Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2548

Search results for: steel moment connections

2548 Contribution of the SidePlate Beam-Column Connections to the Seismic Responses of Special Moment Frames

Authors: Gökhan Yüksel, Serdar Akça, İlker Kalkan


The present study is an attempt to demonstrate the significant levels of contribution of the moment-resisting beam-column connections with side plates to the earthquake behavior of special steel moment frames. To this end, the moment-curvature relationships of a regular beam-column connection and its SidePlate counterpart were determined with the help of finite element analyses. The connection stiffness and deformability values from these finite element analyses were used in the linear time-history analyses of an example structural steel frame under three different seismic excitations. The top-story lateral drift, base shear, and overturning moment values in two orthogonal directions were obtained from these time-history analyses and compared to each other. The results revealed the improvements in the system response with the use of SidePlate connections. The paper ends with crucial recommendations for the plan and design of further studies on this very topic.

Keywords: seismic detailing, special moment frame, steel structures, beam-column connection, earthquake-resistant design

Procedia PDF Downloads 21
2547 Analytical Modelling of the Moment-Rotation Behavior of Top and Seat Angle Connection with Stiffeners

Authors: Merve Sagiroglu


The earthquake-resistant steel structure design is required taking into account the behavior of beam-column connections besides the basic properties of the structure such as material and geometry. Beam-column connections play an important role in the behavior of frame systems. Taking into account the behaviour of connection in analysis and design of steel frames is important due to presenting the actual behavior of frames. So, the behavior of the connections should be well known. The most important force which transmitted by connections in the structural system is the moment. The rotational deformation is customarily expressed as a function of the moment in the connection. So, the moment-rotation curves are the best expression of behaviour of the beam-to-column connections. The designed connections form various moment-rotation curves according to the elements of connection and the shape of placement. The only way to achieve this curve is with real-scale experiments. The experiments of some connections have been carried out partially and are formed in the databank. It has been formed the models using this databank to express the behavior of connection. In this study, theoretical studies have been carried out to model a real behavior of the top and seat angles connections with angles. Two stiffeners in the top and seat angle to increase the stiffness of the connection, and two stiffeners in the beam web to prevent local buckling are used in this beam-to-column connection. Mathematical models have been performed using the database of the beam-to-column connection experiments previously by authors. Using the data of the tests, it has been aimed that analytical expressions have been developed to obtain the moment-rotation curve for the connection details whose test data are not available. The connection has been dimensioned in various shapes and the effect of the dimensions of the connection elements on the behavior has been examined.

Keywords: top and seat angle connection, stiffener, moment-rotation curves, analytical study

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
2546 Analysis of Moment Rotation Curve for Steel Beam Column Joint

Authors: A. J. Shah, G. R. Vesmawala


Connections perform a fundamental role in the steel structures as global behaviour. In order to evaluate the real influence of the physical and geometrical parameters that control their behaviour, many experimental tests and analysis have been developed but a definitive answer to the problem in question still stands. Here, various configurations of bolts were tried and the resulting moment rotation (M-θ) curves were plotted. The connection configuration is such that two bolts are located above each of the flanges and beside each of the webs. The model considers the combined effects of prying action, the formation of yield lines, and failures due to punching shear and beam section failure. For many types of connections, the stiffness at the service load level falls somewhere in between the fully restrained and simple limits and designers need to account for its behaviour. The (M-θ) curves are generally assumed to be the best characterization of connection behaviour. The moment rotation curves are generally derived from experiments on cantilever type specimens. The moments are calculated directly from the statics of the specimen, while the rotations are measured over a distance typically equal to the point of loading. Thus, this paper establishes the relationship between M-θ behaviour of different types of connections tested and presents the relative strength of various possible arrangements of bolts.

Keywords: bolt, moment, rotation, stiffness, connections

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
2545 Finite Element Analysis of Cold Formed Steel Screwed Connections

Authors: Jikhil Joseph, S. R. Satish Kumar


Steel Structures are commonly used for rapid erections and multistory constructions due to its inherent advantages. However, the high accuracy required in detailing and heavier sections, make it difficult to erect in place and transport. Cold Formed steel which are specially made by reducing carbon and other alloys are used nowadays to make thin-walled structures. Various types of connections are being reported as well as practiced for the thin-walled members such as bolting, riveting, welding and other mechanical connections. Commonly self-drilling screw connections are used for cold-formed purlin sheeting connection. In this paper an attempt is made to develop a moment resting frame which can be rapidly and remotely constructed with thin walled sections and self-drilling screws. Semi-rigid Moment connections are developed with Rectangular thin-walled tubes and the screws. The Finite Element Analysis programme ABAQUS is used for modelling the screwed connections. The various modelling procedures for simulating the connection behavior such as tie-constraint model, oriented spring model and solid interaction modelling are compared and are critically reviewed. From the experimental validations the solid-interaction modelling identified to be the most accurate one and are used for predicting the connection behaviors. From the finite element analysis, hysteresis curves and the modes of failure were identified. Parametric studies were done on the connection model to optimize the connection configurations to get desired connection characteristics.

