Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

Search results for: stitching

20 The Effect of Nylon and Kevlar Stitching on the Mode I Fracture of Carbon/Epoxy Composites

Authors: Nisrin R. Abdelal, Steven L. Donaldson

Abstract:

Composite materials are widely used in aviation industry due to their superior properties; however, they are susceptible to delamination. Through-thickness stitching is one of the techniques to alleviate delamination. Kevlar is one of the most common stitching materials; in contrast, it is expensive and presents stitching fabrication challenges. Therefore, this study compares the performance of Kevlar with an inexpensive and easy-to-use nylon fiber in stitching to alleviate delamination. Three laminates of unidirectional carbon fiber-epoxy composites were manufactured using vacuum assisted resin transfer molding process. One panel was stitched with Kevlar, one with nylon, and one unstitched. Mode I interlaminar fracture tests were carried out on specimens from the three composite laminates, and the results were compared. Fractographic analysis using optical and scanning electron microscope were conducted to reveal the differences between stitching with Kevlar and nylon on the internal microstructure of the composite with respect to the interlaminar fracture toughness values.

Keywords: carbon, delamination, Kevlar, mode I, nylon, stitching

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19 Effect of Stitching Pattern on Composite Tubular Structures Subjected to Quasi-Static Crushing

Authors: Ali Rabiee, Hessam Ghasemnejad

Abstract:

Extensive experimental investigation on the effect of stitching pattern on tubular composite structures was conducted. The effect of stitching reinforcement through thickness on using glass flux yarn on energy absorption of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) was investigated under high speed loading conditions at axial loading. Keeping the mass of the structure at 125 grams and applying different pattern of stitching at various locations in theory enables better energy absorption, and also enables the control over the behaviour of force-crush distance curve. The study consists of simple non-stitch absorber comparison with single and multi-location stitching behaviour and its effect on energy absorption capabilities. The locations of reinforcements are 10 mm, 20 mm, 30 mm, 10-20 mm, 10-30 mm, 20-30 mm, 10-20-30 mm and 10-15-20-25-30-35 mm from the top of the specimen. The effect of through the thickness reinforcements has shown increase in energy absorption capabilities and crushing load. The significance of this is that as the stitching locations are closer, the crushing load increases and consequently energy absorption capabilities are also increased. The implementation of this idea would improve the mean force by applying stitching and controlling the behaviour of force-crush distance curve.

Keywords: through-thickness stitching, 3D enforcement​, energy absorption, tubular composite structures

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18 Multiple Images Stitching Based on Gradually Changing Matrix

Authors: Shangdong Zhu, Yunzhou Zhang, Jie Zhang, Hang Hu, Yazhou Zhang

Abstract:

Image stitching is a very important branch in the field of computer vision, especially for panoramic map. In order to eliminate shape distortion, a novel stitching method is proposed based on gradually changing matrix when images are horizontal. For images captured horizontally, this paper assumes that there is only translational operation in image stitching. By analyzing each parameter of the homography matrix, the global homography matrix is gradually transferred to translation matrix so as to eliminate the effects of scaling, rotation, etc. in the image transformation. This paper adopts matrix approximation to get the minimum value of the energy function so that the shape distortion at those regions corresponding to the homography can be minimized. The proposed method can avoid multiple horizontal images stitching failure caused by accumulated shape distortion. At the same time, it can be combined with As-Projective-As-Possible algorithm to ensure precise alignment of overlapping area.

Keywords: image stitching, gradually changing matrix, horizontal direction, matrix approximation, homography matrix

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17 A New Approach to Image Stitching of Radiographic Images

Authors: Somaya Adwan, Rasha Majed, Lamya'a Majed, Hamzah Arof

Abstract:

In order to produce images with whole body parts, X-ray of different portions of the body parts is assembled using image stitching methods. A new method for image stitching that exploits mutually feature based method and direct based method to identify and merge pairs of X-ray medical images is presented in this paper. The performance of the proposed method based on this hybrid approach is investigated in this paper. The ability of the proposed method to stitch and merge the overlapping pairs of images is demonstrated. Our proposed method display comparable if not superior performance to other feature based methods that are mentioned in the literature on the standard databases. These results are promising and demonstrate the potential of the proposed method for further development to tackle more advanced stitching problems.

