Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 353

Search results for: vascular plaque

353 Destruction of Atherosclerotic Plaque Using Pulse Ultrasound with a Planar Rectangular Ultrasound Transducer

Authors: Christakis Damianou, Christos Christofi, Nicos Mylonas

Abstract:

The aim of the proposed study was to evaluate mechanical mode ultrasound using a flat rectangular (3x10 mm2) MRI compatible transducer operating at 5 MHz for destroying atherosclerotic plaque. The system was tested initially in a Hydroxyapatite-polyalactide (HA/PLA) model. An optimized protocol was decided and then applied in atherosclerotic plaque of a rabbit. The plaque in the rabbit was created using a high cholesterol diet. The atherosclerotic plaque was imaged using MRI. This study shows that the destruction of atherosclerotic plaque is feasible.

Keywords: mri, ultrasound, atherosclerotic, plaque, pulse

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
352 Analysis of Wall Deformation of the Arterial Plaque Models: Effects of Viscoelasticity

Authors: Eun Kyung Kim, Kyehan Rhee

Abstract:

Viscoelastic wall properties of the arterial plaques change as the disease progresses, and estimation of wall viscoelasticity can provide a valuable assessment tool for plaque rupture prediction. Cross section of the stenotic coronary artery was modeled based on the IVUS image, and the finite element analysis was performed to get wall deformation under pulsatile pressure. The effects of viscoelastic parameters of the plaque on luminal diameter variations were explored. The result showed that decrease of viscous effect reduced the phase angle between the pressure and displacement waveforms, and phase angle was dependent on the viscoelastic properties of the wall. Because viscous effect of tissue components could be identified using the phase angle difference, wall deformation waveform analysis may be applied to predict plaque wall composition change and vascular wall disease progression.

Keywords: atherosclerotic plaque, diameter variation, finite element method, viscoelasticity

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
351 The Effect of Hesperidin on Troponin's Serum Level Changes as a Heart Tissue Damage Biomarker Due to Gamma Irradiation of Rat's Mediastinum

Authors: G. H. Haddadi, S. Sajadi, R. Fardid, Z. Haddadi

Abstract:

The heart is a radiosensitive organ, and its damage is a dose-limiting factor in radiotherapy. Different side effects including vascular plaque and heart fibrosis occur in patients with thorax irradiation. The present study aimed to evaluate the radioprotective efficacy of Hesperidin (HES), a naturally occurring citrus flavanoglycone, against γ-radiation induced tissue damage in the heart of male rats. Sixty-eight rats were divided into four groups. The rats in group 1 received PBS, and those in group 2 received HES. Also, the rats in group 3 received PBS and underwent γ-irradiation, and those in group 4 received HES and underwent γ-irradiation. They were exposed to 20 Gy γ-radiation using a single fraction cobalt-60 unit, and the dose of Hesperidin was (100 mg/kg/d, orally) for 7 days prior irradiation. Each group was divided into two subgroups. Samplings of rats in subgroup A was done 4-6 hours after irradiation. The samples were sent to laboratory for determination of Troponin’s I (TnI) serum level changes as a cardiac biomarker. The remaining animals (subgroups B) were sacrificed 8 weeks after radiotherapy for histopathological evaluation. In group 3, TnI obviously increased in comparison with group 1 (p < 0.05). The comparison of groups 1 and 4 showed no significant difference. Evaluation of histopathological parameters in subgroup B showed significant differences between groups 1 and 3 in some of the cases. Inflammation (p=0.008), pericardial effusion (p=0.001) and vascular plaque (p=0.001) increased in the rats exposed to 20 Gy γ-irradiation. Using oral administration of HES significantly decreased all the above factors when compared to group 4 (P > 0.016). Administration of 100 mg/kg/day Hesperidin for 7 days resulted in decreased Troponin I and radiation heart injury. This agent may have protective effects against radiation-induced heart damage.

Keywords: hesperidin, radioprotector, troponin I, cardiac inflammation, vascular plaque

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
350 The Effect of Three-Dimensional Morphology on Vulnerability Assessment of Atherosclerotic Plaque

Authors: M. Zareh, H. Mohammadi, B. Naser

Abstract:

Atherosclerotic plaque rupture is the main trigger of heart attack and brain stroke which are the leading cause of death in developed countries. Better understanding of rupture-prone plaque can help clinicians detect vulnerable plaques- rupture prone or instable plaques- and apply immediate medical treatment to prevent these life-threatening cardiovascular events. Therefore, there are plenty of studies addressing disclosure of vulnerable plaques properties. Necrotic core and fibrous tissue are two major tissues constituting atherosclerotic plaque; using histopathological and numerical approaches, many studies have demonstrated that plaque rupture is strongly associated with a large necrotic core and a thin fibrous cap, two morphological characteristic which can be acquired by two-dimensional imaging of atherosclerotic plaque present in coronary and carotid arteries. Plaque rupture is widely considered as a mechanical failure inside plaque tissue; this failure occurs when the stress within plaque excesses the strength of tissue material; hence, finite element method, a strong numerical approach, has been extensively applied to estimate stress distribution within plaques with different compositions which is then used for assessment of various vulnerability characteristics including plaque morphology, material properties and blood pressure. This study aims to evaluate significance of three-dimensional morphology on vulnerability degree of atherosclerotic plaque. To reach this end, different two-dimensional geometrical models of atherosclerotic plaques are considered based on available data and named Main 2D Models (M2M). Then, for each of these M2Ms, two three-dimensional idealistic models are created. These two 3D models represent two possible three-dimensional morphologies which might exist for a plaque with similar 2D morphology to one of M2Ms. Finite element method is employed to estimate stress, von-Mises stress, within each 3D models. Results indicate that for each M2Ms stress can significantly varies due to possible 3D morphological changes in that plaque. Also, our results show that an atherosclerotic plaque with thick cap may experience rupture if it has a critical 3D morphology. This study highlights the effect of 3D geometry of plaque on its instability degree and suggests that 3D morphology of plaque might be necessary to more effectively and accurately assess atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability.

