Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: LNG vaporization

17 Heat Transfer Studies for LNG Vaporization During Underwater LNG Releases

Authors: S. Naveen, V. Sivasubramanian

Abstract:

A modeling theory is proposed to consider the vaporization of LNG during its contact with water following its release from an underwater source. The spillage of LNG underwater can lead to a decrease in the surface temperature of water and subsequent freezing. This can in turn affect the heat flux distribution from the released LNG onto the water surrounding it. The available models predict the rate of vaporization considering the surface of contact as a solid wall, and considering the entire phenomena as a solid-liquid operation. This assumption greatly under-predicted the overall heat transfer on LNG water interface. The vaporization flux would first decrease during the film boiling, followed by an increase during the transition boiling and a steady decrease during the nucleate boiling. A superheat theory is introduced to enhance the accuracy in the prediction of the heat transfer between LNG and water. The work suggests that considering the superheat theory can greatly enhance the prediction of LNG vaporization on underwater releases and also help improve the study of overall thermodynamics.

Keywords: evaporation rate, heat transfer, LNG vaporization, underwater LNG release

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16 Vaporization of a Single N-Pentane Liquid Drop in a Flowing Immiscible Liquid Media

Authors: Hameed B. Mahood, Ali Sh. Baqir

Abstract:

Vaporization of a single n-pentane drop in a direct contact with another flowing immiscible liquid (warm water) has been experimentally investigated. The experiments were carried out utilising a cylindrical Perspex tube of diameter 10 cm and height and 150 cm. Saturated liquid n-pentane and warm water at 45oC were used as the dispersed and continuous phases, respectively. Photron FASTCAM SA 1.1high speed camera (75,000f/s) with software V. 321 was implemented during the experiments. Five different continuous phase flow rates (warm water) (10, 20, 30, 40, and 46 L⁄h) were used in the study. The results indicated that the increase of the continuous phase (warm water) flow rate results in increasing of the drop/bubble diameter.

Keywords: drop evaporation, direct contact heat transfer, drop/bubble growth, experimental technique

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15 The Effect of Shading on Cooling Tower Performance

Authors: Eitidal Albassam

Abstract:

Cooling towers (CTs) in arid zone countries, used for heat rejection in water-cooled (WC) systems, consume a large quantity of water. Universally, water conservation is an issue because of the scarcity of fresh water and natural resources. Therefore, many studies have aimed to conserve fresh water and limit the water wasted. Nonetheless, all these methods are not related to improving the weather conditions around the entering air to CT. In Kuwait and other arid-zone countries, the dry bulb temperature (DBT) during the summer season is significantly greater than the incoming hot water temperature, and the air undergoes sensible cooling. This high DBT leads to extra heat transfer from air to water, demanding high water vaporization to achieve the required cooling of water. Thus, any reduction in ambient air temperature around the CT will minimize water consumption. This paper aims to discuss theoretically the effect of reducing the DBT around the cooling tower when considering the sun-shading barrier. The theoretical simulation model results show that if the DBT reduces by 2.8 °C approximately, the percentage of water evaporation savings in gallon per minute (GPM) starts from 6.48% when DBT reaches 51.67 °C till 9.80% for 37.78 °C. Moreover, the performance of the cooling tower will be improved when considering the appropriate shading barriers, which will not affect the existing wet-bulb temperature.

Keywords: dry-bulb temperature, entering air, water consumption, water vaporization

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14 Pinch Analysis of Triple Pressure Reheat Supercritical Combined Cycle Power Plant

Authors: Sui Yan Wong, Keat Ping Yeoh, Chi Wai Hui

Abstract:

In this study, supercritical steam is introduced to Combined Cycle Power Plant (CCPP) in an attempt to further optimize energy recovery. Subcritical steam is commonly used in the CCPP, operating at maximum pressures around 150-160 bar. Supercritical steam is an alternative to increase heat recovery during vaporization period of water. The idea of improvement using supercritical steam is further examined with the use of exergy, pinch analysis and Aspen Plus simulation.

