Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24695

Search results for: the energy pattern factor method

24695 Feasibility Study of Wind Energy Potential in Turkey: Case Study of Catalca District in Istanbul

Authors: Mohammed Wadi, Bedri Kekezoglu, Mustafa Baysal, Mehmet Rida Tur, Abdulfetah Shobole


This paper investigates the technical evaluation of the wind potential for present and future investments in Turkey taking into account the feasibility of sites, installments, operation, and maintenance. This evaluation based on the hourly measured wind speed data for the three years 2008–2010 at 30 m height for Çatalca district. These data were obtained from national meteorology station in Istanbul–Republic of Turkey are analyzed in order to evaluate the feasibility of wind power potential and to assure supreme assortment of wind turbines installing for the area of interest. Furthermore, the data are extrapolated and analyzed at 60 m and 80 m regarding the variability of roughness factor. Weibull bi-parameter probability function is used to approximate monthly and annually wind potential and power density based on three calculation methods namely, the approximated, the graphical and the energy pattern factor methods. The annual mean wind power densities were to be 400.31, 540.08 and 611.02 W/m² for 30, 60, and 80 m heights respectively. Simulation results prove that the analyzed area is an appropriate place for constructing large-scale wind farms.

Keywords: wind potential in Turkey, Weibull bi-parameter probability function, the approximated method, the graphical method, the energy pattern factor method, capacity factor

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
24694 Proposing a New Design Method for Added Viscoelastic Damper’s Application in Steel Moment-Frame

Authors: Saeed Javaherzadeh, Babak Dindar Safa


Structure, given its ductility, can depreciate significant amount of seismic energy in the form of hysteresis behavior; the amount of energy depreciation depends on the structure ductility rate. So in seismic guidelines such as ASCE7-10 code, to reduce the number of design forces and using the seismic energy dissipation capacity of structure, when entering non-linear behavior range of the materials, the response modification factor is used. Various parameters such as ductility modification factor, overstrength factor and reliability factor, are effective in determining the value of this factor. Also, gradually, energy dissipation systems, especially added dampers, have become an inseparable part of the seismic design. In this paper, in addition to reviewing of previous studies, using the response modification factor caused by using more added viscoelastic dampers, a new design method has introduced for steel moment-frame with added dampers installed. To do this, in addition to using bilinear behavior models and quick ways such as using the equivalent lateral force method and capacity spectrum method for the proposed design methodology, the results has been controlled with non-linear time history analysis for a number of structural. The analysis is done by Opensees Software.

Keywords: added viscoelastic damper, design base shear, response modification factor, non-linear time history

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
24693 Obtain the Stress Intensity Factor (SIF) in a Medium Containing a Penny-Shaped Crack by the Ritz Method

Authors: A. Tavangari, N. Salehzadeh


In the crack growth analysis, the Stress Intensity Factor (SIF) is a fundamental prerequisite. In the present study, the mode I stress intensity factor (SIF) of three-dimensional penny-Shaped crack is obtained in an isotropic elastic cylindrical medium with arbitrary dimensions under arbitrary loading at the top of the cylinder, by the semi-analytical method based on the Rayleigh-Ritz method. This method that is based on minimizing the potential energy amount of the whole of the system, gives a very close results to the previous studies. Defining the displacements (elastic fields) by hypothetical functions in a defined coordinate system is the base of this research. So for creating the singularity conditions at the tip of the crack the appropriate terms should be found.

Keywords: penny-shaped crack, stress intensity factor, fracture mechanics, Ritz method

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
24692 Digital Forgery Detection by Signal Noise Inconsistency

Authors: Bo Liu, Chi-Man Pun


A novel technique for digital forgery detection by signal noise inconsistency is proposed in this paper. The forged area spliced from the other picture contains some features which may be inconsistent with the rest part of the image. Noise pattern and the level is a possible factor to reveal such inconsistency. To detect such noise discrepancies, the test picture is initially segmented into small pieces. The noise pattern and level of each segment are then estimated by using various filters. The noise features constructed in this step are utilized in energy-based graph cut to expose forged area in the final step. Experimental results show that our method provides a good illustration of regions with noise inconsistency in various scenarios.