Keywords: image stitching, direct based method, panoramic image, X-ray

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16 The Review for Repair of Masonry Structures Using the Crack Stitching Technique

Authors: Sandile Daniel Ngidi

Abstract:

Masonry structures often crack due to different factors, which include differential movement of structures, thermal expansion, and seismic waves. Retrofitting is introduced to ensure that these cracks do not expand to a point of making the wall fail. Crack stitching is one of many repairing methods used to repair cracked masonry walls. It is done by stitching helical stainless steel reinforcement bars to reconnect and stabilize the wall. The basic element of this reinforcing system is the mechanical interlink between the helical stainless-steel bar and the grout, which makes it such a flexible and well-known masonry repair system. The objective of this review was to use previous experimental work done by different authors to check the efficiency and effectiveness of using the crack stitching technique to repair and stabilize masonry walls. The technique was found to be effective to rejuvenate the strength of a masonry structure to be stronger than initial strength. Different factors were investigated, which include economic features, sustainability, buildability, and suitability of this technique for application in developing communities.

Keywords: brickforce, crack-stitching, masonry concrete, reinforcement, wall panels

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15 Leukocyte Detection Using Image Stitching and Color Overlapping Windows

Authors: Lina, Arlends Chris, Bagus Mulyawan, Agus B. Dharmawan

Abstract:

Blood cell analysis plays a significant role in the diagnosis of human health. As an alternative to the traditional technique conducted by laboratory technicians, this paper presents an automatic white blood cell (leukocyte) detection system using Image Stitching and Color Overlapping Windows. The advantage of this method is to present a detection technique of white blood cells that are robust to imperfect shapes of blood cells with various image qualities. The input for this application is images from a microscope-slide translation video. The preprocessing stage is performed by stitching the input images. First, the overlapping parts of the images are determined, then stitching and blending processes of two input images are performed. Next, the Color Overlapping Windows is performed for white blood cell detection which consists of color filtering, window candidate checking, window marking, finds window overlaps, and window cropping processes. Experimental results show that this method could achieve an average of 82.12% detection accuracy of the leukocyte images.

Keywords: color overlapping windows, image stitching, leukocyte detection, white blood cell detection

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14 An Image Stitching Approach for Scoliosis Analysis

Authors: Siti Salbiah Samsudin, Hamzah Arof, Ainuddin Wahid Abdul Wahab, Mohd Yamani Idna Idris

Abstract:

Standard X-ray spine images produced by conventional screen-film technique have a limited field of view. This limitation may obstruct a complete inspection of the spine unless images of different parts of the spine are placed next to each other contiguously to form a complete structure. Another solution to producing a whole spine image is by assembling the digitized x-ray images of its parts automatically using image stitching. This paper presents a new Medical Image Stitching (MIS) method that utilizes Minimum Average Correlation Energy (MACE) filters to identify and merge pairs of x-ray medical images. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated in two sets of experiments involving two databases which contain a total of 40 pairs of overlapping and non-overlapping spine images. The experimental results are compared to those produced by the Normalized Cross Correlation (NCC) and Phase Only Correlation (POC) methods for comparison. It is found that the proposed method outperforms those of the NCC and POC methods in identifying both the overlapping and non-overlapping medical images. The efficacy of the proposed method is further vindicated by its average execution time which is about two to five times shorter than those of the POC and NCC methods.

Keywords: image stitching, MACE filter, panorama image, scoliosis

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13 Efficient Heuristic Algorithm to Speed Up Graphcut in Gpu for Image Stitching

Authors: Tai Nguyen, Minh Bui, Huong Ninh, Tu Nguyen, Hai Tran

Abstract:

GraphCut algorithm has been widely utilized to solve various types of computer vision problems. Its expensive computational cost encouraged many researchers to improve the speed of the algorithm. Recent works proposed schemes that work on parallel computing platforms such as CUDA. However, the problem of low convergence speed prevents the usage of GraphCut for real time applications. In this paper, we propose global suppression heuristic to boost the conver-gence process of the algorithm. A parallel implementation of GraphCut algorithm on CUDA designed for the image stitching problem is introduced. Our method achieves up to 3× time boost on the graph of size 80 × 480 compared to the best sequential GraphCut algorithm while achieving satisfactory stitched images, suitable for panorama applications. Our source code will be soon available for further research.

