Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9641

Search results for: wind potential in Turkey

9641 Feasibility Study of Wind Energy Potential in Turkey: Case Study of Catalca District in Istanbul

Authors: Mohammed Wadi, Bedri Kekezoglu, Mustafa Baysal, Mehmet Rida Tur, Abdulfetah Shobole

Abstract:

This paper investigates the technical evaluation of the wind potential for present and future investments in Turkey taking into account the feasibility of sites, installments, operation, and maintenance. This evaluation based on the hourly measured wind speed data for the three years 2008–2010 at 30 m height for Çatalca district. These data were obtained from national meteorology station in Istanbul–Republic of Turkey are analyzed in order to evaluate the feasibility of wind power potential and to assure supreme assortment of wind turbines installing for the area of interest. Furthermore, the data are extrapolated and analyzed at 60 m and 80 m regarding the variability of roughness factor. Weibull bi-parameter probability function is used to approximate monthly and annually wind potential and power density based on three calculation methods namely, the approximated, the graphical and the energy pattern factor methods. The annual mean wind power densities were to be 400.31, 540.08 and 611.02 W/m² for 30, 60, and 80 m heights respectively. Simulation results prove that the analyzed area is an appropriate place for constructing large-scale wind farms.

Keywords: wind potential in Turkey, Weibull bi-parameter probability function, the approximated method, the graphical method, the energy pattern factor method, capacity factor

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
9640 Wind Power Assessment for Turkey and Evaluation by APLUS Code

Authors: Ibrahim H. Kilic, A. B. Tugrul

Abstract:

Energy is a fundamental component in economic development and energy consumption is an index of prosperity and the standard of living. The consumption of energy per capita has increased significantly over the last decades, as the standard of living has improved. Turkey’s geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of wind power. Among the renewable sources, Turkey has very high wind energy potential. Information such as installation capacity of wind power plants in installation, under construction and license stages in the country are reported in detail. Some suggestions are presented in order to increase the wind power installation capacity of Turkey. Turkey’s economic and social development has led to a massive increase in demand for electricity over the last decades. Since the Turkey has no major oil or gas reserves, it is highly dependent on energy imports and is exposed to energy insecurity in the future. But Turkey does have huge potential for renewable energy utilization. There has been a huge growth in the construction of wind power plants and small hydropower plants in recent years. To meet the growing energy demand, the Turkish Government has adopted incentives for investments in renewable energy production. Wind energy investments evaluated the impact of feed-in tariffs (FIT) based on three scenarios that are optimistic, realistic and pessimistic with APLUS software that is developed for rational evaluation for energy market. Results of the three scenarios are evaluated in the view of electricity market for Turkey.

Keywords: APLUS, energy policy, renewable energy, wind power, Turkey

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9639 Wind Energy Status in Turkey

Authors: Mustafa Engin Başoğlu, Bekir Çakir

Abstract:

Since large part of electricity generation is provided by using fossil based resources, energy is an important agenda for countries. Depletion of fossil resources, increasing awareness of climate change and global warming concerns are the major reasons for turning to alternative energy resources. Solar, wind and hydropower energy are the main renewable energy sources. Among of them, wind energy is promising for Turkey whose installed power capacity increases approximately eight times between 2008 - seventh month of 2014. Signing of Kyoto Protocol can be accepted as a milestone for Turkey's energy policy. Turkish government has announced 2023 Vision (2023 targets) in 2010-2014 Strategic Plan prepared by Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources (MENR). 2023 Energy targets can be summarized as follows: Share of renewable energy sources in electricity generation is 30% of total electricity generation by 2023. Installed capacity of wind energy will be 20 GW by 2023. Other renewable energy sources such as solar, hydropower and geothermal are encouraged with new incentive mechanisms. Share of nuclear power plants in electricity generation will be 10% of total electricity generation by 2023. Dependence on foreign energy is reduced for sustainability and energy security. As of seventh month of 2014, total installed capacity of wind power plants is 3.42 GW and a lot of wind power plants are under construction with capacity 1.16 GW. Turkish government also encourages the locally manufactured equipments. MILRES is an important project aimed to promote the use of renewable sources in electricity generation. A 500 kW wind turbine will be produced in the first phase of project. Then 2.5 MW wind turbine will be manufactured domestically within this project

Keywords: wind energy, wind speed, 2023 vision, MILRES, wind energy potential in TURKEY

Procedia PDF Downloads 462
9638 Evaluation of Alternative Energy Sources for Energy Production in Turkey

Authors: Naci Büyükkaracığan, Murat Ahmet Ökmen

Abstract:

In parallel with the population growth rate, the need of human being for energy sources in the world is gradually increasing incessant. The addition of this situation that demand for energy will be busier in the future, industrialization, the rise in living standards and technological developments, especially in developing countries. Alternative energy sources have aroused interest due to reasons such as serious environmental issues that were caused by fossil energy sources, potentially decreasing reserves, different social, political and economic problems caused by dependency on source providing countries and price instability. Especially in developed countries as European countries and also U.S.A particularly, alternative energy sources such as wind, geothermal, solar and biomass energy, hydrolic and hydrogen have been utilized in different forms, especially in electricity production. It includes a review of technical and environmental factors for energy sources that are potential replacements for fossil fuels and examines their fitness to supply the energy for a high standard of living on a worldwide basis. Despite all developments, fossil energy sources have been overwhelmingly used all around the world in primary energy sources consumption and they will outnumber other energy sources in the short term. Today, parallel to population growth and economy in Turkey, energy sources consumption is increasingly continuing. On one side, Turkey, currently 80% dependent on energy providing countries, has been heavily conducting fossil energy sources raw material quest within its own borders in order to lower the percentage, and the other side, there have been many researches for exploring potential of alternative energy sources and utilization. This case will lead to both a decrease in foreign energy dependency and a variety of energy sources. This study showed the current energy potential of Turkey and presents historical development of these energy sources and their share in electricity production. The research also seeked for answers to arguments that if the potential can be sufficient in the future. As a result of this study, it was concluded that observed geothermal energy, particularly active tectonic regions of Turkey, to have an alternative energy potential could be considered to be valuable on bass wind and solar energy.

Keywords: alternative energy sources, energy productions, hydroenergy, solar energy, wind energy

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9637 Potentiality of the Wind Energy in Algeria

Authors: C. Benoudjafer, M. N. Tandjaoui, C. Benachaiba

Abstract:

The use of kinetic energy of the wind is in full rise in the world and it starts to be known in our country but timidly. One or more aero generators can be installed to produce for example electricity on isolated places or not connected to the electrical supply network. To use the wind as energy source, it is necessary to know first the energy needs for the population and study the wind intensity, speed, frequency and direction.

Keywords: Algeria, renewable energies, wind, wind power, aero-generators, wind energetic potential

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
9636 Wind Power Potential in Selected Algerian Sahara Regions

Authors: M. Dahbi, M. Sellam, A. Benatiallah, A. Harrouz

Abstract:

The wind energy is one of the most significant and rapidly developing renewable energy sources in the world and it provides a clean energy resource, which is a promising alternative in the short term in Algeria The main purpose of this paper is to compared and discuss the wind power potential in three sites located in sahara of Algeria (south west of Algeria) and to perform an investigation on the wind power potential of desert of Algeria. In this comparative, wind speed frequency distributions data obtained from the web site SODA.com are used to calculate the average wind speed and the available wind power. The Weibull density function has been used to estimate the monthly power wind density and to determine the characteristics of monthly parameters of Weibull for these three sites. The annual energy produced by the BWC XL.1 1KW wind machine is obtained and compared. The analysis shows that in the south west of Algeria, at 10 m height, the available wind power was found to vary between 136.59 W/m2 and 231.04 W/m2. The highest potential wind power was found at Adrar, with 21h per day and the mean wind speed is above 6 m/s. Besides, it is found that the annual wind energy generated by that machine lie between 512 KWh and 1643.2 kWh. However, the wind resource appears to be suitable for power production on the sahara and it could provide a viable substitute to diesel oil for irrigation pumps and rural electricity generation.

Keywords: Weibull distribution, parameters of Wiebull, wind energy, wind turbine, operating hours

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9635 Wind Energy Potential of Southern Sindh, Pakistan for Power Generation

Authors: M. Akhlaque Ahmed, Maliha Afshan Siddiqui

Abstract:

A study has been carried out to see the prospect of wind power potential of southern Sindh namely Karachi, Hawksbay, Norriabad, Hyderabad, Ketibander and Shahbander using local wind speed data. The monthly average wind speed for these area ranges from 4.5m/sec to 8.5m/sec at 30m height from ground. Extractable wind power, wind energy and Weibul parameter for above mentioned areas have been examined. Furthermore, the power output using fast and slow wind machine using different blade diameter along with the 4Kw and 20 Kw aero-generator were examined to see the possible use for deep well pumping and electricity supply to remote villages. The analysis reveals that in this wind corridor of southern Sindh Hawksbay, Ketibander and Shahbander belongs to wind power class-3 Hyderabad and Nooriabad belongs to wind power class-5 and Karachi belongs to wind power class-2. The result shows that the that higher wind speed values occur between June till August. It was found that considering maximum wind speed location, Hawksbay,Noriabad are the best location for setting up wind machines for power generation.