Keywords: forgery detection, splicing forgery, noise estimation, noise

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
24691 Proposed Pattern for Fitted Men's Suit Jacket Using the Method of Draping on the Mannequin

Authors: Hazem A. Abdelfattah, Salia H. Khafaji


Apparel industry needs to direct scientific researches to develop it , and because of the importance of a men’s suit jacket industry, the study of the basics of men’s jacket pattern making requires a high degree of accuracy and efficiency which contain a lot of technical and skill aspects to give the jacket a drape, comfort and good fitting , prompting researchers to think about the use of men’s mannequin with sizes (M-L-XL) to devise a method to draft a paper pattern for the men's suit jacket to use it in the industry easily and quickly and achieve the required good fitting.

Keywords: draping, pattern, men, jacket

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
24690 Calculating Stress Intensity Factor of Cracked Axis by Using a Meshless Method

Authors: S. Shahrooi, A. Talavari


Numeral study on the crack and discontinuity using element-free methods has been widely spread in recent years. In this study, for stress intensity factor calculation of the cracked axis under torsional loading has been used from a new element-free method as MLPG method. Region range is discretized by some dispersed nodal points. From method of moving least square (MLS) utilized to create the functions using these nodal points. Then, results of meshless method and finite element method (FEM) were compared. The results is shown which the element-free method was of good accuracy.

Keywords: stress intensity factor, crack, torsional loading, meshless method

Procedia PDF Downloads 453
24689 Developing Soil Accumulation Effect Correction Factor for Solar Photovoltaic Module

Authors: Kelebaone Tsamaase, Rapelang Kemoabe, Japhet Sakala, Edward Rakgati, Ishmael Zibani


Increasing demand for energy, depletion of non-renewable energy, effects of climate change, the abundance of renewable energy such as solar energy have increased the interest in investing in renewable energies, in particular solar photovoltaic (PV) energy. Solar photovoltaic energy systems as part of clean technology are considered to be environmentally friendly, freely available, offer clean production systems, long term costs benefits as opposed to conventional sources, and are the attractive power source for a wide range of applications in remote areas where there is no easy access to the national grid. To get maximum electrical power, maximum solar power should penetrate the module and be converted accordingly. However, some environmental and other geographical related factors reduce the electrical power. One of them is dust which accumulates on the surface of the module and forming a dust layer and in the process obstructing the solar power from penetrating PV module. This study intends to improve the performance of solar photovoltaic (PV) energy modules by establishing soil accumulation effects correction factor from dust characteristics and properties, and also from dust accumulation and retention pattern on PV module surface. The non-urban dry deposition flux model was adapted to determine monthly and yearly dust accumulation pattern. Consideration was done on prevailing environmental and other geographical conditions. Preliminary results showed that cumulative dust settlement increased during the months of July to October leading to a higher drop in module electrical output power.

Keywords: dust, electrical power output, PV module, soil correction factor

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
24688 Wt1 and FoxL2 Genes Expression Pattern in Mesonephros-Gonad Complexes of Green Sea Turtle (Chelonia mydas) Embryos Incubated in Feminization and Masculinization Temperature

Authors: Fitria D. Ayuningtyas, Anggraini Barlian


Green turtle (Chelonia mydas) is one of TSD (Temperature-dependent Sex Determination, TSD) animals which sex is determined by the egg’s incubation temperature. GSD (Genotypic Sex Determination) homologous genes such as Wilms’ Tumor (Wt1) and Forkhead Box L2 (FoxL2) play a role in TSD animal sex determination process. Wt1 plays a role in both male pathway, as a transcription factor for Sf1 gene and in female pathway, as a transcription factor for Dax1. FoxL2 plays a role specifically in female sex determination, and known as transcriptional factor for Aromatase gene. Until now, research on the pattern of Wt1 and FoxL2 genes expression in C.mydas has not been conducted yet. The aim of this research is to know the pattern of Wt1 and FoxL2 genes expression in Mesonephros-Gonad (MG) complexes of Chelonia mydas embryos incubated in masculinizing temperature (MT) and feminizing temperature (FT). Eggs of C.mydas incubated in 3 different stage of TSP (Thermosensitive Period) at masculinizing temperature (26±10C, MT) and feminizing temperature (31±10C FT). Mesonefros-gonad complexes were isolated at Pre-TSP stage (FT at days 14th, MT at days 24th), TSP stage (FT at days 24th, MT at days 36th) and differentiated stage (FT at days 40th, MT at days 58th). RNA from mesonephros-gonad (MG) complexes were converted into cDNA by RT-PCR process, and the pattern of Wt1 and FoxL2 genes expression is analyzed by quantitative Real Time PCR (qPCR) method, β-actin gene is used as an internal control. The pattern of Wt1 gene expression in Pre-TSP stage was almost the same between MG complexes incubated at MT or FT, while TSP and differentiation stage, the pattern of Wt1 gene expression in MG complexes incubated at MT or FT was increased. Wt1 gene expression of MG complexes that incubated at FT was higher than at MT. There was a difference pattern between Wt1 gene expression in this research compared to the previous research in protein level. It could be assumed that the difference caused by post-transcriptional regulation mechanisms before mRNA of Wt1 gene translated into protein structure. The pattern of FoxL2 gene expression in Pre-TSP stage was almost the same between MG complexes that incubated at MT and FT, and increased in both TSP and differentiated stage. The FoxL2 gene expression in MG complexes that incubated in FT is higher than MT on TSP and differentiated stage. Based on the results of this research, it can be assumed that Wt1 and FoxL2 gene were expressed in MG complexes that incubated both at MT and FT since Pre-TSP stage. The pattern of Wt1 gene expression was increased in every stage of gonadal development, and so do the pattern of FoxL2 gene expression. Wt1 and FoxL2 gene expressions were higher in MG complexes incubated at FT than MT.