Keywords: CUDA, graph cut, image stitching, texture synthesis, maxflow/mincut algorithm

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12 Taguchi Approach for the Optimization of the Stitching Defects of Knitted Garments

Authors: Adel El-Hadidy

Abstract:

For any industry, the production and quality management or wastages reductions have major impingement on overall factory economy. This work discusses the quality improvement of garment industry by applying Pareto analysis, cause and effect diagram and Taguchi experimental design. The main purpose of the work is to reduce the stitching defects, which will also minimize the rejection and reworks rate. Application of Pareto chart, fish bone diagram and Process Sigma Level/and or Performance Level tools helps solving those problems on priority basis. Among all, only sewing, defects are responsible form 69.3% to 97.3 % of total defects. Process Sigma level has been improved from 0.79 to 1.3 and performance rate improved, from F to D level. The results showed that the new set of sewing parameters was superior to the original one. It can be seen that fabric size has the largest effect on the sewing defects and that needle size has the smallest effect on the stitching defects.

Keywords: garment, sewing defects, cost of rework, DMAIC, sigma level, cause and effect diagram, Pareto analysis

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11 Improving the Method for Characterizing Structural Fabrics for Shear Resistance and Formability

Authors: Dimitrios Karanatsis

Abstract:

Non-crimp fabrics (NCFs) allow for high mechanical performance of a manufacture composite component by maintaining the fibre reinforcements parallel to each other. The handling of NCFs is enabled by the stitching of the tows. Although the stitching material has negligible influence to the performance of the manufactured part, it can affect the ability of the structural fabric to shear and drape over the part’s geometry. High resistance to shearing is attributed to the high tensile strain of the stitching yarn and can cause defects in the fabric. In the current study, a correlation based on the stitch tension and shear behaviour is examined. The purpose of the research is to investigate the upper and lower limits of non-crimp fabrics manufacture and how these affect the shear behaviour of the fabrics. Experimental observations show that shear behaviour of the fabrics is significantly affected by the stitch tension, and there is a linear effect to the degree of shear they experience. It was found that the lowest possible stitch tension on the manufacturing line settings produces an NCF that exhibits very low tensile strain on it’s yarns and that has shear properties similar to a woven fabric. Moreover, the highest allowable stitch tension results in reduced formability of the fabric, as the stitch thread rearranges the fibre filaments where these become packed in a tight formation with constricted movement.

Keywords: carbon fibres, composite manufacture, shear testing, textiles

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10 Analysis of Splicing Methods for High Speed Automated Fibre Placement Applications

Authors: Phillip Kearney, Constantina Lekakou, Stephen Belcher, Alessandro Sordon

Abstract:

The focus in the automotive industry is to reduce human operator and machine interaction, so manufacturing becomes more automated and safer. The aim is to lower part cost and construction time as well as defects in the parts, sometimes occurring due to the physical limitations of human operators. A move to automate the layup of reinforcement material in composites manufacturing has resulted in the use of tapes that are placed in position by a robotic deposition head, also described as Automated Fibre Placement (AFP). The process of AFP is limited with respect to the finite amount of material that can be loaded into the machine at any one time. Joining two batches of tape material together involves a splice to secure the ends of the finishing tape to the starting edge of the new tape. The splicing method of choice for the majority of prepreg applications is a hand stich method, and as the name suggests requires human input to achieve. This investigation explores three methods for automated splicing, namely, adhesive, binding and stitching. The adhesive technique uses an additional adhesive placed on the tape ends to be joined. Binding uses the binding agent that is already impregnated onto the tape through the application of heat. The stitching method is used as a baseline to compare the new splicing methods to the traditional technique currently in use. As the methods will be used within a High Speed Automated Fibre Placement (HSAFP) process, this meant the parameters of the splices have to meet certain specifications: (a) the splice must be able to endure a load of 50 N in tension applied at a rate of 1 mm/s; (b) the splice must be created in less than 6 seconds, dictated by the capacity of the tape accumulator within the system. The samples for experimentation were manufactured with controlled overlaps, alignment and splicing parameters, these were then tested in tension using a tensile testing machine. Initial analysis explored the use of the impregnated binding agent present on the tape, as in the binding splicing technique. It analysed the effect of temperature and overlap on the strength of the splice. It was found that the optimum splicing temperature was at the higher end of the activation range of the binding agent, 100 °C. The optimum overlap was found to be 25 mm; it was found that there was no improvement in bond strength from 25 mm to 30 mm overlap. The final analysis compared the different splicing methods to the baseline of a stitched bond. It was found that the addition of an adhesive was the best splicing method, achieving a maximum load of over 500 N compared to the 26 N load achieved by a stitching splice and 94 N by the binding method.