Keywords: atherosclerotic plaque, plaque rupture, finite element method, 3D model

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
349 Feasibility Study for Removing Atherosclerotic Plaque Using the Thermal Effects of a Planar Rectangular High Intensity Ultrasound Transducer

Authors: Christakis Damianou, Christos Christofi, Nicos Mylonas

Abstract:

The aim of this paper was to conduct a feasibility study using a flat rectangular (3x10 mm2) MRI compatible transducer operating at 5 MHz for destroying atherosclerotic plaque using the thermal effects of ultrasound in in vitro models. A parametric study was performed where the time needed to ablate the plaque was studied as a function of Spatial Average Temporal Average (SATA) intensity, and pulse duration. The time needed to ablate plaque is directly related to intensity, and pulse duration. The temperature measured close to the artery is above safe limits and therefore thermal ultrasound does not have a place in removing plaques in arteries.

Keywords: ultrasound, atherosclerotic, plaque, pulse

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
348 Plaque Removal Efficacy of Different Dental Care Products during Fixed Orthodontic Appliance Therapy

Authors: Zeynep Karakoc, Hasan Ilhan Mutaf

Abstract:

Plaque removal efficacy of different dental brushes and mouth wash during fixed orthodontic appliance therapy was evaluated in this single-blind, crossover and prospective study. Thirty orthodontic patients aged 18 and over undergoing fixed appliance therapy at the end of leveling stage were divided into three groups. Subjects brushed their teeth with a toothbrush under standardized conditions for a period of 30 days prior to inter-dental care products. The same procedure was repeated each time with a different, randomly assigned inter-dental care products in a crossover design. (Inter-dental brush, powered inter-dental brush and mouth wash). At start and end of each removal period, plaque indexes of participants were scored. Each brush achieved statistically significant plaque removal; however, there were no statistical differences among groups for all surfaces of teeth when the plaque score was evaluated. The mouth wash group presented significant improvement in reduction of visible plaque on mesial and distal surfaces of posterior teeth. (-60.9 %, P< .001) Plaque removal for right and left side of mouth showed no significant differences within groups, only mouth wash was more efficient in right side than left side. It is concluded that effectiveness of plaque removal may not be related to the kind of inter-dental products directly. However, toothbrush when used with inter-dental care products is significantly better at removing plaque deposits from fixed appliance patients.

Keywords: orthodontics, dental care, brush, plaque

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
347 Oral Health Status in Sickle Cell Anemia Subjects

Authors: Surekha Rathod

Abstract:

Sickle cell disease is a vascular disorder characterized by chronic, ongoing organ damage that is punctuated by episodes of acutely painful vascular complications.1 It is the most common genetic blood disorder in the United States, with about 2000 infants being identified through routine blood screenings annually, and an estimated 104,000-138,000 affected individuals living in the United States. Approximately 0.3%-1.3% of African American are affected by Sickle Cell Diseases (SCD).3 The aim of this paper is to present oral health status of patients with SCD. A total of 200 subjects of both sexes in the age group 18- 40 years were included in this study. The subjects were examined and the following indices were recorded • Oral hygiene index – Simplified (OHI-S). • Probing depths (PD). • Clinical Attachment Levels (CAL). • Gingival Index - Loe and Sillness. • Turesky Gillmore Glickman Modification of the Quigley Hein Plaque Index. (1970) • DMFT index. • Sickle Cell Disease Severity Index. A total of 1478 patients were screened of which 200 subjects were found to be diagnosed with SCD by electrophoresis. The study thus, included 200 subjects (111 females & 89 males) diagnosed with Sickle Cell Disease in the age group of 18-40 years. The probing pocket depths (PPD) were measured in millimeters. 36% had PPD in the range of 2-4mm, 48% had PPD in the range of 4-6mm while 16% had PPD of more than 6mm. Similar results were obtained for the Clinical Attachment Levels (CAL). 29.5 % subjects had CAL 2-4mm, 44.5% had 4-6mm & 26% had CAL 6mm & above. We can thus conclude that although oral health is not a priority for patients with SCD, it is supported by increased plaque accumulation. Because of the chronic anemic state of the patients with SCD, they should be encouraged to pay strict attention to oral hygiene instructions and practice.

Keywords: chronic, genetic, oral, sickle cell disease, vascular

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346 Honey: A Remedy Rediscovered in the Treatment of Oral Diseases

Authors: Muhammad Mansoor Majeed, Imtiaz Ahmed

Abstract:

For centuries, honey has been used for the management and cure of different diseases for the treatment of wound, ulcers, burns, cough, and sore throat, etc. It has also been proved to decrease inflammation, edema, and exudates in different body tissues. This study is performed to find out the effectiveness of honey in the treatment and prevention of gingivitis, gingival bleeding, and accumulation of plaque. Randomized control trial was performed on two subject groups. Honey provided to one subject group to apply on their gums and tooth and then gargle with water and drink. Frequency of the procedure is thrice a day for a month. Another group was given a placebo. Before and after, readings were taken according to Loe and Silness Plaque and Gingival Index. Initially, the mean plaque index, Gingival index and the percentage of sites which were bleeding in the honey group was 0.910, 0.800 and 58.71% respectively which has reduced to 0.313, 0.296 and 27.6% in 30 ± 3 days whereas the control group did not show signs of improvement. Visible changed has observed in the honey group from 0.910 to 0.313 in mean plaque index, 0.800 to 0.296 in Gingival Index, and the percentage of bleeding sited decreased from 58.71% to 27.6%. No significant changes observed in another group. We can conclude that honey reduces the formation/accumulation of plaque and decreases gingival bleeding as well as it has therapeutic effects.

Keywords: honey, gingivitis, Pakistan, bleeding gums

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
345 A Comparative CFD Study on the Hemodynamics of Flow through an Idealized Symmetric and Asymmetric Stenosed Arteries

Authors: B. Prashantha, S. Anish

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The aim of the present study is to computationally evaluate the hemodynamic factors which affect the formation of atherosclerosis and plaque rupture in the human artery. An increase of atherosclerosis disease in the artery causes geometry changes, which results in hemodynamic changes such as flow separation, reattachment, and adhesion of new cells (chemotactic) in the artery. Hence, geometry plays an important role in the determining the nature of hemodynamic patterns. Influence of stenosis in the non-bifurcating artery, under pulsatile flow condition, has been studied on an idealized geometry. Analysis of flow through symmetric and asymmetric stenosis in the artery revealed the significance of oscillating shear index (OSI), flow separation, low WSS zones and secondary flow patterns on plaque formation. The observed characteristic of flow in the post-stenotic region highlight the importance of plaque eccentricity on the formation of secondary stenosis on the arterial wall.