Keywords: wind energy generation, Southern Sindh, seasonal change, Weibull parameter, wind machines

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
9634 Wind Power Forecast Error Simulation Model

Authors: Josip Vasilj, Petar Sarajcev, Damir Jakus

Abstract:

One of the major difficulties introduced with wind power penetration is the inherent uncertainty in production originating from uncertain wind conditions. This uncertainty impacts many different aspects of power system operation, especially the balancing power requirements. For this reason, in power system development planing, it is necessary to evaluate the potential uncertainty in future wind power generation. For this purpose, simulation models are required, reproducing the performance of wind power forecasts. This paper presents a wind power forecast error simulation models which are based on the stochastic process simulation. Proposed models capture the most important statistical parameters recognized in wind power forecast error time series. Furthermore, two distinct models are presented based on data availability. First model uses wind speed measurements on potential or existing wind power plant locations, while the seconds model uses statistical distribution of wind speeds.

Keywords: wind power, uncertainty, stochastic process, Monte Carlo simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 375
9633 Energy Potential of Turkey and Evaluation of Solar Energy Technology as an Alternative Energy

Authors: Naci Büyükkaracığan, Murat Ahmet Ökmen

Abstract:

Emerging demand for energy in developing countries rapid population growth and industrialization are causing a rapid increase, such as Turkey. Energy is an important and indispensable factor in the industry. At the same time, energy is one of the main indicators that reflect a country's economic and social development potential. There is a linear relationship between the energy consumption and social development, and in parallel this situation, it is seen that energy consumption increase with economic growth and prosperity. In recent year’s, energy sources consumption is increasingly continuing, because of population growth and economy in Turkey. 80% of the energy used in Turkey is supplied from abroad. At the same time, while almost all of the energy obtained from our country is met by hydropower. Alternatively, studies of determining and using potential renewable energy sources such as solar energy have been realized for recent years. In this study, first of all, the situation of energy sources was examined in Turkey. Information of reserve/capacity, production and consumption values of energy sources were emphasized. For this purpose, energy production and consumption, CO2 emission and electricity energy consumption of countries were investigated. Energy consumption and electricity energy consumption per capita were comparatively analyzed.

Keywords: energy potential, alternative energy sources, solar energy, Turkey

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
9632 Predicting the Turbulence Intensity, Excess Energy Available and Potential Power Generated by Building Mounted Wind Turbines over Four Major UK City

Authors: Emejeamara Francis

Abstract:

The future of potentials wind energy applications within suburban/urban areas are currently faced with various problems. These include insufficient assessment of urban wind resource, and the effectiveness of commercial gust control solutions as well as unavailability of effective and cheaper valuable tools for scoping the potentials of urban wind applications within built-up environments. In order to achieve effective assessment of the potentials of urban wind installations, an estimation of the total energy that would be available to them were effective control systems to be used, and evaluating the potential power to be generated by the wind system is required. This paper presents a methodology of predicting the power generated by a wind system operating within an urban wind resource. This method was developed by using high temporal resolution wind measurements from eight potential sites within the urban and suburban environment as inputs to a vertical axis wind turbine multiple stream tube model. A relationship between the unsteady performance coefficient obtained from the stream tube model results and turbulence intensity was demonstrated. Hence, an analytical methodology for estimating the unsteady power coefficient at a potential turbine site is proposed. This is combined with analytical models that were developed to predict the wind speed and the excess energy (EEC) available in estimating the potential power generated by wind systems at different heights within a built environment. Estimates of turbulence intensities, wind speed, EEC and turbine performance based on the current methodology allow a more complete assessment of available wind resource and potential urban wind projects. This methodology is applied to four major UK cities namely Leeds, Manchester, London and Edinburgh and the potential to map the turbine performance at different heights within a typical urban city is demonstrated.

Keywords: small-scale wind, turbine power, urban wind energy, turbulence intensity, excess energy content

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9631 Influences of High Rise Buildings on Local Air Flow Characteristics on External Surfaces of Neighboring Buildings

Authors: Meral Yucel, Vildan Ok

Abstract:

This study indicates the wind effects of 49-storey height four towers on a high-density urban area-consisting of 10-12 storey height buildings called Goztepe in Istanbul, Turkey. For this purpose, four towers and close environments are modeled in 1/500 scale for wind tunnel test. Three neighboring buildings are chosen to find out the pressure coefficient changes on the surfaces of the buildings according to the construction order of these four towers and wind directions. Results were compared with the 'TS 498 Wind Standard of Tall Buildings in Istanbul' which is prepared by Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality in 2009.