Keywords: buckling, cold formed steel, finite element analysis, screwed connections

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
2544 Non-Linear Static Analysis of Screwed Moment Connections in Cold-Formed Steel Frames

Authors: Jikhil Joseph, Satish Kumar S R.


Cold-formed steel frames are preferable for framed constructions due to its low seismic weights and results into low seismic forces, but on the contrary, significant lateral deflections are expected under seismic/wind loading. The various factors affecting the lateral stiffness of steel frames are the stiffness of connections, beams and columns. So, by increasing the stiffness of beam, column and making the connections rigid will enhance the lateral stiffness. The present study focused on Structural elements made of rectangular hollow sections and fastened with screwed in-plane moment connections for the building frames. The self-drilling screws can be easily drilled on either side of the connection area with the help of gusset plates. The strength of screwed connections can be made 1.2 times the connecting elements. However, achieving high stiffness in connections is also a challenging job. Hence in addition to beam and column stiffness’s the connection stiffness are also going to be a governing parameter in the lateral deflections of the frames. SAP 2000 Non-linear static analysis has been planned to study the seismic behavior of steel frames. The SAP model will be consisting of nonlinear spring model for the connection to account the semi-rigid connections and the nonlinear hinges will be assigned for beam and column sections according to FEMA 273 guidelines. The reliable spring and hinge parameters will be assigned based on an experimental and analytical database. The non-linear static analysis is mainly focused on the identification of various hinge formations and the estimation of lateral deflection and these will contribute as an inputs for the direct displacement-based Seismic design. The research output from this study are the modelling techniques and suitable design guidelines for the performance-based seismic design of cold-formed steel frames.

Keywords: buckling, cold formed steel, nonlinear static analysis, screwed connections

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2543 Vulnerability of Steel Moment-Frame Buildings with Pinned and, Alternatively, with Semi-Rigid Connections

Authors: Daniel Llanes, Alfredo Reyes, Sonia E. Ruiz, Federico Valenzuela Beltran


Steel frames have been used in building construction for more than one hundred years. Beam-column may be connected to columns using either stiffened or unstiffened angles at the top and bottom beam flanges. Designers often assume that these assemblies acted as “pinned” connections for gravity loads and that the stiffened connections would act as “fixed” connections for lateral loads. Observation of damages sustained by buildings during the 1994 Northridge earthquake indicated that, contrary to the intended behavior, in many cases, brittle fractures initiated within the connections at very low levels of plastic demand, and in some cases, while the structures remained essentially elastic. Due to the damage presented in these buildings other type of alternative connections have been proposed. According to a research funded by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the screwed connections have better performance when they are subjected to cyclic loads, but at the same time, these connections have some degree of flexibility. Due to this situation, some researchers ventured into the study of semi-rigid connections. In the present study three steel buildings, constituted by regular frames are analyzed. Two types of connections are considered: pinned and semi-rigid connections. With the aim to estimate their structural capacity, a number of incremental dynamic analyzes are performed. 3D structural models are used for the analyses. The seismic ground motions were recorded on sites near Los Angeles, California, where the structures are supposed to be located. The vulnerability curves of the building are obtained in terms of maximum inter-story drifts. The vulnerability curves (which correspond to the models with two different types of connections) are compared, and its implications on its structural design and performance is discussed.

Keywords: steel frame Buildings, vulnerability curves, semi-rigid connections, pinned connections

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
2542 Robustness of Steel Beam to Column Moment Resisting Joints

Authors: G. Culache, M. P. Byfield, N. S. Ferguson, A. Tyas


Steel joints in building structures represent a weak link in the case of accidental transient loading. This type of loading can occur due to blast effects or impact with moving vehicles and will result in large deformations in the material as well as large rotations. This paper addresses the lack of experimental investigations into the response of moment resisting connections subjected to such loading. The current design philosophy was used to create test specimens with flush and extended end plates. The specimens were tested in a specially designed testing rig capable of delivering the sustained loading even beyond the point of failure. Types of failure that the authors attempted to obtain were bolt fracture, flange crushing and end plate fracture. Experimental data is presented, described and analyzed. The tests show that the strength and ductility can be significantly improved by replacing ordinary mild-steel bolts with their stainless steel equivalents. This minor modification is demonstrated to significantly improve the robustness when subjected to loading that results in high deformations and rotation, where loading is maintained during failure. Conclusions are drawn about the wider implications of this research and recommendations made on the direction of future research in this field.