Keywords: exergy, pinch, combined cycle power plant, supercritical steam

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13 Study of a Developed Model Describing a Vacuum Membrane Distillation Unit Coupled to Solar Energy

Authors: Fatma Khaled, Khaoula Hidouri, Bechir Chaouachi

Abstract:

Desalination using solar energy coupled with membrane techniques such as vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) is considered as an interesting alternative for the production of pure water. During this work, a developed model of a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) hollow fiber membrane module of a VMD unit of seawater was carried out. This simulation leads to establishing a comparison between the effects of two different equations of the vaporization latent heat on the membrane surface temperature and on the unit productivity. Besides, in order to study the effect of putting membrane modules in series on the outlet fluid temperature and on the productivity of the process, a simulation was executed.

Keywords: vacuum membrane distillation, membrane module, membrane temperature, productivity

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12 Temperature Dependent Tribological Properties of Graphite

Authors: Pankaj Kumar Das, Niranjan Kumar, Prasun Chakraborti

Abstract:

Temperature dependent tribologiocal properties of nuclear grade turbostatic graphite were studied using 100Cr6 steel counterbody. High value of friction coefficient (0.25) and high wear loss was observed at room temperature and this value decreased to 0.1 at 150oC. Consequently, wear loss is also decreased. Such behavior is explained by oxidation/vaporization of graphite and water molecules. At room temperature, the adsorbed water in graphite does not decompose and effect of passivation mechanism does not work. However, at 150oC, the water decomposed into OH, atomic hydrogen and oxygen which efficiently passivates the carbon dangling bonds. This effect is known to decrease the energy of the contact and protect against abrasive wear.

Keywords: high temperature tribology, oxidation, turbostratic graphite, wear

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11 Wear Behavior and Microstructure of Eutectic Al - Si Alloys Manufactured by Selective Laser Melting

Authors: Nan KANG, Pierre Coddet, Hanlin Liao, Christian Coddet

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In this study, the almost dense eutectic Al-12Si alloys were fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM) from the powder mixture of pure Aluminum and pure Silicon, which show the mean particle sizes of 30 μm and 5μm respectively, under the argon environment. The image analysis shows that the highest value of relative density (95 %) was measured for the part obtained at the laser power of 280 W. X ray diffraction (XRD), Optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were employed to determine the microstructures of the SLM-processed Al-Si alloy, which illustrate that the SLM samples present the ultra-fine microstructure. The XRD results indicate that no clearly phase transformation happened during the SLM process. Additionally, the vaporization behavior of Aluminum was detected for the parts obtained at high laser power. Besides, the maximum microhardness value, about 95 Hv, was measured for the samples obtained at laser power of 280 W, and which shows the highest wear resistance.

Keywords: al-Si alloy, selective laser melting, wear behavior, microstructure

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10 Phase Behavior Modelling of Libyan Near-Critical Gas-Condensate Field

Authors: M. Khazam, M. Altawil, A. Eljabri

Abstract:

Fluid properties in states near a vapor-liquid critical region are the most difficult to measure and to predict with EoS models. The principal model difficulty is that near-critical property variations do not follow the same mathematics as at conditions far away from the critical region. Libyan NC98 field in Sirte basin is a typical example of near critical fluid characterized by high initial condensate gas ratio (CGR) greater than 160 bbl/MMscf and maximum liquid drop-out of 25%. The objective of this paper is to model NC98 phase behavior with the proper selection of EoS parameters and also to model reservoir depletion versus gas cycling option using measured PVT data and EoS Models. The outcomes of our study revealed that, for accurate gas and condensate recovery forecast during depletion, the most important PVT data to match are the gas phase Z-factor and C7+ fraction as functions of pressure. Reasonable match, within -3% error, was achieved for ultimate condensate recovery at abandonment pressure of 1500 psia. The smooth transition from gas-condensate to volatile oil was fairly simulated by the tuned PR-EoS. The predicted GOC was approximately at 14,380 ftss. The optimum gas cycling scheme, in order to maximize condensate recovery, should not be performed at pressures less than 5700 psia. The contribution of condensate vaporization for such field is marginal, within 8% to 14%, compared to gas-gas miscible displacement. Therefore, it is always recommended, if gas recycle scheme to be considered for this field, to start it at the early stage of field development.

