Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32

Search results for: uttering actualization

32 Readability Facing the Irreducible Otherness: Translation as a Third Dimension toward a Multilingual Higher Education

Authors: Noury Bakrim


From the point of view of language morphodynamics, interpretative Readability of the text-result (the stasis) is not the external hermeneutics of its various potential reading events but the paradigmatic, semantic immanence of its dynamics. In other words, interpretative Readability articulates the potential tension between projection (intentionality of the discursive event) and the result (Readability within the syntagmatic stasis). We then consider that translation represents much more a metalinguistic conversion of neurocognitive bilingual sub-routines and modular relations than a semantic equivalence. Furthermore, the actualizing Readability (the process of rewriting a target text within a target language/genre) builds upon the descriptive level between the generative syntax/semantic from and its paradigmatic potential translatability. Translation corpora reveal the evidence of a certain focusing on the positivist stasis of the source text at the expense of its interpretative Readability. For instance, Fluchere's brilliant translation of Miller's Tropic of cancer into French realizes unconsciously an inversion of the hierarchical relations between Life Thought and Fable: From Life Thought (fable) into Fable (Life Thought). We could regard the translation of Bernard Kreiss basing on Canetti's work die englischen Jahre (les annees anglaises) as another inversion of the historical scale from individual history into Hegelian history. In order to describe and test both translation process and result, we focus on the pedagogical practice which enables various principles grounding in interpretative/actualizing Readability. Henceforth, establishing the analytical uttering dynamics of the source text could be widened by other practices. The reversibility test (target - source text) or the comparison with a second translation in a third language (tertium comparationis A/B and A/C) point out the evidence of an impossible event. Therefore, it doesn't imply an uttering idealistic/absolute source but the irreducible/non-reproducible intentionality of its production event within the experience of world/discourse. The aim of this paper is to conceptualize translation as the tension between interpretative and actualizing Readability in a new approach grounding in morphodynamics of language and Translatability (mainly into French) within literary and non-literary texts articulating theoretical and described pedagogical corpora.

Keywords: readability, translation as deverbalization, translation as conversion, Tertium Comparationis, uttering actualization, translation pedagogy

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31 Deconstructing Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: A Comparison of Organizational Behaviour and Branding Perspectives

Authors: Satya Girish Goparaju


It is said that the pyramid of Needs is not an invention by Maslow but only a graphical representation of his theory. It is also interesting to note how business management schools have adopted this interpreted theory to organizational behavior and marketing subjects. Against this background, this article attempts to raise the point that the hierarchy of needs proposed by Abraham Maslow need not necessarily be represented in a pyramid, but a linear model would be more eligible in the present times. To propose this point, this article presents needs a comparative study of ‘self-actualization’ (the apex of the pyramid) in organizational behavior and branding contexts, respectively. This article tries to shed light on the original theory proposed by Maslow, which stated that self-actualization is attained through living one’s life completely and not by satisfying individual needs. Therefore, in an organizational behavior perspective, it can be understood that self-actualization is irrelevant as an employee’s life is not the work and the satisfied needs in a workplace will only make the employee perform better. In the same way, a brand does not sell products to satisfy all needs of a consumer and does not have a role directly in attaining self-actualization. For the purpose of this study, select employees of a branding agency will participate in responding to a questionnaire to answer both as employees of an organization and also as consumers of a global smartphone brand. This study aims to deconstruct the interpretations that have been widely accepted by both organizational behavior and branding professionals.

Keywords: branding, marketing, needs, organizational behavior, psychology

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30 Migration and Identity Erosion: An Exploratory Study of First Generation Nigerian-Americans

Authors: Lolade Siyonbola


Nigerians are often celebrated as being the most educated cultural group in America. The cultural values and history that have led to this reality are particular to a generation that came of age post colonialism. Many of these cultural values have been passed down from post-colonial parent to millennial child, but most have not. This study, based on interviews and surveys of Nigerian millennials and their parents in the United States, explores the degree to which identity has been eroded in the millennial generation due to a lack of imparted cultural values and knowledge from the previous generation. Most of the subjects do not speak their native language or identify with their cultural heritage sufficiently to build ties with their native land. Most are experiencing some degree of identity crisis, and therefore limited self-actualization, with little to no support; as there are few successful tools available to this population. If governmental programs to reverse these trends are not implemented within this generation, the implications to the individual, family and home nation (Nigeria), will be felt for generations to come.

Keywords: identity, culture, self-actualization, social identity theory, migration, transnationalism, value systems

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29 Aesthetics, Freedom and State in Hegel’s Philosophy

Authors: Akbar Jamali


Many scholars consider Hegel’s philosophy of art as the greatest theory of aesthetics since Aristotle’s Poetics. ‘Freedom’ distinguishes modern, especially German Idealism with Greek philosophy. Therefore, introducing and contemplating on Hegel’s Aesthetics as a whole, freedom as the essence of art, Hegel’s controversial claim on the end of art, and the relation of art and state is the main theme of this study. Hegel’s aesthetics is to be understood in his whole system. According to Hegel’s speculative philosophy, being is to be understood as self-determining Reason or Idea. The self-determining Reason actualizes and realizes himself in the course of history. Idea in the process of self-actualization becomes more and more rational. It first actualizes itself in matter, then in non-conscious life, finally in conscious and self-conscious life. Self-conscious life is the most rational stage of development of Idea in which the subject can think and imagine, use language and exercise freedom. Hegel calls this self-conscious life Spirit (Geist). Therefore, emergence of human being is an essential moment in the process of self-determination of Reason. It is not accidental rather a necessity. The essence of spirit is freedom. Since the history is the process of the self-actualization if spirit, humankind becomes more and more, free. Spirit in its ‘Absolute’ form manifests itself into three forms; Art, Religion and philosophy. Art is the first stage in which Spirit understands itself. In fact, Art is the expression of human spirit, which is comprehended by our senses. Beauty is defined as the sensuous expression of free Spirit. The purpose of art is, therefore, to express, enjoy and contemplate on our freedom. State belongs to the realm of Objective spirit, while Art along with Religion and philosophy belong to the realm of Absolute Spirit. Absolute spirit is superior to Objective Spirit; therefore, state must not interfere in the realm of art. Limitation on art by state directly violates freedom and prevents development of national spirit. Genuine art leads us to freedom and richness of (national) Spirit. Using Hegel’s philosophy of art, we can comprehend why totalitarian states try to limit art and, why artists are the enemy of totalitarian states. In this philosophical system, we contemplate on art as a way to freedom and emancipation.