Keywords: atherosclerotic plaque, oscillatory shear index, stenosis nature, wall shear stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
344 Binding of Avian Excreta-Derived Enteroccoci to a Streptococcocus mutans: Implications for Avian to Human Transmission

Authors: Richard K. Jolley, Jonathan A. Coffman

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Since Enterococci has been implicated in oral disease, we hypothesized the transmission of avian Enterococci to humans via fecal-oral transmission facilitated by adherence to dental plaque. To demonstrate the capability of Enterococci to bind to a dental plaque we filtered avian excreta and incubated the filtrate on a sucrose-induced, Streptococcus mutans biofilm. The biofilm was washed several times with a detergent to remove bacteria binding non-specifically to the biofilm, DNA was isolated from the biofilm, 16S rDNA was amplified, sequenced by Ion Torrent DNA sequencing and analyzed with bioinformatics. Enterococci and other known bacterial pathogens were shown to adhere to the biofilm. Culturing the washed biofilm with Bile Esculin Azide (BEA) agar also confirmed the presence of Enterococci as verified with Sanger sequencing. The results suggest that Enteroccoci in avian excreta has the ability to adhere to human dental plaque and may be a mechanism of entry when humans encounter contaminated aerosols, water or food.

Keywords: Enterococci, avian excreta, dental plaque, NGS

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343 Oat βeta Glucan Attenuates the Development of Atherosclerosis and Improves the Intestinal Barrier Function by Reducing Bacterial Endotoxin Translocation in APOE-/- MICE

Authors: Dalal Alghawas, Jetty Lee, Kaisa Poutanen, Hani El-Nezami

Abstract:

Oat β-glucan a water soluble non starch linear polysaccharide has been approved as a cholesterol lowering agent by various food safety administrations and is commonly used to reduce the risk of heart disease. The molecular weight of oat β-glucan can vary depending on the extraction and fractionation methods. It is not clear whether the molecular weight has a significant impact at reducing the acceleration of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate three different oat β-glucan fractionations on the development of atherosclerosis in vivo. With special focus on plaque stability and the intestinal barrier function. To test this, ApoE-/- female mice were fed a high fat diet supplemented with oat bran, high molecular weight (HMW) oat β-glucan fractionate and low molecular weight (LMW) oat β-glucan fractionate for 16 weeks. Atherosclerosis risk markers were measured in the plasma, heart and aortic tree. Plaque size was measured in the aortic root and aortic tree. ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-Selectin, P-Selectin, protein levels were assessed from the aortic tree to determine plaque stability at 16 weeks. The expression of p22phox at the aortic root was evaluated to study the NADPH oxidase complex involved in nitric oxide bioavailability and vascular elasticity. The tight junction proteins E-cadherin and beta-catenin from western blot analyses were analysed as an intestinal barrier function test. Plasma LPS, intestinal D-lactate levels and hepatic FMO gene expression were carried out to confirm whether the compromised intestinal barrier lead to endotoxemia. The oat bran and HMW oat β-glucan diet groups were more effective than the LMW β-glucan diet group at reducing the plaque size and showed marked improvements in plaque stability. The intestinal barrier was compromised for all the experimental groups however the endotoxemia levels were higher in the LMW β-glucan diet group. The oat bran and HMW oat β-glucan diet groups were more effective at attenuating the development of atherosclerosis. Reasons for this could be due to the LMW oat β-glucan diet group’s low viscosity in the gut and the inability to block the reabsorption of cholesterol. Furthermore the low viscosity may allow more bacterial endotoxin translocation through the impaired intestinal barrier. In future food technologists should carefully consider how to incorporate LMW oat β-glucan as a health promoting food.

Keywords: Atherosclerosis, beta glucan, endotoxemia, intestinal barrier function

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
342 Finite Element Analysis of Shape Memory Alloy Stents in Coronary Arteries

Authors: Amatulraheem Al-Abassi, K. Khanafer, Ibrahim Deiab

Abstract:

The coronary artery stent is a promising technology that can treat various coronary diseases. Materials used for manufacturing medical stents should have high biocompatible properties. Stent alloys, in particular, are remarkably promising good clinical outcomes, however, there is threaten of restenosis (reoccurring of artery narrowing due to fatty plaque), stent recoiling, or in long-term the occurrence of stent fracture. However, stents that are made of Nickel-titanium (Nitinol) can bare extensive plastic deformation and resist restenosis. This shape memory alloy has outstanding mechanical properties. Nitinol is a unique shape memory alloy as it has unique mechanical properties such as; biocompatibility, super-elasticity, and recovery to original shape under certain loads. Stent failure may cause complications in vascular diseases and possibly blockage of blood flow. Thus, studying the behaviors of the stent under different medical conditions will help the doctors and cardiologists to predict when it is necessary to change the stent in order to prevent any severe morbidity outcomes. To the best of our knowledge, there are limited published papers that analyze the stent behavior with regards to the contact surfaces of plaque layer and blood vessel. Thus, stent material properties will be discussed in this investigation to highlight the mechanical and clinical differences between various stents. This research analyzes the performance of Nitinol stent in well-known stent design to determine its bearing with stress and its dislocation in blood vessels, in comparison to stents made of different biocompatible materials. In addition, a study of its performance will be represented in the system. Finite Element Analysis is the core of this study. Thus, a physical representative model will be discussed to show the distribution of stress and strain along the interaction surface between the stent and the artery. The reaction of vascular tissue to the stent will be evaluated to predict the possibility of restenosis within the treated area.

Keywords: shape memory alloy, stent, coronary artery, finite element analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
341 Effects of the Non-Newtonian Viscosity of Blood on Flow Field in a Constricted Artery with a Porous Plaque

Authors: Maedeh Shojaeizadeh, Amirreza Yeganegi

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Nowadays many people lose their lives due to cardiovascular diseases. Inappropriate food habits and lack of exercise expedite deposit process of fatty substances on inner surface of blood arteries. This abnormal lump disturbs uniform blood flow and reduces oxygen delivery to active organs. This work presents a numerical simulation of Non-Newtonian blood flow in a stenosis vessel. The vessel is considered as two dimensional channel and plaque area is modelled as a homogenous porous medium. To simulate blood flow reaction around stenosis region, we use C++ code and solve coupled Cauchy, Darcy, governing continuity and energy equations. The analyses results show that viscosity power (n) plays an important role in flow separation and the size of the eddy at the downstream edge of the plaque. It is also observed that with increasing (n) value, temperature discontinuity and likelihood of vessel rupture declined.