Keywords: EoS models, gas-condensate, gas cycling, near critical fluid

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9 The Formation of Thin Copper Films on Graphite Surface Using Magnetron Sputtering Method

Authors: Zydrunas Kavaliauskas, Aleksandras Iljinas, Liutauras Marcinauskas, Mindaugas Milieska, Vitas Valincius

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The magnetron sputtering deposition method is often used to obtain thin film coatings. The main advantage of magnetron vaporization compared to other deposition methods is the high rate erosion of the cathode material (e.g., copper, aluminum, etc.) and the ability to operate under low-pressure conditions. The structure of the formed coatings depends on the working parameters of the magnetron deposition system, which is why it is possible to influence the properties of the growing film, such as morphology, crystal orientation, and dimensions, stresses, adhesion, etc. The properties of these coatings depend on the distance between the substrate and the magnetron surface, the vacuum depth, the gas used, etc. Using this deposition technology, substrates are most often placed near the anode. The magnetic trap of the magnetrons for localization of electrons in the cathode region is formed using a permanent magnet system that is on the side of the cathode. The scientific literature suggests that, after insertion of a small amount of copper into graphite, the electronic conductivity of graphite increase. The aim of this work is to create thin (up to 300 nm) layers on a graphite surface using a magnetron evaporation method, to investigate the formation peculiarities and microstructure of thin films, as well as the mechanism of copper diffusion into graphite inner layers at different thermal treatment temperatures. The electron scanning microscope was used to investigate the microrelief of the coating surface. The chemical composition is determined using the EDS method, which shows that, with an increase of the thermal treatment of the copper-carbon layer from 200 °C to 400 °C, the copper content is reduced from 8 to 4 % in atomic mass units. This is because the EDS method captures only the amount of copper on the graphite surface, while the temperature of the heat treatment increases part of the copper because of the diffusion processes penetrates into the inner layers of the graphite. The XRD method shows that the crystalline copper structure is not affected by thermal treatment.

Keywords: carbon, coatings, copper, magnetron sputtering

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8 Effective Infection Control Measures to Prevent Transmission of Multi-Drug Resistant Organisms from Burn Transfer Cases in a Regional Burn Centre

Authors: Si Jack Chong, Chew Theng Yap, Wan Loong James Mok

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Introduction: Regional burn centres face the spectra of introduced multi-drug resistant organisms (MDRO) from transfer patients resident in MDRO endemic countries. MDRO can cause severe nosocomial infection, which in massive burn patients, will lead to greater morbidity and mortality and strain the institution financially. We aim to highlight 4 key measures that have effectively prevented transmission of imported MDRO. Methods: A case of Candida auris (C. auris) from a massive burn patient transferred from an MDRO endemic country is used to illustrate the measures. C. auris is a globally emerging multi-drug resistant fungal pathogen causing nosocomial transmission. Results: Infection control measures used to mitigate the risk of outbreak from transfer cases are: (1) Multidisciplinary team approach involving Infection Control and Infectious Disease specialists early to ensure appropriate antibiotics use and implementation of barrier measures, (2) aseptic procedures for dressing change with strict isolation and donning of personal protective equipment in the ward, (3) early screening of massive burn patient from MDRO endemic region, (4) hydrogen peroxide vaporization terminal cleaning for operating theatres and rooms. Conclusion: The prevalence of air travel and international transfer to regional burn centres will need effective infection control measures to reduce the risk of transmission from imported massive burn patients. In our centre, we have effectively implemented 4 measures which have reduced the risks of local contamination. We share a recent case report to illustrate successful management of a potential MDRO outbreak resulting from transfer of massive burn patient resident in an MDRO endemic area.

Keywords: burns, burn unit, cross infection, infection control

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7 Thermal Decomposition Behaviors of Hexafluoroethane (C2F6) Using Zeolite/Calcium Oxide Mixtures