Keywords: aesthetics, freedom, spirit, state

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28 Summary of the Actual Conditions of SME Management Consultants

Authors: Takao Maeda, Tomofumi Tohara, Shigeaki Mishima


Focusing on the “SME management consultants” in Japan, this study intends (1) to clarify implications as to their self-actualization, motivation and (2) to revitalize SMEs, on which local economies depend. On the basis of these study purposes, the presenters conducted an interview survey of several SME management consultants and SME managers. This survey identified the current circumstances and challenges as follow: SME management consultants are high-level professionals who acquired very difficult national qualifications (examination pass rate 4%) to provide consultation and business analysis for SMEs. Nevertheless, only 20% of the qualified consultants run their business independently, while the rest (80%) are corporate employees as in-house consultants, the majority of whom belong to big companies. They acquired the qualification merely for the purpose of self-development. Therefore, they have few opportunities to demonstrate their expertise inside and outside their companies.On the other hand, the SMEs, which are to receive analysis and consultation from SME management consultants, constitute 99.7% of all industries, and are very important to local communities, for they sustain the economy and provide employment. SMEs used to be supported by the consultants in company management due to their scarce managerial resources compared with big companies. Nowadays, however, SMEs are regarded as the source of Japanese economic dynamism. To have the same degree of managerial skills as big companies, therefore, SMEs now need analysis and consultation by the consultants in more active ways, such as discovering and utilizing their dormant technologies. Partly because SME management consultants have not been fully utilized in Japan, the number of SMEs has been on a long-term downward trend since 1986. Utilizing expertise of the in-house consultants, who have rich experience in their big companies and deep knowledge regarding SMEs obtained through qualification, will potentially lead to revitalization of SMEs and consequently to economic growth in Japan. Through detailed analysis of the interview results, this study revealed short-term and long-term challenges regarding how to utilize SME management consultants. The most urgent issue is to study managerial approaches that will provide the consultants serving in big companies with more “opportunities to demonstrate their expertise.” The long-term issue is to enable the consultants to demonstrate their expertise in financial institutions, or financial supporter of SMEs, to examine farsighted and innovative financing strategy and criteria based on managers’ personalities and their business plans, instead of the conventional financing based on prompt fund collection.

Keywords: small and medium enterprise(SME), SME managemant consultant, self-actualization, motivation

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27 Forms and Aesthetics In Our Community Buildings

Authors: Anya Chukwuma, Eme Mekwa


The term ‘’FORM’’ in design could be referred to as the combination of various shapes of different sizes and assembling them in appropriate positions to achieve a unique figure of high aesthetic value. A deduction from this definition is that forms contribute immensely to the actualization of aesthetics in a building. When these various shapes and figures are properly assembled, it may give rise to a concept in design. However some architects and other designers either misuse or abuse the use of these shapes, hence resulting to a design imbalance, lack of uniformity, and expression. This academic work is designed to educate the public on the proper usage of some regular shapes like circles, rectangles, pentagons, hexagons, triangles, etc., to achieve a unique form in design. By the end of this work, one should be able to assemble different shapes to express different emotions of the mind, such as peace, love, confusion, war, and unity. Some elements of design such as balance, stability, functionality, and aesthetics will also be achieved even as the building maintains its unique form.

Keywords: forms, shapes, concept, aesthetics

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26 Forms and Aesthetics in Buildings

Authors: Anya Chukwuma, Iwuagwu Ben, Kingsley Chukwuemeka


The term 'form' in design could be referred to as the combination of various shapes of different sizes and assembling them in appropriate positions to achieve a unique figure of high aesthetic value. A deduction from this definition is that forms contribute immensely to the actualization of aesthetics in a building. When these various shapes and figures are properly assembled, it may give rise to a concept in design. However some architects and other designers either misuse or abuse the use of these shapes, hence resulting to a design imbalance, lack of uniformity and expression. This academic work is designed to educate the public on the proper usage of some regular shapes like circles, rectangles, pentagons, hexagons, triangles etc., to achieve a unique form in design. By the end of this work, one should be able to assemble different shapes to express different emotions of the mind such as peace, love, confusion, war, and unity. Some elements of design such as balance, stability, functionality and aesthetics will also be achieved even as the building maintains its unique form.

Keywords: aesthetics, concept, form, shapes

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25 The Modern Paradigm Features of Social Management Based on Postindustrial Theory

Authors: Yulia Totskaya


Nowadays, society is in a postindustrial/informational phase of its development. Certain changes have occurred in different parts of society life as a result of the social reality transformations due to the influence of changes in the productive forces. As a result, the personality has received autonomy and independence, as in her or his hands appeared new means of production–information, knowledge, creativity. In such a society, there is a new middle class, which is called meritocratic. It consists of personalities, who are engaged in highly intelligent, creative work; who independently pursue their own well-being and status; who are active in the economic and social spheres. At the forefront there are such qualities as independence, commitment and self-actualization. This modern, intellectual and sovereign personality is no longer in need of care. The role of management has transformed from a paternalistic to the "service", which is aimed at creating the conditions for citizens’ self-realization to meet their needs through the rendering of public services. Such society alterations motivate the need to change the key parameters of social management, which are identified in this article on the basis of the postindustrial society key features.

Keywords: informational society, postindustrial society, postindustrial sociality, public services, social management

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24 Volunteering and Social Integration of Ex-Soviet Immigrants in Israel

Authors: Natalia Khvorostianov, Larissa Remennick


Recent immigrants seldom join the ranks of volunteers for various social causes. This gap reflects both material reasons (immigrants’ lower income and lack of free time) and cultural differences (value systems, religiosity, language barrier, attitudes towards host society, etc.). Immigrants from the former socialist countries are particularly averse to organized forms of volunteering for a host of reasons rooted in their past, including the memories of false or forced forms of collectivism imposed by the state. In this qualitative study, based on 21 semi-structured interviews, we explored the perceptions and practices of volunteer work among FSU immigrants - participants in one volunteering project run by an Israeli NGO for the benefit of elderly ex-Soviet immigrants. Our goal was to understand the motivations of immigrant volunteers and the role of volunteering in the processes of their own social and economic integration in their adopted country – Israel. The results indicate that most volunteers chose causes targeting fellow immigrants, their resettlement and well-being, and were motivated by the wish to build co-ethnic support network and overcome marginalization in the Israeli society. Other volunteers were driven by the need for self-actualization in the context of underemployment and occupational downgrading.

