Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 825

Search results for: unbalanced moment

825 Ductility of Slab-Interior Column Connections Transferring Shear and Moment

Authors: Omar M. Ben-Sasi


Ductility of slab-column connections of flat slab structures is a desirable property that should be considered when designing such connections which are susceptible to punching failure around their columns. Tests to failure on six half-scale specimens were conducted for slab-interior column connections transferring shear force and unbalanced moment. The influences on connection ductility of four parameters; namely, the moment to shear force ratio, the ratio of column side length to slab effective depth, the aspect ratio of the column cross section, and the presence of four square openings located next to column corners were investigated. The study revealed marked effects of these parameters on connection ductility. Increasing the first and second parameters, were found to be in favor of increasing connection ductility, while the third and fourth parameters were found to have negative effects on the connection ductility. These findings should, hopefully, help in designing interior connections of flat slab structures.

Keywords: ductility, flat slab, failure, shear force, moment, unbalanced moment, punching failure, connection, interior-column connection

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
824 Influence of Angular Position of Unbalanced Force on Crack Breathing Mechanism

Authors: Roselyn Zaman, Mobarak Hossain


A new mathematical model is developed to study crack breathing behavior considering effect of angular position of unbalanced force at different crack locations. Crack breathing behavior has been determined using effectual bending angle by studying the transient change of the crack area. Different crack breathing behavior of the unbalanced shaft has been observed for different combination of angular position of unbalanced force with crack location except crack locations 0.3L and 0.8335L, where L is the total length of the shaft, where unbalanced shaft behave completely like the balanced shaft. Based on different combination of angular position of unbalanced force with crack location, the stiffness of unbalanced shaft can be divided into three regions. An unbalanced shaft is overall stiffer than a balanced shaft when angular position of unbalance force is between 90° to 270° and crack located between 0.3L and 0.8335L, and it is overall flexible when the crack located in outside this crack region. On the other hand, it is overall flexible when angular position of unbalanced force is between 0° to 90° or 270° to 360° and crack located in middle region and it is overall stiffer for outside this crack region.

Keywords: cracked shaft, crack location, shaft stiffness, unbalanced force, and unbalanced force orientation

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
823 Dependence of Shaft Stiffness on the Crack Location

Authors: H. M. Mobarak, Helen Wu, Chunhui Yang


In this study, an analytical model is developed to study crack breathing behavior under the effect of crack location and unbalance force. Crack breathing behavior is determined using effectual bending angle by studying the transient change in closed area of the crack. The status of the crack of a balanced shaft is symmetrical about shaft rotational angle and the duration of each crack status remains unchanged. The global stiffness of the balanced shaft is independent of crack location. Different crack breathing behavior for the unbalanced shaft has been observed. The influence of crack location on the unbalanced shaft stiffness can be divided into three regions. When the crack is located between 0.3L and 0.8335L, where L is the total length of the shaft, the unbalanced shaft is less stiff and when located outside this region it is stiffer than the balanced shaft. It was also found that unbalanced shaft stiffness has a maximum value with a crack at 0.1946L, a minimum value at 0.8053L and same value as balanced shaft at 0.3L and 0.8335L.

Keywords: cracked shaft, crack location, shaft stiffness, unbalanced force

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
822 Unbalanced Cylindrical Magnetron for Accelerating Cavities Coating

Authors: G. Rosaz, V. Semblanet, S. Calatroni, A. Sublet, M. Taborelli


We report in this paper the design and qualification of a cylindrical unbalanced magnetron source. The dedicated magnetic assemblies were simulated using a finite element model. A hall-effect magnetic probe was then used to characterize those assemblies and compared to the theoretical magnetic profiles. These show a good agreement between the expected and actual values. The qualification of the different magnetic assemblies was then performed by measuring the ion flux density reaching the surface of the sample to be coated using a commercial retarding field energy analyzer. The strongest unbalanced configuration shows an increase from 0.016 to 0.074 of the ion flux density reaching the sample surface compared to the standard balanced configuration for a pressure 5.10-3 mbar and a plasma source power of 300 W.

Keywords: ion energy distribution function, magnetron sputtering, niobium, unbalanced, SRF cavities, thin film

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
821 Modeling the Moment of Resistance Generated by an Ore-Grinding Mill

Authors: Marinka Baghdasaryan, Tigran Mnoyan


The pertinence of modeling the moment of resistance generated by the ore-grinding mill is substantiated. Based on the ranking of technological indices obtained in the result of the survey among the specialists of several beneficiating plants, the factors determining the level of the moment of resistance generated by the mill are revealed. A priori diagram of the ranks is obtained in which the factors are arranged in the descending order of the impact degree on the level of the moment. The obtained model of the moment of resistance shows the technological character of the operation modes of the ore-grinding mill and can be used for improving the operation modes of the system motor-mill and preventing the abnormal mode of the drive synchronous motor.