Keywords: analysis, automated fibre placement, high speed, splicing

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9 Constructing the Density of States from the Parallel Wang Landau Algorithm Overlapping Data

Authors: Arman S. Kussainov, Altynbek K. Beisekov

Abstract:

This work focuses on building an efficient universal procedure to construct a single density of states from the multiple pieces of data provided by the parallel implementation of the Wang Landau Monte Carlo based algorithm. The Ising and Pott models were used as the examples of the two-dimensional spin lattices to construct their densities of states. Sampled energy space was distributed between the individual walkers with certain overlaps. This was made to include the latest development of the algorithm as the density of states replica exchange technique. Several factors of immediate importance for the seamless stitching process have being considered. These include but not limited to the speed and universality of the initial parallel algorithm implementation as well as the data post-processing to produce the expected smooth density of states.

Keywords: density of states, Monte Carlo, parallel algorithm, Wang Landau algorithm

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8 Inspection of Railway Track Fastening Elements Using Artificial Vision

Authors: Abdelkrim Belhaoua, Jean-Pierre Radoux

Abstract:

In France, the railway network is one of the main transport infrastructures and is the second largest European network. Therefore, railway inspection is an important task in railway maintenance to ensure safety for passengers using significant means in personal and technical facilities. Artificial vision has recently been applied to several railway applications due to its potential to improve the efficiency and accuracy when analyzing large databases of acquired images. In this paper, we present a vision system able to detect fastening elements based on artificial vision approach. This system acquires railway images using a CCD camera installed under a control carriage. These images are stitched together before having processed. Experimental results are presented to show that the proposed method is robust for detection fasteners in a complex environment.

Keywords: computer vision, image processing, railway inspection, image stitching, fastener recognition, neural network

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7 Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining Techniques in Textile Industry

Authors: Filiz Ersoz, Taner Ersoz, Erkin Guler

Abstract:

This paper addresses the issues and technique for textile industry using data mining techniques. Data mining has been applied to the stitching of garments products that were obtained from a textile company. Data mining techniques were applied to the data obtained from the CHAID algorithm, CART algorithm, Regression Analysis and, Artificial Neural Networks. Classification technique based analyses were used while data mining and decision model about the production per person and variables affecting about production were found by this method. In the study, the results show that as the daily working time increases, the production per person also decreases. In addition, the relationship between total daily working and production per person shows a negative result and the production per person show the highest and negative relationship.

Keywords: data mining, textile production, decision trees, classification

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6 A Board of Comparative Study of Central Secondary Education (CBSE) and Board of Secondry Education Madhya Pradesh BHOPAL (BSEMPB) Hindi Text Books of Class-VI

Authors: Shri Krishna Mishra, Badri Yadav

Abstract:

Proficient persons should be involved in formulation of the structure of the textbooks so that the topics selected in the Hindi textbooks for Class VII should contribute towards linguistic and literary development of the child and the language of the textbook matches the comprehension level of the student.The topics of tile textbooks should provide good illustrations and suitable exercises. Topics of variety of taste can be included in the textbook to satisfy the inquisitive children. There could be abstracts/hints at the beginning of each lesson. Meanings for difficult words must be given at the end of each topic for convenience of the parents and children as most of them find it difficult and time consuming to use Hindi dictionary. Exercises should be relevant covering the whole topic and the difficulty level should match the maturity level of the students in respect of CBSE Board. The stitching and binding of CBSE prescribed books may be improved to increase durability.