Keywords: blood flow, computational fluid dynamic, porosity, power law fluid

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340 Understanding the Role of Nitric Oxide Synthase 1 in Low-Density Lipoprotein Uptake by Macrophages and Implication in Atherosclerosis Progression

Authors: Anjali Roy, Mirza S. Baig

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Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the formation of lipid rich plaque enriched with necrotic core, modified lipid accumulation, smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, leucocytes and macrophages. Macrophage foam cells play a critical role in the occurrence and development of inflammatory atherosclerotic plaque. Foam cells are the fat-laden macrophages in the initial stage atherosclerotic lesion formation. Foam cells are an indication of plaque build-up, or atherosclerosis, which is commonly associated with increased risk of heart attack and stroke as a result of arterial narrowing and hardening. The mechanisms that drive atherosclerotic plaque progression remain largely unknown. Dissecting the molecular mechanism involved in process of macrophage foam cell formation will help to develop therapeutic interventions for atherosclerosis. To investigate the mechanism, we studied the role of nitric oxide synthase 1(NOS1)-mediated nitric oxide (NO) on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) uptake by bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM). Using confocal microscopy, we found that incubation of macrophages with NOS1 inhibitor, TRIM (1-(2-Trifluoromethylphenyl) imidazole) or L-NAME (N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester) prior to LDL treatment significantly reduces the LDL uptake by BMDM. Further, addition of NO donor (DEA NONOate) in NOS1 inhibitor treated macrophages recovers the LDL uptake. Our data strongly suggest that NOS1 derived NO regulates LDL uptake by macrophages and foam cell formation. Moreover, we also checked proinflammatory cytokine mRNA expression through real time PCR in BMDM treated with LDL and copper oxidized LDL (OxLDL) in presences and absences of inhibitor. Normal LDL does not evoke cytokine expression whereas OxLDL induced proinflammatory cytokine expression which significantly reduced in presences of NOS1 inhibitor. Rapid NOS-1-derived NO and its stable derivative formation act as signaling agents for inducible NOS-2 expression in endothelial cells, leading to endothelial vascular wall lining disruption and dysfunctioning. This study highlights the role of NOS1 as critical players of foam cell formation and would reveal much about the key molecular proteins involved in atherosclerosis. Thus, targeting NOS1 would be a useful strategy in reducing LDL uptake by macrophages at early stage of disease and hence dampening the atherosclerosis progression.

Keywords: atherosclerosis, NOS1, inflammation, oxidized LDL

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
339 Hollowfiber Poly Lactid Co-Glycolic Acid (PLGA)-Collagen Coated by Chitosan as a Candidate of Small Diameter Vascular Graft

Authors: Dita Mayasari, Zahrina Mardina, Riki Siswanto, Agresta Ifada, Ova Oktavina, Prihartini Widiyanti

Abstract:

Heart failure is a serious major health problem with high number of mortality per year. Bypass is one of the solutions that has often been taken. Natural vascular graft (xenograft) as the substitute in bypass is inconvenient due to ethic problems and the risk of infection transmission caused by the usage of another species transgenic vascular. Nowadays, synthetic materials have been fabricated from polymers. The aim of this research is to make a synthetic vascular graft with great physical strength, high biocompatibility, and good affordability. The method of this research was mixing PLGA and collagen by magnetic stirrer. This composite were shaped by spinneret with water as coagulant. Then it was coated by chitosan with 3 variations of weight (1 gram, 2 grams, and 3 grams) to increase hemo and cytocompatibility, proliferation, and cell attachment in order for the vascular graft candidates to be more biocompatible. Mechanical strength for each variation was 5,306 MPa (chitosan 1 gram), 3,433 MPa (chitosan 2 grams) and 3,745 MPa (chitosan 3 grams). All the tensile values were higher than human vascular tensile strength. Toxicity test showed that the living cells in all variations were more than 60% in number, thus the vascular graft is not toxic.

Keywords: chitosan, collagen, PLGA, spinneret

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338 The Possibility of Using Somatosensory Evoked Potential(SSEP) as a Parameter for Cortical Vascular Dementia

Authors: Hyunsik Park

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As the rate of cerebrovascular disease increases in old populations, the prevalence rate of vascular dementia would be expected. Therefore, authors designed this study to find out the possibility of somatosensory evoked potentials(SSEP) as a parameter for early diagnosis and prognosis prediction of vascular dementia in cortical vascular dementia patients. 21 patients who met the criteria for vascular dementia according to DSM-IV,ICD-10and NINDS-AIREN with the history of recent cognitive impairment, fluctuation progression, and neurologic deficit. We subdivided these patients into two groups; a mild dementia and a severe dementia groups by MMSE and CDR score; and analysed comparison between normal control group and patient control group who have been cerebrovascular attack(CVA) history without dementia by using N20 latency and amplitude of median nerve. In this study, mild dementia group showed significant differences on latency and amplitude with normal control group(p-value<0.05) except patient control group(p-value>0.05). Severe dementia group showed significant differences both normal control group and patient control group.(p-value<0.05, <001). Since no significant difference has founded between mild dementia group and patient control group, SSEP has limitation to use for early diagnosis test. However, the comparison between severe dementia group and others showed significant results which indicate SSEP can predict the prognosis of vascular dementia in cortical vascular dementia patients.

Keywords: SSEP, cortical vascular dementia, N20 latency, N20 amplitude

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
337 The Effect of Aerobic Training and Aqueous Extract of C. monogyna (Hawthorn) on Plasma and Heart Angiogenic Mediators in Male Wistar Rats

Authors: Asieh Abbassi Daloii, Ahmad Abdi

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Introduction: Sports information suggests that physical inactivity increases the risk of many diseases, including atherosclerosis. Coronary heart disease, stroke and peripheral vascular disease, atherosclerosis and clinical protests. However, exercise can have beneficial effects on risk factors for atherosclerosis by reducing hyperlipidemia, hypertension, obesity, plaque density, increased insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance is improved. Despite these findings, there is little information about the molecular mechanisms of interaction between the body and its relation to sport and there arteriosclerosis. The present study aims to investigate the effect of six weeks of progressive aerobic training and aqueous extract of crataegus monogyna on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) variations and angiopoetin-1/2 (ANG- 1/2) in plasma and heart tissue in male Wistar rats. Methods: 30 male Wistar rats, 4-6 months old, were randomly divided into four groups: control crataegus monogyna (N=8), training crataegus monogyna (N=8), control saline (N=6), and training saline (N=8). The aerobic training program included running on treadmill at the speed of 34 meters per minute for 60 minutes per day. The training was conducted for six weeks, five days a week. Following each training session, both experimental and control subjects of crataegus monogyna groups were orally fed with 0.5 mg crataegus monogyna extract per gram of the body weight. The normal saline group was given the same amount of the normal saline solution (NS). Eventually, 72 hours after the last training session, blood samples were taken from inferior Verna cava. Conclusion: It is likely that crataegus monogyna extract compared with aerobic training and even combination of both training and crataegus monogyna extract is more effective on angiogenesis.