Keywords: FSU immigrants, integration, volunteering, participation, social capital

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23 Marketing Mix, Motivation and the Tendency of Consumer Decision Making in Buying Condominium

Authors: Bundit Pungnirund


This research aimed to study the relationship between marketing mix attitudes, motivation of buying decision and tendency of consumer decision making in buying the condominiums in Thailand. This study employed by survey and quantitative research. The questionnaire was used to collect the data from 400 sampled of customers who interested in buying condominium in Bangkok. The descriptive statistics and Pearson’s correlation coefficient analysis were used to analyze data. The research found that marketing mixed factors in terms of product and price were related to buying decision making tendency in terms of price and room size. Marketing mixed factors in terms of price, place and promotion were related to buying decision making tendency in term of word of mouth. Consumers’ buying motivation in terms of social acceptance, self-esteemed and self-actualization were related to buying decision making tendency in term of room size. In addition, motivation in self-esteemed was related to buying decision making tendency within a year.

Keywords: condominium, marketing mix, motivation, tendency of consumer decision making

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22 Genesis of Entrepreneur Business Models in New Ventures

Authors: Arash Najmaei, Jo Rhodes, Peter Lok, Zahra Sadeghinejad


In this article, we endeavor to explore how a new business model comes into existence in the Australian cloud-computing eco-system. Findings from multiple case study methodology reveal that to develop a business model new ventures adopt a three-phase approach. In the first phase, labelled as business model ideation (BMID) various ideas for a viable business model are generated from both internal and external networks of the entrepreneurial team and the most viable one is chosen. Strategic consensus and commitment are generated in the second phase. This phase is a business modelling strategic action phase. We labelled this phase as business model strategic commitment (BMSC) because through commitment and the subsequent actions of executives resources are pooled, coordinated and allocated to the business model. Three complementary sets of resources shape the business model: managerial (MnRs), marketing (MRs) and technological resources (TRs). The third phase is the market-test phase where the business model is reified through the delivery of the intended value to customers and conversion of revenue into profit. We labelled this phase business model actualization (BMAC). Theoretical and managerial implications of these findings will be discussed and several directions for future research will be illuminated.

Keywords: entrepreneur business model, high-tech venture, resources, conversion of revenue

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21 Developing Teachers as Change Agents: A Qualitative Study of Master of Education Graduates in Pakistan

Authors: Mir Afzal Tajik


The 'Strengthening Teacher Education in Pakistan' (STEP) is an innovative programme jointly funded by the Government of Canada and the Aga Khan Foundation Canada and implemented by the Aga Khan University - Institute for Educational Development (AKU-IED) in partnership with the local governments, education departments and communities in the provinces of Balochistan, Sindh and Gilgit-Baltistan in Pakistan. One of the key components of the programme is the professional development of teachers, headteachers and teacher educators through a variety of teacher education programmes including a two-year Masters of Education (MEd) Programme offered by AKU-IED. A number of teachers, headteachers and teacher educators from these provinces have been developed through the MEd Programme. This paper discusses a qualitative research study conducted to explore the nature, relevance, rigor and richness of the experiences of the MEd graduates, and how these experiences have fostered their own professional development and their ability to bring about positive changes in their schools. The findings of the study provide useful insights into the graduates’ self-actualization, the transformation of their professional beliefs and practices, the difference they have made in their schools, and the challenges they face. The study also provides recommendations for policy and practice related to teacher education programmes.

Keywords: STEP, teacher education, Pakistan, Canada, Aga Khan foundation

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20 Re-Imagining and De-Constructing the Global Security Architecture

Authors: Smita Singh


The paper develops a critical framework to the hegemonic discourses resorted to by the dominant powers in the global security architecture. Within this framework, security is viewed as a discourse through which identities and threats are represented and produced to legitimize the security concerns of few at the cost of others. International security have long been driven and dominated by power relations. Since the end of the Cold War, the global transformations have triggered contestations to the idea of security at both theoretical and practical level. These widening and deepening of the concept of security have challenged the existing power hierarchies at the theoretical level but not altered the substance and actors defining it. When discourses are introduced into security studies, several critical questions erupt: how has power shaped security policies of the globe through language? How does one understand the meanings and impact of those discourses? Who decides the agenda, rules, players and outliers of the security? Language as a symbolic system and form of power is fluid and not fixed. Over the years the dominant Western powers, led by the United States of America have employed various discursive practices such as humanitarian intervention, responsibility to protect, non proliferation, human rights, war on terror and so on to reorient the constitution of identities and interests and hence the policies that need to be adopted for its actualization. These power relations are illustrated in this paper through the narratives used in the nonproliferation regime. The hierarchical security dynamics is a manifestation of the global power relations driven by many factors including discourses.

Keywords: hegemonic discourse, global security, non-proliferation regime, power politics

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19 Teachers as Agents of Change: A Qualitative Study of Master of Education Graduates from Pakistan

Authors: Mir Afzal Tajik


The 'Strengthening Teacher Education in Pakistan' (STEP) is an innovative programme jointly funded by the Government of Canada and the Aga Khan Foundation Canada and implemented by the Aga Khan University - Institute for Educational Development (AKU-IED) in partnership with the local governments, education departments and communities in the provinces of Balochistan, Sindh and Gilgit-Baltistan in Pakistan. One of the key components of the programme is professional development of teachers, head teachers and teacher educators through a variety of teacher education programmes including a two-year Masters of Education (MEd) Programme offered by AKU-IED. A number of teachers, head teachers and teacher educators from these provinces have been developed through the MEd Programme. This paper discusses a qualitative research study conducted to explore the nature, relevance, rigor and richness of the experiences of the MEd graduates, and how these experiences have fostered their own professional development and their ability to bring about positive changes in their schools. The findings of the study provide useful insights into the graduates’ self-actualization, transformation of their professional beliefs and practices, the difference they have made in their schools, and the challenges they face. The study also provides evidences of how the implementation of this multi-stakeholders and multi-partners STEP programme has led to the development of ‘communities of practice’ in schools. The study then makes a number of recommendations for policy and practice related to teacher education programmes as well as for partnerships in education.

