermal insulation performance of silica aerogel additive, the paint samples were mixed with silica aerogel at different sizes and with various portions. The thermal conductivity, water resistance, thermal stability and adhesion strength of the samples were tested and evaluated. The thermal diffusivity measurements proved that adding silica aerogel additive could improve the thermal insulation properties of the paint significantly. Up to 5 ˚C reductions were observed after applying paints with silica aerogel additive compare to the one without it. The results showed that the developed thermal insulation paints have great potential for an application in green and sustainable building.

Keywords: silica aerogel, thermal insulation, water-based paints, water resistant

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
26244 The Effect of Hydroxyl Ethyl Cellulose (HEC) and Hydrophobically-Modified Alkali Soluble Emulsions (HASE) on the Properties and Quality of Water Based Paints

Authors: Haleden Chiririwa, Sandile S. Gwebu

Abstract:

The coatings industry is a million dollar business, and it is easy and inexpensive to set-up but it is growing very slowly in developing countries, and this study developed a paint formulation which gives better quality and good application properties. The effect of rheology modifiers, i.e. non-ionic polymers hydrophobically-modified ethoxylated urethanes (HEUR), anionic polymers hydrophobically-modified alkali soluble emulsions (HASE) and hydroxyl ethyl cellulose (HEC) on the quality and properties of water-based paints have been investigated. HEC provides the in-can viscosity and increases open working time while HASE improves application properties like spatter resistance and brush loading and HEUR provides excellent scrub resistance. Four paint recipes were prepared using four different thickeners HEC, HASE (carbopol) and Cellulose nitrate. The fourth formulation was thickened with a combination of HASE and HEC, this aimed at improving quality and at the same time reducing cost. The four samples were tested for quality tests such viscosity, sag resistance, volatile matter, tinter effect, drying times, hiding power, scrub resistance and stability on storage. Environmental factors were incorporated in the attempt to formulate an economic and green product. Hydroxyl ethyl cellulose and cellulose nitrate gave high quality and good properties of the paint. HEC and Cellulose nitrate showed stability on storage whereas carbopol thickener was very unstable.

Keywords: properties, thickeners, rheology modifiers, water based paints

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
26243 Energy Saving of the Paint with Mineral Insulators: Simulation and Study on Different Climates

Authors: A. A. Azemati, H. Hosseini, B. Shirkavand Hadavand

Abstract:

By using an adequate thermal barrier coating in buildings the energy saving will be happened. In this study, a range of wall paints with different absorption coefficient in different climates has been investigated. In order to study these effects, heating and cooling loads of a common building with different ordinary paints and paint with mineral coating have been calculated. The effect of building paint in different climatic condition was studied and comparison was done between ordinary paints and paint with mineral insulators in temperate climate to obtain optimized energy consumption. The results have been shown that coatings with inorganic micro particles as insulation reduce the energy consumption of buildings around 14%.

Keywords: climate, energy consumption, inorganic, mineral coating

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
26242 Simulation and Study of the Effect of Paint Mineral Coating on Energy Saving

Authors: A. A. Azemati, H. Hosseini

Abstract:

By using an adequate paint in buildings, energy consumption can be decreased. In this research, a range of wall paints in different climatic conditions has been investigated to observe its effect on energy consumption. In the current study, the researchers have investigated the effect of different parameters including climatic condition, absorption coefficient, and thermal loads on paint coating. In order to study these effects, heating and cooling loads of a typical building with different color paints have been calculated. The effect of building paint in different climatic condition was studied and a comparison was drawn between paints and painting coats with inorganic micro particles in temperate climate to obtain optimized energy consumption.

Keywords: climate, energy consumption, inorganic, painting coats

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
26241 Effect of Chemical Additive on Fixed Abrasive Polishing of LBO Crystal with Non-Water Based Slurry

Authors: Jun Li, Wenze Wang, Zhanggui Hu, Yongwei Zhu, Dunwen Zuo

Abstract:

Non-water based fixed abrasive polishing was adopted to manufacture LBO crystal for nano precision surface quality because of its deliquescent. Ethyl alcohol was selected as the non-water based slurry solvent and ethanediamine, lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide were add in the slurry as a chemical additive, respectively. Effect of different additives with non-water based slurry on material removal rate, surface topography, microscopic appearances and surface roughness were investigated in fixed abrasive polishing of LBO crystal. The results show the best surface quality of LBO crystal with surface roughness Sa 8.2 nm and small damages was obtained by non-water based slurry with lactic acid. Non-water based fixed abrasive polishing can achieve nano precision surface quality of LBO crystal with high material removal.