Keywords: angiopoietin 1, 2, vascular endothelial growth factor, aerobic exercise

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336 Isolation and Elimination of Latent and Productive Herpes Simplex Virus from the Sacral and Trigeminal Ganglions

Authors: Bernard L. Middleton, Susan P. Cosgrove

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There is an immediate need for alternative anti-herpetic treatment options effective for both primary infections and reoccurring reactivations of herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2). Alternatives currently approved for the purposes of clinical administration includes antivirals and a reduced set of nucleoside analogues. The present article tests a treatment based on a systemic understanding of how the herpes virus affects cell inhibition and breakdown and targets different phases of the viral cycle, including the entry stage, reproductive cross mutation, and cell-to-cell infection. The treatment consisted of five immunotherapeutic core compounds (5CC), which were hypothesized to be capable of neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies. The tested 5CC were noted as being functional in the application of eliminating the DNA synthesis of herpes viral interferon (IFN) - induced cellular antiviral response. They were here found to neutralize antiviral reproduction by blocking cell-to-cell infection. The activity of the 5CC was tested on RC-37 in vitro using an assay plaque reduction and in vivo against HSV-1 and HSV-2. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 5CC was 0.0009% for HSV-1 plaque formation and 0.0008% for HSV-2 plaque formation. Further tests were performed to evaluate the susceptibility of HSV-1 and HSV-2 to anti-herpetic drugs in Vero cells after virus entry. There were high-level markers of the 5CC virucidal activity in the viral suspension of HSV-1 and HSV-2. These concentrations of the 5CC are nontoxic and reduced plaque formation by 98.2% for HSV-1 and 93.0% for HSV-2. Virus HSV-1 and HSV-2 titers were reduced significantly by 5CC to the point of being negative, ranging 0.01–0.09 in 72%. The results concluded the 5CC as being an effective treatment option for the herpes simplex virus.

Keywords: synergy pharmaceuticals, herpes treatment, herpes cure, synergy pharmaceuticals treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 120
335 The Effects of Cardiovascular Risk on Age-Related Cognitive Decline in Healthy Older Adults

Authors: A. Badran, M. Hollocks, H. Markus

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Background: Common risk factors for cardiovascular disease are associated with age-related cognitive decline. There has been much interest in treating modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in the hope of reducing cognitive decline. However, there is currently no validated neuropsychological test to assess the subclinical cognitive effects of vascular risk. The Brief Memory and Executive Test (BMET) is a clinical screening tool, which was originally designed to be sensitive and specific to Vascular Cognitive Impairment (VCI), an impairment characterised by decline in frontally-mediated cognitive functions (e.g. Executive Function and Processing Speed). Objective: To cross-sectionally assess the validity of the BMET as a measure of the subclinical effects of vascular risk on cognition, in an otherwise healthy elderly cohort. Methods: Data from 346 participants (57 ± 10 years) without major neurological or psychiatric disorders were included in this study, gathered as part of a previous multicentre validation study for the BMET. Framingham Vascular Age was used as a surrogate measure of vascular risk, incorporating several established risk factors. Principal Components Analysis of the subtests was used to produce common constructs: an index for Memory and another for Executive Function/Processing Speed. Univariate General Linear models were used to relate Vascular Age to performance on Executive Function/Processing Speed and Memory subtests of the BMET, adjusting for Age, Premorbid Intelligence and Ethnicity. Results: Adverse vascular risk was associated with poorer performance on both the Memory and Executive Function/Processing Speed indices, adjusted for Age, Premorbid Intelligence and Ethnicity (p=0.011 and p<0.001, respectively). Conclusions: Performance on the BMET reflects the subclinical effects of vascular risk on cognition, in age-related cognitive decline. Vascular risk is associated with decline in both Executive Function/Processing Speed and Memory groups of subtests. Future studies are needed to explore whether treating vascular risk factors can effectively reduce age-related cognitive decline.

Keywords: age-related cognitive decline, vascular cognitive impairment, subclinical cerebrovascular disease, cognitive aging

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334 Diversity and Ecological Analysis of Vascular Epiphytes in Gera Wild Coffee Forest, Jimma Zone of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia

Authors: Bedilu Tafesse

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The diversity and ecological analysis of vascular epiphytes was studied in Gera Forest in southwestern Ethiopia at altitudes between 1600 and 2400 m.a.s.l. A total area of 4.5 ha was surveyed in coffee and non-coffee forest vegetation. Fifty sampling plots, each 30 m x 30 m (900 m2), were used for the purpose of data collection. A total of 59 species of vascular epiphytes were recorded, of which 34 (59%) were holo epiphytes, two (4%) were hemi epiphytes and 22 (37%) species were accidental vascular epiphytes. To study the altitudinal distribution of vascular epiphytes, altitudes were classified into higher >2000, middle 1800-2000 and lower 1600-1800 m.a.s.l. According to Shannon-Wiener Index (H/= 3.411) of alpha diversity the epiphyte community in the study area is medium. There was a statistically significant difference between host bark type and epiphyte richness as determined by one-way ANOVA p = 0.001 < 0.05. The post-hoc test shows that there is significant difference of vascular epiphytes richness between smooth bark with rough, flack and corky bark (P =0.001< 0.05), as well as rough and cork bark (p =0.43 <0.05). However, between rough and flack bark (p = 0.753 > 0.05) and between flack and corky bark (p = 0.854 > 0.05) no significant difference of epiphyte abundance was observed. Rough bark had 38%, corky 26%, flack 25%, and only 11% vascular epiphytes abundance occurred on smooth bark. The regression correlation test, (R2 = 0.773, p = 0.0001 < 0.05), showed that the number of species of vascular epiphytes and host DBH size are positively correlated. The regression correlation test (R2 = 0.28, p = 0.0001 < 0.05), showed that the number of species and host tree height positively correlated. The host tree preference of vascular epiphytes was recorded for only Vittaria volkensii species hosted on Syzygium guineense trees. The result of similarity analysis indicated that Gera Forest showed the highest vascular epiphytic similarity (0.35) with Yayu Forest and shared the least vascular epiphytic similarity (0.295) with Harenna Forest. It was concluded that horizontal stems and branches, large and rough, flack and corky bark type trees are more suitable for vascular epiphytes seedling attachments and growth. Conservation and protection of these phorophytes are important for the survival of vascular epiphytes and increase their ecological importance.