Keywords: steel moment connections, high strain rates, dynamic loading, experimental testing

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
2541 New Moment Rotation Model of Single Web Angle Connections

Authors: Zhengyi Kong, Seung-Eock Kim


Single angle connections, which are bolted to the beam web and the column flange, are studied to investigate moment-rotation behavior. Elastic–perfectly plastic material behavior is assumed. ABAQUS software is used to analyze the nonlinear behavior of a single angle connection. The same geometric and material conditions with Yanglin Gong’s test are used for verifying finite element models. Since Kishi and Chen’s Power model and Lee and Moon’s Log model are accurate only for a limited range, simpler and more accurate hyperbolic function models are proposed. The equation for calculating rotation at ultimate moment is first proposed.

Keywords: finite element method, moment and rotation, rotation at ultimate moment, single-web angle connections

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
2540 Ductility of Slab-Interior Column Connections Transferring Shear and Moment

Authors: Omar M. Ben-Sasi


Ductility of slab-column connections of flat slab structures is a desirable property that should be considered when designing such connections which are susceptible to punching failure around their columns. Tests to failure on six half-scale specimens were conducted for slab-interior column connections transferring shear force and unbalanced moment. The influences on connection ductility of four parameters; namely, the moment to shear force ratio, the ratio of column side length to slab effective depth, the aspect ratio of the column cross section, and the presence of four square openings located next to column corners were investigated. The study revealed marked effects of these parameters on connection ductility. Increasing the first and second parameters, were found to be in favor of increasing connection ductility, while the third and fourth parameters were found to have negative effects on the connection ductility. These findings should, hopefully, help in designing interior connections of flat slab structures.

Keywords: ductility, flat slab, failure, shear force, moment, unbalanced moment, punching failure, connection, interior-column connection

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
2539 The Influence of Steel Connection on Fire Resistance of Composite Steel-Framed Buildings

Authors: Mohammed Kadhim, Zhaohui Huang


Steel connections can play an important role in enhancing the robustness of structures under fire conditions. Therefore, it is significant to examine the influence of steel connections on the fire resistance of composite steel-framed buildings. In this paper, both the behavior of steel connections and their influence on composite steel frame are analyzed using the non-linear finite element computer software VULCAN at ambient and elevated temperatures. The chosen frame is subjected to ISO834 fire. The comparison between end plate connections, pinned connection, and rigid connection has been carried out. By applying different compartment fires, some cases are studied to show the behavior of steel connection when the fire is applied at certain beams. In addition, different plate thickness and deferent applied loads have been analyzed to examine the behavior of chosen steel connection under ISO834 fire. It was found from the analytical results that the beam with extended end plate is stronger and has better performance in terms of axial forces than those beams with flush end plate connection. It was also found that extended end plate connection has highest limiting temperatures compared to the flush end plate connection. In addition, it was found that the performance of end-plate connections is very close to rigid connection and very far from pinned connections. Furthermore, plate thickness has less effect on the influence of steel connection on fire resistance. In conclusion, the behavior of composite steel framed buildings is largely dependent on the steel connection due to their high impact under fire condition. It is recommended to consider the extended end-plate in the design proposes because of its higher properties compared to the flush end plate connection. Finally, this paper shows a steel connection has an important effect on the fire resistance of composite steel framed buildings.

Keywords: composite steel-framed buildings, connection behavior, end-plate connections, finite element modeling, fire resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
2538 Through-Bolt Moment Connection in HSS Column

Authors: Bardia Khafaf, Mehrdad Ghaffari, Amir Hussein Samakar


It is currently desirable to use Hollow Square Sections (HSS) in moment resistant structures in construction of building because they offer fewer restrictions for designing and more useful space while adhering to build design codes. This paper present a through bolt connection in HSS column. This connection meets building code standards that require the moment resistant connections to deflect and absorb energy resulting from gravity and seismic loads. Connection through bolts is installed and pretension to provide the connection strength needed to make a beam–column moment rigid zone. A rigid joint is typically used to resist lateral forces by holding columns and beams fixed in relation to one another. With bolted moment frames using HSS columns, a through–bolt connection could be used to secure the beam and end plate to the column. However, when multiple columns and beams are used to span a length of building, the use of through-bolts would necessities aligning multiple beams simultaneously to the columns. In the case of a linear span, the assembly process requires the holes of a first beam end plate to be aligned with through bolt holes in a column and aligning the holes of a second, opposing beam plate with the column through bolt, then inserting the through bolts in each hole for tightening with nuts and washers. In moment resistant building, a problem arises when assembling beams to columns where multiple beams and columns are required. Through bolt, moment connections are among the economical, practical and not difficult rigid steel connection for HSS column building. In this paper, the results of numerous analytical studies performed for moment structures with HSS columns with through bolt based on AISC standard codes are shown.