Keywords: non-water based slurry, LBO crystal, fixed abrasive polishing, surface roughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
26240 Application of WebGIS-Based Water Environment Capacity Inquiry and Planning System in Water Resources Management

Authors: Tao Ding, Danjia Yan, Jinye Li, Chao Ren, Xinhua Hu

Abstract:

The paper based on the research background of the current situation of water shortage in China and intelligent management of water resources in the information era. And the paper adopts WebGIS technology, combining the mathematical model of water resources management to develop a WebGIS-based water environment capacity inquiry and polluted water emission planning. The research significance of the paper is that it can inquiry the water environment capacity of Jinhua City in real time and plan how to drain polluted water into the river, so as to realize the effective management of water resources. This system makes sewage planning more convenient and faster. For the planning of the discharge enterprise, the decision on the optimal location of the sewage outlet can be achieved through calculation of the Sewage discharge planning model in the river, without the need for site visits. The system can achieve effective management of water resources and has great application value.

Keywords: sewerage planning, water environment capacity, water resources management, WebGIS

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
26239 Internet of Things based AquaSwach Water Purifier

Authors: Karthiyayini J., Arpita Chowdary Vantipalli, Darshana Sailu Tanti, Malvika Ravi Kudari, Krtin Kannan

Abstract:

This paper is propelled from the generally existing undertaking of the smart water quality management, which addresses an IoT (Internet of things) based brilliant water quality observing (SWQM) framework which we call it AquaSwach that guides in the ceaseless estimation of water conditions dependent on five actual boundaries i.e., temperature, pH, electric conductivity and turbidity properties and water virtue estimation each time you drink water. Six sensors relate to Arduino-Mega in a discrete way to detect the water parameters. Extracted data from the sensors are transmitted to a desktop application developed in the NET platform and compared with the WHO (World Health Organization) standard values.

Keywords: AquaSwach, IoT, WHO, water quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
26238 A Review on Water Models of Surface Water Environment

Authors: Shahbaz G. Hassan

Abstract:

Water quality models are very important to predict the changes in surface water quality for environmental management. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the water qualities, and to provide directions for selecting models in specific situation. Water quality models include one kind of model based on a mechanistic approach, while other models simulate water quality without considering a mechanism. Mechanistic models can be widely applied and have capabilities for long-time simulation, with highly complexity. Therefore, more spaces are provided to explain the principle and application experience of mechanistic models. Mechanism models have certain assumptions on rivers, lakes and estuaries, which limits the application range of the model, this paper introduces the principles and applications of water quality model based on the above three scenarios. On the other hand, mechanistic models are more easily to compute, and with no limit to the geographical conditions, but they cannot be used with confidence to simulate long term changes. This paper divides the empirical models into two broad categories according to the difference of mathematical algorithm, models based on artificial intelligence and models based on statistical methods.

Keywords: empirical models, mathematical, statistical, water quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
26237 Water Self Sufficient: Creating a Sustainable Water System Based on Urban Harvest Approach in La Serena, Chile

Authors: Zulfikar Dinar Wahidayat Putra

Abstract:

Water scarcity become a major challenge in an arid area. One of the arid areas is La Serena city in the Northern Chile which become a case study of this paper. Based on that, this paper tries to identify a sustainable water system by using urban harvest approach as a method to achieve water self-sufficiency for a neighborhood area in the La Serena city. By using the method, it is possible to create sustainable water system in the neighborhood area by reducing up to 38% of water demand and 94% of wastewater production even though water self-sufficient cannot be fully achieved, because of its dependency to the drinking water supply from water treatment plant of La Serena city.

Keywords: arid area, sustainable water system, urban harvest approach, self-sufficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
26236 Novel Self-Healing Eco-Friendly Coatings with Antifouling and Anticorrosion Properties for Maritime Applications

Authors: K. N. Kipreou, E. Efthmiadou, G. Kordas

Abstract:

Biofouling represents one of the most crucial problems in the present maritime industries when its control still challenges the researchers all over the world. The present work is referred to the synthesis and characterization CeMo and Cu2O nanocontainers by using a wide range of techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for marine applications. The above nanosystems will be loaded with active monomers and corrosion rendering healing ability to marine paints. The objective of this project is their ability for self-healing, self-polishing and finally for anti-corrosion activity. One of the driving forces for the exploration of CeMo, is the unique anticorrosive behavior, which will be confirmed by the electrochemistry methodology. It has be highlighted that the nanocontainers of Cu2O with the appropriate antibacterial inhibitor will improve the hydrophobicity and the morphology of the coating surfaces reducing the water friction. In summary, both novel nanoc will increase the lifetime of the paints releasing the antifouling agent in a control manner.