Keywords: chelonia mydas, FoxL2, gene expression, TSD, Wt1

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
24687 A Study on Method for Identifying Capacity Factor Declination of Wind Turbines

Authors: Dongheon Shin, Kyungnam Ko, Jongchul Huh


The investigation on wind turbine degradation was carried out using the nacelle wind data. The three Vestas V80-2MW wind turbines of Sungsan wind farm in Jeju Island, South Korea were selected for this work. The SCADA data of the wind farm for five years were analyzed to draw power curve of the turbines. It is assumed that the wind distribution is the Rayleigh distribution to calculate the normalized capacity factor based on the drawn power curve of the three wind turbines for each year. The result showed that the reduction of power output from the three wind turbines occurred every year and the normalized capacity factor decreased to 0.12%/year on average.

Keywords: wind energy, power curve, capacity factor, annual energy production

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
24686 Sensitivity of the Estimated Output Energy of the Induction Motor to both the Asymmetry Supply Voltage and the Machine Parameters

Authors: Eyhab El-Kharashi, Maher El-Dessouki


The paper is dedicated to precise assessment of the induction motor output energy during the unbalanced operation. Since many years ago and until now the voltage complex unbalance factor (CVUF) is used only to assess the output energy of the induction motor while this output energy for asymmetry supply voltage does not depend on the value of unbalanced voltage only but also on the machine parameters. The paper illustrates the variation of the two unbalance factors, complex voltage unbalance factor (CVUF) and impedance unbalance factor (IUF), with positive sequence voltage component, reveals that degree and manner of unbalance in supply voltage. From this point of view the paper delineates the current unbalance factor (CUF) to exactly reflect the output energy during unbalanced operation. The paper proceeds to illustrate the importance of using this factor in the multi-machine system to precise prediction of the output energy during the unbalanced operation. The use of the proposed unbalance factor (CUF) avoids the accumulation of the error due to more than one machine in the system which is expected if only the complex voltage unbalance factor (CVUF) is used.

Keywords: induction motor, electromagnetic torque, voltage unbalance, energy conversion

Procedia PDF Downloads 471
24685 An Optimized Method for Calculating the Linear and Nonlinear Response of SDOF System Subjected to an Arbitrary Base Excitation

Authors: Hossein Kabir, Mojtaba Sadeghi


Finding the linear and nonlinear responses of a typical single-degree-of-freedom system (SDOF) is always being regarded as a time-consuming process. This study attempts to provide modifications in the renowned Newmark method in order to make it more time efficient than it used to be and make it more accurate by modifying the system in its own non-linear state. The efficacy of the presented method is demonstrated by assigning three base excitations such as Tabas 1978, El Centro 1940, and MEXICO CITY/SCT 1985 earthquakes to a SDOF system, that is, SDOF, to compute the strength reduction factor, yield pseudo acceleration, and ductility factor.