Keywords: through bolt, moment resistant connection, HSS columns section, construction engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
2537 The Impact of Steel Connections on the Fire Resistance of Composite Buildings

Authors: Shuyuan Lin, Zhaohui Huang, Mizi Fan


In the majority of previous research into modelling large scale composite floor subjected to fire, the beam-to-column and beam-to-beam connections were assumed to behave either as pinned or rigid for simplicity, and the vertical shear and axial tension failures of the connection were not taken into account. We have recently developed robust two-noded connection models for modeling endplate and partial endplate steel connections under fire conditions. The main objective of this research is to systematically investigate the impact of the connections of protected beams, on the tensile membrane actions of supported floor slabs in which the failures of the connections, such as, axial tension, vertical shear and bending are accounted for. The models developed have very good numerical stability under a static solver condition, and can be used for large scale modelling of composite buildings in fire.

Keywords: fire, steel structure, component-based model, beam-to-column connections

Procedia PDF Downloads 374
2536 Seismic Behavior of Three-Dimensional Steel Buildings with Post-Tensioned Connections

Authors: Manuel E. Soto-López, Israel Gaxiola-Avendaño, Alfredo Reyes-Salazar, Eden Bojórquez, Sonia E. Ruiz


The seismic responses of steel buildings with semi-rigid post-tensioned connections (PC) are estimated and compared with those of steel buildings with typical rigid (welded) connections (RC). The comparison is made in terms of global and local response parameters. The results indicate that the seismic responses in terms of interstory shears, roof displacements, axial load and bending moments are smaller for the buildings with PC connection. The difference is larger for global than for local parameters, which in turn varies from one column location to another. The reason for this improved behavior is that the buildings with PC dissipate more hysteretic energy than those with RC. In addition, unlike the case of buildings with WC, for the PC structures the hysteretic energy is mostly dissipated at the connections, which implies that structural damage in beams and columns is not significant. According to this results, steel buildings with PC are a viable option in highseismicity areas because of their smaller response and self-centering connection capacity as well as the fact that brittle failure is avoided.

Keywords: inter-story drift, nonlinear time-history analysis, post-tensioned connections, steel buildings

Procedia PDF Downloads 423
2535 Effect of Adding Horizontal Steel Bracing System to Ordinary Moment Steel Frames Subjected to Wind Load

Authors: Yousef Al-Qaryouti, Besan Alagawani


The main concern of this study is to evaluate the effect of adding horizontal steel bracing system to ordinary moment resisting steel frames subjected to wind load. Similar frames without bracing systems are also to be compared. A general analytical study was carried out to obtain the influence of such system in resisting wind load. Linear static analysis has been carried out using ETABS software by applying fixed wind load defined according to ASCE7-10 for three-, six-, nine-, and twelve-story ordinary moment steel frame buildings including and not including horizontal steel bracing system. The results showed that the lateral drift due to wind load decreased by adding horizontal bracing system. Also, the results show that effect of such system is more efficient to low-rise buildings.

Keywords: horizontal bracing system, steel moment frames, wind load resisting system, linear static analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
2534 Seismic Response of Moment Resisting Steel Frame with Hysteresis Envelope Model of Joints

Authors: Krolo Paulina


The seismic response of moment-resisting steel frames depends on the behavior of the joints, especially when they are considered as ductile zones. The aim of this research is to provide a realistic assessment of the moment-resisting steel frame behavior under seismic loading using nonlinear static pushover analysis (N2 method). The hysteresis behavior of the joints in the frame model was described using a new hysteresis envelope model. The obtained seismic response was compared with the results of the seismic analysis obtained for the same steel frame that takes into account the monotonic model of the joints.

Keywords: beam-to-column joints, hysteresis envelope model, moment-resisting frame, nonlinear static pushover analysis, N2 method

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2533 First Cracking Moments of Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Polymer-Steel Reinforced Concrete Beams

Authors: Saruhan Kartal, Ilker Kalkan


The present paper reports the cracking moment estimates of a set of steel-reinforced, Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP)-reinforced and hybrid steel-FRP reinforced concrete beams, calculated from different analytical formulations in the codes, together with the experimental cracking load values. A total of three steel-reinforced, four FRP-reinforced, 12 hybrid FRP-steel over-reinforced and five hybrid FRP-steel under-reinforced concrete beam tests were analyzed within the scope of the study. Glass FRP (GFRP) and Basalt FRP (BFRP) bars were used in the beams as FRP bars. In under-reinforced hybrid beams, rupture of the FRP bars preceded crushing of concrete, while concrete crushing preceded FRP rupture in over-reinforced beams. In both types, steel yielding took place long before the FRP rupture and concrete crushing. The cracking moment mainly depends on two quantities, namely the moment of inertia of the section at the initiation of cracking and the flexural tensile strength of concrete, i.e. the modulus of rupture. In the present study, two different definitions of uncracked moment of inertia, i.e. the gross and the uncracked transformed moments of inertia, were adopted. Two analytical equations for the modulus of rupture (ACI 318M and Eurocode 2) were utilized in the calculations as well as the experimental tensile strength of concrete from prismatic specimen tests. The ACI 318M modulus of rupture expression produced cracking moment estimates closer to the experimental cracking moments of FRP-reinforced and hybrid FRP-steel reinforced concrete beams when used in combination with the uncracked transformed moment of inertia, yet the Eurocode 2 modulus of rupture expression gave more accurate cracking moment estimates in steel-reinforced concrete beams. All of the analytical definitions produced analytical values considerably different from the experimental cracking load values of the solely FRP-reinforced concrete beam specimens.