Keywords: marinepaints, nanocontainer, antifouling, anticorrosion, copper, electrochemistry, coating, biofouling, inhibitors, copper oxide, coating, SEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
26235 Study of the Behavior of an Organic Coating Applied on Algerian Oil Tanker in Sea Water

Authors: Nadia Hammouda, K. Belmokre

Abstract:

Organic coatings are widely employed in the corrosion protection of most metal surfaces, particularly steel. They provide a barrier against corrosive species present in the environment, due to their high resistance to oxygen, water and ions transport. This study focuses on the evaluation of corrosion protection performance of epoxy paint on the carbon steel surface in sea water by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The electrochemical behavior of painted surface was estimated by EIS parameters that contained paint film resistance, paint film capacitance and double layer capacitance. On the basis of calculation using EIS spectrums it was observed that pore resistance (Rpore) decreased with the appearance of doubled layer capacitance (Cdl) due to the electrolyte penetration through the film. This was further confirmed by the decrease of diffusion resistance (Rd) which was also the indicator of the deterioration of paint film protectiveness.

Keywords: epoxy paints, carbon steel, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, corrosion mechanisms, sea water

Procedia PDF Downloads 374
26234 EIS Study of the Corrosion Behavior of an Organic Coating Applied on Algerian Oil Tanker in Sea Water

Authors: Nadia Hammouda, Kamel Belmokre

Abstract:

Organic coatings are widely employed in the corrosion protection of most metal surfaces, particularly steel. They provide a barrier against corrosive species present in the environment, due to their high resistance to oxygen, water and ions transport. This study focuses on the evaluation of corrosion protection performance of epoxy paint on the carbon steel surface in sea water by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The electrochemical behavior of painted surface was estimated by EIS parameters that contained paint film resistance, paint film capacitance and double layer capacitance. On the basis of calculation using EIS spectrums it was observed that pore resistance (Rpore) decreased with the appearance of doubled layer capacitance (Cdl) due to the electrolyte penetration through the film. This was further confirmed by the decrease of diffusion resistance (Rd) which was also the indicator of the deterioration of paint film protectiveness.

Keywords: epoxy paints, carbon steel, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, corrosion mechanisms, sea water

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
26233 Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Based Water Filter for Virus Pathogen Removal

Authors: K. Domagala, D. Kata, T. Graule

Abstract:

Diseases caused by contaminated drinking water are the worldwide problem, which leads to the death and severe illnesses for hundreds of millions million people each year. There is an urgent need for efficient water treatment techniques for virus pathogens removal. The aim of the research was to develop safe and economic solution, which help with the water treatment. In this study, the synthesis of copper-based multi-walled carbon nanotube composites is described. Proposed solution utilize combination of a low-cost material with a high active surface area and copper antiviral properties. Removal of viruses from water was possible by adsorption based on electrostatic interactions of negatively charged virus with a positively charged filter material.

Keywords: multi walled carbon nanotubes, water purification, virus removal, water treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 32
26232 Application Water Quality Modelling In Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) Management: A Review

Authors: S. A. Che Osmi, W. M. F. W. Ishak, S. F. Che Osmi

Abstract:

Nowadays the issues of water quality and water pollution have been a major problem across the country. A lot of management attempt to develop their own TMDL database in order to control the river pollution. Over the past decade, the mathematical modeling has been used as the tool for the development of TMDL. This paper presents the application of water quality modeling to develop the total maximum daily load (TMDL) information. To obtain the reliable database of TMDL, the appropriate water quality modeling should choose based on the available data provided. This paper will discuss on the use of several water quality modeling such as QUAL2E, QUAL2K, and EFDC to develop TMDL. The attempts to integrate several modeling are also being discussed in this paper. Based on this paper, the differences in the application of water quality modeling based on their properties such as one, two or three dimensional are showing their ability to develop the modeling of TMDL database.