Keywords: single-degree-of-freedom system (SDOF), linear acceleration method, nonlinear excited system, equivalent displacement method, equivalent energy method

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
24684 Analysis of Three-Dimensional Cracks in an Isotropic Medium by the Semi-Analytical Method

Authors: Abdoulnabi Tavangari, Nasim Salehzadeh


We presume a cylindrical medium that is under a uniform loading and there is a penny shaped crack located in the center of cylinder. In the crack growth analysis, the Stress Intensity Factor (SIF) is a fundamental prerequisite. In the present study, according to the RITZ method and by considering a cylindrical coordinate system as the main coordinate and a local polar coordinate, the mode-I SIF of threedimensional penny-shaped crack is obtained. In this method the unknown coefficients will be obtained with minimizing the potential energy that is including the strain energy and the external force work. By using the hook's law, stress fields will be obtained and then by using the Irvine equations, the amount of SIF will be obtained near the edge of the crack. This question has been solved for extreme medium in the Tada handbook and the result of the present research has been compared with that.

Keywords: three-dimensional cracks, penny-shaped crack, stress intensity factor, fracture mechanics, Ritz method

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
24683 Sun Protection Factor (SPF) Determination of Sericin Cream and Niosomal Gel

Authors: Farzad Doostishoar, Abbas Pardakhty, Abdolreza Hassanzadeh, Sudeh salarpour, Elham Sharif


Background: Sericin is a protein extracted from silk and has antioxidant, antimicrobial, antineoplastic, wound healing and moisturizing properties. Different cosmetic formulation of sericin is available in different countries such as Japan and the other south-eastern Asian countries. We formulated and evaluated the sunscreen properties of topical formulations of sericin by an in vitro method. Method: Niosomes composed of sorbitan palmitate (Span 40), polysorbate 40 (Tween 40) and cholesterol (300 µmol, 3.5:3.5:3 molar ratio) were prepared by film hydration technique. Sericin was dissolved in normal saline and the lipid hydration was carried out at 60°C and the niosomes were incorporated in a Carbomer gel base. A W/O cream was also prepared and the release of sericin was evaluated by using Franz diffusion cell. Particle size analysis, sericin encapsulation efficiency measurement, morphological studies and stability evaluation were done in niosomal formulations. SPF was calculated by using Transpore tape in vitro method for both formulations. Results: Niosomes had high stability during 6 months storage at 4-8°C. The mean volume diameter of niosomes was less than 7 µm which is ideal for sustained release of drugs in topical formulations. The SPF of niosomal gel was 25 and higher than sericin cream with a diffusion based release pattern of active material. Conclusion: Sericin can be successfully entrapped in niosomes with sustained release pattern and relatively high SPF.

Keywords: sericin, niosomes, sun protection factor, cream, gel

Procedia PDF Downloads 402
24682 Tensile Force Estimation for Real-Size Pre-Stressed Concrete Girder using Embedded Elasto-Magnetic Sensor

Authors: Junkyeong Kim, Jooyoung Park, Aoqi Zhang, Seunghee Park


The tensile force of Pre-Stressed Concrete (PSC) girder is the most important factor for evaluating the performance of PSC girder bridges. To measure the tensile force of PSC girder, several NDT methods were studied. However, conventional NDT method cannot be applied to the real-size PSC girder because the PS tendons could not be approached. To measure the tensile force of real-size PSC girder, this study proposed embedded EM sensor based tensile force estimation method. The embedded EM sensor could be installed inside of PSC girder as a sheath joint before the concrete casting. After curing process, the PS tendons were installed, and the tensile force was induced step by step using hydraulic jacking machine. The B-H loop was measured using embedded EM sensor at each tensile force steps and to compare with actual tensile force, the load cell was installed at each end of girder. The magnetization energy loss, that is the closed area of B-H loop, was decreased according to the increase of tensile force with regular pattern. Thus, the tensile force could be estimated by the tracking the change of magnetization energy loss of PS tendons. Through the experimental result, the proposed method can be used to estimate the tensile force of the in-situ real-size PSC girder bridge.

Keywords: tensile force estimation, embedded EM sensor, magnetization energy loss, PSC girder

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
24681 Energy Balance Routing to Enhance Network Performance in Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: G. Baraneedaran, Deepak Singh, Kollipara Tejesh


The wireless sensors network has been an active research area over the y-ear passed. Due to the limited energy and communication ability of sensor nodes, it seems especially important to design a routing protocol for WSNs so that sensing data can be transmitted to the receiver effectively, an energy-balanced routing method based on forward-aware factor (FAF-EBRM) is proposed in this paper. In FAF-EBRM, the next-hop node is selected according to the awareness of link weight and forward energy density. A spontaneous reconstruction mechanism for Local topology is designed additionally. In this experiment, FAF-EBRM is compared with LEACH and EECU, experimental results show that FAF-EBRM outperforms LEACH and EECU, which balances the energy consumption, prolongs the function lifetime and guarantees high Qos of WSN.