Keywords: comparative study of CBSE and BSEMPB, Central Secondary Education, Board of Secondry Education, BHOPAL

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5 Real-Time Web Map Service Based on Solar-Powered Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Authors: Sunghun Jung

Abstract:

The existing web map service providers contract with the satellite operators to update their maps by paying an astronomical amount of money, but the cost could be minimized by operating a cheap and small UAV. In contrast to the satellites, we only need to replace aged battery packs from time to time for the usage of UAVs. Utilizing both a regular camera and an infrared camera mounted on a small, solar-powered, long-endurance, and hoverable UAV, daytime ground surface photographs, and nighttime infrared photographs will be continuously and repeatedly uploaded to the web map server and overlapped with the existing ground surface photographs in real-time. The real-time web map service using a small, solar-powered, long-endurance, and hoverable UAV can also be applied to the surveillance missions, in particular, to detect border area intruders. The improved real-time image stitching algorithm is developed for the graphic map data overlapping. Also, a small home server will be developed to manage the huge size of incoming map data. The map photographs taken at tens or hundreds of kilometers by a UAV would improve the map graphic resolution compared to the map photographs taken at thousands of kilometers by satellites since the satellite photographs are limited by weather conditions.

Keywords: long-endurance, real-time web map service (RWMS), solar-powered, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)

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4 Delamination Fracture Toughness Benefits of Inter-Woven Plies in Composite Laminates Produced through Automated Fibre Placement

Authors: Jayden Levy, Garth M. K. Pearce

Abstract:

An automated fibre placement method has been developed to build through-thickness reinforcement into carbon fibre reinforced plastic laminates during their production, with the goal of increasing delamination fracture toughness while circumventing the additional costs and defects imposed by post-layup stitching and z-pinning. Termed ‘inter-weaving’, the method uses custom placement sequences of thermoset prepreg tows to distribute regular fibre link regions in traditionally clean ply interfaces. Inter-weaving’s impact on mode I delamination fracture toughness was evaluated experimentally through double cantilever beam tests (ASTM standard D5528-13) on [±15°]9 laminates made from Park Electrochemical Corp. E-752-LT 1/4” carbon fibre prepreg tape. Unwoven and inter-woven automated fibre placement samples were compared to those of traditional laminates produced from standard uni-directional plies of the same material system. Unwoven automated fibre placement laminates were found to suffer a mostly constant 3.5% decrease in mode I delamination fracture toughness compared to flat uni-directional plies. Inter-weaving caused significant local fracture toughness increases (up to 50%), though these were offset by a matching overall reduction. These positive and negative behaviours of inter-woven laminates were respectively found to be caused by fibre breakage and matrix deformation at inter-weave sites, and the 3D layering of inter-woven ply interfaces providing numerous paths of least resistance for crack propagation.

Keywords: AFP, automated fibre placement, delamination, fracture toughness, inter-weaving

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3 Real-Time Big-Data Warehouse a Next-Generation Enterprise Data Warehouse and Analysis Framework

Authors: Abbas Raza Ali

Abstract:

Big Data technology is gradually becoming a dire need of large enterprises. These enterprises are generating massively large amount of off-line and streaming data in both structured and unstructured formats on daily basis. It is a challenging task to effectively extract useful insights from the large scale datasets, even though sometimes it becomes a technology constraint to manage transactional data history of more than a few months. This paper presents a framework to efficiently manage massively large and complex datasets. The framework has been tested on a communication service provider producing massively large complex streaming data in binary format. The communication industry is bound by the regulators to manage history of their subscribers’ call records where every action of a subscriber generates a record. Also, managing and analyzing transactional data allows service providers to better understand their customers’ behavior, for example, deep packet inspection requires transactional internet usage data to explain internet usage behaviour of the subscribers. However, current relational database systems limit service providers to only maintain history at semantic level which is aggregated at subscriber level. The framework addresses these challenges by leveraging Big Data technology which optimally manages and allows deep analysis of complex datasets. The framework has been applied to offload existing Intelligent Network Mediation and relational Data Warehouse of the service provider on Big Data. The service provider has 50+ million subscriber-base with yearly growth of 7-10%. The end-to-end process takes not more than 10 minutes which involves binary to ASCII decoding of call detail records, stitching of all the interrogations against a call (transformations) and aggregations of all the call records of a subscriber.

