Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2368

Search results for: strengthening mechanisms

2368 Mechanical Properties of Nanocomposites Cobalt Matrix with Nano SiC Particles

Authors: Dhuha Albusalih, David Weston, Simon Gill

Abstract:

Nanocomposites Co-SiC with well dispersed nanoparticles and Co nano grain size has produced using Pulse Reverse Plating (PRP) and using anionic surfactant. Different particle contents of nanocomposites were produced by altering the plating parameters. The method allows great control over the level of nanoparticles in the coating, without changing bath chemistry. Examination by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDX), TEM and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis was performed to characterize and study the strengthening mechanisms of these nanocomposites. The primary strengthening mechanisms were shown to be grain refinement and dispersion strengthening. Tribological performances of the produced electroplated nanocomposite Co-SiC coatings were examined. Results showed that the coating with the higher volume fraction (vol. %) of SiC and the smallest grain size has the higher hardness and low wear rate.

Keywords: nanocomposites, pulse reverse plating, tribological performance of cobalt nanocomposites

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2367 Shear Strengthening of RC T-Beams by Means of CFRP Sheets

Authors: Omar A. Farghal

Abstract:

This research aimed to experimentally and analytically investigate the contribution of bonded web carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheets to the shear strength of reinforced concrete (RC) T-beams. Two strengthening techniques using CFRP strips were applied along the shear-span zone: the first one is vertical U-jacket and the later is vertical strips bonded to the beam sides only. Fibers of both U-jacket and side sheets were vertically oriented (θ = 90°). Test results showed that the strengthening technique with U-jacket CFRP sheets improved the shear strength particularly. Three mechanisms of failure were recognized for the tested beams depending upon the end condition of the bonded CFRP sheet. Although the failure mode for the different beams was a brittle one, the strengthened beams provided with U-jacket CFRP sheets showed more or less a ductile behavior at a higher loading level up to a load level just before failure. As a consequence, these beams approved an acceptable enhancement in the structural ductility. Moreover, the obtained results concerning both the strains induced in the CFRP sheets and the maximum loads are used to study the applicability of the analytical models proposed in this study (ACI code) to predict: the nominal shear strength of the strengthened beams.

Keywords: carbon fiber reinforced polymer, wrapping, ductility, shear strengthening

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2366 Induction Melting as a Fabrication Route for Aluminum-Carbon Nanotubes Nanocomposite

Authors: Muhammad Shahid, Muhammad Mansoor

Abstract:

Increasing demands of contemporary applications for high strength and lightweight materials prompted the development of metal-matrix composites (MMCs). After the discovery of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in 1991 (revealing an excellent set of mechanical properties) became one of the most promising strengthening materials for MMC applications. Additionally, the relatively low density of the nanotubes imparted high specific strengths, making them perfect strengthening material to reinforce MMCs. In the present study, aluminum-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (Al-MWCNTs) composite was prepared in an air induction furnace. The dispersion of the nanotubes in molten aluminum was assisted by inherent string action of induction heating at 790°C. During the fabrication process, multifunctional fluxes were used to avoid oxidation of the nanotubes and molten aluminum. Subsequently, the melt was cast in to a copper mold and cold rolled to 0.5 mm thickness. During metallographic examination using a scanning electron microscope, it was observed that the nanotubes were effectively dispersed in the matrix. The mechanical properties of the composite were significantly increased as compared to pure aluminum specimen i.e. the yield strength from 65 to 115 MPa, the tensile strength from 82 to 125 MPa and hardness from 27 to 30 HV for pure aluminum and Al-CNTs composite, respectively. To recognize the associated strengthening mechanisms in the nanocomposites, three foremost strengthening models i.e. shear lag model, Orowan looping and Hall-Petch have been critically analyzed; experimental data were found to be closely satisfying the shear lag model.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, induction melting, strengthening mechanism, nanocomposite

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2365 Recent Studies on Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Members by Ferrocement

Authors: E. Lam, Z. D. Yang, B. Li, I. Ho, T. Wong, V. Wong

Abstract:

This paper reports some of the recent studies on strengthening of reinforced concrete members by ferrocement. Using mortar in ferrocement with high tensile strength, tensile properties of (high performance) ferrocement can be enhanced. In the proposed strengthening strategy, defective concrete cover of structural members is replaced by ferrocement so as to increase the load carrying capacity. This has been successfully applied to strengthen columns and beam-column joints. To facilitate the ease of application of the proposed strengthening strategy, mortar in ferrocement is applied through dry spray shotcrete.