Keywords: polymer reinforcement, four-point bending, hybrid use of reinforcement, cracking moment

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2532 Finite Element Study of Coke Shape Deep Beam to Column Moment Connection Subjected to Cyclic Loading

Authors: Robel Wondimu Alemayehu, Sihwa Jung, Manwoo Park, Young K. Ju


Following the aftermath of the 1994 Northridge earthquake, intensive research on beam to column connections is conducted, leading to the current design basis. The current design codes require the use of either a prequalified connection or a connection that passes the requirements of large-scale cyclic qualification test prior to use in intermediate or special moment frames. The second alternative is expensive both in terms of money and time. On the other hand, the maximum beam depth in most of the prequalified connections is limited to 900mm due to the reduced rotation capacity of deeper beams. However, for long span beams the need to use deeper beams may arise. In this study, a beam to column connection detail suitable for deep beams is presented. The connection detail comprises of thicker-tapered beam flange adjacent to the beam to column connection. Within the thicker-tapered flange region, two reduced beam sections are provided with the objective of forming two plastic hinges within the tapered-thicker flange region. In addition, the length, width, and thickness of the tapered-thicker flange region are proportioned in such a way that a third plastic hinge forms at the end of the tapered-thicker flange region. As a result, the total rotation demand is distributed over three plastic zones. Making it suitable for deeper beams that have lower rotation capacity at one plastic hinge. The effectiveness of this connection detail is studied through finite element analysis. For the study, a beam that has a depth of 1200mm is used. Additionally, comparison with welded unreinforced flange-welded web (WUF-W) moment connection and reduced beam section moment connection is made. The results show that the rotation capacity of a WUF-W moment connection is increased from 2.0% to 2.2% by applying the proposed moment connection detail. Furthermore, the maximum moment capacity, energy dissipation capacity and stiffness of the WUF-W moment connection is increased up to 58%, 49%, and 32% respectively. In contrast, applying the reduced beam section detail to the same WUF-W moment connection reduced the rotation capacity from 2.0% to 1.50% plus the maximum moment capacity and stiffness of the connection is reduced by 22% and 6% respectively. The proposed connection develops three plastic hinge regions as intended and it shows improved performance compared to both WUF-W moment connection and reduced beam section moment connection. Moreover, the achieved rotation capacity satisfies the minimum required for use in intermediate moment frames.

Keywords: connections, finite element analysis, seismic design, steel intermediate moment frame

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2531 The Capacity of Bolted and Screw Connections in Cold-Formed Steel Truss Structure through Analytical and Experimental Method

Authors: Slamet Setioboro, Rahutami Kusumaningsih, Prabowo Setiyawan, Danna Darmayadi


Designing of cold-formed steel capacity connections often based on the formula used for hot rolled steel. It makes the result of the actual capacity connection doesn’t accurate anymore. When the hot rolled steel receives the axial load pull, it will have different characteristics. As the result, there will be failure result when designing Truss structure made of hot rolled steel. This research aims to determine the capacity of actual cold-formed steel connections section which is loaded by the axial tensile force. It will test the appeal of the connection using bolt grafting tool and screw grafting tool. The variations of the test will be on the type of connection (single and double slap), the number of the connection tools and connection configuration. Bold and screw connections failure mode observed in this research are different each other. Failure mode of bolted connections includes sliding pivot plate, tearing at the plate and cutting of the bolt head. While the failure mode of screw connections includes tilting, hole-bearing, pull over and cutting the screw body out. This research was conducted using a laboratory test of HW2-600S Universal Testing Machine model with ASTM E8. It has done in the materials testing laboratory of Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering UNNES. The results obtained through the laboratory diversification towards theoretical calculations using the standards specified in ISO 7971-2013 Cold-Rolled Steel Structures. Based on the research, it can be concluded that the effective connection in receiving force strength is bolted connections neither single nor double plate. The method used is by applying 4 bolts through 2 parallel lines configuration. Furthermore, this connection deals with the consequences of holding the highest Pmaks, lowest failure risk and getting a little kind of mode of failure.

