Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Search results for: thickeners

6 The Effect of Hydroxyl Ethyl Cellulose (HEC) and Hydrophobically-Modified Alkali Soluble Emulsions (HASE) on the Properties and Quality of Water Based Paints

Authors: Haleden Chiririwa, Sandile S. Gwebu


The coatings industry is a million dollar business, and it is easy and inexpensive to set-up but it is growing very slowly in developing countries, and this study developed a paint formulation which gives better quality and good application properties. The effect of rheology modifiers, i.e. non-ionic polymers hydrophobically-modified ethoxylated urethanes (HEUR), anionic polymers hydrophobically-modified alkali soluble emulsions (HASE) and hydroxyl ethyl cellulose (HEC) on the quality and properties of water-based paints have been investigated. HEC provides the in-can viscosity and increases open working time while HASE improves application properties like spatter resistance and brush loading and HEUR provides excellent scrub resistance. Four paint recipes were prepared using four different thickeners HEC, HASE (carbopol) and Cellulose nitrate. The fourth formulation was thickened with a combination of HASE and HEC, this aimed at improving quality and at the same time reducing cost. The four samples were tested for quality tests such viscosity, sag resistance, volatile matter, tinter effect, drying times, hiding power, scrub resistance and stability on storage. Environmental factors were incorporated in the attempt to formulate an economic and green product. Hydroxyl ethyl cellulose and cellulose nitrate gave high quality and good properties of the paint. HEC and Cellulose nitrate showed stability on storage whereas carbopol thickener was very unstable.

Keywords: properties, thickeners, rheology modifiers, water based paints

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5 The Application of Polymers in Enhanced Oil Recovery: Recent Trends

Authors: Reza M. Rudd, Ali Saeedi, Colin Wood


In this article, the latest advancements made in the applications of polymers in the enhanced hydrocarbon recovery technologies are investigated. For this purpose, different classes of polymers are reviewed and the latest progresses made in making them suitable for application under harsh reservoir conditions are discussed. The main reservoir conditions whose effects are taken into account include the temperature, rock mineralogy and brine salinity and composition. For profile modification and blocking the thief zones, polymers are used in the form of nanocomposite hydrogels. Polymers are also used as thickeners during CO2 flooding. Also, they are used in enhanced gas recovery, to inhibit the mixing of injection gas with the in-situ natural gas. This review covers the main types of polymers, their functions and the challenges in their applications, some of which are mentioned above. Included in this review are also the latest progresses made in the development of new polymeric surfactants used for surfactant flooding.

Keywords: EOR, EGR, polymer flooding, profile modification, mobility control, nanocomposite hydrogels, CO2 flooding, polymeric surfactants

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4 Flocculation and Settling Rate Studies of Clean Coal Fines at Different Flocculants Dosage, pH Values, Bulk Density and Particle Size

Authors: Patel Himeshkumar Ashokbhai, Suchit Sharma, Arvind Kumar Garg


The results obtained from settling test of coal fines are used as an important tool to select the dewatering equipment such as thickeners, centrifuges and filters. Coal being hydrophobic in nature does not easily settle when mixed with water. Coal slurry that takes longer time to release water is highly undesirable because it poses additional challenge during sedimentation, centrifuge and filtration. If filter cake has higher than permitted moisture content then it not only creates handling problems but inflated freight costs and reduction in input and productivity for coke oven charges. It is to be noted that coal fines drastically increase moisture percentage in filter cake hence are to be minimized. To increase settling rate of coal fines in slurry chemical substances called flocculants or coagulants are added that cause coal particles to flocculate or coalesce into larger particles. These larger particles settle at faster rate and have higher settling velocity. Other important factors affecting settling rate are flocculent dosage, slurry or pulp density and particle size. Hence in this paper we tried to study the settling characteristic of clean coal fines by varying one of the four factors namely 1. Flocculant Dosage (acryl-amide) 2. pH of the water 3. Bulk density 4. Particle size of clean coal fines in settling experiment and drew important conclusions. Result of this paper will be much useful not only for coal beneficiation plant design but also for cost reduction of coke production facilities.