Keywords: TMDL, water quality modeling, QUAL2E, EFDC

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
26231 Numerical Predictions of Trajectory Stability of a High-Speed Water-Entry and Water-Exit Projectile

Authors: Lin Lu, Qiang Li, Tao Cai, Pengjun Zhang

Abstract:

In this study, a detailed analysis of trajectory stability and flow characteristics of a high-speed projectile during the water-entry and water-exit process has been investigated numerically. The Zwart-Gerber-Belamri (Z-G-B) cavitation model and the SST k-ω turbulence model based on the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) method are employed. The numerical methodology is validated by comparing the experimental photograph of cavitation shape and the experimental underwater velocity with the numerical simulation results. Based on the numerical methodology, the influences of rotational speed, water-entry and water-exit angle of the projectile on the trajectory stability and flow characteristics have been carried out in detail. The variation features of projectile trajectory and total resistance have been conducted, respectively. In addition, the cavitation characteristics of water-entry and water-exit have been presented and analyzed. Results show that it may not be applicable for the water-entry and water-exit to achieve the projectile stability through the rotation of projectile. Furthermore, there ought to be a critical water-entry angle for the water-entry stability of practical projectile. The impact of water-exit angle on the trajectory stability and cavity phenomenon is not as remarkable as that of the water-entry angle.

Keywords: cavitation characteristics, high-speed projectile, numerical predictions, trajectory stability, water-entry, water-exit

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
26230 Pinch Technology for Minimization of Water Consumption at a Refinery

Authors: W. Mughees, M. Alahmad

Abstract:

Water is the most significant entity that controls local and global development. For the Gulf region, especially Saudi Arabia, with its limited potable water resources, the potential of the fresh water problem is highly considerable. In this research, the study involves the design and analysis of pinch-based water/wastewater networks. Multiple water/wastewater networks were developed using pinch analysis involving direct recycle/material recycle method. Property-integration technique was adopted to carry out direct recycle method. Particularly, a petroleum refinery was considered as a case study. In direct recycle methodology, minimum water discharge and minimum fresh water resource targets were estimated. Re-design (or retrofitting) of water allocation in the networks was undertaken. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and hardness properties were taken as pollutants. This research was based on single and double contaminant approach for COD and hardness and the amount of fresh water was reduced from 340.0 m3/h to 149.0 m3/h (43.8%), 208.0 m3/h (61.18%) respectively. While regarding double contaminant approach, reduction in fresh water demand was 132.0 m3/h (38.8%). The required analysis was also carried out using mathematical programming technique. Operating software such as LINGO was used for these studies which have verified the graphical method results in a valuable and accurate way. Among the multiple water networks, the one possible water allocation network was developed based on mass exchange.

Keywords: minimization, water pinch, water management, pollution prevention

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
26229 Minimizing Fresh and Wastewater Using Water Pinch Technique in Petrochemical Industries

Authors: Wasif Mughees, Malik Al-Ahmad, Muhammad Naeem

Abstract:

This research involves the design and analysis of pinch-based water/wastewater networks to minimize water utility in the petrochemical and petroleum industries. A study has been done on Tehran Oil Refinery to analyze feasibilities of regeneration, reuse and recycling of water network. COD is considered as a single key contaminant. Amount of freshwater was reduced about 149m3/h (43.8%) regarding COD. Re-design (or retrofitting) of water allocation in the networks was undertaken. The results were analyzed through graphical method and mathematical programming technique which clearly demonstrated that amount of required water would be determined by mass transfer of COD.

Keywords: minimization, water pinch, water management, pollution prevention

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
26228 Evaluation of an Organic Coating Applied on Algerian Oil Tanker in Sea water by EIS

Authors: Nadia Hammouda, Kamel Belmokre

Abstract:

Organic coatings are widely employed in the corrosion protection of most metal surfaces, particularly steel. They provide a barrier against corrosive species present in the environment, due to their high resistance to oxygen, water and ions transport. This study focuses on the evaluation of corrosion protection performance of epoxy paint on the carbon steel surface in sea water by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The electrochemical behavior of painted surface was estimated by EIS parameters that contained paint film resistance, paint film capacitance and double layer capacitance. On the basis of calculation using EIS spectrums it was observed that pore resistance (Rpore) decreased with the appearance of doubled layer capacitance (Cdl) due to the electrolyte penetration through the film. This was further confirmed by the decrease of diffusion resistance (Rd) which was also the indicator of the deterioration of paint film protectiveness.