Authors: Kazunori Takai, Weng Kaiwei, Sadao Araki, Hideki Yamamoto

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HFC and PFC gases have been commonly and widely used as refrigerant of air conditioner and as etching agent of semiconductor manufacturing process, because of their higher heat of vaporization and chemical stability. On the other hand, HFCs and PFCs gases have the high global warming effect on the earth. Therefore, we have to be decomposed these gases emitted from chemical apparatus like as refrigerator. Until now, disposal of these gases were carried out by using combustion method like as Rotary kiln treatment mainly. However, this treatment needs extremely high temperature over 1000 °C. In the recent year, in order to reduce the energy consumption, a hydrolytic decomposition method using catalyst and plasma decomposition treatment have been attracted much attention as a new disposal treatment. However, the decomposition of fluorine-containing gases under the wet condition is not able to avoid the generation of hydrofluoric acid. Hydrofluoric acid is corrosive gas and it deteriorates catalysts in the decomposition process. Moreover, an additional process for the neutralization of hydrofluoric acid is also indispensable. In this study, the decomposition of C2F6 using zeolite and zeolite/CaO mixture as reactant was evaluated in the dry condition at 923 K. The effect of the chemical structure of zeolite on the decomposition reaction was confirmed by using H-Y, H-Beta, H-MOR and H-ZSM-5. The formation of CaF2 in zeolite/CaO mixtures after the decomposition reaction was confirmed by XRD measurements. The decomposition of C2F6 using zeolite as reactant showed the closely similar behaviors regardless the type of zeolite (MOR, Y, ZSM-5, Beta type). There was no difference of XRD patterns of each zeolite before and after reaction. On the other hand, the difference in the C2F6 decomposition for each zeolite/CaO mixtures was observed. These results suggested that the rate-determining process for the C2F6 decomposition on zeolite alone is the removal of fluorine from reactive site. In other words, the C2F6 decomposition for the zeolite/CaO improved compared with that for the zeolite alone by the removal of the fluorite from reactive site. HMOR/CaO showed 100% of the decomposition for 3.5 h and significantly improved from zeolite alone. On the other hand, Y type zeolite showed no improvement, that is, the almost same value of Y type zeolite alone. The descending order of C2F6 decomposition was MOR, ZSM-5, beta and Y type zeolite. This order is similar to the acid strength characterized by NH3-TPD. Hence, it is considered that the C-F bond cleavage is closely related to the acid strength.

Keywords: hexafluoroethane, zeolite, calcium oxide, decomposition

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6 A Simple Olfactometer for Odour and Lateralization Thresholds of Chemical Vapours

Authors: Lena Ernstgård, Aishwarya M. Dwivedi, Johan Lundström, Gunnar Johanson

Abstract:

A simple inexpensive olfactometer was constructed to enable valid measures of detection threshold of low concentrations of vapours of chemicals. The delivery system consists of seven syringe pumps, each connected to a Tedlar bag containing a predefined concentration of the test chemical in the air. The seven pumps are connected to a 8-way mixing valve which in turn connects to a birhinal nose piece. Chemical vapor of known concentration is generated by injection of an appropriate amount of the test chemical into a Tedlar bag with a known volume of clean air. Complete vaporization is assured by gentle heating of the bag from the outside with a heat flow. The six test concentrations are obtained by adding different volumes from the starting bag to six new Tedlar bags with known volumes of clean air. One bag contains clean air only. Thus, six different test concentrations and clean air can easily be tested in series by shifting the valve to new positions. Initial in-line measurement with a photoionization detector showed that the delivery system quickly responded to a shift in valve position. Thus 90% of the desired concentration was reached within 15 seconds. The concentrations in the bags are verified daily by gas chromatography. The stability of the system in terms of chemical concentration is monitored in real time by means of a photo-ionization detector. To determine lateralization thresholds, an additional pump supplying clean air is added to the delivery system in a way so that the nostrils can be separately and interchangeably be exposed to clean air and test chemical. Odor and lateralization thresholds were determined for three aldehydes; acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and hexanal in 20 healthy naïve individuals. Aldehydes generally have a strong odour, and the selected aldehydes are also considered to be irritating to mucous membranes. The median odor thresholds of the three aldehydes were 0.017, 0.0008, and 0.097 ppm, respectively. No lateralization threshold could be identified for acrolein, whereas the medians for crotonaldehyde and hexanal were 0.003 and 0.39 ppm, respectively. In conclusion, we constructed a simple, inexpensive olfactometer that allows for stable and easily measurable concentrations of vapors of the test chemical. Our test with aldehydes demonstrates that the system produces valid detection among volunteers in terms of odour and lateralization thresholds.