Keywords: ferrocement, high performance ferrocement, dry, spray shotcrete, column, beam-column joint, strengthening

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2364 Shear Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams Using Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers

Authors: Hana' Al-Ghanim, Mu'tasim Abdel-Jaber, Maha Alqam

Abstract:

This experimental investigation deals with shear strengthening of reinforced concrete (RC) deep beams using the externally bonded carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites. The current study, therefore, evaluates the effectiveness of four various configurations for shear strengthening of deep beams with two different types of CFRP materials including sheets and laminates. For this purpose, a total of 10 specimens of deep beams were cast and tested. The shear performance of the strengthened beams is assessed with respect to the cracks’ formation, modes of failure, ultimate strength and the overall stiffness. The obtained results demonstrate the effectiveness of using the CFRP technique on enhancing the shear capacity of deep beams; however, the efficiency varies depending on the material used and the strengthening scheme adopted. Among the four investigated schemes, the highest increase in the ultimate strength is recorded by using the continuous wrap of two layers of CFRP sheets, exceeding a value of 86%, whereas an enhancement of about 36% is achieved by the inclined CFRP laminates.

Keywords: deep beams, laminates, shear strengthening, sheets

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2363 National Standard of Canada for Psychological Health and Safety in the Workplace: A Critical Review

Authors: Lucie Cote, Isabelle Rodier

Abstract:

The main objective of the research was to identify demonstrated mechanisms promoting psychological well-being and psychological health in the workplace, and to take a critical look at the 'National Standard of Canada for Psychological Health and Safety in the Workplace - Prevention, Promotion and Guidance to Staged Implementation (Standard)' as a mechanism to promote the psychological well-being and psychological health in the workplace. A review of the scientific literature was conducted, and a case study was done using data from a Canadian federal department. The following six mechanisms with an efficiency supported by most of the studies reviewed were identified: improving psychological well-being in the workplace literacy; strengthening the resilience of employees; creating an environmentally friendly and healthy workplace; promoting a healthy lifestyle; taking into account psychological characteristics in the drafting of job descriptions and tasks during the hiring process; and offering psychological self-care tools. The Standard offers several mechanisms beyond those previously identified and their implementation can be demanding. Research based on objective data and addressing the magnitude of the effect would be required.

Keywords: critical review, national standard of Canada, psychological health, workplace

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2362 The Influence of Strengthening on the Fundamental Frequency and Stiffness of a Confined Masonry Wall with an Opening for а Door

Authors: Emin Z. Mahmud

Abstract:

This paper presents the observations from a series of shaking-table tests done on a 1:1 scaled confined masonry wall model, with opening for a door – specimens CMDuS (confined masonry wall with opening for a door before strengthening) and CMDS (confined masonry wall with opening for a door after strengthening). Frequency and stiffness changes before and after GFRP (Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic) wall strengthening are analyzed. Definition of dynamic properties of the models was the first step of the experimental testing, which enabled acquiring important information about the achieved stiffness (natural frequencies) of the model. The natural frequency was defined in the Y direction of the model by applying resonant frequency search tests. It is important to mention that both specimens CMDuS and CMDS are subjected to the same effects. The tests are realized in the laboratory of the Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Seismology (IZIIS), Skopje. The specimens were examined separately on the shaking table, with uniaxial, in-plane excitation. After testing, samples were strengthened with GFRP and re-tested. The initial frequency of the undamaged model CMDuS is 13.55 Hz, while at the end of the testing, the frequency decreased to 6.38 Hz. This emphasizes the reduction of the initial stiffness of the model due to damage, especially in the masonry and tie-beam to tie-column connection. After strengthening of the damaged wall, the natural frequency increases to 10.89 Hz. This highlights the beneficial effect of the strengthening. After completion of dynamic testing at CMDS, the natural frequency is reduced to 6.66 Hz.

Keywords: behaviour of masonry structures, Eurocode, frequency, masonry, shaking table test, strengthening

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2361 Strengthening Evaluation of Steel Girder Bridge under Load Rating Analysis: Case Study

Authors: Qudama Albu-Jasim, Majdi Kanaan

Abstract:

A case study about the load rating and strengthening evaluation of the six-span of steel girders bridge in Colton city of State of California is investigated. To simulate the load rating strengthening assessment for the Colton Overhead bridge, a three-dimensional finite element model built in the CSiBridge program is simulated. Three-dimensional finite-element models of the bridge are established considering the nonlinear behavior of critical bridge components to determine the feasibility and strengthening capacity under load rating analysis. The bridge was evaluated according to Caltrans Bridge Load Rating Manual 1st edition for rating the superstructure using the Load and Resistance Factor Rating (LRFR) method. The analysis for the bridge was based on load rating to determine the largest loads that can be safely placed on existing I-girder steel members and permitted to pass over the bridge. Through extensive numerical simulations, the bridge is identified to be deficient in flexural and shear capacities, and therefore strengthening for reducing the risk is needed. An in-depth parametric study is considered to evaluate the sensitivity of the bridge’s load rating response to variations in its structural parameters. The parametric analysis has exhibited that uncertainties associated with the steel’s yield strength, the superstructure’s weight, and the diaphragm configurations should be considered during the fragility analysis of the bridge system.