Keywords: STEP, change agents, Pakistan, Canada, teacher education, MEd

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18 Rational Bureaucracy and E-Government: A Philosophical Study of Universality of E-Government

Authors: Akbar Jamali


Hegel is the first great political philosopher who specifically contemplates on bureaucracy. For Hegel bureaucracy is the function of the state. Since state, essentially is a rational organization, its function; namely, bureaucracy must be rational. Since, what is rational is universal; Hegel had to explain how the bureaucracy could be understood as universal. Hegel discusses bureaucracy in his treatment of ‘executive power’. He analyses modern bureaucracy as a form of political organization, its constituent members, and its relation to the social environment. Therefore, the essence of bureaucracy in Hegel’s philosophy is the implementation of law and rules. Hegel argues that unlike the other social classes that are particular because they look for their own private interest, bureaucracy as a class is a ‘universal’ because their orientation is the interest of the state. State for Hegel is essentially rational and universal. It is the actualization of ‘objective Spirit’. Marx criticizes Hegel’s argument on the universality of state and bureaucracy. For Marx state is equal to bureaucracy, it constitutes a social class that based on the interest of bourgeois class that dominates the society and exploits proletarian class. Therefore, the main disagreement between these political philosophers is: whether the state (bureaucracy) is universal or particular. Growing e-government in modern state as an important aspect of development leads us to contemplate on the particularity and universality of e-government. In this article, we will argue that e-government essentially is universal. E-government, in itself, is impartial; therefore, it cannot be particular. The development of e-government eliminates many side effects of the private, personal or particular interest of the individuals who work as bureaucracy. Finally, we will argue that more a state is developed more it is universal. Therefore, development of e-government makes the state a more universal and affects the modern philosophical debate on the particularity or universality of bureaucracy and state.

Keywords: particularity, universality, rational bureaucracy, impartiality

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17 From Transference Love to Self Alienation in the Therapeutic Relationship: A Case Study

Authors: Efi Koutantou


The foundation of successful therapy is the bond between the psychotherapist and the patient, Psychoanalysis would argue. The present study explores lived experiences of a psychotherapeutic relationship in different moments, initial and final with special reference to the transference love developed through the process. The fight between moments of ‘leaving a self’ behind and following ‘lines of flight’ in the process of creating a new subjectivity and ‘becoming-other’ will be explored. Moments between de-territorialisation – surpassing given constraints such as gender, family and religion, kinship bonds - freeing the space in favor of re-territorialisation – creation of oneself creation of oneself will also be analyzed. The generation of new possibilities of being, new ways of self-actualization for this patient will be discussed. The second part of this study will explore the extent to which this ‘transference love’ results for this specific patient to become ‘the discourse of the other’; it is a desideratum whether the patient finally becomes a subject of his/her own through his/her own self-exploration of new possibilities of existence or becomes alienated within the thought of the therapist. The way in which the patient uses or is (ab)used by the transference love in order to experience and undergo alienation from an ‘authority’ which may or may not sacrifice his/her own thought in favor of satisfying the therapist will be investigated. Finally, from an observer’s perspective and from the analysis of the results of this therapeutic relationship, the counter-transference will also be analyzed, in terms of an attempt of the analyst to relive and satisfy his/her own desires through the life of the analysand. The accession and fall of an idealized self will be analyzed, the turn of the transference love into ‘hate’ will conclude this case study through a lived experience in the therapeutic procedure; a relationship which can be called to be a mixture of a real relationship and remnants from a past object relationship.

Keywords: alienation, authority, counter-transference, hate, transference love

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16 The Reception of Disclosure of Sexual Teens in Media

Authors: Rizky Kertanegara


Reception studies is one of the cultural studies lately evolved in the realm of communication science. This qualitative study was pioneered by Stuart Hall who initiated the dominant, negotiation, and opposition of audience reading to the text of the media. In its development, this reception studies is developed by Kim Christian Schroder become multidimensional reception studies. In this update, Schroder aware that there has been a bias between readings made by the informant with readings conducted by researchers over the informant. Therefore, he classifies the reception into two dimensions, namely the dimension of reading by informants and implications dimensions conducted by researcher. Using Schroder approach, these studies seek to describe the reception of adolescent girls, as research subjects, to the elements contained sexual openness in the music video Cinta Laura as the object of research. Researcher wanted to see how they interpret the values of Western culture based on the values of their culture as a teenager. Researchers used a descriptive qualitative research method by conducting in-depth interviews to the informants who comes from a religious school. The selection of informants was done by using purposeful sampling. Collaboration with the school, the researchers were able to select informants who could provide rich data related to the topic. The analysis showed that there is permissiveness informants in addressing sexual openness in the music video. In addition, informants from Catholic schools were more open than the informant derived from Islamic schools in accepting the values of sexual openness. This permisiveness is regarded as a form of self-actualization and gender equality.

Keywords: cultural studies, multidimensional reception model, sexual openness, youth audience

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15 Conversion from Catholicism to Islam in and out of Prison: A Comparative Study

Authors: Nerissa Gloria Balboa, Aire Yukdawan, Venice Gordula, Rhea Jannagen Curva


This research examined the lived experiences and compared their similarities and differences of former Catholics turned Muslim converts in and out of prison. Qualitative comparative study with an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis approach was used to explore the lives of Muslim converts. Interviews were conducted at Islamic Studies, Call and Guidance of the Philippines (ISCAG) and Tarbiyyah Islamic Female Institute for Muslim converts out of prison, New Bilibid Prison (NBP) and Correctional Institution for Women (CIW) for Muslim converts in prison. Results of the study show that first, for Muslim converts out of prison, exploration begins through (1) experiences of Catholicism as a norm in the family and eventual realization of its emptiness in practice, (2) experiences of Islam as a norm in the environment and discovery of meaningfulness of Islam (3) experiences of gradual holistic transformation of being a Muslim; and (4) experiences of extension of oneself towards family and society. Secondly, for Muslim converts in prison, exploration begins through (1) experiences of Apathy towards Catholicism and eventual deviation from moral standards, (2) experiences of prison condition as an environment of reflection on spirituality; and (3) experiences of positive effects of being a Muslim inside Prison. Comparisons show that there exists similarities and differences across the two settings in terms of (1) experiences of Catholicism and the degree of its internalization and actualization, (2) experiences of Islamic encounters and the process of conversion; and (3) experience of Islamic devotion and Islamic construct for the self. Theoretical bases of religious conversion found in unique contexts are discussed, initiating a paradigm shift of thinking that is needed to address the deeply rooted prejudices within Catholic and Islamic circles.