Keywords: axial load, cold-formed steel, capacity connections, bolted connections, screw connections

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2530 Effects of the Mass and Damping Matrix Model in the Non-Linear Seismic Response of Steel Frames

Authors: Alfredo Reyes-Salazar, Mario D. Llanes-Tizoc, Eden Bojorquez, Federico Valenzuela-Beltran, Juan Bojorquez, Jose R. Gaxiola-Camacho, Achintya Haldar


Seismic analysis of steel buildings is usually based on the use of the concentrated mass (ML) matrix and the Rayleigh damping matrix (C). Similarly, the initial stiffness matrix (KO) and the first two modes associated with lateral vibrations are commonly used to develop matrix C. The evaluation of the accuracy of these practices for the particular case of steel buildings with moment-resisting steel frames constitutes the main objective of this research. For this, the non-linear seismic responses of three models of steel frames, representing low-, medium- and high-rise steel buildings, are considered. Results indicate that if the ML matrix is used, shears and bending moments in columns are underestimated by up to 30% and 65%, respectively when compared to the corresponding results obtained with the consistent mass matrix (MC). It is also shown that if KO is used in C instead of the tangent stiffness matrix (Kt), axial loads in columns are underestimated by up to 80%. It is concluded that the consistent mass matrix should be used in the structural modelling of moment-resisting steel frames and that the tangent stiffness matrix should be used to develop the Rayleigh damping matrix.

Keywords: moment-resisting steel frames, consistent and concentrated mass matrices, non-linear seismic response, Rayleigh damping

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2529 An Analytical Study on Rotational Capacity of Beam-Column Joints in Unit Modular Frames

Authors: Kyung-Suk Choi, Hyung-Joon Kim


Modular structural systems are constructed using a method that they are assembled with prefabricated unit modular frames on-site. This provides a benefit that can significantly reduce building construction time. Their structural design is usually carried out under the assumption that the load-carrying mechanism is similar to that of a traditional steel moment-resisting system. However, both systems are different in terms of beam-column connection details which may strongly influence the lateral structural behavior. Specially, the presence of access holes in a beam-column joint of a unit modular frame could cause undesirable failure during strong earthquakes. Therefore, this study carried out finite element analyses (FEM) of unit modular frames to investigate the cyclic behavior of beam-column joints with the structural influence of access holes. Analysis results show that the unit modular frames present stable cyclic response with large deformation capacities, and their joints are classified into semi-rigid connections.

Keywords: unit modular frame, steel moment connection, nonlinear analytical model, moment-rotation relation

Procedia PDF Downloads 490
2528 SMRF Seismic Response: Unequal Beam Depths

Authors: Babak H. Mamaqani, Alimohammad Entezarmahdi


There are many researches on parameters affecting seismic behavior of steel moment frames. Great deal of these researches considers cover plate connections with or without haunch and direct beam to column connection for exterior columns. Also there are experimental results for interior connections with equal beam depth on both sides but not much research has been performed on the seismic behavior of joints with unequal beam depth. Based on previous experimental results, a series of companion analyses have been set up considering different beam height and connection detailing configuration to investigate the seismic behavior of the connections. Results of this study indicate that when the differences between beams height on both side increases, use of haunch connection system leads to significant improvement in the seismic response whereas other configurations did not provide satisfying results.

Keywords: analytical modeling, Haunch connection, seismic design, unequal beam depth

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
2527 The Side Effect of the Perforation Shape towards Behaviour Flexural in Castellated Beam

Authors: Harrys Purnama, Wardatul Jannah, Rizkia Nita Hawari


In the development of the times, there are many materials used to plan a building structure. Steel became one of the most widely used materials in building construction that works as the main structure. Steel Castellated Beam is a type of innovation in the use of steel in building construction. Steel Castellated Beam is a beam that used for long span construction (more than 10 meters). The Castellated Beam is two steel profiles that unified into one to get the appropriate profile height (more than 10 meters). The profile is perforated to minimize the profile's weight, increase the rate, save costs, and have architectural value. The perforations shape in the Castellated Beam can be circular, elliptical, hexagonal, and rectangular. The Castellated beam has a height (h) almost 50% higher than the initial profile thus increasing the axial bending value and the moment of inertia (Iₓ). In this analysis, there are 3 specimens were used with 12.1 meters span of Castellated Beam as the sample with varied perforation, such us round, hexagon, and octagon. Castellated Beam testing system is done with computer-based applications that named Staad Pro V8i. It is to provide a central load in the middle of the steel beam span. It aims to determine the effect of perforation on bending behavior on the steel Castellated Beam by applying some form of perforations on the steel Castellated Beam with test specimen WF From the analysis, results found the behavior of steel Castellated Beam when receiving such central load. From the results of the analysis will be obtained the amount of load, shear, strain, and Δ (deflection). The result of analysis by using Staad Pro V8i shows that with the different form of perforations on the profile of Castellated steel, then we get the different tendency of inertia moment. From the analysis, results obtained the moment of the greatest inertia can increase the stiffness of Castellated steel. By increasing the stiffness of the steel Castellated Beam the deflection will be smaller, so it can withstand the moment and a large strength. The results of the analysis show that the most effective and efficient perforations are the steel beam with a hexagon perforation shape.