Keywords: load rating, CSIBridge, strengthening, uncertainties, case study

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2360 Robust Control of a Parallel 3-RRR Robotic Manipulator via μ-Synthesis Method

Authors: A. Abbasi Moshaii, M. Soltan Rezaee, M. Mohammadi Moghaddam

Abstract:

Control of some mechanisms is hard because of their complex dynamic equations. If part of the complexity is resulting from uncertainties, an efficient way for solving that is robust control. By this way, the control procedure could be simple and fast and finally, a simple controller can be designed. One kind of these mechanisms is 3-RRR which is a parallel mechanism and has three revolute joints. This paper aims to robust control a 3-RRR planner mechanism and it presents that this could be used for other mechanisms. So, a significant problem in mechanisms control could be solved. The relevant diagrams are drawn and they show the correctness of control process.

Keywords: 3-RRR, dynamic equations, mechanisms control, structural uncertainty

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2359 The Influence of Strengthening on the Fundamental Frequency and Stiffness of a Confined Masonry Wall with an Opening for а Window

Authors: Emin Z. Mahmud

Abstract:

Shaking table tests are planned in order to deepen the understanding of the behavior of confined masonry structures with or without openings. The tests are realized in the laboratory of the Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Seismology (IZIIS) – Skopje. The specimens were examined separately on the shaking table, with uniaxial, in-plane excitation. After testing, samples were strengthened with GFRP (Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic) and re-tested. This paper presents the observations from a series of shaking-table tests done on a 1:1 scaled confined masonry wall model, with opening for a window – specimens CMWuS (before strengthening) and CMWS (after strengthening). Frequency and stiffness changes before and after GFRP wall strengthening are analyzed. Definition of dynamic properties of the models was the first step of the experimental testing, which enabled acquiring important information about the achieved stiffness (natural frequencies) of the model. The natural frequency was defined in the Y direction of the model by applying resonant frequency search tests. It is important to mention that both specimens CMWuS and CMWS are subjected to the same effects. The initial frequency of the undamaged model CMWuS is 18.79 Hz, while at the end of the testing, the frequency decreased to 12.96 Hz. This emphasizes the reduction of the initial stiffness of the model due to damage, especially in the masonry and tie-beam to tie-column connection. After strengthening the damaged wall, the natural frequency increases to 14.67 Hz. This highlights the beneficial effect of strengthening. After completion of dynamic testing at CMWS, the natural frequency is reduced to 10.75 Hz.

Keywords: behaviour of masonry structures, Eurocode, frequency, masonry, shaking table test, strengthening

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2358 Experimental Studies of Sigma Thin-Walled Beams Strengthen by CFRP Tapes

Authors: Katarzyna Rzeszut, Ilona Szewczak

Abstract:

The review of selected methods of strengthening of steel structures with carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) tapes and the analysis of influence of composite materials on the steel thin-walled elements are performed in this paper. The study is also focused to the problem of applying fast and effective strengthening methods of the steel structures made of thin-walled profiles. It is worth noting that the issue of strengthening the thin-walled structures is a very complex, due to inability to perform welded joints in this type of elements and the limited ability to applying mechanical fasteners. Moreover, structures made of thin-walled cross-section demonstrate a high sensitivity to imperfections and tendency to interactive buckling, which may substantially contribute to the reduction of critical load capacity. Due to the lack of commonly used and recognized modern methods of strengthening of thin-walled steel structures, authors performed the experimental studies of thin-walled sigma profiles strengthened with CFRP tapes. The paper presents the experimental stand and the preliminary results of laboratory test concerning the analysis of the effectiveness of the strengthening steel beams made of thin-walled sigma profiles with CFRP tapes. The study includes six beams made of the cold-rolled sigma profiles with height of 140 mm, wall thickness of 2.5 mm, and a length of 3 m, subjected to the uniformly distributed load. Four beams have been strengthened with carbon fiber tape Sika CarboDur S, while the other two were tested without strengthening to obtain reference results. Based on the obtained results, the evaluation of the accuracy of applied composite materials for strengthening of thin-walled structures was performed.

Keywords: CFRP tapes, sigma profiles, steel thin-walled structures, strengthening

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2357 FEM Study of Different Methods of Fiber Reinforcement Polymer Strengthening of a High Strength Concrete Beam-Column Connection

Authors: Talebi Aliasghar, Ebrahimpour Komeleh Hooman, Maghsoudi Ali Akbar

Abstract:

In reinforced concrete (RC) structures, beam-column connection region has a considerable effect on the behavior of structures. Using fiber reinforcement polymer (FRP) for the strengthening of connections in RC structures can be one of the solutions to retrofitting this zone which result in the enhanced behavior of structure. In this paper, these changes in behavior by using FRP for high strength concrete beam-column connection have been studied by finite element modeling. The concrete damage plasticity (CDP) model has been used to analyze the RC. The results illustrated a considerable development in load-bearing capacity but also a noticeable reduction in ductility. The study also assesses these qualities for several modes of strengthening and suggests the most effective mode of strengthening. Using FRP in flexural zone and FRP with 45-degree oriented fibers in shear zone of joint showed the most significant change in behavior.