Keywords: energy balance, forward-aware factor (FAF), forward energy density, link weight, network performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 460
24680 Growth Pattern and Condition Factor of Oreochromis niloticus and Sarotherodon galilaeus in Epe Lagoon, Lagos State, Nigeria

Authors: Ahmed Bolaji Alarape, Oluwatobi Damilola Aba


The growth pattern of Oreochromis niloticus and Sarotherodon galilaeus in Epe Lagoon Lagos State was investigated. One hundred (100) samples of each species were collected from fishermen at the landing site. They were transported to the Fisheries Laboratory of National Institute of Oceanography for identification, sexing morphometric measurement. The results showed that 58.0% and 56.0 % of the O.niloticus and S.galilaeus were female respectively while 42.0% and 44.0% were male respectively. The length-weight relationship of O.niloticus showed a strong regression coefficient (r = 0.944) (p<0.05) for the combined sex, (r =0.901) (p<0.05) for female and (r=0.985) (p<.05) for male with b-value of 2.5, 3.1 and 2.8 respectively. The S.galilaeus also showed a regression coefficient of r=0.970; p<0.05 for the combined sex, r=0.953; p<0.05 for the female and r= 0.979; p<0.05 for the male with b-value of 3.4, 3.1 and 3.6 respectively. O.niloticus showed an isometric growth pattern both in male and female. The condition factor in O.niloticus are 1.93 and 1.95 for male and female respectively while that of S.galilaeus is 1.95 for both sexes. Positive allometric was observed in both species except the male O.niloticus that showed negative allometric growth pattern. From the results of this study, the growth pattern of the two species indicated a good healthy environment.

Keywords: Epe Lagoon, length-weight relationship, Oreochromis niloticus, Sarotherodon galilaeus

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
24679 Surface Flattening Assisted with 3D Mannequin Based on Minimum Energy

Authors: Shih-Wen Hsiao, Rong-Qi Chen, Chien-Yu Lin


The topic of surface flattening plays a vital role in the field of computer aided design and manufacture. Surface flattening enables the production of 2D patterns and it can be used in design and manufacturing for developing a 3D surface to a 2D platform, especially in fashion design. This study describes surface flattening based on minimum energy methods according to the property of different fabrics. Firstly, through the geometric feature of a 3D surface, the less transformed area can be flattened on a 2D platform by geodesic. Then, strain energy that has accumulated in mesh can be stably released by an approximate implicit method and revised error function. In some cases, cutting mesh to further release the energy is a common way to fix the situation and enhance the accuracy of the surface flattening, and this makes the obtained 2D pattern naturally generate significant cracks. When this methodology is applied to a 3D mannequin constructed with feature lines, it enhances the level of computer-aided fashion design. Besides, when different fabrics are applied to fashion design, it is necessary to revise the shape of a 2D pattern according to the properties of the fabric. With this model, the outline of 2D patterns can be revised by distributing the strain energy with different results according to different fabric properties. Finally, this research uses some common design cases to illustrate and verify the feasibility of this methodology.

Keywords: surface flattening, strain energy, minimum energy, approximate implicit method, fashion design

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
24678 A New Reliability Allocation Method Based on Fuzzy Numbers

Authors: Peng Li, Chuanri Li, Tao Li


Reliability allocation is quite important during early design and development stages for a system to apportion its specified reliability goal to subsystems. This paper improves the reliability fuzzy allocation method and gives concrete processes on determining the factor set, the factor weight set, judgment set, and multi-grade fuzzy comprehensive evaluation. To determine the weight of factor set, the modified trapezoidal numbers are proposed to reduce errors caused by subjective factors. To decrease the fuzziness in the fuzzy division, an approximation method based on linear programming is employed. To compute the explicit values of fuzzy numbers, centroid method of defuzzification is considered. An example is provided to illustrate the application of the proposed reliability allocation method based on fuzzy arithmetic.