Keywords: epoxy paints, carbon steel, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, corrosion mechanisms, seawater

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
26227 CT-Scan Transition of Pulmonary Edema Due to Water-Soluble Paint Inhalation

Authors: Masashi Kanazawa, Takaaki Nakano, Masaaki Takemoto, Tomonori Imamura, Mamiko Sugimura, Toshitaka Ito

Abstract:

Introduction: We experienced a massive disaster due to inhalation of water-soluble paint. Sixteen patients were brought to our emergency room, and pulmonary edema was revealed on the CT images of 12 cases. Purpose: Transition of chest CT-scan findings in cases with pulmonary edema was examined. Method: CT-scans were performed on the 1st, 2nd, 5th, and 19th days after the inhalation event. Patients whose pulmonary edema showed amelioration or exacerbation were classified into the improvement or the exacerbation group, respectively. Those with lung edema findings appearing at different sites after the second day were classified into the changing group. Results: Eight, one and three patients were in the improvement, exacerbation and changing groups, respectively. In all cases, the pulmonary edema had disappeared from CT images on the 19th day after the inhalation event. Conclusion: Inhalation of water-soluble paints is considered to be relatively safe. However, our observations in these emergency cases suggest that, even if pulmonary edema is not severe immediately after the exposure, new lesions may appear later and existing lesions may worsen. Follow-up imaging is thus necessary for about two weeks.

Keywords: CT scan, intoxication, pulmonary edema, water-soluble paint

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
26226 Sources of Water Supply and Water Quality for Local Consumption: The Case Study of Eco-Tourism Village, Suan Luang Sub- District Municipality, Ampawa District, Samut Songkram Province, Thailand

Authors: Paiboon Jeamponk, Tasanee Ponglaa, Patchapon Srisanguan

Abstract:

The aim of this research paper was based on an examination of sources of water supply and water quality for local consumption, conducted at eco-tourism villages of Suan Luang Sub- District Municipality of Amphawa District, Samut Songkram Province. The study incorporated both questionnaire and field work of water testing as the research tool and method. The sample size of 288 households was based on the population of the district, whereas the selected sample water sources were from 60 households: 30 samples were ground water and another 30 were surface water. Degree of heavy metal contamination in the water including copper, iron, manganese, zinc, cadmium and lead was investigated utilizing the Atomic Absorption- Direct Aspiration method. The findings unveiled that 96.0 percent of household water consumption was based on water supply, while the rest on canal, river and rain water. The household behaviour of consumption revealed that 47.2 percent of people routinely consumed water without boiling or filtering prior to consumption. The investigation of water supply quality found that the degree of heavy metal contamination including metal, lead, iron, copper, manganese and cadmium met the standards of the Department of Health.

Keywords: sources of water supply, water quality, water supply, Thailand

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
26225 Assessing the Role of Water Research and Development Investment towards Water Security in South Africa: During the Five Years Period (2009/10 - 2013/14)

Authors: Hlamulo Makelane

Abstract:

The study aims at providing new insights regarding research and development (R&D) public and private activities based on the national R&D survey of the past five years. The main question of the study is what role does water R&D plays on water security; to then analyze what lessons could be extracted to improve the security of water through R&D. In particular, this work concentrates on three main aspects of R&D investments: (i) the level of expenditures, (ii) the sources of funding related to water R&D, and (iii) the personnel working in the field, both for the public and private sectors. The nonlinear regression approached will be used for data analysis based on secondary data gathered from the South African nation R&D survey conducted annually by the Centre for science, technology and innovation indicators (CeSTII).

Keywords: water, R&D, investment, public sector, private sector

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
26224 Contrasting The Water Consumption Estimation Methods

Authors: Etienne Alain Feukeu, L. W. Snyman

Abstract:

Water scarcity is becoming a real issue nowadays. Most countries in the world are facing it in their own way based on their own geographical coordinate and condition. Many countries are facing a challenge of a growing water demand as a result of not only an increased population, economic growth, but also as a pressure of the population dynamic and urbanization. In view to mitigate some of this related problem, an accurate method of water estimation and future prediction, forecast is essential to guarantee not only the sufficient quantity, but also a good water distribution and management system. Beside the fact that several works have been undertaken to address this concern, there is still a considerable disparity between different methods and standard used for water prediction and estimation. Hence this work contrast and compare two well-defined and established methods from two countries (USA and South Africa) to demonstrate the inconsistency when different method and standards are used interchangeably.