Keywords: bulk density, coal fines, flocculants, flocculation, settling velocity, pH

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3 Solutions of Thickening the Sludge from the Wastewater Treatment by a Rotor with Bars

Authors: Victorita Radulescu


Introduction: The sewage treatment plants, in the second stage, are formed by tanks having as main purpose the formation of the suspensions with high possible solid concentration values. The paper presents a solution to produce a rapid concentration of the slurry and sludge, having as main purpose the minimization as much as possible the size of the tanks. The solution is based on a rotor with bars, tested into two different areas of industrial activity: the remediation of the wastewater from the oil industry and, in the last year, into the mining industry. Basic Methods: It was designed, realized and tested a thickening system with vertical bars that manages to reduce sludge moisture content from 94% to 87%. The design was based on the hypothesis that the streamlines of the vortices detached from the rotor with vertical bars accelerate, under certain conditions, the sludge thickening. It is moved at the lateral sides, and in time, it became sediment. The formed vortices with the vertical axis in the viscous fluid, under the action of the lift, drag, weight, and inertia forces participate at a rapid aggregation of the particles thus accelerating the sludge concentration. Appears an interdependence between the Re number attached to the flow with vortex induced by the vertical bars and the size of the hydraulic compaction phenomenon, resulting from an accelerated process of sedimentation, therefore, a sludge thickening depending on the physic-chemical characteristics of the resulting sludge is projected the rotor's dimensions. Major findings/ Results: Based on the experimental measurements was performed the numerical simulation of the hydraulic rotor, as to assure the necessary vortices. The experimental measurements were performed to determine the optimal height and the density of the bars for the sludge thickening system, to assure the tanks dimensions as small as possible. The time thickening/settling was reduced by 24% compared to the conventional used systems. In the present, the thickeners intend to decrease the intermediate stage of water treatment, using primary and secondary settling; but they assume a quite long time, the order of 10-15 hours. By using this system, there are no intermediary steps; the thickening is done automatically when are created the vortices. Conclusions: The experimental tests were carried out in the wastewater treatment plant of the Refinery of oil from Brazi, near the city Ploiesti. The results prove its efficiency in reducing the time for compacting the sludge and the smaller humidity of the evacuated sediments. The utilization of this equipment is now extended and it is tested the mining industry, with significant results, in Lupeni mine, from the Jiu Valley.

Keywords: experimental tests, hydrodynamic modeling, rotor efficiency, wastewater treatment

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2 Compression-Extrusion Test to Assess Texture of Thickened Liquids for Dysphagia

Authors: Jesus Salmeron, Carmen De Vega, Maria Soledad Vicente, Mireia Olabarria, Olaia Martinez


Dysphagia or difficulty in swallowing affects mostly elder people: 56-78% of the institutionalized and 44% of the hospitalized. Liquid food thickening is a necessary measure in this situation because it reduces the risk of penetration-aspiration. Until now, and as proposed by the American Dietetic Association in 2002, possible consistencies have been categorized in three groups attending to their viscosity: nectar (50-350 mPa•s), honey (350-1750 mPa•s) and pudding (>1750 mPa•s). The adequate viscosity level should be identified for every patient, according to her/his impairment. Nevertheless, a systematic review on dysphagia diet performed recently indicated that there is no evidence to suggest that there is any transition of clinical relevance between the three levels proposed. It was also stated that other physical properties of the bolus (slipperiness, density or cohesiveness, among others) could influence swallowing in affected patients and could contribute to the amount of remaining residue. Texture parameters need to be evaluated as possible alternative to viscosity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the instrumental extrusion-compression test as a possible tool to characterize changes along time in water thickened with various products and in the three theoretical consistencies. Six commercial thickeners were used: NM® (NM), Multi-thick® (M), Nutilis Powder® (Nut), Resource® (R), Thick&Easy® (TE) and Vegenat® (V). All of them with a modified starch base. Only one of them, Nut, also had a 6,4% of gum (guar, tara and xanthan). They were prepared as indicated in the instructions of each product and dispensing the correspondent amount for nectar, honey and pudding consistencies in 300 mL of tap water at 18ºC-20ºC. The mixture was stirred for about 30 s. Once it was homogeneously spread, it was dispensed in 30 mL plastic glasses; always to the same height. Each of these glasses was used as a measuring point. Viscosity was measured using a rotational viscometer (ST-2001, Selecta, Barcelona). Extrusion-compression test was performed using a TA.XT2i texture analyzer (Stable Micro Systems, UK) with a 25 mm diameter cylindrical probe (SMSP/25). Penetration distance was set at 10 mm and a speed of 3 mm/s. Measurements were made at 1, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 minutes from the moment samples were mixed. From the force (g)–time (s) curves obtained in the instrumental assays, maximum force peak (F) was chosen a reference parameter. Viscosity (mPa•s) and F (g) showed to be highly correlated and had similar development along time, following time-dependent quadratic models. It was possible to predict viscosity using F as an independent variable, as they were linearly correlated. In conclusion, compression-extrusion test could be an alternative and a useful tool to assess physical characteristics of thickened liquids.