Keywords: Catholicism, Islamic conversion, social psychology, religion

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14 An Explanatory Study Approach Using Artificial Intelligence to Forecast Solar Energy Outcome

Authors: Agada N. Ihuoma, Nagata Yasunori


Artificial intelligence (AI) techniques play a crucial role in predicting the expected energy outcome and its performance, analysis, modeling, and control of renewable energy. Renewable energy is becoming more popular for economic and environmental reasons. In the face of global energy consumption and increased depletion of most fossil fuels, the world is faced with the challenges of meeting the ever-increasing energy demands. Therefore, incorporating artificial intelligence to predict solar radiation outcomes from the intermittent sunlight is crucial to enable a balance between supply and demand of energy on loads, predict the performance and outcome of solar energy, enhance production planning and energy management, and ensure proper sizing of parameters when generating clean energy. However, one of the major problems of forecasting is the algorithms used to control, model, and predict performances of the energy systems, which are complicated and involves large computer power, differential equations, and time series. Also, having unreliable data (poor quality) for solar radiation over a geographical location as well as insufficient long series can be a bottleneck to actualization. To overcome these problems, this study employs the anaconda Navigator (Jupyter Notebook) for machine learning which can combine larger amounts of data with fast, iterative processing and intelligent algorithms allowing the software to learn automatically from patterns or features to predict the performance and outcome of Solar Energy which in turns enables the balance of supply and demand on loads as well as enhance production planning and energy management.

Keywords: artificial Intelligence, backward elimination, linear regression, solar energy

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13 Factors Afecting the Academic Performance of In-Service Students in Science Educaction

Authors: Foster Chilufya


This study sought to determine factors that affect academic performance of mature age students in Science Education at University of Zambia. It was guided by Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. The theory provided relationship between achievement motivation and academic performance. A descriptive research design was used. Both Qualitative and Quantitative research methods were used to collect data from 88 respondents. Simple random and purposive sampling procedures were used to collect from the respondents. Concerning factors that motivate mature-age students to choose Science Education Programs, the following were cited: need for self-actualization, acquisition of new knowledge, encouragement from friends and family members, good performance at high school and diploma level, love for the sciences, prestige and desire to be promoted at places of work. As regards factors that affected the academic performance of mature-age students, both negative and positive factors were identified. These included: demographic factors such as age and gender, psychological characteristics such as motivation and preparedness to learn, self-set goals, self esteem, ability, confidence and persistence, student prior academic performance at high school and college level, social factors, institutional factors and the outcomes of the learning process. In order to address the factors that negatively affect academic performance of mature-age students, the following measures were identified: encouraging group discussions, encouraging interactive learning process, providing a conducive learning environment, reviewing Science Education curriculum and providing adequate learning materials. Based on these factors, it is recommended that, the School of Education introduces a program in Science Education specifically for students training to be teachers of science. Additionally, introduce majors in Physics Education, Biology Education, Chemistry Education and Mathematics Education relevant to what is taught in high schools.

Keywords: academic, performance, in-service, science

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12 Urban Retrofitting Application Based on Social-Media to Model the Malioboro Smart Central Business Design through Statistical Regression Approach

Authors: Muhammad Hardyan Prastyanto, Aisah Azhari Marwangi, Yulinda Rizky Pratiwi


Globalization has become a driving force for the current technological developments. The presence of the Virtual Space provides opportunities for people to self-actualization through access to a wider world, quickly and easily. Cities that are part of the existence of life, witness the history of civilization over time, also has been the major object to upgrading on technological sector. A smart city is one where the government and citizenry are using the best available means, including ICT, to achieve their shared goals. This often includes economic development, environmental sustainability, and improved quality of life for citizens. Thus theory is the basis for research of this study. This study aimed to know the implementation of the Urban Retrofitting at Malioboro area based on Information and Communication Technologies. The method of this study is by reviewing the effectiveness of the E-commerce uses as a major system to identification the Malioboro Smart Central Business District. By using a significance level of 5 %, it can be concluded that addresses have a significant influence on the ratings obtained, namely regarding the location of the hotel establishment. But despite the use of the website does not have a significant influence on the rating of the hotel, using the website still has influence significantly on the rating, because the p -value (Sig.) of the variable website is not so much different from the significance level determined by the researcher. In the interpretation, if a hotel is located on the Pasar Kembang streets and not to use the website, so the hotel is likely to have a rating of the constant value which is 3.183. However, if a hotel located on the Sosrowijayan streets, so the hotel rating will be increased by 0,302. Then if a hotel has been using a website, so the hotel rating will increase by 0,264. It is possible to conclude the effectiveness of ICT’s (Website) uses and location to identification the urban retrofitting through increasing of building rating in Malioboro Central Business District.

Keywords: urban retrofitting, e-commerce, information and communication technology, statistic regression, SCBD, Malioboro

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11 Forming Form, Motivation and Their Biolinguistic Hypothesis: The Case of Consonant Iconicity in Tashelhiyt Amazigh and English