Keywords: water scarcity, water estimation, water prediction, water forecast.

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
26223 Cost Effective Microfabrication Technique for Lab on Chip (LOC) Devices Using Epoxy Polymers

Authors: Charmi Chande, Ravindra Phadke

Abstract:

Microfluidics devices are fabricated by using multiple fabrication methods. Photolithography is one of the common methods wherein SU8 is widely used for making master which in turn is used for making working chip by the process of soft lithography. The high-aspect ratio features of SU-8 makes it suitable to be used as micro moulds for injection moulding, hot embossing, and moulds to form polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) structures for bioMEMS (Microelectromechanical systems) applications. But due to high cost, difficulty in procuring and need for clean room, restricts the use of this polymer especially in developing countries and small research labs. ‘Bisphenol –A’ based polymers in mixture with curing agent are used in various industries like Paints and coatings, Adhesives, Electrical systems and electronics, Industrial tooling and composites. We present the novel use of ‘Bisphenol – A’ based polymer in fabricating micro channels for Lab On Chip(LOC) devices. The present paper describes the prototype for production of microfluidics chips using range of ‘Bisphenol-A’ based polymers viz. GY 250, ATUL B11, DER 331, DER 330 in mixture with cationic photo initiators. All the steps of chip production were carried out using an inexpensive approach that uses low cost chemicals and equipment. This even excludes the need of clean room. The produced chips using all above mentioned polymers were validated with respect to height and the chip giving least height was selected for further experimentation. The lowest height achieved was 7 micrometers by GY250. The cost of the master fabricated was $ 0.20 and working chip was $. 0.22. The best working chip was used for morphological identification and profiling of microorganisms from environmental samples like soil, marine water and salt water pan sites. The current chip can be adapted for various microbiological screening experiments like biochemical based microbial identification, studying uncultivable microorganisms at single cell/community level.

Keywords: bisphenol–A based epoxy, cationic photoinitiators, microfabrication, photolithography

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
26222 The Risk Assessments of Water Quality in Selected White Water River in Malaysia

Authors: Jaffry Zakaria, Nor Azlina Hasbullah

Abstract:

The research on water quality based on 'Water Quality Index' (WQI) has been on the run along Kampar River in Perak State of Malaysia. This study was conducted to achieve several key objective that determe the value of the parameters that were studied based on Water Quality Index (WQI). The parameters include Dissolved Oxygen (DO), pH, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Suspended Solids. In this study, three sampling stations were selected. Through observations from the researchers, several pollutions were found occurring along the research area such as the disposal of waste water directly without treatment from villagers, widespread dumping of solid waste and the development of the surrounding areas that contributed to the pollution of Sungai Kampar in Perak, Malaysia. Sungai Kampar is commonly used for water recreational activities as well as for bathing purposes. Results showed that Sungai Kampar is classified under category III. According to Interim National Water Quality Standard for Malaysia (INWQS), rivers in the third grade are clean but not suitable for river recreational activities. Therefore, there is a requirement to investigate and analysis the water quality of all white water rivers in Malaysia focusing on the area of water activities. The combination of technology and risk management based on risk assessments can help the recreational industry to survive in future.

Keywords: risk assessments, White Water River, water quality index (WQI), Interim National Water Quality Standard for Malaysia (INWQS)

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
26221 Seepage Modelling of Jatigede Dam Towards Cisampih Village Based on Analysis Soil Characteristic Using Method Soil Reaction to Water, West Java Indonesia

Authors: Diemas Purnama Muhammad Firman Pratama, Denny Maulana Malik

Abstract:

Development of Jatigede Dam that was the mega project in Indonesia, since 1963. Area of around Jatigede Dam is complex, it has structural geology active fault, and as possible can occur landslide. This research focus on soil test. The purpose of this research to know soil quality Jatigede Dam which caused by water seepage of Jatigede Dam, then can be made seepage modelling around Jatigede Dam including Cisampih Village. Method of this research is SRW (Soil Reaction to Water). There are three samples are taken nearby Jatigede Dam. Four paramaters to determine water seepage such as : V ( velocity of soil to release water), Dl (Ability of soil to release water), Ds (Ability of soil to absorb water), Dt (Ability of soil to hold water). meanwhile, another proscess of interaction beetween water and soil are produced angle, which is made of water flow and vertikal line. Called name SIAT. SIAT has two type is na1 and na2. Each samples has a value from the first sample is 280,333(degree), the second 270 (degree) and the third 270 (degree). The difference na1 is, water interaction towards Dt value angle, while na2 is water interaction towards Dl and Ds value angle. Result of calculating SRW method, first till third sample has a value 7, 11,5 and 9. Based on data, interpreted in around teritory of Jatigede Dam, will get easier impact from water seepage because, condition soil reaction too bad so, it can not hold water.