Keywords: Castellated Beam, the moment of inertia, stress, deflection, bending test

Procedia PDF Downloads 99
2526 The Experimental Study of Cold-Formed Steel Truss Connections Capacity: Screw and Adhesive Connection

Authors: Indra Komara, Kıvanç Taşkin, Endah Wahyuni, Priyo Suprobo


A series of connection tests that were composed of Cold-Formed Steel (CFS) sections were made to investigate the capacity of connections in a roof truss frame. The connection is controlled by using the two-different type of connection i.e. screws connection and adhesive. The variation of screws is also added applying 1 screw, 2 screws, and 3 screws. On the other hand, the percentage of adhesively material is increased by the total area of screws connection which is 50%, 75%, and 100%. Behaviors illustrated by each connection are examined, and the design capacities projected from the current CFS design codes are appealed to the experimental results of the connections. This research analyses the principal factors assisting in the ductile response of the CFS truss frame connection measured to propose recommendations for connection design, and novelty so that the connection respond plastically with a significant capacity for no brittle failure. Furthermore, the comparison connection was considered for the analysis of the connection capacity, which was estimated from the specimen’s maximum load capacity and the load-deformation behavior.

Keywords: adhesive, bolts, capacity, cold-formed steel, connections, truss

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
2525 Investigation of the Corroded Steel Beam

Authors: Hesamaddin Khoshnoodi, Ahmad Rahbar Ranji


Corrosion in steel structures is one of the most important issues that should be considered in designing and constructing. Corrosion reduces the cross section and load capacity of element and leads to costly damage of structures. In this paper, the corrosion has been modeled for moment stresses. Moreover, the steel beam has been modeled using ABAQUS advanced finite element software. The conclusions of this study demonstrated that the displacement of the analyzed composite steel girder bridge might increase.

Keywords: Abaqus, Corrosion, deformation, Steel Beam

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
2524 Determination of Failure Modes of Screwed Connections in Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Authors: Mahyar Maali, Merve Sagiroglu


Steel, which is one of the base materials we prefer in the building construction, is the material with the highest ratio to weight of carrying capacity. Due to the carrying capacity, lighter and better quality steel in smaller sections and sizes has recently been used as a frame system in cold-formed steel structures. While light steel elements used as secondary frame elements during the past, they have nowadays started to be preferred as the main frame in low/middle story buildings and detached houses with advantages such as quick and easy installation, time-saving, and small amount of scrap. It is also economically ideal because the weight of structure is lighter than other steel profiles. Structural performances and failure modes of cold-formed structures are different from conventional ones due to their thin-walled structures. One of the most important elements of light steel structures to ensure stability is the connection. The screwed connections, which have self-drilling properties with special drilling tools, are widely used in the installation of cold-formed profiles. The length of the screw is selected according to the total thickness of the elements after the screw thickness is determined according to the elements of connections. The thickness of the material depends on the length of the drilling portion at the end of the screw. The shear tests of plates connected with self-drilling screws are carried out depending on the screw length, and their failure modes were evaluated in this study.

Keywords: cold-formed steel, screwed connection, connection, screw length

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2523 Aftershock Collapse Capacity Assessment of Mid-Rise Steel Moment Frames Subjected to As-Recorded Mainshock-Aftershock

Authors: Mohammadmehdi Torfehnejada, Serhan Senso


Aftershock collapse capacity of Special Steel Moment Frames (SSMFs) is evaluated under aftershock earthquakes by considering building heights 8 and 12 stories. The assessment evaluates the residual collapse capacity under aftershock excitation when various levels of damage have been induced by the mainshock. For this purpose, incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) under aftershock follows the mainshock imposing the intended damage level. The study results indicate that aftershock collapse capacity of this structure may decrease remarkably when the structure is subjected to large mainshock damage. The capacity reduction under aftershock is finally related to the mainshock damage level through regression equations.