Keywords: HSC, beam-column connection, Fiber Reinforcement Polymer, FRP, Finite Element Modeling, FEM

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2356 Influence of Strengthening with Perforated Steel Plates on the Behavior of Infill Walls and RC Frame

Authors: Eray Ozbek, Ilker Kalkan, S. Oguzhan Akbas, Sabahattin Aykac

Abstract:

The contribution of the infill walls to the overall earthquake response of a structure is limited and this contribution is generally ignored in the analyses. Strengthening of the infill walls through different techniques has been and is being studied extensively in the literature to increase this limited contribution and the ductilities and energy absorption capacities of the infill walls to create non-structural components where the earthquake-induced energy can be absorbed without damaging the bearing components of the structural frame. The present paper summarizes an extensive research project dedicated to investigate the effects of strengthening the brick infill walls of a reinforced concrete (RC) frame on its lateral earthquake response. Perforated steel plates were used in strengthening due to several reasons, including the ductility and high deformation capacity of these plates, the fire resistant, recyclable and non-cancerogenic nature of mild steel, and the ease of installation and removal of the plates to the wall with the help of anchor bolts only. Furthermore, epoxy, which increases the cost and amount of labor of the strengthening process, is not needed in this technique. The individual behavior of the strengthened walls under monotonic diagonal and lateral reversed cyclic loading was investigated within the scope of the study. Upon achieving brilliant results, RC frames with strengthened infill walls were tested and are being tested to examine the influence of this strengthening technique on the overall behavior of the RC frames. Tests on the wall and frame specimens indicated that the perforated steel plates contribute to the lateral strength, rigidity, ductility and energy absorption capacity of the wall and the infilled frame to a major extent.

Keywords: infill wall, strengthening, external plate, earthquake behavior

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2355 Strengthening Bridge Piers by Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP): A Case Study for Thuan Phuoc Suspension Bridge in Vietnam

Authors: Lan Nguyen, Lam Cao Van

Abstract:

Thuan Phuoc is a suspension bridge built in Danang city, Vietnam. Because this bridge locates near the estuary, its structure has degraded rapidly. Many cracks have currently occurred on most of the concrete piers of the curved approach spans. This paper aims to present the results of diagnostic analysis of causes for cracks as well as some calculations for strengthening piers by carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP). Besides, it describes how to use concrete nonlinear analysis software ATENA to diagnostically analyze cracks, strengthening designs. Basing on the results of studying the map of distributing crack on Thuan Phuoc bridge’s concrete piers is analyzed by the software ATENA is suitable for the real conditions and CFRP would be the best solution to strengthen piers in a sound and fast way.

Keywords: ATENA, bridge pier strengthening, carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP), crack prediction analysis

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2354 Two Spherical Three Degrees of Freedom Parallel Robots 3-RCC and 3-RRS Static Analysis

Authors: Alireza Abbasi Moshaii, Shaghayegh Nasiri, Mehdi Tale Masouleh

Abstract:

The main purpose of this study is static analysis of two three-degree of freedom parallel mechanisms: 3-RCC and 3-RRS. Geometry of these mechanisms is expressed and static equilibrium equations are derived for the whole chains. For these mechanisms due to the equal number of equations and unknowns, the solution is as same as 3-RCC mechanism. Mathematical software is used to solve the equations. In order to prove the results obtained from solving the equations of mechanisms, their CAD model has been simulated and their static is analysed in ADAMS software. Due to symmetrical geometry of the mechanisms, the force and external torque acting on the end-effecter have been considered asymmetric to prove the generality of the solution method. Finally, the results of both softwares, for both mechanisms are extracted and compared as graphs. The good achieved comparison between the results indicates the accuracy of the analysis.

Keywords: robotic, static analysis, 3-RCC, 3-RRS

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2353 Shear Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Flat Slabs Using Prestressing Bars

Authors: Haifa Saleh, Kamiran Abduka, Robin Kalfat, Riadh Al-Mahaidi

Abstract:

The effectiveness of using pre-stressing steel bars for shear strengthening of high strength reinforced concrete (RC) slabs was assessed. Two large-scale RC slabs were tested, one without shear reinforcement and the second strengthened against punching shear failure using pre-stressing steel bars. The two slabs had the same dimensions, flexural reinforcement ratio, loading and support arrangements. The experimental program including the method of strengthening, set up and instrumentation are described in this paper. The experimental results are analyzed and discussed in terms of the structural behavior of the RC slabs, the performance of pre-stressing steel bolts and failure modes. The results confirmed that the shear strengthening technique increased the shear capacity, ductility and yield capacity of the slab by up to 15%, 44%, and 22%, respectively compared to the unstrengthened slab. The strengthening technique also successfully contributed to changing the failure mode from a brittle punching shear mode to ductile flexural failure mode. Vic3D digital image correlation system (photogrammetry) was also used in this research. This technique holds several advantages over traditional contact instrumentations including that it is inexpensive, it produces results that are simple to analyze and it is remote visualization technique. The displacement profile along the span of the slab and rotation has been found and compared with the results obtained from traditional sensors. The performance of the photogrammetry technique was very good and the results of both measurements were in very close agreement.