Keywords: accidental epiphytes, hemiepiphyte, holoepiphyte, phorophyte

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333 An Increase in Glucose Uptake per se is Insufficient to Induce Oxidative Stress and Vascular Endothelial Cell Dysfunction

Authors: Heba Khader, Victor Solodushko, Brian Fouty

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Hyperglycemia is a hallmark of uncontrolled diabetes and causes vascular endothelial dysfunction. An increase in glucose uptake and metabolism by vascular endothelial cells is the presumed trigger for this hyperglycemia-induced dysfunction. Glucose uptake into vascular endothelial cells is mediated largely by Glut-1. Glut-1 is an equilibrative glucose transporter with a Km value of 2 mM. At physiologic glucose concentrations, Glut-1 is almost saturated and, therefore, increasing glucose concentration does not increase glucose uptake unless Glut-1 is upregulated. However, hyperglycemia downregulates Glut-1 and decreases rather than increases glucose uptake in vascular endothelial cells. This apparent discrepancy necessitates further study on the effect of increasing glucose uptake on the oxidative state and function of vascular endothelial cells. To test this, a Tet-on system was generated to conditionally regulate Glut-1 expression in endothelial cells by the addition and removal of doxycycline. Glut-1 overexpression was confirmed by Western blot and radiolabeled glucose uptake measurements. Upregulation of Glut-1 resulted in a 4-fold increase in glucose uptake into endothelial cells as determined by 3H deoxy-D-glucose uptake. Increased glucose uptake through Glut-1 did not induce an oxidative stress nor did it cause endothelial dysfunction in rat pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells determined by monolayer resistance, cell proliferation or advanced glycation end product formation. Increased glucose uptake through Glut-1did not lead to an increase in glucose metabolism, due in part to inhibition of hexokinase in Glut-1 overexpressing cells. In summary, this study demonstrates that increasing glucose uptake and intracellular glucose by overexpression of Glut-1 does not alter the oxidative state of rat pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells or cause endothelial cell dysfunction. These results conflict with the current paradigm that hyperglycemia leads to oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in vascular endothelial cells through an increase in glucose uptake.

Keywords: endothelial cells, glucose uptake, Glut1, hyperglycemia

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332 Would Intra-Individual Variability in Attention to Be the Indicator of Impending the Senior Adults at Risk of Cognitive Decline: Evidence from Attention Network Test(ANT)

Authors: Hanna Lu, Sandra S. M. Chan, Linda C. W. Lam

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Objectives: Intra-individual variability (IIV) has been considered as a biomarker of healthy ageing. However, the composite role of IIV in attention, as an impending indicator for neurocognitive disorders warrants further exploration. This study aims to investigate the IIV, as well as their relationships with attention network functions in adults with neurocognitive disorders (NCD). Methods: 36adults with NCD due to Alzheimer’s disease(NCD-AD), 31adults with NCD due to vascular disease (NCD-vascular), and 137 healthy controls were recruited. Intraindividual standard deviations (iSD) and intraindividual coefficient of variation of reaction time (ICV-RT) were used to evaluate the IIV. Results: NCD groups showed greater IIV (iSD: F= 11.803, p < 0.001; ICV-RT:F= 9.07, p < 0.001). In ROC analyses, the indices of IIV could differentiateNCD-AD (iSD: AUC value = 0.687, p= 0.001; ICV-RT: AUC value = 0.677, p= 0.001) and NCD-vascular (iSD: AUC value = 0.631, p= 0.023;ICV-RT: AUC value = 0.615, p= 0.045) from healthy controls. Moreover, the processing speed could distinguish NCD-AD from NCD-vascular (AUC value = 0.647, p= 0.040). Discussion: Intra-individual variability in attention provides a stable measure of cognitive performance, and seems to help distinguish the senior adults with different cognitive status.

Keywords: intra-individual variability, attention network, neurocognitive disorders, ageing

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331 A Numerical Model for Simulation of Blood Flow in Vascular Networks

Authors: Houman Tamaddon, Mehrdad Behnia, Masud Behnia

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An accurate study of blood flow is associated with an accurate vascular pattern and geometrical properties of the organ of interest. Due to the complexity of vascular networks and poor accessibility in vivo, it is challenging to reconstruct the entire vasculature of any organ experimentally. The objective of this study is to introduce an innovative approach for the reconstruction of a full vascular tree from available morphometric data. Our method consists of implementing morphometric data on those parts of the vascular tree that are smaller than the resolution of medical imaging methods. This technique reconstructs the entire arterial tree down to the capillaries. Vessels greater than 2 mm are obtained from direct volume and surface analysis using contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT). Vessels smaller than 2mm are reconstructed from available morphometric and distensibility data and rearranged by applying Murray’s Laws. Implementation of morphometric data to reconstruct the branching pattern and applying Murray’s Laws to every vessel bifurcation simultaneously, lead to an accurate vascular tree reconstruction. The reconstruction algorithm generates full arterial tree topography down to the first capillary bifurcation. Geometry of each order of the vascular tree is generated separately to minimize the construction and simulation time. The node-to-node connectivity along with the diameter and length of every vessel segment is established and order numbers, according to the diameter-defined Strahler system, are assigned. During the simulation, we used the averaged flow rate for each order to predict the pressure drop and once the pressure drop is predicted, the flow rate is corrected to match the computed pressure drop for each vessel. The final results for 3 cardiac cycles is presented and compared to the clinical data.