Keywords: reliability allocation, fuzzy arithmetic, allocation weight, linear programming

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
24677 Energy Consumption Modeling for Strawberry Greenhouse Crop by Adaptive Nero Fuzzy Inference System Technique: A Case Study in Iran

Authors: Azar Khodabakhshi, Elham Bolandnazar


Agriculture as the most important food manufacturing sector is not only the energy consumer, but also is known as energy supplier. Using energy is considered as a helpful parameter for analyzing and evaluating the agricultural sustainability. In this study, the pattern of energy consumption of strawberry greenhouses of Jiroft in Kerman province of Iran was surveyed. The total input energy required in the strawberries production was calculated as 113314.71 MJ /ha. Electricity with 38.34% contribution of the total energy was considered as the most energy consumer in strawberry production. In this study, Neuro Fuzzy networks was used for function modeling in the production of strawberries. Results showed that the best model for predicting the strawberries function had a correlation coefficient, root mean square error (RMSE) and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) equal to 0.9849, 0.0154 kg/ha and 0.11% respectively. Regards to these results, it can be said that Neuro Fuzzy method can be well predicted and modeled the strawberry crop function.

Keywords: crop yield, energy, neuro-fuzzy method, strawberry

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
24676 Irregular Meal Pattern: What Is the Impact on Weight

Authors: Maha Alhussain, Moira A Taylor, Ian A. Macdonald


Background: It is well established that dietary composition has effects on metabolism and therefore impacts on health; however other aspects of diet, such as meal pattern, could also be important in both obesity management and promoting health. The present study investigated the effect of irregular meal frequency on anthropometric measurements and energy expenditure (EE) in healthy women. Design: 11 healthy weight women (18–40 years) were studied in a randomized crossover trial with two phases of 2 weeks each. In Phase 1, participants consumed either a regular meal pattern (6 meals/day) or an irregular meal pattern (varying from 3 to 9 meals/day). In Phase 2, participants followed the alternative meal pattern to that followed in Phase 1, after a 2-weeks washout period. In the two phases, identical foods were provided to a participant in amounts designed to keep body weight constant. Participants came to the laboratory after an overnight fast at the start and end of each phase. EE was measured in fasting state by indirect calorimetry. Postprandial EE was measured during the 3 h period after consumption of a milkshake, test drink. Results: There were no significant changes in body weight and anthropometric measurements after both meal pattern interventions. There was also no significant difference in mean daily energy intake between the regular and irregular meal pattern (2043 ±31 and 2099 ±33 respectively). EE in the fasting state showed no significant differences cross the experiment visits. There was a significant difference in Postprandial EE (measured for 3 h) by visit (P=0.04). Postprandial EE after the regular meal pattern was significantly higher than at baseline (P=0.002) or than after the irregular meal pattern (P= 0.04). Conclusion: Eating regularly for 14-day period significantly increases Postprandial EE which may contribute to weight loss and obesity management.

Keywords: energy expenditure, energy intake, meal pattern, weight loss

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
24675 Thermoelectrical Properties of Cs Doped BiCuSeO as Promising Oxide Materials for Thermoelectric Energy Converter

Authors: Abdenour Achour, Kan Chen, Mike Reece, Zhaorong Huang


Here we report the synthesis of pure and cost effective of BiCuSeO by a flux method in air, and the enhancement of the thermoelectric performance by Cs doping. The comparison between our synthesis and the usual vacuum furnace method has been studied for the pristine oxyselenides BiCuSeO. We report for very high Seebeck coefficients up to 516 μV K⁻¹ at room temperature with the electrical conductivity of 5.20 S cm⁻¹ which lead to a high power factor of 140 µWm⁻¹K⁻². We also report at the high temperatures the lowest thermal conductivity value of 0.42 µWm⁻¹K⁻¹. Upon doping with Cs, enhanced electrical conductivity coupled with a moderate Seebeck coefficient lead to a power factor of 338 µWm⁻¹K⁻² at 682 K. Moreover, it shows a very low thermal conductivity in the temperature range of 300 to 682 K (0.75 to 0.35 Wm⁻¹K⁻¹). By optimizing the power factor and reducing the thermal conductivity, this results in a high ZT of ~ 0.66 at 682 K for Bi0.995Cs0.005CuSeO.

Keywords: BiCuSeO, Cs doping, thermoelectric, oxyselenide

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
24674 Correlation between Potential Intelligence Explanatory Study in the Perspective of Multiple Intelligence Theory by Using Dermatoglyphics and Culture Approaches

Authors: Efnie Indrianie


Potential Intelligence constitutes one essential factor in every individual. This intelligence can be a provision for the development of Performance Intelligence if it is supported by surrounding environment. Fingerprint analysis is a method in recognizing this Potential Intelligence. This method is grounded on pattern and number of finger print outlines that are assumed symmetrical with the number of nerves in our brain, in which these areas have their own function among another. These brain’s functions are later being transposed into intelligence components in accordance with the Multiple Intelligences theory. This research tested the correlation between Potential Intelligence and the components of its Performance Intelligence. Statistical test results that used Pearson correlation showed that five components of Potential Intelligence correlated with Performance Intelligence. Those five components are Logic-Math, Logic, Linguistic, Music, Kinesthetic, and Intrapersonal. Also, this research indicated that cultural factor had a big role in shaping intelligence.