Keywords: irritation, odour delivery, olfactometer, smell

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5 Numerical Validation of Liquid Nitrogen Phase Change in a Star-Shaped Ambient Vaporizer

Authors: Yusuf Yilmaz, Gamze Gediz Ilis

Abstract:

Gas Nitrogen where has a boiling point of -189.52oC at atmospheric pressure widely used in the industry. Nitrogen that used in the industry should be transported in liquid form to the plant area. Ambient air vaporizer (AAV) generally used for vaporization of cryogenic gases such as liquid nitrogen (LN2), liquid oxygen (LOX), liquid natural gas (LNG), and liquid argon (LAR) etc. AAV is a group of star-shaped fin vaporizer. The design and the effect of the shape of fins of the vaporizer is one of the most important criteria for the performance of the vaporizer. In this study, the performance of AAV working with liquid nitrogen was analyzed numerically in a star-shaped aluminum finned pipe. The numerical analysis is performed in order to investigate the heat capacity of the vaporizer per meter pipe length. By this way, the vaporizer capacity can be predicted for the industrial applications. In order to achieve the validation of the numerical solution, the experimental setup is constructed. The setup includes a liquid nitrogen tank with a pressure of 9 bar. The star-shaped aluminum finned tube vaporizer is connected to the LN2 tank. The inlet and the outlet pressure and temperatures of the LN2 of the vaporizer are measured. The mass flow rate of the LN2 is also measured and collected. The comparison of the numerical solution is performed by these measured data. The ambient conditions of the experiment are given as boundary conditions to the numerical model. The surface tension and contact angle have a significant effect on the boiling of liquid nitrogen. Average heat transfer coefficient including convective and nucleated boiling components should be obtained for liquid nitrogen saturated flow boiling in the finned tube. Fluent CFD module is used to simulate the numerical solution. The turbulent k-ε model is taken to simulate the liquid nitrogen flow. The phase change is simulated by using the evaporation-condensation approach used with user-defined functions (UDF). The comparison of the numerical and experimental results will be shared in this study. Besides, the performance capacity of the star-shaped finned pipe vaporizer will be calculated in this study. Based on this numerical analysis, the performance of the vaporizer per unit length can be predicted for the industrial applications and the suitable pipe length of the vaporizer can be found for the special cases.

Keywords: liquid nitrogen, numerical modeling, two-phase flow, cryogenics

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4 Evaluation of the Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion Thermal Effects in Hassi R'Mel Gas Processing Plant Using Fire Dynamics Simulator

Authors: Brady Manescau, Ilyas Sellami, Khaled Chetehouna, Charles De Izarra, Rachid Nait-Said, Fati Zidani

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During a fire in an oil and gas refinery, several thermal accidents can occur and cause serious damage to people and environment. Among these accidents, the BLEVE (Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion) is most observed and remains a major concern for risk decision-makers. It corresponds to a violent vaporization of explosive nature following the rupture of a vessel containing a liquid at a temperature significantly higher than its normal boiling point at atmospheric pressure. Their effects on the environment generally appear in three ways: blast overpressure, radiation from the fireball if the liquid involved is flammable and fragment hazards. In order to estimate the potential damage that would be caused by such an explosion, risk decision-makers often use quantitative risk analysis (QRA). This analysis is a rigorous and advanced approach that requires a reliable data in order to obtain a good estimate and control of risks. However, in most cases, the data used in QRA are obtained from the empirical correlations. These empirical correlations generally overestimate BLEVE effects because they are based on simplifications and do not take into account real parameters like the geometry effect. Considering that these risk analyses are based on an assessment of BLEVE effects on human life and plant equipment, more precise and reliable data should be provided. From this point of view, the CFD modeling of BLEVE effects appears as a solution to the empirical law limitations. In this context, the main objective is to develop a numerical tool in order to predict BLEVE thermal effects using the CFD code FDS version 6. Simulations are carried out with a mesh size of 1 m. The fireball source is modeled as a vertical release of hot fuel in a short time. The modeling of fireball dynamics is based on a single step combustion using an EDC model coupled with the default LES turbulence model. Fireball characteristics (diameter, height, heat flux and lifetime) issued from the large scale BAM experiment are used to demonstrate the ability of FDS to simulate the various steps of the BLEVE phenomenon from ignition up to total burnout. The influence of release parameters such as the injection rate and the radiative fraction on the fireball heat flux is also presented. Predictions are very encouraging and show good agreement in comparison with BAM experiment data. In addition, a numerical study is carried out on an operational propane accumulator in an Algerian gas processing plant of SONATRACH company located in the Hassi R’Mel Gas Field (the largest gas field in Algeria).