Keywords: flat slab, photogrammetry, punching shear, strengthening

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2352 A Compact Quasi-Zero Stiffness Vibration Isolator Using Flexure-Based Spring Mechanisms Capable of Tunable Stiffness

Authors: Thanh-Phong Dao, Shyh-Chour Huang

Abstract:

This study presents a quasi-zero stiffness (QZS) vibration isolator using flexure-based spring mechanisms which afford both negative and positive stiffness elements, which enable self-adjustment. The QZS property of the isolator is achieved at the equilibrium position. A nonlinear mathematical model is then developed, based on the pre-compression of the flexure-based spring mechanisms. The dynamics are further analyzed using the Harmonic Balance method. The vibration attention efficiency is illustrated using displacement transmissibility, which is then compared with the corresponding linear isolator. The effects of parameters on performance are also investigated by numerical solutions. The flexure-based spring mechanisms are subsequently designed using the concept of compliant mechanisms, with evaluation by ANSYS software, and simulations of the QZS isolator.

Keywords: vibration isolator, quasi-zero stiffness, flexure-based spring mechanisms, compliant mechanism

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2351 Cyclic Loading Tests of Reinforced Concrete Frame Structures Strengthened by Externally-Anchored Precast Wall-Panel

Authors: Seung-Ho Choi, Jae Yuel Oh, Chi Sung Lim, Ho Seong Jung, Kang Su Kim

Abstract:

In recent years, various strengthening methods for buildings have been developed, but most of them require quite a long construction period during which the building users need to be patient on uncomfortable working environments including various lousy noises or even evacuation of the buildings. In this study, externally anchored precast wall-panel method (EPCW) for strengthening non-seismic reinforced concrete (RC) structures has been proposed, which is occupant-friendly technique because the strengthening walls are manufactured at factory and can be tightened to the members very quickly at the site. In order to investigate the structural performance of the specimens strengthened by the EPCW method, a total of four specimens were fabricated, and tested under axial and reversed cyclic lateral loads. The test results showed that the lateral resistances of the specimens strengthened by the EPCW method were greatly enhanced in both positive and negative directions, compared to the RC specimen having non-seismic details.

Keywords: precast wall, seismic strengthening, reinforced concrete, externally-anchored

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2350 Examining Moderating Mechanisms of Alignment Practice and Community Response through the Self-Construal Perspective

Authors: Chyong-Ru Liu, Wen-Shiung Huang, Wan-Ching Tang, Shan-Pei Chen

Abstract:

Two of the biggest challenges companies involved in sports and exercise information services face are how to strengthen participation in virtual sports/exercise communities and how to increase the ongoing participatoriness of those communities. In the past, relatively little research has explored mechanisms for strengthening alignment practice and community response from the perspective of self-construal, and as such this study seeks to explore the self-construal of virtual sports/exercise communities, the role it plays in the emotional commitment of forming communities, and the factor that can strengthen alignment practice. Moreover, which factor of the emotional commitment of forming virtual communities have the effect of strengthening interference in the process of transforming customer citizenship behaviors? This study collected 625 responses from the two leading websites in terms of fan numbers in the provision of information on road race and marathon events in Taiwan, with model testing conducted through linear structural equation modelling and the bootstrapping technique to test the proposed hypotheses. The results proved independent construal had a stronger positive direct effect on affective commitment to fellow customers than did interdependent construal, and the influences of affective commitment to fellow customers in enhancing customer citizenship behavior. Public self-consciousness moderates the relationships among independent self-construal and interdependent self-construal on effective commitment to fellow customers. Perceived playfulness moderates the relationships between effective commitment to fellow customers and customer citizenship behavior. The findings of this study provide significant insights for the researchers and related organizations. From the theoretical perspective, this is empirical research that investigated the self-construal theory and responses (i.e., affective commitment to fellow customers, customer citizenship behavior) in virtual sports/exercise communities. We further explore how to govern virtual sports/exercise community participants’ heterogeneity through public self-consciousness mechanism to align participants’ affective commitment. Moreover, perceived playfulness has the effect of strengthening effective commitment to fellow customers with customer citizenship behaviors. The results of this study can provide a foundation for the construction of future theories and can be provided to related organizations for reference in their planning of virtual communities.