Keywords: compression-extrusion test, dysphagia, texture analyzer, thickener

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1 Rheological Characterization of Polysaccharide Extracted from Camelina Meal as a New Source of Thickening Agent

Authors: Mohammad Anvari, Helen S. Joyner (Melito)


Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz is an oilseed crop currently used for the production of biofuels. However, the low price of diesel and gasoline has made camelina an unprofitable crop for farmers, leading to declining camelina production in the US. Hence, the ability to utilize camelina byproduct (defatted meal) after oil extraction would be a pivotal factor for promoting the economic value of the plant. Camelina defatted meal is rich in proteins and polysaccharides. The great diversity in the polysaccharide structural features provides a unique opportunity for use in food formulations as thickeners, gelling agents, emulsifiers, and stabilizers. There is currently a great degree of interest in the study of novel plant polysaccharides, as they can be derived from readily accessible sources and have potential application in a wide range of food formulations. However, there are no published studies on the polysaccharide extracted from camelina meal, and its potential industrial applications remain largely underexploited. Rheological properties are a key functional feature of polysaccharides and are highly dependent on the material composition and molecular structure. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the rheological properties of the polysaccharide extracted from camelina meal at different conditions to obtain insight on the molecular characteristics of the polysaccharide. Flow and dynamic mechanical behaviors were determined under different temperatures (5-50°C) and concentrations (1-6% w/v). Additionally, the zeta potential of the polysaccharide dispersion was measured at different pHs (2-11) and a biopolymer concentration of 0.05% (w/v). Shear rate sweep data revealed that the camelina polysaccharide displayed shear thinning (pseudoplastic) behavior, which is typical of polymer systems. The polysaccharide dispersion (1% w/v) showed no significant changes in viscosity with temperature, which makes it a promising ingredient in products requiring texture stability over a range of temperatures. However, the viscosity increased significantly with increased concentration, indicating that camelina polysaccharide can be used in food products at different concentrations to produce a range of textures. Dynamic mechanical spectra showed similar trends. The temperature had little effect on viscoelastic moduli. However, moduli were strongly affected by concentration: samples exhibited concentrated solution behavior at low concentrations (1-2% w/v) and weak gel behavior at higher concentrations (4-6% w/v). These rheological properties can be used for designing and modeling of liquid and semisolid products. Zeta potential affects the intensity of molecular interactions and molecular conformation and can alter solubility, stability, and eventually, the functionality of the materials as their environment changes. In this study, the zeta potential value significantly decreased from 0.0 to -62.5 as pH increased from 2 to 11, indicating that pH may affect the functional properties of the polysaccharide. The results obtained in the current study showed that camelina polysaccharide has significant potential for application in various food systems and can be introduced as a novel anionic thickening agent with unique properties.

Keywords: Camelina meal, polysaccharide, rheology, zeta potential

Procedia PDF Downloads 144