Keywords: potential intelligence, performance intelligence, multiple intelligences, fingerprint, environment, brain

Procedia PDF Downloads 436
24673 Simplified Linearized Layering Method for Stress Intensity Factor Determination

Authors: Jeries J. Abou-Hanna, Bradley Storm


This paper looks to reduce the complexity of determining stress intensity factors while maintaining high levels of accuracy by the use of a linearized layering approach. Many techniques for stress intensity factor determination exist, but they can be limited by conservative results, requiring too many user parameters, or by being too computationally intensive. Multiple notch geometries with various crack lengths were investigated in this study to better understand the effectiveness of the proposed method. By linearizing the average stresses in radial layers around the crack tip, stress intensity factors were found to have error ranging from -10.03% to 8.94% when compared to analytically exact solutions. This approach proved to be a robust and efficient method of accurately determining stress intensity factors.

Keywords: fracture mechanics, finite element method, stress intensity factor, stress linearization

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
24672 Testing Method of Soil Failure Pattern of Sand Type as an Effort to Minimize the Impact of the Earthquake

Authors: Luthfi Assholam Solamat


Nowadays many people do not know the soil failure pattern as an important part in planning the under structure caused by the loading occurs. This is because the soil is located under the foundation, so it cannot be seen directly. Based on this study, the idea occurs to do a study for testing the soil failure pattern, especially the type of sand soil under the foundation. The necessity of doing this to the design of building structures on the land which is the initial part of the foundation structure that met with waves/vibrations during an earthquake. If the underground structure is not strong it is feared the building thereon more vulnerable to the risk of building damage. This research focuses on the search of soil failure pattern, which the most applicable in the field with the loading periodic re-testing of a particular time with the help of the integrated video visual observations performed. The results could be useful for planning under the structure in an effort to try the upper structure is minimal risk of the earthquake.

Keywords: soil failure pattern, earthquake, under structure, sand soil testing method

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
24671 Studies on the Emergence Pattern of Cercariae from Fresh Water Snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda)

Authors: V. R. Kakulte, K. N. Gaikwad


The emergence pattern of different types of cercariae form three snail hosts Melania tuberculata, Lymnea auricularia Viviparous bengalensis has been studied in detail. In natural emerging method the snails (2 to 3 at a time) were kept in separate test tube. This was constant source of living cercariae naturally emerging from the snails. The sunlight and artificial light play an important positive role in stimulating the emergence of cercariae has been observed. The effect of light and dark on the emission pattern of cercariae has been studied.

Keywords: cercariae, snail host, emergence pattern, gastropoda

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
24670 Industrial Process Mining Based on Data Pattern Modeling and Nonlinear Analysis

Authors: Hyun-Woo Cho


Unexpected events may occur with serious impacts on industrial process. This work utilizes a data representation technique to model and to analyze process data pattern for the purpose of diagnosis. In this work, the use of triangular representation of process data is evaluated using simulation process. Furthermore, the effect of using different pre-treatment techniques based on such as linear or nonlinear reduced spaces was compared. This work extracted the fault pattern in the reduced space, not in the original data space. The results have shown that the non-linear technique based diagnosis method produced more reliable results and outperforms linear method.

Keywords: process monitoring, data analysis, pattern modeling, fault, nonlinear techniques

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
24669 Performances of Two-Segment Crash Box with Holes under Oblique Load

Authors: Moch Agus Choiron


Crash box design has been developed to obtain optimum energy absorption. In this study, two-segment crash box design with holes is investigated under oblique load. The deformation behavior and crash energy absorption are observed. The analysis was performed using finite element method. The crash test components were impactor, crash box, and fixed rigid base. Impactor and the fixed base material are modelled as a rigid, and crash box material as bilinear isotropic hardening. The models consist of 2 and 4 holes laid within ¼, ½ and ¾ from first segment length. 100 mm aluminum crash box and frontal crash velocity of 16 km/jam were selected. Based on simulation results, it can be concluded that 2 holes located at ¾ has the largest crash energy absorption. This behavior associated with deformation pattern, which produces higher number of folding than other models.