Keywords: high rise buildings, pressure coefficients, wind tunnel experiments, wind standard of tall buildings

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
9630 Feasibility Study of Utilization and Development of Wind Energy for Electricity Generation in Panjang Island, Serang, Banten, West Java

Authors: Aryo Bayu Tejokusumo, Ivan Hidayat, C. Steffany Yoland

Abstract:

Wind velocity in Panjang Island, Serang, Banten, West Java, measured 10 m above sea level, is about 8 m/s. This wind velocity is potential for electricity generation using wind power. Using ten of Alstom-Haliade 150-6 W turbines, the placement of wind turbines has 7D for vertical distance and 4D for horizontal distance. Installation of the turbines is 100 m above sea level which is produces 98.64 MW per hour. This wind power generation has ecology impacts (the deaths of birds and bats and land exemption) and human impacts (aesthetics, human’s health, and potential disruption of electromagnetics interference), but it could be neglected totally, because of the position of the wind farm. The investment spent 73,819,710.00 IDR. Payback period is 2.23 years, and rate of return is 45.24%. This electricity generation using wind power in Panjang Island is suitable to install despite the high cost of investment since the profit is also high.

Keywords: wind turbine, Panjang island, renewable energy, Indonesia, offshore, power generation

Procedia PDF Downloads 567
9629 An Assessment of Wind Energy in Sanar Village in North of Iran Using Weibull Function

Authors: Ehsanolah Assareh, Mojtaba Biglari, Mojtaba Nedaei

Abstract:

Sanar village in north of Iran is a remote region with difficult access to electricity, grid and water supply. Thus the aim of this research is to evaluate the potential of wind as a power source either for electricity generation or for water pumping. In this study the statistical analysis has been performed by Weibull distribution function. The results show that the Weibull distribution has fitted the wind data very well. Also it has been demonstrated that wind speed at 40 m height is ranged from 1.75 m/s in Dec to 3.28 m/s in Aug with average value of 2.69 m/s. In this research, different wind speed characteristics such as turbulence intensity, wind direction, monthly air temperature, humidity wind power density and other related parameters have been investigated. Finally it was concluded that the wind energy in the Sanar village may be explored by employing modern wind turbines that require very lower start-up speeds.

Keywords: wind energy, wind turbine, weibull, Sanar village, Iran

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9628 Energy Initiatives for Turkey

Authors: A.Beril Tugrul, Selahattin Cimen

Abstract:

Dependency of humanity on the energy is ever-increasing today and the energy policies are reaching undeniable and un-ignorable dimensions steering the political events as well. Therefore, energy has the highest priority for Turkey like any other country. In this study, the energy supply security for Turkey evaluated according to the strategic criteria of energy policy. Under these circumstances, different alternatives are described and assessed with in terms of the energy expansion of Turkey. With this study, different opportunities in the energy expansion of Turkey is clarified and emphasized.

Keywords: energy policy, energy strategy, future projection, Turkey

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
9627 A Proper Design of Wind Turbine Grounding Systems under Lightning

Authors: M. A. Abd-Allah, Mahmoud N. Ali, A. Said

Abstract:

Lightning Protection Systems (LPS) for wind power generation is becoming an important public issue. A serious damage of blades, accidents where low-voltage and control circuit breakdowns frequently occur in many wind farms. A grounding system is one of the most important components required for appropriate LPSs in wind turbines WTs. Proper design of a wind turbine grounding system is demanding and several factors for the proper and effective implementation must be taken into account. This paper proposed procedure of proper design of grounding systems for a wind turbine was introduced. This procedure depends on measuring of ground current of simulated wind farm under lightning taking into consideration the soil ionization. The procedure also includes the Ground Potential Rise (GPR) and the voltage distributions at ground surface level and Touch potential. In particular, the contribution of mitigating techniques, such as rings, rods and the proposed design were investigated.

Keywords: WTs, Lightning Protection Systems (LPS), GPR, grounding system, mitigating techniques

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
9626 A Review: Global Crisis Effects on Agriculture and Animal Production in Turkey

Authors: Muhittin Fatih Demirhan, Sibel Alapala Demirhan

Abstract:

Agriculture, is also regarded as the primary activity area in all economies. When international comparisons are made Turkey has comparative advantages in agricultural potential. However, it is diffi cult to say that Turkey's agricultural productivity and use of technology is well developed in terms of sufficieny. Turkey, in terms of agricultural production, is one of the rare self-sufficient countries, but for supplying excessive demand of its domesticproduction to foreign markets to obtain the necessary income it is rather insufficient. On the basis of wrong policies implemented during the crisis and found that bottlenecks in agriculture and animal husbandry or agriculture policies of the IMF and World Bank are imposed on countries like Turkey. The IMF and the World Bank, the reduction of support in the agricultural and livestock Turkey, is known to put pressure for the abolition. Under these circumstances, our farmers, livestock producers and breeders of, not a chance to compete in the same market with EU producers. Animal products that capture the productivity levels of developed countries, seems to be our chance to compete with the quality and hygiene criteria. Thus, the discussion of the issue must be raised as for the sector's contribution to the economy in terms of further increasing production of the existing potential in mobilization.