Keywords: self-construal theory, public self-consciousness, affective commitment, customer citizenship behavior

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2349 Effectiveness of Impairment Specified Muscle Strengthening Programme in a Group of Disabled Athletes

Authors: A. L. I. Prasanna, E. Liyanage, S. A. Rajaratne, K. P. A. P. Kariyawasam, A. A. J. Rajaratne

Abstract:

Maintaining or improving the muscle strength of the injured body part is essential to optimize performance among disabled athletes. General conditioning and strengthening exercises might be ineffective if not sufficiently intense enough or targeted for each participant’s specific impairment. Specific strengthening programme, targeted to the affected body part, are essential to improve the strength of impaired muscles and increase in strength will help reducing the impact of disability. Methods: The muscle strength of hip, knee and ankle joints was assessed in a group of randomly selected disabled athletes, using the Medical Research Council (MRC) grading. Those having muscle strength of grade 4 or less were selected for this study (24 in number) and were given and a custom made exercise program designed to strengthen their hip, knee or ankle joint musculature, according to the muscle or group of muscles affected. Effectiveness of the strengthening program was assessed after a period of 3 months. Results: Statistical analysis was done using the Minitab 16 statistical software. A Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the strength of muscle group before and after exercise programme. A significant difference was observed after the three month strengthening program for knee flexors (Left and Right) (P =0.0889, 0.0312) hip flexors (left and right) (P=0.0312, 0.0466), hip extensors (Left and Right) (P=0.0478, 0.0513), ankle plantar flexors (Left and Right) (P=0.0466, 0.0423) and right ankle dorsiflexors (P= 0.0337). No significant difference of strength was observed after the strengthening program in the knee extensors (left and right), hip abductors (left and right) and left ankle dorsiflexors. Conclusion: Impairment specific exercise programme appear to be beneficial for disabled athletes to significantly improve the muscle strength of the affected joints.

Keywords: muscle strengthening programme, disabled athletes, physiotherapy, rehabilitation sciences

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2348 Analysis of a Strengthening of a Building Reinforced Concrete Structure

Authors: Nassereddine Attari

Abstract:

Each operation to strengthen or repair requires special consideration and requires the use of methods, tools and techniques appropriate to the situation and specific problems of each of the constructs. The aim of this paper is to study the pathology of building of reinforced concrete towards the earthquake and the vulnerability assessment using a non-linear Pushover analysis and to develop curves for a medium capacity building in order to estimate the damaged condition of the building.

Keywords: pushover analysis, earthquake, damage, strengthening

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2347 Enhancing the Use of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines into Global Cancer Treatment and Research

Authors: Alejandro Salicrup, Riacrdo Gelhman, Geetha Gopalakrishna

Abstract:

The main aim of this session is to have a panel to discuss specific steps for the integration of traditional, complementary and alternative medicine (TCAM) with conventional oncology for enhancing treatment practices at the global level, specifically in low-and-middle-income-countries (LMICs). Concrete current and required programs for strengthening Integrative Oncology research in LMICs will also be discussed. Case Studies from Latin America, Asia, Europe and Africa will discuss and highlight 1) What is working regarding treatment practices in integrative oncology in their countries/regions providing concrete examples 2) What is not working on this integration for cancer treatment in their countries/regions with concrete examples and 3) What are the challenges and opportunities for research related to integrative oncology treatment. Discussion will include potential next steps and potential mechanisms to enhance global integrative oncology research aimed to enhance the use of TCAM therapies and strengthening cancer treatment in LMICs.

Keywords: global cancer treatment, integrative oncology research, low and middle income countries, traditional, complementary and alternative medicines

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2346 Transversal Connection Strengthening of T Section Beam Bridge with Brace System

Authors: Chen Chen

Abstract:

T section beam bridge has been widely used in China as it is low cost and easy to erect. Some of T section beam bridges only have end diagrams and the adjacent girders are connected by wet-joint along span, which leads to the damage of transversal connection becomes a serious problem in operation and maintenance. This paper presents a brace system to strengthen the transversal connection of T section beam bridge. The strengthening effect was discussed by experiments and finite element analysis. The results show that the proposed brace system can improve load transfer between adjacent girders. Based on experiments and FEA model, displacement of T section beam with proposed brace system reduced 14.9% and 19.1% respectively. Integral rigidity increased 19.4% by static experiments. The transversal connection of T section beam bridge can be improved efficiently.

Keywords: experiment, strengthening, T section beam bridge, transversal connection

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2345 Techniques for Seismic Strengthening of Historical Monuments from Diagnosis to Implementation

Authors: Mircan Kaya

Abstract:

A multi-disciplinary approach is required in any intervention project for historical monuments. Due to the complexity of their geometry, the variable and unpredictable characteristics of original materials used in their creation, heritage structures are peculiar. Their histories are often complex, and they require correct diagnoses to decide on the techniques of intervention. This approach should not only combine technical aspects but also historical research that may help discover phenomena involving structural issues, and acquire a knowledge of the structure on its concept, method of construction, previous interventions, process of damage, and its current state. In addition to the traditional techniques like bed joint reinforcement, the repairing, strengthening and restoration of historical buildings may require several other modern methods which may be described as innovative techniques like pre-stressing and post-tensioning, use of shape memory alloy devices and shock transmission units, shoring, drilling, and the use of stainless steel or titanium. Regardless of the method to be incorporated in the strengthening process, which can be traditional or innovative, it is crucial to recognize that structural strengthening is the process of upgrading the structural system of the existing building with the aim of improving its performance under existing and additional loads like seismic loads. This process is much more complex than dealing with a new construction, owing to the fact that there are several unknown factors associated with the structural system. Material properties, load paths, previous interventions, existing reinforcement are especially important matters to be considered. There are several examples of seismic strengthening with traditional and innovative techniques around the world, which will be discussed in this paper in detail, including their pros and cons. Ultimately, however, the main idea underlying the philosophy of a successful intervention with the most appropriate techniques of strengthening a historic monument should be decided by a proper assessment of the specific needs of the building.