Keywords: crash Box, two-segments, holes configuration, oblique load, deformation pattern

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
24668 Stress Intensity Factor for Dynamic Cracking of Composite Material by X-FEM Method

Authors: S. Lecheb, A. Nour, A. Chellil, H. Mechakra, N. Hamad, H. Kebir


The work involves develops attended by a numerical execution of the eXtend Finite Element Method premises a measurement by the fracture process cracked so many cracked plates an application will be processed for the calculation of the stress intensity factor SIF. In the first we give in statically part the distribution of stress, displacement field and strain of composite plate in two cases uncrack/edge crack, also in dynamical part the first six modes shape. Secondly, we calculate Stress Intensity Factor SIF for different orientation angle θ of central crack with length (2a=0.4mm) in plan strain condition, KI and KII are obtained for mode I and mode II respectively using X-FEM method. Finally from crack inclined involving mixed modes results, the comparison we chose dangerous inclination and the best crack angle when K is minimal.

Keywords: stress intensity factor (SIF), crack orientation, glass/epoxy, natural frequencies, X-FEM

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24667 Reliability-Based Method for Assessing Liquefaction Potential of Soils

Authors: Mehran Naghizaderokni, Asscar Janalizadechobbasty


This paper explores probabilistic method for assessing the liquefaction potential of sandy soils. The current simplified methods for assessing soil liquefaction potential use a deterministic safety factor in order to determine whether liquefaction will occur or not. However, these methods are unable to determine the liquefaction probability related to a safety factor. A solution to this problem can be found by reliability analysis.This paper presents a reliability analysis method based on the popular certain liquefaction analysis method. The proposed probabilistic method is formulated based on the results of reliability analyses of 190 field records and observations of soil performance against liquefaction. The results of the present study show that confidence coefficient greater and smaller than 1 does not mean safety and/or liquefaction in cadence for liquefaction, and for assuring liquefaction probability, reliability based method analysis should be used. This reliability method uses the empirical acceleration attenuation law in the Chalos area to derive the probability density distribution function and the statistics for the earthquake-induced cyclic shear stress ratio (CSR). The CSR and CRR statistics are used in continuity with the first order and second moment method to calculate the relation between the liquefaction probability, the safety factor and the reliability index. Based on the proposed method, the liquefaction probability related to a safety factor can be easily calculated. The influence of some of the soil parameters on the liquefaction probability can be quantitatively evaluated.

Keywords: liquefaction, reliability analysis, chalos area, civil and structural engineering

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24666 A Simple and Empirical Refraction Correction Method for UAV-Based Shallow-Water Photogrammetry

Authors: I GD Yudha Partama, A. Kanno, Y. Akamatsu, R. Inui, M. Goto, M. Sekine


The aerial photogrammetry of shallow water bottoms has the potential to be an efficient high-resolution survey technique for shallow water topography, thanks to the advent of convenient UAV and automatic image processing techniques Structure-from-Motion (SfM) and Multi-View Stereo (MVS)). However, it suffers from the systematic overestimation of the bottom elevation, due to the light refraction at the air-water interface. In this study, we present an empirical method to correct for the effect of refraction after the usual SfM-MVS processing, using common software. The presented method utilizes the empirical relation between the measured true depth and the estimated apparent depth to generate an empirical correction factor. Furthermore, this correction factor was utilized to convert the apparent water depth into a refraction-corrected (real-scale) water depth. To examine its effectiveness, we applied the method to two river sites, and compared the RMS errors in the corrected bottom elevations with those obtained by three existing methods. The result shows that the presented method is more effective than the two existing methods: The method without applying correction factor and the method utilizes the refractive index of water (1.34) as correction factor. In comparison with the remaining existing method, which used the additive terms (offset) after calculating correction factor, the presented method performs well in Site 2 and worse in Site 1. However, we found this linear regression method to be unstable when the training data used for calibration are limited. It also suffers from a large negative bias in the correction factor when the apparent water depth estimated is affected by noise, according to our numerical experiment. Overall, the good accuracy of refraction correction method depends on various factors such as the locations, image acquisition, and GPS measurement conditions. The most effective method can be selected by using statistical selection (e.g. leave-one-out cross validation).

Keywords: bottom elevation, MVS, river, SfM

Procedia PDF Downloads 234