Keywords: big data, communication service providers, enterprise data warehouse, stream computing, Telco IN Mediation

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2 Inclusive Design for Regaining Lost Identity: Accessible, Aesthetic and Effortless Clothing

Authors: S. Tandon, A. Oussoren

Abstract:

Clothing is a need for all humans. Besides serving the commonly understood function of protection, it also is a means of self-expression and adornment. However, most clothing for people with disabilities is developed to respond to their functional needs merely. Such clothing aggravates feelings of inadequacy and lowers their self-esteem. Investigations into apparel-related barriers faced by women with disabilities and their expectations and desires about clothing pointed to a huge void in terms of well-designed inclusive clothing. The incredible stories and experiences shared by the participants in this research highlighted the fact that people with disabilities wanted to feel, dress, and look at how they wanted to look by wearing what they wanted to wear. Clothing should be about self-expression – reflecting their moods, taste, and style and not limited to fulfilling merely their functional needs. Inclusive Design for Regaining Lost Identity was undertaken to design and develop accessible clothing that is inclusive and fashionable to foster psycho-social well-being and to enhance the self-esteem of women with disabilities. The research explored inclusive design solutions for the saree – a traditional Indian garment for women. The saree is an elaborate garment that requires precise draping, which makes the saree complicated to wear and inconvenient to carry, particularly for women with physical disabilities. For many women in India, the saree remains the customary dress, especially for work and occasions, yet minimal advancement has been made to enhance its accessibility and ease of use. The project followed a qualitative research approach whilst incorporating a combination of methods, which consisted of a questionnaire, an interview, and co-creation workshops. The research adhered to the principles of applied research such that the designed products aim to solve a problem that is functional and purposeful. In order to reduce the complications and to simplify the wrapping of the garment fabric around the body, different combinations of pre-stitching of the layers of the saree were created to investigate the outcomes. The technology of 3D drawing and printing was employed to develop feasible fasteners keeping in mind the participants’ movement limitations and to enhance their agency with these newly designed fasteners. The underlying principle of the project is that every individual should be able to access life the way they wish to and should not have to compromise their desires due to their disability.

Keywords: accessibility, co-creation, design ethics, inclusive

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1 Comparing Two Unmanned Aerial Systems in Determining Elevation at the Field Scale

Authors: Brock Buckingham, Zhe Lin, Wenxuan Guo

Abstract:

Accurate elevation data is critical in deriving topographic attributes for the precision management of crop inputs, especially water and nutrients. Traditional ground-based elevation data acquisition is time consuming, labor intensive, and often inconvenient at the field scale. Various unmanned aerial systems (UAS) provide the capability of generating digital elevation data from high-resolution images. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of two UAS with different global positioning system (GPS) receivers in determining elevation at the field scale. A DJI Phantom 4 Pro and a DJI Phantom 4 RTK(real-time kinematic) were applied to acquire images at three heights, including 40m, 80m, and 120m above ground. Forty ground control panels were placed in the field, and their geographic coordinates were determined using an RTK GPS survey unit. For each image acquisition using a UAS at a particular height, two elevation datasets were generated using the Pix4D stitching software: a calibrated dataset using the surveyed coordinates of the ground control panels and an uncalibrated dataset without using the surveyed coordinates of the ground control panels. Elevation values for each panel derived from the elevation model of each dataset were compared to the corresponding coordinates of the ground control panels. The coefficient of the determination (R²) and the root mean squared error (RMSE) were used as evaluation metrics to assess the performance of each image acquisition scenario. RMSE values for the uncalibrated elevation dataset were 26.613 m, 31.141 m, and 25.135 m for images acquired at 120 m, 80 m, and 40 m, respectively, using the Phantom 4 Pro UAS. With calibration for the same UAS, the accuracies were significantly improved with RMSE values of 0.161 m, 0.165, and 0.030 m, respectively. The best results showed an RMSE of 0.032 m and an R² of 0.998 for calibrated dataset generated using the Phantom 4 RTK UAS at 40m height. The accuracy of elevation determination decreased as the flight height increased for both UAS, with RMSE values greater than 0.160 m for the datasets acquired at 80 m and 160 m. The results of this study show that calibration with ground control panels improves the accuracy of elevation determination, especially for the UAS with a regular GPS receiver. The Phantom 4 Pro provides accurate elevation data with substantial surveyed ground control panels for the 40 m dataset. The Phantom 4 Pro RTK UAS provides accurate elevation at 40 m without calibration for practical precision agriculture applications. This study provides valuable information on selecting appropriate UAS and flight heights in determining elevation for precision agriculture applications.

Keywords: unmanned aerial system, elevation, precision agriculture, real-time kinematic (RTK)

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