Keywords: blood flow, morphometric data, vascular tree, Strahler ordering system

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330 Total Plaque Area in Chronic Renal Failure

Authors: Hernán A. Perez, Luis J. Armando, Néstor H. García

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Background and aims Cardiovascular disease rates are very high in patients with renal failure (CRF), but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors do not explain the increased risk, and observational studies have observed paradoxical or absent associations between classical risk factors and mortality in dialysis patients. A large randomized controlled trial, the 4D Study, the AURORA and the ALERT study found that statin therapy in CRF do not reduce cardiovascular events. These results may be the results of ‘accelerated atherosclerosis’ observed on these patients. The objective of this study was to investigate if carotid total plaque area (TPA), a measure of carotid plaque burden growth is increased at progressively lower creatinine clearance in patients with CRF. We studied a cohort of patients with CRF not on dialysis, reasoning that risk factor associations might be more easily discerned before end stage renal disease. Methods: The Blossom DMO Argentina ethics committee approved the study and informed consent from each participant was obtained. We performed a cohort study in 412 patients with Stage 1, 2 and 3 CRF. Clinical and laboratory data were obtained. TPA was determined using bilateral carotid ultrasonography. Modification of Diet in Renal Disease estimation formula was used to determine renal function. ANOVA was used when appropriate. Results: Stage 1 CRF group (n= 16, 43±2yo) had a blood pressure of 123±2/78±2 mmHg, BMI 30±1, LDL col 145±10 mg/dl, HbA1c 5.8±0.4% and had the lowest TPA 25.8±6.9 mm2. Stage 2 CRF (n=231, 50±1 yo) had a blood pressure of 132±1/81±1 mmHg, LDL col 125±2 mg/dl, HbA1c 6±0.1% and TPA 48±10mm2 ( p< 0.05 vs CRF stage 1) while Stage 3 CRF (n=165, 59±1 yo) had a blood pressure of 134±1/81±1, LDL col 125±3 mg/dl, HbA1c 6±0.1% and TPA 71±6mm2 (p < 0.05 vs CRF stage 1 and 2). Conclusion: Our data indicate that TPA increases along the renal function deterioration, and it is not related with the LDL cholesterol and triglycerides levels. We suggest that mechanisms other than the classics are responsible for the observed excess of cardiovascular disease in CKD patients and finally, determination of total plaque area should be used to measure effects of antiatherosclerotic therapy.

Keywords: hypertension, chronic renal failure, atherosclerosis, cholesterol

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329 Shear Stress and Effective Structural Stress ‎Fields of an Atherosclerotic Coronary Artery

Authors: Alireza Gholipour, Mergen H. Ghayesh, Anthony Zander, Stephen J. Nicholls, Peter J. Psaltis

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A three-dimensional numerical model of an atherosclerotic coronary ‎artery is developed for the determination of high-risk situation and ‎hence heart attack prediction. Employing the finite element method ‎‎(FEM) using ANSYS, fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model of the ‎artery is constructed to determine the shear stress distribution as well ‎as the von Mises stress field. A flexible model for an atherosclerotic ‎coronary artery conveying pulsatile blood is developed incorporating ‎three-dimensionality, artery’s tapered shape via a linear function for ‎artery wall distribution, motion of the artery, blood viscosity via the ‎non-Newtonian flow theory, blood pulsation via use of one-period ‎heartbeat, hyperelasticity via the Mooney-Rivlin model, viscoelasticity ‎via the Prony series shear relaxation scheme, and micro-calcification ‎inside the plaque. The material properties used to relate the stress field ‎to the strain field have been extracted from clinical data from previous ‎in-vitro studies. The determined stress fields has potential to be used as ‎a predictive tool for plaque rupture and dissection.‎ The results show that stress concentration due to micro-calcification ‎increases the von Mises stress significantly; chance of developing a ‎crack inside the plaque increases. Moreover, the blood pulsation varies ‎the stress distribution substantially for some cases.‎

Keywords: atherosclerosis, fluid-structure interaction‎, coronary arteries‎, pulsatile flow

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328 Incorporation of Growth Factors onto Hydrogels via Peptide Mediated Binding for Development of Vascular Networks

Authors: Katie Kilgour, Brendan Turner, Carly Catella, Michael Daniele, Stefano Menegatti

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In vivo, the extracellular matrix (ECM) provides biochemical and mechanical properties that are instructional to resident cells to form complex tissues with characteristics to develop and support vascular networks. In vitro, the development of vascular networks can be guided by biochemical patterning of substrates via spatial distribution and display of peptides and growth factors to prompt cell adhesion, differentiation, and proliferation. We have developed a technique utilizing peptide ligands that specifically bind vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), erythropoietin (EPO), or angiopoietin-1 (ANG1) to spatiotemporally distribute growth factors to cells. This allows for the controlled release of each growth factor, ultimately enhancing the formation of a vascular network. Our engineered tissue constructs (ETCs) are fabricated out of gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA), which is an ideal substrate for tailored stiffness and bio-functionality, and covalently patterned with growth factor specific peptides. These peptides mimic growth factor receptors, facilitating the non-covalent binding of the growth factors to the ETC, allowing for facile uptake by the cells. We have demonstrated in the absence of cells the binding affinity of VEGF, EPO, and ANG1 to their respective peptides and the ability for each to be patterned onto a GelMA substrate. The ability to organize growth factors on an ETC provides different functionality to develop organized vascular networks. Our results demonstrated a method to incorporate biochemical cues into ETCs that enable spatial and temporal control of growth factors. Future efforts will investigate the cellular response by evaluating gene expression, quantifying angiogenic activity, and measuring the speed of growth factor consumption.

Keywords: growth factor, hydrogel, peptide, angiogenesis, vascular, patterning

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327 Genotypic Identification of Oral Bacteria Using 16S rRNA in Children with and without Early Childhood Caries in Kelantan, Malaysia

Authors: Zuliani Mahmood, Thirumulu Ponnuraj Kannan, Yean Yean Chan, Salahddin A. Al-Hudhairy

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Caries is the most common childhood disease which develops due to disturbances in the physiological equilibrium in the dental plaque resulting in demineralization of tooth structures. Plaque and dentine samples were collected from three different tooth surfaces representing caries progression (intact, over carious lesion and dentine) in children with early childhood caries (ECC, n=36). In caries free (CF) children, plaque samples were collected from sound tooth surfaces at baseline and after one year (n=12). The genomic DNA was extracted from all samples and subjected to 16S rRNA PCR amplification. The end products were cloned into pCR®2.1-TOPO® Vector. Five randomly selected positive clones collected from each surface were sent for sequencing. Identification of the bacterial clones was performed using BLAST against GenBank database. In the ECC group, the frequency of Lactobacillus sp. detected was significantly higher in the dentine surface (p = 0.031) than over the cavitated lesion. The highest frequency of bacteria detected in the intact surfaces was Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. polymorphum (33.3%) while Streptococcus mutans was detected over the carious lesions and dentine surfaces at a frequency of 33.3% and 52.7% respectively. Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. polymorphum was also found to be highest in the CF group (41.6%). Follow up at the end of one year showed that the frequency of Corynebacterium matruchotii detected was highest in those who remained caries free (16.6%), while Porphyromonas catoniae was highest in those who developed caries (25%). In conclusion, Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas catoniae are strongly associated with caries progression, while Lactobacillus sp. is restricted to deep carious lesions. Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. polymorphum and Corynebacterium matruchotii may play a role in sustaining the healthy equilibrium in the dental plaque. These identified bacteria show promise as potential biomarkers in diagnosis which could help in the management of dental caries in children.