Keywords: model, abnormal mode, mill, correlation, moment of resistance, rotational speed

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
820 The Operating Behaviour of Unbalanced Unpaced Merging Assembly Lines

Authors: S. Shaaban, T. McNamara, S. Hudson


This paper reports on the performance of deliberately unbalanced, reliable, non-automated and assembly lines that merge, whose workstations differ in terms of their mean operation times. Simulations are carried out on 5- and 8-station lines with 1, 2 and 4 buffer capacity units, % degrees of line imbalance of 2, 5 and 12, and 24 different patterns of means imbalance. Data on two performance measures, namely throughput and average buffer level were gathered, statistically analysed and compared to a merging balanced line counterpart. It was found that the best configurations are a balanced line arrangement and a monotone decreasing order for each of the parallel merging lines, with the first generally resulting in a lower throughput and the second leading to a lower average buffer level than those of a balanced line.

Keywords: average buffer level, merging lines, simulation, throughput, unbalanced

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
819 Sensitivity of the Estimated Output Energy of the Induction Motor to both the Asymmetry Supply Voltage and the Machine Parameters

Authors: Eyhab El-Kharashi, Maher El-Dessouki


The paper is dedicated to precise assessment of the induction motor output energy during the unbalanced operation. Since many years ago and until now the voltage complex unbalance factor (CVUF) is used only to assess the output energy of the induction motor while this output energy for asymmetry supply voltage does not depend on the value of unbalanced voltage only but also on the machine parameters. The paper illustrates the variation of the two unbalance factors, complex voltage unbalance factor (CVUF) and impedance unbalance factor (IUF), with positive sequence voltage component, reveals that degree and manner of unbalance in supply voltage. From this point of view the paper delineates the current unbalance factor (CUF) to exactly reflect the output energy during unbalanced operation. The paper proceeds to illustrate the importance of using this factor in the multi-machine system to precise prediction of the output energy during the unbalanced operation. The use of the proposed unbalance factor (CUF) avoids the accumulation of the error due to more than one machine in the system which is expected if only the complex voltage unbalance factor (CVUF) is used.

Keywords: induction motor, electromagnetic torque, voltage unbalance, energy conversion

Procedia PDF Downloads 478
818 New Moment Rotation Model of Single Web Angle Connections

Authors: Zhengyi Kong, Seung-Eock Kim


Single angle connections, which are bolted to the beam web and the column flange, are studied to investigate moment-rotation behavior. Elastic–perfectly plastic material behavior is assumed. ABAQUS software is used to analyze the nonlinear behavior of a single angle connection. The same geometric and material conditions with Yanglin Gong’s test are used for verifying finite element models. Since Kishi and Chen’s Power model and Lee and Moon’s Log model are accurate only for a limited range, simpler and more accurate hyperbolic function models are proposed. The equation for calculating rotation at ultimate moment is first proposed.

Keywords: finite element method, moment and rotation, rotation at ultimate moment, single-web angle connections

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
817 Analytic Solutions of Solitary Waves in Three-Level Unbalanced Dense Media

Authors: Sofiane Grira, Hichem Eleuch


We explore the analytical soliton-pair solutions for unbalanced coupling between the two coherent lights and the atomic transitions in a dissipative three-level system in lambda configuration. The two allowed atomic transitions are interacting resonantly with two laser fields. For unbalanced coupling, it is possible to derive an explicit solution for non-linear differential equations describing the soliton-pair propagation in this three-level system with the same velocity. We suppose that the spontaneous emission rates from the excited state to both ground states are the same. In this work, we focus on such case where we consider the coupling between the transitions and the optical fields are unbalanced. The existence conditions for the soliton-pair propagations are determined. We will show that there are four possible configurations of the soliton-pair pulses. Two of them can be interpreted as a couple of solitons with same directions of polarization and the other two as soliton-pair with opposite directions of polarization. Due to the fact that solitons have stable shapes while propagating in the considered media, they are insensitive to noise and dispersion. Our results have potential applications in data transfer with the soliton-pair pulses, where a dissipative three-level medium could be a realistic model for the optical communication media.