Keywords: bed joint reinforcement, historical monuments, post-tensioning, pre-stressing, seismic strengthening, shape memory alloy devices, shock transmitters, tie rods

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2344 Graphene Reinforced Magnesium Metal Matrix Composites for Biomedical Applications

Authors: Khurram Munir, Cuie Wen, Yuncang Li

Abstract:

Magnesium (Mg) metal matrix composites (MMCs) reinforced with graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) have been developed by powder metallurgy (PM). In this study, GNPs with different concentrations (0.1-0.3 wt.%) were dispersed into Mg powders by high-energy ball-milling processes. The microstructure and resultant mechanical properties of the fabricated nanocomposites were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy (RS), compression and nano-wear tests. The corrosion resistance of the fabricated composites was evaluated by electrochemical tests and hydrogen evolution measurements. Finally, the biological response of Mg-GNPs composites was assessed using osteoblast-like SaOS2 cells. The results indicate that GNPs are excellent candidates as reinforcements in Mg matrices for the manufacture of biodegradable Mg-based composite implants. GNP addition improved the mechanical properties of Mg via synergetic strengthening modes. Moreover, retaining the structural integrity of GNPs during PM processing improved the ductility, compressive strength, and corrosion resistance of the Mg-GNP composites as compared to monolithic Mg. Cytotoxicity assessments did not reveal any significant toxicity with the addition of GNPs to Mg matrices. This study demonstrates that Mg-xGNPs with x < 0.3 wt.%, may constitute novel biodegradable implant materials for load-bearing applications.

Keywords: magnesium-graphene composites, strengthening mechanisms, In vitro cytotoxicity, biocorrosion

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2343 Repair and Strengthening of Plain and FRC Shear Deficient Beams Using Externally Bonded CFRP Sheets

Authors: H. S. S. Abou El-Mal, H. E. M. Sallam

Abstract:

This paper presents experimental and analytical study on the behavior of repaired and strengthened shear critical RC beams using externally bonded CFRP bi-directional fabrics. The use of CFRP sheets to repair or strengthen RC beams has been repetitively studied and proven feasible. However, the use of combined repair techniques and applying that method to both plain and FRC beams can maximize the shear capacity of RC shear deficient beams. A total of twelve slender beams were tested under four-point bending. The test parameters included CFRP layout, number of layers and fiber direction, injecting cracks before applying repairing sheets, enhancing the flexural capacity to differentiate between shear repair and strengthening techniques, and concrete matrix types. The findings revealed that applying CFRP sheets increased the overall shear capacity, the amount and orientation of wrapping is of prime importance in both repairing and strengthening, CFRP wrapping could change the failure mode from shear to flexural shear, the use of crack injection combined to CFRP wrapping further improved the shear capacity while, applying the previous method to FRC beams enhanced both shear capacity and failure ductility. Acceptable agreement was found between predicted shear capacities using the Canadian code and the experimental results of the current study.

Keywords: CFRP, FRC, repair, shear strengthening

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
2342 Mycorrhizal Autochthonous Consortium Induced Defense-Related Mechanisms of Olive Trees against Verticillium dahliae

Authors: Hanane Boutaj, Abdelilah Meddich, Said Wahbi, Zainab El Alaoui-Talibi, Allal Douira, Abdelkarim Filali-Maltouf, Cherkaoui El Modafar

Abstract:

The present work aims to investigate the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in improving the olive tree resistance to Verticillium wilt caused by Verticillium dahliae. Inoculated plants with a mycorrhizal autochthonous consortium 'Rhizolive consortium' and pure strain 'Glomus irregulare' were infected after three months with V. dahliae. The improving of olive tree resistance was determined through disease severity, incidence, and defoliation. On the other hand, the defense mechanisms of olive plants were evaluated through lignin content, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity, and polyphenol content. The results revealed that both AMF significantly (p < 0.05) reduced disease development and the rate of defoliation in infected olive plants. Moreover, the contents of lignin were boosted after mycorrhizal inoculation in both the roots and the stems of olive plants, which remained significantly (p < 0.001) higher after the 90th days of V. dahliae inoculation. PAL activity was increased after V. dahliae inoculation in the stems of 'Rhizolive consortium' treatment that were 17 times higher than those in the roots of olive plants. The polyphenol content in the stems was about twice higher than those in the roots. The reduction of disease severity was accompanied by increased levels of lignin content, PAL activity, and polyphenol content, particularly in the stems of olive plants, indicating the strengthening of the olive plant immune system against V. dahliae.