Keywords: early childhood caries, genotypic identification, oral bacteria, 16S rRNA

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326 Ultrasonography of Low Extremities Veins Before and After Replacement of Knee Joint by Endoprosthesis

Authors: A. V. Alabut, V. D. Sikilinda, N. J. Nelasov, O. L. Eroshenko, M. N. Morgunov, I. V. Koroleva

Abstract:

We have analyzed the results of treatment of 204 patients with knee prosthetic arthroplasty. For the purpose of active delineation of vascular pathology triplex sonography of arterial and venous vessels of low extremities was performed in all cases in the preoperative period. When it was necessary, reconstructive vascular surgery was implemented to improve peripheral circulation and reduce the hazard of thrombosis after knee replacement. The combination of specific and nonspecific methods of thromboprophylaxis was used in perioperative period. On 7-10 day and 2.5-3 month after prosthetic arthroplasty, all patients iteratively underwent triple sonography. In case of detection of floating thrombus, urgent venous ligation was performed. Active diagnostics of venous thrombosis gave the opportunity to avoid fatal pulmonary embolism.

Keywords: knee replacement, venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, vascular surgery

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325 Predictors of Pelvic Vascular Injuries in Patients with Pelvic Fractures from Major Blunt Trauma

Authors: Osama Zayed

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Aim of the work: The aim of this study is to assess the predictors of pelvic vascular injuries in patients with pelvic fractures from major blunt trauma. Methods: This study was conducted as a tool-assessment study. Forty six patients with pelvic fractures from major blunt trauma will be recruited to the study arriving to department of emergency, Suez Canal University Hospital. Data were collected from questionnaire including; personal data of the studied patients and full medical history, clinical examinations, outcome measures (The Physiological and Operative Severity Score for enumeration of Mortality and morbidity (POSSUM), laboratory and imaging studies. Patients underwent surgical interventions or further investigations based on the conventional standards for interventions. All patients were followed up during conservative, operative and post-operative periods in the hospital for interpretation the predictive scores of vascular injuries. Results: Significant predictors of vascular injuries according to computed tomography (CT) scan include age, male gender, lower Glasgow coma (GCS) scores, occurrence of hypotension, mortality rate, higher physical POSSUM scores, presence of ultrasound collection, type of management, higher systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) POSSUM scores, presence of abdominal injuries, and poor outcome. Conclusions: There was higher frequency of males than females in the studied patients. There were high probability of morbidity and low probability of mortality among patients. Our study demonstrates that POSSUM score can be used as a predictor of vascular injury in pelvis fracture patients.

Keywords: predictors, pelvic vascular injuries, pelvic fractures, major blunt trauma, POSSUM

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324 Platelet Volume Indices: Emerging Markers of Diabetic Thrombocytopathy

Authors: Mitakshara Sharma, S. K. Nema

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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is metabolic disorder prevalent in pandemic proportions, incurring significant morbidity and mortality due to associated vascular angiopathies. Platelet related thrombogenesis plays key role in pathogenesis of these complications. Most patients with type II DM suffer from preventable vascular complications and early diagnosis can help manage these successfully. These complications are attributed to platelet activation which can be recognised by the increase in Platelet Volume Indices(PVI) viz. Mean Platelet Volume(MPV) and Platelet Distribution Width(PDW). This study was undertaken with the aim of finding a relationship between PVI and vascular complications of Diabetes mellitus, their importance as a causal factor in these complications and use as markers for early detection of impending vascular complications in patients with poor glycaemic status. This is a cross-sectional study conducted for 2 years with total 930 subjects. The subjects were segregated in 03 groups on basis of glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1C) as: - (a) Diabetic, (b) Non-Diabetic and (c) Subjects with Impaired fasting glucose(IFG) with 300 individuals in IFG and non-diabetic group & 330 individuals in diabetic group. The diabetic group was further divided into two groups: - (a) Diabetic subjects with diabetes related vascular complications (b) Diabetic subjects without diabetes related vascular complications. Samples for HbA1C and platelet indices were collected using Ethylene diamine tetracetic acid(EDTA) as anticoagulant and processed on SYSMEX-XS-800i autoanalyser. The study revealed stepwise increase in PVI from non-diabetics to IFG to diabetics. MPV and PDW of diabetics, IFG and non diabetics were 17.60 ± 2.04, 11.76 ± 0.73, 9.93 ± 0.64 and 19.17 ± 1.48, 15.49 ± 0.67, 10.59 ± 0.67 respectively with a significant p value 0.00 and a significant positive correlation (MPV-HbA1c r = 0.951; PDW-HbA1c r = 0.875). However, significant negative correlation was found between glycaemic levels and total platelet count (PC- HbA1c r =-0.164). MPV & PDW of subjects with and without diabetes related complications were (15.14 ± 1.04) fl & (17.51±0.39) fl and (18.96 ± 0.83) fl & (20.09 ± 0.98) fl respectively with a significant p value 0.00.The current study demonstrates raised platelet indices & reduced platelet counts in association with rising glycaemic levels and diabetes related vascular complications across various study groups & showed that platelet morphology is altered with increasing glycaemic levels. These changes can be known by measurements of PVI which are important, simple, cost effective, effortless tool & indicators of impending vascular complications in patients with deranged glycaemic control. PVI should be researched and explored further as surrogate markers to develop a clinical tool for early recognition of vascular changes related to diabetes and thereby help prevent them. They can prove to be more useful in developing countries with limited resources. This study is multi-parameter, comprehensive with adequately powered study design and represents pioneering effort in India on account of the fact that both Platelet indices (MPV & PDW) along with platelet count have been evaluated together for the first time in Diabetics, non diabetics, patients with IFG and also in the diabetic patients with and without diabetes related vascular complications.

Keywords: diabetes, HbA1C, IFG, MPV, PDW, PVI

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