Keywords: BLEVE effects, CFD, FDS, fireball, LES, QRA

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3 An Improved Approach for Hybrid Rocket Injection System Design

Authors: M. Invigorito, G. Elia, M. Panelli

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Hybrid propulsion combines beneficial properties of both solid and liquid rockets, such as multiple restarts, throttability as well as simplicity and reduced costs. A nitrous oxide (N2O)/paraffin-based hybrid rocket engine demonstrator is currently under development at the Italian Aerospace Research Center (CIRA) within the national research program HYPROB, funded by the Italian Ministry of Research. Nitrous oxide belongs to the class of self-pressurizing propellants that exhibit a high vapor pressure at standard ambient temperature. This peculiar feature makes those fluids very attractive for space rocket applications because it avoids the use of complex pressurization systems, leading to great benefits in terms of weight savings and reliability. To avoid feed-system-coupled instabilities, the phase change is required to occur through the injectors. In this regard, the oxidizer is stored in liquid condition while target chamber pressures are designed to lie below vapor pressure. The consequent cavitation and flash vaporization constitute a remarkably complex phenomenology that arises great modelling challenges. Thus, it is clear that the design of the injection system is fundamental for the full exploitation of hybrid rocket engine throttability. The Analytical Hierarchy Process has been used to select the injection architecture as best compromise among different design criteria such as functionality, technology innovation and cost. The impossibility to use engineering simplified relations for the dimensioning of the injectors led to the needs of applying a numerical approach based on OpenFOAM®. The numerical tool has been validated with selected experimental data from literature. Quantitative, as well as qualitative comparisons are performed in terms of mass flow rate and pressure drop across the injector for several operating conditions. The results show satisfactory agreement with the experimental data. Modeling assumptions, together with their impact on numerical predictions are discussed in the paper. Once assessed the reliability of the numerical tool, the injection plate has been designed and sized to guarantee the required amount of oxidizer in the combustion chamber and therefore to assure high combustion efficiency. To this purpose, the plate has been designed with multiple injectors whose number and diameter have been selected in order to reach the requested mass flow rate for the two operating conditions of maximum and minimum thrust. The overall design has been finally verified through three-dimensional computations in cavitating non-reacting conditions and it has been verified that the proposed design solution is able to guarantee the requested values of mass flow rates.

Keywords: hybrid rocket, injection system design, OpenFOAM®, cavitation

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2 Low- and High-Temperature Methods of CNTs Synthesis for Medicine

Authors: Grzegorz Raniszewski, Zbigniew Kolacinski, Lukasz Szymanski, Slawomir Wiak, Lukasz Pietrzak, Dariusz Koza

Abstract:

One of the most promising area for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) application is medicine. One of the most devastating diseases is cancer. Carbon nanotubes may be used as carriers of a slowly released drug. It is possible to use of electromagnetic waves to destroy cancer cells by the carbon nanotubes (CNTs). In our research we focused on thermal ablation by ferromagnetic carbon nanotubes (Fe-CNTs). In the cancer cell hyperthermia functionalized carbon nanotubes are exposed to radio frequency electromagnetic field. Properly functionalized Fe-CNTs join the cancer cells. Heat generated in nanoparticles connected to nanotubes warm up nanotubes and then the target tissue. When the temperature in tumor tissue exceeds 316 K the necrosis of cancer cells may be observed. Several techniques can be used for Fe-CNTs synthesis. In our work, we use high-temperature methods where arc-discharge is applied. Low-temperature systems are microwave plasma with assisted chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) and hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD). In the arc discharge system, the plasma reactor works with a pressure of He up to 0,5 atm. The electric arc burns between two graphite rods. Vapors of carbon move from the anode, through a short arc column and forms CNTs which can be collected either from the reactor walls or cathode deposit. This method is suitable for the production of multi-wall and single-wall CNTs. A disadvantage of high-temperature methods is a low purification, short length, random size and multi-directional distribution. In MPCVD system plasma is generated in waveguide connected to the microwave generator. Then containing carbon and ferromagnetic elements plasma flux go to the quartz tube. The additional resistance heating can be applied to increase the reaction effectiveness and efficiency. CNTs nucleation occurs on the quartz tube walls. It is also possible to use substrates to improve carbon nanotubes growth. HPCVD system involves both chemical decomposition of carbon containing gases and vaporization of a solid or liquid source of catalyst. In this system, a tube furnace is applied. A mixture of working and carbon-containing gases go through the quartz tube placed inside the furnace. As a catalyst ferrocene vapors can be used. Fe-CNTs may be collected then either from the quartz tube walls or on the substrates. Low-temperature methods are characterized by higher purity product. Moreover, carbon nanotubes from tested CVD systems were partially filled with the iron. Regardless of the method of Fe-CNTs synthesis the final product always needs to be purified for applications in medicine. The simplest method of purification is an oxidation of the amorphous carbon. Carbon nanotubes dedicated for cancer cell thermal ablation need to be additionally treated by acids for defects amplification on the CNTs surface what facilitates biofunctionalization. Application of ferromagnetic nanotubes for cancer treatment is a promising method of fighting with cancer for the next decade. Acknowledgment: The research work has been financed from the budget of science as a research project No. PBS2/A5/31/2013

Keywords: arc discharge, cancer, carbon nanotubes, CVD, thermal ablation

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1 Thermal Characterisation of Multi-Coated Lightweight Brake Rotors for Passenger Cars

Authors: Ankit Khurana

Abstract:

The sufficient heat storage capacity or ability to dissipate heat is the most decisive parameter to have an effective and efficient functioning of Friction-based Brake Disc systems. The primary aim of the research was to analyse the effect of multiple coatings on lightweight disk rotors surface which not only alleviates the mass of vehicle & also, augments heat transfer. This research is projected to aid the automobile fraternity with an enunciated view over the thermal aspects in a braking system. The results of the project indicate that with the advent of modern coating technologies a brake system’s thermal curtailments can be removed and together with forced convection, heat transfer processes can see a drastic improvement leading to increased lifetime of the brake rotor. Other advantages of modifying the surface of a lightweight rotor substrate will be to reduce the overall weight of the vehicle, decrease the risk of thermal brake failure (brake fade and fluid vaporization), longer component life, as well as lower noise and vibration characteristics. A mathematical model was constructed in MATLAB which encompassing the various thermal characteristics of the proposed coatings and substrate materials required to approximate the heat flux values in a free and forced convection environment; resembling to a real-time braking phenomenon which could easily be modelled into a full cum scaled version of the alloy brake rotor part in ABAQUS. The finite element of a brake rotor was modelled in a constrained environment such that the nodal temperature between the contact surfaces of the coatings and substrate (Wrought Aluminum alloy) resemble an amalgamated solid brake rotor element. The initial results obtained were for a Plasma Electrolytic Oxidized (PEO) substrate wherein the Aluminum alloy gets a hard ceramic oxide layer grown on its transitional phase. The rotor was modelled and then evaluated in real-time for a constant ‘g’ braking event (based upon the mathematical heat flux input and convective surroundings), which reflected the necessity to deposit a conducting coat (sacrificial) above the PEO layer in order to inhibit thermal degradation of the barrier coating prematurely. Taguchi study was then used to bring out certain critical factors which may influence the maximum operating temperature of a multi-coated brake disc by simulating brake tests: a) an Alpine descent lasting 50 seconds; b) an Autobahn stop lasting 3.53 seconds; c) a Six–high speed repeated stop in accordance to FMVSS 135 lasting 46.25 seconds. Thermal Barrier coating thickness and Vane heat transfer coefficient were the two most influential factors and owing to their design and manufacturing constraints a final optimized model was obtained which survived the 6-high speed stop test as per the FMVSS -135 specifications. The simulation data highlighted the merits for preferring Wrought Aluminum alloy 7068 over Grey Cast Iron and Aluminum Metal Matrix Composite in coherence with the multiple coating depositions.

Keywords: lightweight brakes, surface modification, simulated braking, PEO, aluminum

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