Authors: Noury Bakrim


When dealing with motivation/arbitrariness, forming form (Forma Formans) and morphodynamics are to be grasped as relevant implications of enunciation/enactment, schematization within the specificity of language as sound/meaning articulation. Thus, the fact that a language is a form does not contradict stasis/dynamic enunciation (reflexivity vs double articulation). Moreover, some languages exemplify the role of the forming form, uttering, and schematization (roots in Semitic languages, the Chinese case). Beyond the evolutionary biosemiotic process (form/substance bifurcation, the split between realization/representation), non-isomorphism/asymmetry between linguistic form/norm and linguistic realization (phonetics for instance) opens up a new horizon problematizing the role of Brain – sensorimotor contribution in the continuous forming form. Therefore, we hypothesize biotization as both process/trace co-constructing motivation/forming form. Henceforth, referring to our findings concerning distribution and motivation patterns within Berber written texts (pulse based obstruents and nasal-lateral levels in poetry) and oral storytelling (consonant intensity clustering in quantitative and semantic/prosodic motivation), we understand consonant clustering, motivation and schematization as a complex phenomenon partaking in patterns of oral/written iconic prosody and reflexive metalinguistic representation opening the stable form. We focus our inquiry on both Amazigh and English clusters (/spl/, /spr/) and iconic consonant iteration in [gnunnuy] (to roll/tumble), [smummuy] (to moan sadly or crankily). For instance, the syllabic structures of /splaeʃ/ and /splaet/ imply an anamorphic representation of the state of the world: splash, impact on aquatic surfaces/splat impact on the ground. The pair has stridency and distribution as distinctive features which specify its phonetic realization (and a part of its meaning) /ʃ/ is [+ strident] and /t/ is [+ distributed] on the vocal tract. Schematization is then a process relating both physiology/code as an arthron vocal/bodily, vocal/practical shaping of the motor-articulatory system, leading to syntactic/semantic thematization (agent/patient roles in /spl/, /sm/ and other clusters or the tense uvular /qq/ at the initial position in Berber). Furthermore, the productivity of serial syllable sequencing in Berber points out different expressivity forms. We postulate two Components of motivated formalization: i) the process of memory paradigmatization relating to sequence modeling under sensorimotor/verbal specific categories (production/perception), ii) the process of phonotactic selection - prosodic unconscious/subconscious distribution by virtue of iconicity. Basing on multiple tests including a questionnaire, phonotactic/visual recognition and oral/written reproduction, we aim at patterning/conceptualizing consonant schematization and motivation among EFL and Amazigh (Berber) learners and speakers integrating biolinguistic hypotheses.

Keywords: consonant motivation and prosody, language and order of life, anamorphic representation, represented representation, biotization, sensori-motor and brain representation, form, formalization and schematization

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10 Role of Organizational Culture in Building Sustainable Employee’s Performance in Organizations: A Case Study of Zenith Bank PLC Jalingo Taraba State Nigeria

Authors: Jerome Nyameh


The most valuable asset in the existence of organization is the employees and their ability in maintain appreciable level of performance which support the goal of the organization and the ability to do that depend largely on the organizational culture and culture has been considered most currently as the factor that relate positively to organizational excellence and sustainable employee’s performance over the period of time An employee engagement program will not go far without first establishing the organizational culture that is required to support sustainability. This means integrating sustainability into the overall employee’s performance, with clear vision, goals and metrics. It means having strong culture and a collaborative governance structure that has been develop as a ways of doing things in the organization for decision making and resource allocation. It requires a rewards and recognition program to support and reinforce sustainability behaviors. With such a culture in place, organization will be able to develop a strategy that fully engages employees, while fully realizing the benefits of their contributions. The study investigated empirically the role of organizational culture building sustainable employee’s performance using Zenith bank PLC a model where organizational culture will build sustainable employees performance strategy for a lasting actualization of organizational was developed. In order to achieve the research objectives of (i) to assess how organizational culture can build sustainable employee’s performance (ii) to analyze the gap that exists between organizational culture and sustainable employee’s performance in the organization, a survey questionnaires of 20 items was administered to sixty respondents. The findings of this study have practical implications for organizational leaders, managers and employees, and their organizations, particularly commercial banks in Nigeria, besides offering scope for further research in the area of organizational culture and sustainable employee’s performance. It will also show a significance and positive relationship that exist between organizational culture and sustainable employee’s performance, as means of building viable organization with cultural uniqueness and excellence performance in the world of competition.

Keywords: organizational culture, sustainable employee’s performance, organizations, Zenith Bank PLC Nigeria

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9 The Effect of Health Promoting Programs on Patient's Life Style after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft–Hospitalized in Shiraz Hospitals

Authors: Azizollah Arbabisarjou, Leila Safabakhsh, Mozhgan Jahantigh, Mahshid Nazemzadeh, Shahindokht Navabi


Background: Health promotion is an essential strategy for reduction of health disparities. Health promotion includes all activities that encourage optimum physical, spiritual, and mental function. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a Health Promotion Program (HPP) on behavior in terms of the dimensions of the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP) in patients after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG). Methods and Materials: In this clinical trial study, 80 patients who had undergone CABG surgery (2011-2012) were selected and randomly divided in two groups: Experimental and Control that investigated by (HPLP II). Then the experimental group was educated about diet, walking and stress management. The program process was followed up for 3months and after that all variables were investigated again. The overall score and the scores for the six dimensions of the HPLP (self-actualization, health responsibility, exercise, nutrition, interpersonal support and stress management) were measured in the pre- and post-test periods. Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-test and paired t-test. Results: Results showed that Score of stress management (p=.036), diet (p=.002), Spiritual Growth (p=.001) and interrelationship (p=002) increase in experimental group after intervention .Average scores after 3 months in the control group had no significant changes; except responsibility for health (p < .05). Results of the study revealed that comparison the scores of the experimental group were significantly different from the control group in all lifestyle aspects except for spiritual growth. Conclusion: This study showed that Health promoting program on lifestyle and health promotion in patients who suffer from CAD could enhance patient's awareness of healthy behaviors and improves the quality of life.

Keywords: coronary artery bypass graft, health promotion, lifestyle, education

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8 Role of Internal and External Factors in Preventing Risky Sexual Behavior, Drug and Alcohol Abuse