Keywords: agricultural development, animal production, competition, economic crisis, food supply

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
9625 Atmospheric Circulation Drivers Of Nationally-Aggregated Wind Energy Production Over Greece

Authors: Kostas Philippopoulos, Chris G. Tzanis, Despina Deligiorgi

Abstract:

Climate change adaptation requires the exploitation of renewable energy sources such as wind. However, climate variability can affect the regional wind energy potential and consequently the available wind power production. The goal of the research project is to examine the impact of atmospheric circulation on wind energy production over Greece. In the context of synoptic climatology, the proposed novel methodology employs Self-Organizing Maps for grouping and classifying the atmospheric circulation and nationally-aggregated capacity factor time series for a 30-year period. The results indicate the critical effect of atmospheric circulation on the national aggregated wind energy production values and therefore address the issue of optimum distribution of wind farms for a specific region.

Keywords: wind energy, atmospheric circulation, capacity factor, self-organizing maps

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
9624 Solar and Wind Energy Potential Study of Lower Sindh, Pakistan for Power Generation

Authors: M. Akhlaque Ahmed, Sidra A. Shaikh, Maliha A. Siddiqui

Abstract:

Global and diffuse solar radiation on horizontal surface of Lower Sindh, namely Karachi, Hyderabad, Nawabshah were carried out using sunshine hour data of the area to assess the feasibility of solar energy utilization for power generation in Sindh province. The results obtained show a large variation in the direct and diffuse component of solar radiation in summer and winter months in Lower Sindh (50% direct and 50% diffuse for Karachi and Hyderabad). In Nawabshah area, the contribution of diffuse solar radiation is low during the monsoon months, July and August. The KT value of Nawabshah indicates a clear sky throughout almost the entire year. The percentage of diffuse radiation does not exceed more than 20%. In Nawabshah, the appearance of cloud is rare even during the monsoon months. The estimated values indicate that Nawabshah has high solar potential, whereas Karachi and Hyderabad have low solar potential. During the monsoon months the Lower part of Sindh can utilize the hybrid system with wind power. Near Karachi and Hyderabad, the wind speed ranges between 6.2 m/sec to 6.9 m/sec. A wind corridor exists near Karachi, Hyderabad, Gharo, Keti Bander and Shah Bander. The short fall of solar can be compensated by wind because in the monsoon months of July and August, wind speeds are higher in the Lower region of Sindh.

Keywords: hybrid power system, lower Sindh, power generation, solar and wind energy potential

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
9623 Forecast of the Small Wind Turbines Sales with Replacement Purchases and with or without Account of Price Changes

Authors: V. Churkin, M. Lopatin

Abstract:

The purpose of the paper is to estimate the US small wind turbines market potential and forecast the small wind turbines sales in the US. The forecasting method is based on the application of the Bass model and the generalized Bass model of innovations diffusion under replacement purchases. In the work an exponential distribution is used for modeling of replacement purchases. Only one parameter of such distribution is determined by average lifetime of small wind turbines. The identification of the model parameters is based on nonlinear regression analysis on the basis of the annual sales statistics which has been published by the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) since 2001 up to 2012. The estimation of the US average market potential of small wind turbines (for adoption purchases) without account of price changes is 57080 (confidence interval from 49294 to 64866 at P = 0.95) under average lifetime of wind turbines 15 years, and 62402 (confidence interval from 54154 to 70648 at P = 0.95) under average lifetime of wind turbines 20 years. In the first case the explained variance is 90,7%, while in the second - 91,8%. The effect of the wind turbines price changes on their sales was estimated using generalized Bass model. This required a price forecast. To do this, the polynomial regression function, which is based on the Berkeley Lab statistics, was used. The estimation of the US average market potential of small wind turbines (for adoption purchases) in that case is 42542 (confidence interval from 32863 to 52221 at P = 0.95) under average lifetime of wind turbines 15 years, and 47426 (confidence interval from 36092 to 58760 at P = 0.95) under average lifetime of wind turbines 20 years. In the first case the explained variance is 95,3%, while in the second –95,3%.