Keywords: Jatigede Dam, Cisampih village, water seepage, soil quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
26220 Spatial Distribution of Cellular Water in Pear Fruit: An Experimental Investigation

Authors: Md. Imran H. Khan, T. Farrell, M. A. Karim

Abstract:

Highly porous and hygroscopic characteristics of pear make it complex to understand the cellular level water distribution. In pear tissue, water is mainly distributed in three different spaces namely, intercellular water, intracellular water, and cell wall water. Understanding of these three types of water in pear tissue is crucial for predicting actual heat and mass transfer during drying. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the proportion of intercellular water, intracellular water, and cell wall water inside the pear tissue. During this study, Green Anjou Pear was taken for the investigation. The experiment was performed using 1H-NMR- T2 relaxometry. Various types of water component were calculated by using multi-component fits of the T2 relaxation curves. The experimental result showed that in pear tissue 78-82% water exist in intracellular space; 12-16% water in intercellular space and only 2-4% water exist in the cell wall space. The investigated results quantify different types of water in plant-based food tissue. The highest proportion of water exists in intracellular spaces. It was also investigated that the physical properties of pear and the proportion of the different types of water has a strong relationship. Cell wall water depends on the proportion of solid in the sample tissue whereas free water depends on the porosity of the material.

Keywords: intracellular water, intercellular water, cell wall water, physical property, pear

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
26219 Research on Steam Injection Technology of Extended Range Engine Cylinder for Waste Heat Recovery

Authors: Zhiyuan Jia, Xiuxiu Sun, Yong Chen, Liu Hai, Shuangqing Li

Abstract:

The engine cooling water and exhaust gas contain a large amount of available energy. In order to improve energy efficiency, a steam injection technology based on waste heat recovery is proposed. The models of cooling water waste heat utilization, exhaust gas waste heat utilization, and exhaust gas-cooling water waste heat utilization were constructed, and the effects of the three modes on the performance of steam injection were analyzed, and then the feasibility of in-cylinder water injection steam technology based on waste heat recovery was verified. The research results show that when the injection water flow rate is 0.10 kg/s and the temperature is 298 K, at a cooling water temperature of 363 K, the maximum temperature of the injection water heated by the cooling water can reach 314.5 K; at an exhaust gas temperature of 973 K and an exhaust gas flow rate of 0.12 kg/s, the maximum temperature of the injection water heated by the exhaust gas can reach 430 K; Under the condition of cooling water temperature of 363 K, exhaust gas temperature of 973 K and exhaust gas flow rate of 0.12 kg/s, after cooling water and exhaust gas heating, the maximum temperature of the injection water can reach 463 K. When the engine is 1200 rpm, the water injection volume is 30 mg, and the water injection time is 36°CA, the engine power increases by 2% and the fuel consumption is reduced by 2.6%.

Keywords: cooling water, exhaust gas, extended range engine, steam injection, waste heat recovery

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
26218 Poly(Acrylamide-Co-Itaconic Acid) Nanocomposite Hydrogels and Its Use in the Removal of Lead in Aqueous Solution

Authors: Majid Farsadrouh Rashti, Alireza Mohammadinejad, Amir Shafiee Kisomi

Abstract:

Lead (Pb²⁺), a cation, is a prime constituent of the majority of the industrial effluents such as mining, smelting and coal combustion, Pb-based painting and Pb containing pipes in water supply systems, paper and pulp refineries, printing, paints and pigments, explosive manufacturing, storage batteries, alloy and steel industries. The maximum permissible limit of lead in the water used for drinking and domesticating purpose is 0.01 mg/L as advised by Bureau of Indian Standards, BIS. This becomes the acceptable 'safe' level of lead(II) ions in water beyond which, the water becomes unfit for human use and consumption, and is potential enough to lead health problems and epidemics leading to kidney failure, neuronal disorders, and reproductive infertility. Superabsorbent hydrogels are loosely crosslinked hydrophilic polymers that in contact with aqueous solution can easily water and swell to several times to their initial volume without dissolving in aqueous medium. Superabsorbents are kind of hydrogels capable to swell and absorb a large amount of water in their three-dimensional networks. While the shapes of hydrogels do not change extensively during swelling, because of tremendously swelling capacity of superabsorbent, their shape will broadly change.Because of their superb response to changing environmental conditions including temperature pH, and solvent composition, superabsorbents have been attracting in numerous industrial applications. For instance, water retention property and subsequently. Natural-based superabsorbent hydrogels have attracted much attention in medical pharmaceutical, baby diapers, agriculture, and horticulture because of their non-toxicity, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. Novel superabsorbent hydrogel nanocomposites were prepared by graft copolymerization of acrylamide and itaconic acid in the presence of nanoclay (laponite), using methylene bisacrylamide (MBA) and potassium persulfate, former as a crosslinking agent and the second as an initiator. The superabsorbent hydrogel nanocomposites structure was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, SEM and TGA Spectroscopy adsorption of metal ions on poly (AAm-co-IA). The equilibrium swelling values of copolymer was determined by gravimetric method. During the adsorption of metal ions on polymer, residual metal ion concentration in the solution and the solution pH were measured. The effects of the clay content of the hydrogel on its metal ions uptake behavior were studied. The NC hydrogels may be considered as a good candidate for environmental applications to retain more water and to remove heavy metals.

Keywords: adsorption, hydrogel, nanocomposite, super adsorbent

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
26217 The Resistance of Fish Outside of Water Medium

Authors: Febri Ramadhan

Abstract:

Water medium is a vital necessity for the survival of fish. Fish can survive inside/outside of water medium within a certain time. By knowing the level of survival fish at outside of water medium, a person can transport the fish to a place with more efficiently. Transport of live fish from one place to another can be done with wet and dry media system. In this experiment the treatment-given the observed differences in fish species. This experiment aimed to test the degree of resilience of fish out of water media. Based on the ANOVA table is obtained, it can be concluded that the type of fish affects the level of resilience of fish outside the water (Fhit> Ftab).

Keywords: fish, transport, retention rate, fish resiliance

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
26216 Water Reclamation from Synthetic Winery Wastewater Using a Fertiliser Drawn Forward Osmosis System Evaluating Aquaporin-Based Biomimetic and Cellulose Triacetate Forward Osmosis Membranes

Authors: Robyn Augustine, Irena Petrinic, Claus Helix-Nielsen, Marshall S. Sheldon

Abstract:

This study examined the performance of two commercial forward osmosis (FO) membranes; an aquaporin (AQP) based biomimetic membrane, and cellulose triacetate (CTA) membrane in a fertiliser is drawn forward osmosis (FDFO) system for the reclamation of water from synthetic winery wastewater (SWW) operated over 24 hr. Straight, 1 M KCl and 1 M NH₄NO₃ fertiliser solutions were evaluated as draw solutions in the FDFO system. The performance of the AQP-based biomimetic and CTA FO membranes were evaluated in terms of permeate water flux (Jw), reverse solute flux (Js) and percentage water recovery (Re). The average water flux and reverse solute flux when using 1 M KCl as a draw solution against controlled feed solution, deionised (DI) water, was 11.65 L/m²h and 3.98 g/m²h (AQP) and 6.24 L/m²h and 2.89 g/m²h (CTA), respectively. Using 1 M NH₄NO₃ as a draw solution yielded average water fluxes and reverse solute fluxes of 10.73 L/m²h and 1.31 g/m²h (AQP) and 5.84 L/m²h and 1.39 g/m²h (CTA), respectively. When using SWW as the feed solution and 1 M KCl and 1 M NH₄NO₃ as draw solutions, respectively, the average water fluxes observed were 8.15 and 9.66 L/m²h (AQP) and 5.02 and 5.65 L/m²h (CTA). Membrane water flux decline was the result of a combined decrease in the effective driving force of the FDFO system, reverse solute flux and organic fouling. Permeate water flux recoveries of between 84-98%, and 83-89% were observed for the AQP-based biomimetic and CTA membrane, respectively after physical cleaning by flushing was employed. The highest water recovery rate of 49% was observed for the 1 M KCl fertiliser draw solution with AQP-based biomimetic membrane and proved superior in the reclamation of water from SWW.

Keywords: aquaporin biomimetic membrane, cellulose triacetate membrane, forward osmosis, reverse solute flux, synthetic winery wastewater and water flux

Procedia PDF Downloads 65