Authors: Veronika Sharok


Research relevance on psychological determinants of risky behaviors is caused by high prevalence of such behaviors, particularly among youth. Risky sexual behavior, including unprotected and casual sex, frequent change of sexual partners, drug and alcohol use lead to negative social consequences and contribute to the spread of HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases. Data were obtained from 302 respondents aged 15-35 which were divided into 3 empirical groups: persons prone to risky sexual behavior, drug users and alcohol users; and 3 control groups: the individuals who are not prone to risky sexual behavior, persons who do not use drugs and the respondents who do not use alcohol. For processing, we used the following methods: Qualitative method for nominative data (Chi-squared test) and quantitative methods for metric data (student's t-test, Fisher's F-test, Pearson's r correlation test). Statistical processing was performed using Statistica 6.0 software. The study identifies two groups of factors that prevent risky behaviors. Internal factors, which include the moral and value attitudes; significance of existential values: love, life, self-actualization and search for the meaning of life; understanding independence as a responsibility for the freedom and ability to get attached to someone or something up to a point when this relationship starts restricting the freedom and becomes vital; awareness of risky behaviors as dangerous for the person and for others; self-acknowledgement. External factors (prevent risky behaviors in case of absence of the internal ones): absence of risky behaviors among friends and relatives; socio-demographic characteristics (middle class, marital status); awareness about the negative consequences of risky behaviors; inaccessibility to psychoactive substances. These factors are common for proneness to each type of risky behavior, because it usually caused by the same reasons. It should be noted that if prevention of risky behavior is based only on elimination of external factors, it is not as effective as it may be if we pay more attention to internal factors. The results obtained in the study can be used to develop training programs and activities for prevention of risky behaviors, for using values preventing such behaviors and promoting healthy lifestyle.

Keywords: existential values, prevention, psychological features, risky behavior

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7 The Third Level Digital Divide: Millennials and Post-Millennials Online Activities in South Africa

Authors: Ayanda Magida, Brian Armstrong


The study aimed to assess the third level of the digital divide among the millennials and post-millennials in South Africa. The millennials are people born from 1981-to 1996, that is, people between the ages of 25-40 years old and post-millennials are people born from 1997 to date. For the study, only post-millennials born between 1997-2003 were included as they were old enough to consent to participation in the study. Data was collected as part of the Ph.D. project that focuses on the relationship between income inequality, the digital divide, and social cohesion in South Africa. The digital divide has three main levels, namely the first, second and third. The first and second focus on access and usage, respectively. The third-level digital divide can be defined as the differences in the benefits associated with being online. The current paper focuses on the third level: the benefits derived by being online using four domains: economic, educational, social, and personal benefits. The economic benefits include income, employment and finance-related activities; the social benefits include socializing belonging, identity, and informal networks. The personal benefits include personal wellbeing and self-actualization. A total of 763 participants completed the survey, and 61.3% were post-millennials between the ages of 18-24 and s 38.6 % were millennials between 25 and 40. The majority of the respondents were female (62%), male (34%) and nonbinary (1%), respectively. Most of the respondents were black, followed by whites, Indians and colored, respectively. Thus, they represented the status of the demographics of the country. Most of the respondents had access to the internet and smartphone. Most expressed that they use laptops (68%) or mobile (71%) to access the internet and 54 % access the internet using wireless/Wi-Fi. There were no differences between the millennial and post-millennial economic and educational benefits of being online. However, the post-millennials were more inclined to use the internet for social and personal benefits than the millennials. This could be attributed to many factors, such as age. The post-millennials are still discovering themselves and therefore would derive social and personal benefits associated with being online. The findings confirm studies that argue that younger generations derive more benefits from being online than the older generation. Based on the findings, it is evident that the post-millennials are not using the internet or online activities for social networks and socializing but can derive economic benefits such as job looking and education benefits from being online. It can be inferred that there are no significant differences between the two groups, and it seems like the third-level digital divide is not evident among the two groups as they both have been able to derive meaningful benefits from being online. Further studies should focus on the third-level divide between the baby boomers and Generation X.

Keywords: third-level digital divide, millennials, post-millennials, online activities

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6 Ecological Crisis: A Buddhist Approach

Authors: Jaharlal Debbarma


The ecological crisis has become a threat to earth’s well-being. Man’s ambitious desire of wealth, pleasure, fame, longevity and happiness has extracted natural resources so vastly that it is unable to sustain a healthy life. Man’s greed for wealth and power has caused the setting up of vast factories which further created the problem of air, water and noise pollution, which have adversely affected both fauna and flora.It is no secret that man uses his inherent powers of reason, intelligence and creativity to change his environment for his advantage. But man is not aware that the moral force he himself creates brings about corresponding changes in his environment to his weal or woe whether he likes it or not. As we are facing the global warming and the nature’s gift such as air and water has been so drastically polluted with disastrous consequences that man seek for a ways and means to overcome all this pollution problem as his health and life sustainability has been threaten and that is where man try to question about the moral ethics and value.It is where Buddhist philosophy has been emphasized deeply which gives us hope for overcoming this entire problem as Buddha himself emphasized in eradicating human suffering and Buddhism is the strongest form of humanism we have. It helps us to learn to live with responsibility, compassion, and loving kindness.It teaches us to be mindful in our action and thought as the environment unites every human being. If we fail to save it we will perish. If we can rise to meet the need to all which ecology binds us - humans, other species, other everything will survive together.My paper will look into the theory of Dependent Origination (Pratītyasamutpāda), Buddhist understanding of suffering (collective suffering), and Non-violence (Ahimsa) and an effort will be made to provide a new vision to Buddhist ecological perspective. The above Buddhist philosophy will be applied to ethical values and belief systems of modern society. The challenge will be substantially to transform the modern individualistic and consumeristic values. The stress will be made on the interconnectedness of the nature and the relation between human and planetary sustainability. In a way environmental crisis will be referred to “spiritual crisis” as A. Gore (1992) has pointed out. The paper will also give important to global consciousness, as well as to self-actualization and self-fulfillment. In the words of Melvin McLeod “Only when we combine environmentalism with spiritual practice, will we find the tools to make the profound personal transformations needed to address the planetary crisis?”