Keywords: bass model, generalized bass model, replacement purchases, sales forecasting of innovations, statistics of sales of small wind turbines in the United States

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
9622 Solar and Wind Energy Potential Study of Sindh Province, Pakistan for Power Generation

Authors: M. Akhlaque Ahmed, Sidra A. Shaikh, Maliha A. Siddiqui, Adeel Tahir

Abstract:

Global and diffuse solar radiation on horizontal surface of southern sindh namely Karachi, Hyderabad, Nawabshah were carried out using sunshine hour data of the area to asses the feasibility of solar Energy utilization at Sindh province for power generation. From the observation, result is derived which shows a drastic variation in the diffuse and direct component of solar radiation for summer and winter for Southern Sindh that is both contributes 50% for Karachi and Hyderabad. In Nawabshah area, the contribution of diffuse solar radiation is low in monsoon months, July and August. The Kᴛ value of Nawabshah indicates a clear sky almost throughout the year. The percentage of diffuse radiation does not exceed more than 20%. In Nawabshah, the appearance of cloud is rare even in monsoon months. The estimated values indicate that Nawabshah has high solar potential whereas Karachi and Hyderabad has low solar potential. During the monsoon months, the southern part of Sind can utilize the hybrid system with wind power. Near Karachi and Hyderabad, the wind speed ranges between 6.2 to 6.9 m/sec. There exist a wind corridor near Karachi, Hyderabad, Gharo, Keti Bander and Shah Bander. The short fall of solar can be compensated by wind because in monsoon months July and August the wind speed are higher in the southern region of Sindh.

Keywords: hybrid power system, power generation, solar and wind energy potential, southern Sindh

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
9621 Applied Bayesian Regularized Artificial Neural Network for Up-Scaling Wind Speed Profile and Distribution

Authors: Aghbalou Nihad, Charki Abderafi, Saida Rahali, Reklaoui Kamal

Abstract:

Maximize the benefit from the wind energy potential is the most interest of the wind power stakeholders. As a result, the wind tower size is radically increasing. Nevertheless, choosing an appropriate wind turbine for a selected site require an accurate estimate of vertical wind profile. It is also imperative from cost and maintenance strategy point of view. Then, installing tall towers or even more expensive devices such as LIDAR or SODAR raises the costs of a wind power project. Various models were developed coming within this framework. However, they suffer from complexity, generalization and lacks accuracy. In this work, we aim to investigate the ability of neural network trained using the Bayesian Regularization technique to estimate wind speed profile up to height of 100 m based on knowledge of wind speed lower heights. Results show that the proposed approach can achieve satisfactory predictions and proof the suitability of the proposed method for generating wind speed profile and probability distributions based on knowledge of wind speed at lower heights.

Keywords: bayesian regularization, neural network, wind shear, accuracy

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9620 A Hybrid Genetic Algorithm and Neural Network for Wind Profile Estimation

Authors: M. Saiful Islam, M. Mohandes, S. Rehman, S. Badran

Abstract:

Increasing necessity of wind power is directing us to have precise knowledge on wind resources. Methodical investigation of potential locations is required for wind power deployment. High penetration of wind energy to the grid is leading multi megawatt installations with huge investment cost. This fact appeals to determine appropriate places for wind farm operation. For accurate assessment, detailed examination of wind speed profile, relative humidity, temperature and other geological or atmospheric parameters are required. Among all of these uncertainty factors influencing wind power estimation, vertical extrapolation of wind speed is perhaps the most difficult and critical one. Different approaches have been used for the extrapolation of wind speed to hub height which are mainly based on Log law, Power law and various modifications of the two. This paper proposes a Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Genetic Algorithm (GA) based hybrid model, namely GA-NN for vertical extrapolation of wind speed. This model is very simple in a sense that it does not require any parametric estimations like wind shear coefficient, roughness length or atmospheric stability and also reliable compared to other methods. This model uses available measured wind speeds at 10m, 20m and 30m heights to estimate wind speeds up to 100m. A good comparison is found between measured and estimated wind speeds at 30m and 40m with approximately 3% mean absolute percentage error. Comparisons with ANN and power law, further prove the feasibility of the proposed method.

Keywords: wind profile, vertical extrapolation of wind, genetic algorithm, artificial neural network, hybrid machine learning

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9619 The Participation of Refugee Children with Disabilities in Educational Options in Turkey: A Systematic Review

Authors: Robert L. Williamson, Baris Çetin

Abstract:

Turkey, due to its geographic location, finds itself the world’s largest host to refugees worldwide, and this nation has done much to educate their refugee population. Turkey’s considerable experience can inform other nations educating refugee children. This systematic review of the literature examined the context, barriers, and responses to successfully educating refugee children in Turkey. Additionally, because some refugee children may have an identified or unidentified disability, the educational experiences of refugee children with disabilities in Turkey were an ancillary focus. Results indicated that while some educational challenges have been successfully met within Turkey, others remain. Additionally, the education of children with disabilities in Turkey is largely unexamined.