Keywords: olive tree, Mycorrhizal autochthonous consortium, Glomus irregulare, Verticillium dahliae, defense mechanisms

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2341 Microscopic and Mesoscopic Deformation Behaviors of Mg-2Gd Alloy with or without Li Addition

Authors: Jing Li, Li Jin, Fulin Wang, Jie Dong, Wenjiang Ding

Abstract:

Mg-Li dual-phase alloy exhibits better combination of yield strength and elongation than the Mg single-phase alloy. To exploit its deformation behavior, the deformation mechanisms of Mg-2Gd alloy with or without Li addition, i.e., Mg-6Li-2Gd and Mg-2Gd alloy, have been studied at both microscale and mesoscale. EBSD-assisted slip trace, twin trace, and texture evolution analysis show that the α-Mg phase of Mg-6Li-2Gd alloy exhibits different microscopic deformation mechanisms with the Mg-2Gd alloy, i.e., mainly prismatic slip in the former one, while basal slip, prismatic slip and extension twin in the latter one. Further Schmid factor analysis results attribute this different intra-phase deformation mechanisms to the higher critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) value of extension twin and lower ratio of CRSSprismatic /CRSSbasal in the α-Mg phase of Mg-6Li-2Gd alloy. Additionally, Li addition can induce dual-phase microstructure in the Mg-6Li-2Gd alloy, leading to the formation of hetero-deformation induced (HDI) stress at the mesoscale. This can be evidenced by the hysteresis loops appearing during the loading-unloading-reloading (LUR) tensile tests and the activation of multiple slip activity in the α-Mg phase neighboring β-Li phase. The Mg-6Li-2Gd alloy shows higher yield strength is due to the harder α-Mg phase arising from solid solution hardening of Li addition, as well asthe strengthening of soft β-Li phase by the HDI stress during yield stage. Since the strain hardening rate of Mg-6Li-2Gd alloy is lower than that of Mg-2Gd alloy after ~2% strain, which is partly due to the weak contribution of HDI stress, Mg-6Li-2Gd alloy shows no obvious increase of uniform elongation than the Mg-2Gd alloy.But since the β-Li phase is effective in blunting the crack tips, the Mg-6Li-2Gd alloy shows ununiform elongation, which, thus, leads to the higher total elongation than the Mg-2Gd alloy.

Keywords: Mg-Li-Gd dual-phase alloy, phase boundary, HDI stress, dislocation slip activity, mechanical properties

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2340 Societal Acceptability Conditions of Genome Editing for Upland Rice in Madagascar

Authors: Anny Lucrece Nlend Nkott, Ludovic Temple

Abstract:

The appearance in 2012 of the CRISPR-CaS9 genome editing technique marks a turning point in the field of genetics. This technique would make it possible to create new varieties quickly and cheaply. Although some consider CRISPR-CaS9 to be revolutionary, others consider it a potential societal threat. To document the controversy, we explain the socioeconomic conditions under which this technique could be accepted for the creation of a rainfed rice variety in Madagascar. The methodological framework is based on 38 individual and semistructured interviews, a multistakeholder forum with 27 participants, and a survey of 148 rice producers. Results reveal that the acceptability of genome editing requires (i) strengthening the seed system through the operationalization of regulatory structures and the upgrading of stakeholders' knowledge of genetically modified organisms, (ii) assessing the effects of the edited variety on biodiversity and soil nitrogen dynamics, and (iii) strengthening the technical and human capacities of the biosafety body. Structural mechanisms for regulating the seed system are necessary to ensure safe experimentation of genome editing techniques. Organizational innovation also appears to be necessary. The study documents how collective learning between communities of scientists and nonscientists is a component of systemic processes of varietal innovation. This study was carried out with the financial support of the GENERICE project (Generation and Deployment of Genome-Edited, Nitrogen-use-Efficient Rice Varieties), funded by the Agropolis Foundation.

Keywords: CRISPR-CaS9, varietal innovation, seed system, innovation system

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2339 Punching Shear Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Flat Slabs Using Internal Square Patches of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer

Authors: Malik Assi

Abstract:

This research presents a strengthening technique for enhancing the punching shear resistance of concrete flat slabs. Internal square patches of CFRP were centrally installed inside 450*450mm concrete panels during casting at a chosen distance from the tension face to produce six simply supported samples. The dimensions of those patches ranged from 50*50mm to 360*360mm. All the examined slabs contained the same amount of tensile reinforcement, had identical dimensions, were designed according to the American Concrete Institute code (ACI) and tested to failure. Compared to the control unstrengthened spacemen, all the strengthened slabs have shown an enhancement in punching capacity and stiffness. This enhancement has been found to be proportional to the area of the installed CFRP patches. In addition to the reasonably enhanced stiffness and punching shear, this strengthening technique can change the slab failure mode from shear to flexural.

Keywords: CFRP patches, Flat slabs, Flexural, Stiffness, Punching shear

Procedia PDF Downloads 206