Keywords: dependent arising, collective ecological suffering, remediation, Buddhist approach

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5 Obstacles and Ways-Forward to Upgrading Nigeria Basic Nursing Schools: A Survey of Perception of Teaching Hospitals’ Nurse Trainers and Stakeholders

Authors: Chijioke Oliver Nwodoh, Jonah Ikechukwu Eze, Loretta Chika Ukwuaba, Ifeoma Ndubuisi, Ada Carol Nwaneri, Ijeoma Lewechi Okoronkwo


Presence of nursing workforce with unequal qualification and status in Nigeria has undermined the growth of nursing profession in the country. Upgrading of the existing basic and post-basic nursing schools to degree-awarding institutions in Nigeria is a way-forward to solving this inequality problem and Nigeria teaching hospitals are in vantage position for this project due to the already existing supportive structure and manpower in those hospitals. What the nurse trainers and the stakeholders of the teaching hospitals may hold for or against the upgrading is a determining factor for the upgrading project, but that is not clear and has not been investigated in Nigeria. The study investigated the perception of nurse trainers and stakeholders of teaching hospitals in Enugu State of Nigeria on the obstacles and ways-forward to upgrading nursing schools to degree-awarding institutions in Nigeria. The study specifically elicited what the subjects may view as obstacles to upgrading basic and post-basic nursing schools to degree-awarding institutions in Nigeria and ascertained their suggestions on the possible ways of overcoming the obstacles. By utilizing cross-sectional descriptive design and a purposive sampling procedure, 78 accessible subjects out of a total population of 87 were used for the study. The generated data from the subjects were analyzed using frequencies, percentages and mean for the research questions and Pearson’s chi-square for the hypotheses, with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences Version 20.0. The result showed that lack of extant policy, fund, and disunity among policy makers and stakeholders of nursing profession are the main obstacles to the upgrading. However, the respondents did not see items like: stakeholders and nurse trainers of basic and post-basic schools of nursing; fear of admitting and producing poor quality nurses; and so forth, as obstacles to the upgrading project. Institution of the upgrading policy by Nursing and Midwifery Council of Nigeria, funding, awareness creation for the upgrading and unison among policy makers and stakeholders of nursing profession are the major possible ways to overcome the obstacles. The difference in the subjects’ perceptions between the two hospitals was found to be statistically insignificant (p > 0.05). It is recommended that the policy makers and stakeholders of nursing in Nigeria should unite and liaise with Federal Ministries of Health and Education for modalities and actualization of upgrading nursing schools to degree-awarding institutions in Nigeria.

Keywords: nurse trainers, obstacles, perception, stakeholders, teaching hospital, upgrading basic nursing schools, ways-forward

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4 Teaching Material, Books, Publications versus the Practice: Myths and Truths about Installation and Use of Downhole Safety Valve

Authors: Robson da Cunha Santos, Caio Cezar R. Bonifacio, Diego Mureb Quesada, Gerson Gomes Cunha


The paper is related to the safety of oil wells and environmental preservation on the planet, because they require great attention and commitment from oil companies and people who work with these equipments. This must occur from drilling the well until it is abandoned in order to safeguard the environment and prevent possible damage. The project had as main objective the constitution resulting from comparatives made among books, articles and publications with information gathered in technical visits to operational bases of Petrobras. After the visits, the information from methods of utilization and present managements, which were not available before, became available to the general audience. As a result, it is observed a huge flux of incorrect and out-of-date information that comprehends not only bibliographic archives, but also academic resources and materials. During the gathering of more in-depth information on the manufacturing, assembling, and use aspects of DHSVs, several issues that were previously known as correct, customary issues were discovered to be uncertain and outdated. Information of great importance resulted in affirmations about subjects as the depth of the valve installation that was before installed to 30 meters from the seabed (mud line). Despite this, the installation should vary in conformity to the ideal depth to escape from area with the biggest tendency to hydrates formation according to the temperature and pressure. Regarding to valves with nitrogen chamber, in accordance with books, they have their utilization linked to water line ≥ 700 meters, but in Brazilian exploratory fields, their use occurs from 600 meters of water line. The valves used in Brazilian fields are able to be inserted to the production column and self-equalizing, but the use of screwed valve in the column of production and equalizing is predominant. Although these valves are more expensive to acquire, they are more reliable, efficient, with a bigger shelf life and they do not cause restriction to the fluid flux. It follows that based on researches and theoretical information confronted to usual forms used in fields, the present project is important and relevant. This project will be used as source of actualization and information equalization that connects academic environment and real situations in exploratory situations and also taking into consideration the enrichment of precise and easy to understand information to future researches and academic upgrading.

Keywords: down hole safety valve, security devices, installation, oil-wells

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3 Creativity in the Dark: A Qualitative Study of Cult’s Members Battle between True and False Self in Heterotopia

Authors: Shirly Bar-Lev, Michal Morag


Cults are usually thought of as suppressive organizations, where creativity is systematically stifled. Except for few scholars, creativity in cults remains an uncharted terrain (Boeri and Pressley, 2010). This paperfocuses on how cult members sought real and imaginary spaces to express themselves and even used their bodies as canvases on which to assert their individuality, resistance, devotion, pain, and anguish. We contend that cult members’ creativity paves their way out of the cult. This paper is part of a larger study into the experiences of former members of cults and cult-like NewReligiousMmovements (NRM). The research is based on in-depth interviews conducted with thirtyIsraeli men and women, aged 24 to 50, who either joined an NRM or were born into one. Their stories reveal that creativity is both emplaced and embedded in power relations. That is why Foucault’s idea of Heterotopia and Winnicott’s idea of the battle between True and False self canbenefit our understanding of how cult members creatively assert their autonomy over their bodies and thoughts while in the cult. Cults’ operate on a complex tension between submission and autonomy. On the one hand, they act as heterotopias byallowing for a ‘simultaneousmythic and real contestation of the space in which we live. Ascounter-hegemonic sites, they serve as‘the greatest reserve of theimagination’, to use Foucault’s words. Cults definitely possesselements of mystery, danger, and transgression where an alternative social ordering can emerge. On the other hand, cults are set up to format alternative identities. Often, the individuals who inhibit these spaces look for spiritual growth, self-reflection, and self-actualization. They might willingly relinquish autonomy over vast aspects of their lives in pursuit of self-improvement. In any case, cultsclaim the totality of their members’ identities and absolute commitment and compliance with the cult’s regimes. It, therefore, begs the question how the paradox between autonomy and submissioncan spur instances of creativity. How can cult members escape processes of performative regulation to assert their creative self? Both Foucault and Winnicott recognize the possibility of an authentic self – one that is spontaneous and creative. Both recognize that only the true self can feel real andmust never comply. Both note the disciplinary regimes that push the true self into hiding, as well as the social and psychological mechanisms that individuals develop to protect their true self. But while Foucault spoke of the power of critic as a way of salvaging the true self, Winnicott spoke of recognition and empathy - feeling known by others. Invitinga dialogue between the two theorists can yield a productive discussion on how cult members assert their ‘true self’ to cultivate a creative self within the confines of the cult.

Keywords: cults, creativity, heterotopia, true and false self

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