Keywords: disability, education, refugee, systematic review, Turkey

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
9618 Multi-Criterial Analysis: Potential Regions and Height of Wind Turbines, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Authors: Claudio L. M. Souza, Milton Erthal, Aldo Shimoya, Elias R. Goncalves, Igor C. Rangel, Allysson R. T. Tavares, Elias G. Figueira

Abstract:

The process of choosing a region for the implementation of wind farms involves factors such as the wind regime, economic viability, land value, topography, and accessibility. This work presents results obtained by multi-criteria decision analysis, and it establishes a hierarchy, regarding the installation of wind farms, among geopolicy regions in the state of ‘Rio de Janeiro’, Brazil: ‘Regiao Norte-RN’, ‘Regiao dos Lagos-RL’ and ‘Regiao Serrana-RS’. The wind regime map indicates only these three possible regions with an average annual wind speed of above of 6.0 m/s. The method applied was the Analytical Hierarchy Process-AHP, designed to prioritize and rank the three regions based on four criteria as follows: 1) potential of the site and average wind speeds of above 6.0 ms-¹, 2) average land value, 3) distribution and interconnection to electric network with the highest number of electricity stations, and 4) accessibility with proximity and quality of highways and flat topography. The values of energy generation were calculated for wind turbines 50, 75, and 100 meters high, considering the production of site (GWh/Km²) and annual production (GWh). The weight of each criterion was attributed by six engineers and by analysis of Road Map, the Map of the Electric System, the Map of Wind Regime and the Annual Land Value Report. The results indicated that in 'RS', the demand was estimated at 2,000 GWh, so a wind farm can operate efficiently in 50 m turbines. This region is mainly mountainous with difficult access and lower land value. With respect to ‘RL’, the wind turbines have to be installed at a height of 75 m high to reach a demand of 6,300 GWh. This region is very flat, with easy access, and low land value. Finally, the ‘NR’ was evaluated as very flat and with expensive lands. In this case, wind turbines with 100 m can reach an annual production of 19,000 GWh. In this Region, the coast area was classified as of greater logistic, productivity and economic potential.

Keywords: AHP, renewable energy, wind energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
9617 A Study on Local Endemic Jurinea brevicaulis Boiss. (Asteraceae) from Turkey

Authors: Bekir Dogan

Abstract:

The genus Jurinea is one of the larger genera within Asteraceae, comprising about 200 species. Jurinea is naturally distributed in central Asia, Turkey, Iran and the Mediterranean region. Jurinea has 23 species within the Mediterranean and Irano-Turanian phytogeographic regions of Turkey. Jurinea brevicaulis is locally endemic in Turkey. It grows Erzincan province in Turkey. Between 2005 and 2007, as a part of a revisional study of Jurinea in Turkey, the author carried out extensive field studies and herbaria and collected an enough number of specimens. In the field, the specimens' GPS coordinates, habitat and relevant field observations were recorded. International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) threat category was given. The present study reviews the chorology of the Jurinea brevicaulis in Turkey based on recent taxonomic revision and available specimen data.

Keywords: Asteraceae, endemic, Jurinea, Turkey

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
9616 Visualized Flow Patterns around and inside a Two-Sided Wind-Catcher in the Presence of Upstream Structures

Authors: M. Afshin, A. Sohankar, M. Dehghan Manshadi, M. R. Daneshgar, G. R. Dehghan Kamaragi

Abstract:

In this paper, the influence of an upstream structure on the flow pattern within and around the wind-catcher is experimentally investigated by smoke flow visualization techniques. Wind-catchers are an important part of natural ventilation in residential buildings or public places such as shopping centers, libraries, etc. Wind-catchers might be also used in places of high urban densities; hence their potential to provide natural ventilation in this case is dependent on the presence of upstream objects. In this study, the two-sided wind-catcher model was based on a real wind-catcher observed in the city of Yazd, Iran. The present study focuses on the flow patterns inside and outside the isolated two-sided wind-catcher, and on a two-sided wind-catcher in the presence of an upstream structure. The results show that the presence of an upstream structure influences the airflow pattern force and direction. Placing a high upstream object reverses the airflow direction inside the wind-catcher.

Keywords: natural ventilation, smoke flow visualization, two-sided wind-catcher, flow patterns

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9615 Cfd Simulation for Urban Environment for Evaluation of a Wind Energy Potential of a Building or a New Urban Planning

Authors: David Serero, Loic Couton, Jean-Denis Parisse, Robert Leroy

Abstract:

This paper presents an analysis method of airflow at the periphery of several typologies of architectural volumes. To understand the complexity of the urban environment on the airflows in the city, we compared three sites at different architectural scale. The research sets a method to identify the optimal location for the installation of wind turbines on the edges of a building and to achieve an improvement in the performance of energy extracted by precise localization of an accelerating wing called “aero foil”. The objective is to define principles for the installation of wind turbines and natural ventilation design of buildings. Instead of theoretical winds analysis, we combined numerical aeraulic simulations using STAR CCM + software with wind data, over long periods of time (greater than 1 year). If airflows computer fluid analysis (CFD) simulation of buildings are current, we have calibrated a virtual wind tunnel with wind data using in situ anemometers (to establish localized cartography of urban winds). We can then develop a complete volumetric model of the behavior of the wind on a roof area, or an entire urban island. With this method, we can categorize: - the different types of wind in urban areas and identify the minimum and maximum wind spectrum, - select the type of harvesting devices - fixing to the roof of a building, - the altimetry of the device in relation to the levels of the roofs - The potential nuisances around. This study is carried out from the recovery of a geolocated data flow, and the connection of this information with the technical specifications of wind turbines, their energy performance and their speed of engagement. Thanks to this method, we can thus define the characteristics of wind turbines to maximize their performance in urban sites and in a turbulent airflow regime. We also study the installation of a wind accelerator associated with buildings. The “aerofoils which are integrated are improvement to control the speed of the air, to orientate it on the wind turbine, to accelerate it and to hide, thanks to its profile, the device on the roof of the building.

Keywords: wind energy harvesting, wind turbine selection, urban wind potential analysis, CFD simulation for architectural design

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
9614 Occupational Health and Safety Servicing in Turkey: A New Approach

Authors: Duygu Çelgin

Abstract:

Until the new Occupational Health and Safety Law of Turkey, most of the workers were excluded from the mandatory occupational health and safety services. This new law, made the OHS services mandatory for all workers from all sectors including both public and private. However, in the application some problems and disadvantageous cases are occurred and the government also considered these cases. In this study, the new OHS law of Turkey and the regulations prepared according to the law are studied with the literature search.

Keywords: occupational health and safety in Turkey, OHS servicing in Turkey, safety experts, OHS support

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
9613 Spatial Analysis for Wind Risk Index Assessment

Authors: Ljiljana Seric, Vladimir Divic, Marin Bugaric

Abstract:

This paper presents methodology for spatial analysis of GIS data that is used for assessing the microlocation risk index from potential damages of high winds. The analysis is performed on freely available GIS data comprising information about wind load, terrain cover and topography of the area. The methodology utilizes the legislation of Eurocode norms for determination of wind load of buildings and constructions. The core of the methodology is adoption of the wind load parameters related to location on geographical spatial grid. Presented work is a part of the Wind Risk Project, supported by the European Commission under the Civil Protection Financial Instrument of the European Union (ECHO). The partners involved in Wind Risk project performed Wind Risk assessment and proposed action plan for three European countries – Slovenia, Croatia and Germany. The proposed method is implemented in GRASS GIS open source GIS software and demonstrated for Case study area of wider area of Split, Croatia. Obtained Wind Risk Index is visualized and correlated with critical infrastructures like buildings, roads and power lines. The results show good correlation between high Wind Risk Index with recent incidents related to wind.

Keywords: Eurocode norms, GIS, spatial analysis, wind distribution, wind risk

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
9612 Mapping the Turbulence Intensity and Excess Energy Available to Small Wind Systems over 4 Major UK Cities

Authors: Francis C. Emejeamara, Alison S. Tomlin, James Gooding

Abstract:

Due to the highly turbulent nature of urban air flows, and by virtue of the fact that turbines are likely to be located within the roughness sublayer of the urban boundary layer, proposed urban wind installations are faced with major challenges compared to rural installations. The challenge of operating within turbulent winds can however, be counteracted by the development of suitable gust tracking solutions. In order to assess the cost effectiveness of such controls, a detailed understanding of the urban wind resource, including its turbulent characteristics, is required. Estimating the ambient turbulence and total kinetic energy available at different control response times is essential in evaluating the potential performance of wind systems within the urban environment should effective control solutions be employed. However, high resolution wind measurements within the urban roughness sub-layer are uncommon, and detailed CFD modelling approaches are too computationally expensive to apply routinely on a city wide scale. This paper therefore presents an alternative semi-empirical methodology for estimating the excess energy content (EEC) present in the complex and gusty urban wind. An analytical methodology for predicting the total wind energy available at a potential turbine site is proposed by assessing the relationship between turbulence intensities and EEC, for different control response times. The semi-empirical model is then incorporated with an analytical methodology that was initially developed to predict mean wind speeds at various heights within the built environment based on detailed mapping of its aerodynamic characteristics. Based on the current methodology, additional estimates of turbulence intensities and EEC allow a more complete assessment of the available wind resource. The methodology is applied to 4 UK cities with results showing the potential of mapping turbulence intensities and the total wind energy available at different heights within each city. Considering the effect of ambient turbulence and choice of wind system, the wind resource over neighbourhood regions (of 250 m uniform resolution) and building rooftops within the 4 cities were assessed with results highlighting the promise of mapping potential turbine sites within each city.

Keywords: excess energy content, small-scale wind, turbulence intensity, urban wind energy, wind resource assessment

Procedia PDF Downloads 397