Keywords: aftershock collapse capacity, special steel moment frames, mainshock-aftershock sequences, incremental dynamic analysis, mainshock damage

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2522 Enhancing Seismic Performance of Ductile Moment Frames with Delayed Wire-Rope Bracing Using Middle Steel Plate

Authors: Babak Dizangian, Mohammad Reza Ghasemi, Akram Ghalandari


Moment frames have considerable ductility against cyclic lateral loads and displacements; however, if this feature causes the relative displacement to exceed the permissible limit, it can impose unfavorable hysteretic behavior on the frame. Therefore, adding a bracing system with the capability of preserving the capacity of high energy absorption and controlling displacements without a considerable increase in the stiffness is quite important. This paper investigates the retrofitting of a single storey steel moment frame through a delayed wire-rope bracing system using a middle steel plate. In this model, the steel plate lies where the wire ropes meet, and the model geometry is such that the cables are continuously under tension so that they can take the most advantage of the inherent potential they have in tolerating tensile stress. Using the steel plate also reduces the system stiffness considerably compared to cross bracing systems and preserves the ductile frame’s energy absorption capacity. In this research, the software models of delayed wire-rope bracing system have been studied, validated, and compared with other researchers’ laboratory test results.

Keywords: cyclic loading, delayed wire rope bracing, ductile moment frame, energy absorption, hysteresis curve

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2521 A Simple Design Procedure for Calculating the Column Ultimate Load of Steel Frame Structures

Authors: Abdul Hakim Chikho


Calculating the ultimate load of a column in a sway framed structure involves, in the currently used design method, the calculation of the column effective length and utilizing the interaction formulas or tables. Therefore, no allowance is usually made for the effects of the presence of semi rigid connections or the presence of infill panels. In this paper, a new and simple design procedure is recommend to calculate the ultimate load of a framed Column allowing for the presence of rotational end restraints, semi rigid connections, the column end moments resulted from the applied vertical and horizontal loading and infill panels in real steel structure. In order to verify the accuracy of the recommended method to predict good and safe estimations of framed column ultimate loads, several examples have been solved utilizing the recommended procedure, and the results were compared to those obtained using a second order computer program, and good correlation had been obtained. Therefore, the accuracy of the proposed method to predict the Behaviour of practical steel columns in framed structures has been verified.

Keywords: column ultimate load, semi rigid connections, steel column, infill panel, steel structure

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2520 Numerical Analysis Of Stainless Steel Beam To Column Joints With Bolted Flush End Plates

Authors: Takwiir Tahriim Khan, Tausif Khalid, Mohammad Redwan Ahamed, Md Soebur Rahman


The mutual connection in joints has a significant impact on the safe and cost-effective design of steel structures. Generally, the end plates are welded at the end of the beam and columns are bolted with the end plates. Thus, the moment will be transferred at the interface, which is a critical segment at the connection. 3-D Finite Element Models (FEM) has been developed using ABAQUS 2017 software to predict the yield capacity of the end plate connections. The parameters used in this study are the depth, width, and thickness of the end plate, dimensions of the bolt, sectional and material properties of beams and columns. The influence width, depth, and thicknesses of the end plate connection on yield capacity were investigated through parametric studies. The results showed that, for increasing plate thickness from 0.3 inch to 0.8 inch by an increment of 0.1 inch the yield capacity increased by 2.85% on average, for decreasing the end plate depth from 13 inch to 11 inch the yield capacity increased by 25.4 %, and for decreasing the end plate width from 6.5 inch to 5.75 inch the yield capacity increased by 35.4%. Variation in yield capacity was also found by changing the beam and column section. Besides, the numerical results showed a good agreement with published experimental literature with an average variation of less than 8.3 % in yield capacity. So the study allows for a more effective combination of beam, column, and end plate dimensions.

Keywords: steel beam-column joints, finite element analysis, yield moment capacity, parametric study, ABAQUS, bolted joints, flush end plates, moment vs rotation curves

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2519 Finite Element Approach to Evaluate Time Dependent Shear Behavior of Connections in Hybrid Steel-PC Girder under Sustained Loading

Authors: Mohammad Najmol Haque, Takeshi Maki, Jun Sasaki


Headed stud shear connections are widely used in the junction or embedded zone of hybrid girder to achieve whole composite action with continuity that can sustain steel-concrete interfacial tensile and shear forces. In Japan, Japan Road Association (JRA) specifications are used for hybrid girder design that utilizes very low level of stud capacity than those of American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) specifications, Japan Society of Civil Engineers (JSCE) specifications and EURO code. As low design shear strength is considered in design of connections, the time dependent shear behavior due to sustained external loading is not considered, even not fully studied. In this study, a finite element approach was used to evaluate the time dependent shear behavior for headed studs used as connections at the junction. This study clarified, how the sustained loading distinctively impacted on changing the interfacial shear of connections with time which was sensitive to lodging history, positions of flanges, neighboring studs, position of prestress bar and reinforcing bar, concrete strength, etc. and also identified a shear influence area. Stud strength was also confirmed through pushout tests. The outcome obtained from the study may provide an important basis and reference data in designing connections of hybrid girders with enhanced stud capacity with due consideration of their long-term shear behavior.

Keywords: finite element, hybrid girder, shear connections, sustained loading, time dependent behavior

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