Keywords: non-linear differential equations, solitons, wave propagations, optical fiber

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
816 Moment-Curvature Relation for Nonlinear Analysis of Slender Structural Walls

Authors: E. Dehghan, R. Dehghan


Generally, the slender structural walls have flexural behavior. Since behavior of bending members can be explained by moment–curvature relation, therefore, an analytical model is proposed based on moment–curvature relation for slender structural walls. The moment–curvature relationships of RC sections are constructed through section analysis. Governing equations describing the bond-slip behavior in walls are derived and applied to moment–curvature relations. For the purpose of removing the imprecision in analytical results, the plastic hinge length is included in the finite element modeling. Finally, correlation studies between analytical and experimental results are conducted with the objective to establish the validity of the proposed algorithms. The results show that bond-slip effect is more significant in walls subjected to larger axial compression load. Moreover, preferable results are obtained when ultimate strain of concrete is assumed conservatively.

Keywords: nonlinear analysis, slender structural walls, moment-curvature relation, bond-slip, plastic hinge length

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
815 Contribution of the SidePlate Beam-Column Connections to the Seismic Responses of Special Moment Frames

Authors: Gökhan Yüksel, Serdar Akça, İlker Kalkan


The present study is an attempt to demonstrate the significant levels of contribution of the moment-resisting beam-column connections with side plates to the earthquake behavior of special steel moment frames. To this end, the moment-curvature relationships of a regular beam-column connection and its SidePlate counterpart were determined with the help of finite element analyses. The connection stiffness and deformability values from these finite element analyses were used in the linear time-history analyses of an example structural steel frame under three different seismic excitations. The top-story lateral drift, base shear, and overturning moment values in two orthogonal directions were obtained from these time-history analyses and compared to each other. The results revealed the improvements in the system response with the use of SidePlate connections. The paper ends with crucial recommendations for the plan and design of further studies on this very topic.

Keywords: seismic detailing, special moment frame, steel structures, beam-column connection, earthquake-resistant design

Procedia PDF Downloads 17
814 Adjustable Counter-Weight for Full Turn Rotary Systems

Authors: G. Karakaya, C. Türker, M. Anaklı


It is necessary to test to see if optical devices such as camera, night vision devices are working properly. Therefore, a precision biaxial rotary system (gimbal) is required for mounting Unit Under Test, UUT. The Gimbal systems can be utilized for precise positioning of the UUT; hence, optical test can be performed with high accuracy. The weight of UUT, which is placed outside the axis of rotation, causes an off-axis moment to the mounting armature. The off-axis moment can act against the direction of movement for some orientation, thus the electrical motor, which rotates the gimbal axis, has to apply higher level of torque to guide and stabilize the system. Moreover, UUT and its mounting fixture to the gimbal can be changed, which causes change in applied resistance moment to the gimbals electrical motor. In this study, a preloaded spring is added to the gimbal system for minimizing applied off axis moment with the help of four bar mechanism. Two different possible methods for preloading spring are introduced and system optimization is performed to eliminate all moment which is created by off axis weight.

Keywords: adaptive, balancing, gimbal, mechanics, spring

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
813 Automatic Moment-Based Texture Segmentation

Authors: Tudor Barbu


An automatic moment-based texture segmentation approach is proposed in this paper. First, we describe the related work in this computer vision domain. Our texture feature extraction, the first part of the texture recognition process, produces a set of moment-based feature vectors. For each image pixel, a texture feature vector is computed as a sequence of area moments. Second, an automatic pixel classification approach is proposed. The feature vectors are clustered using some unsupervised classification algorithm, the optimal number of clusters being determined using a measure based on validation indexes. From the resulted pixel classes one determines easily the desired texture regions of the image.

Keywords: image segmentation, moment-based, texture analysis, automatic classification, validation indexes

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
812 Through-Bolt Moment Connection in HSS Column

Authors: Bardia Khafaf, Mehrdad Ghaffari, Amir Hussein Samakar


It is currently desirable to use Hollow Square Sections (HSS) in moment resistant structures in construction of building because they offer fewer restrictions for designing and more useful space while adhering to build design codes. This paper present a through bolt connection in HSS column. This connection meets building code standards that require the moment resistant connections to deflect and absorb energy resulting from gravity and seismic loads. Connection through bolts is installed and pretension to provide the connection strength needed to make a beam–column moment rigid zone. A rigid joint is typically used to resist lateral forces by holding columns and beams fixed in relation to one another. With bolted moment frames using HSS columns, a through–bolt connection could be used to secure the beam and end plate to the column. However, when multiple columns and beams are used to span a length of building, the use of through-bolts would necessities aligning multiple beams simultaneously to the columns. In the case of a linear span, the assembly process requires the holes of a first beam end plate to be aligned with through bolt holes in a column and aligning the holes of a second, opposing beam plate with the column through bolt, then inserting the through bolts in each hole for tightening with nuts and washers. In moment resistant building, a problem arises when assembling beams to columns where multiple beams and columns are required. Through bolt, moment connections are among the economical, practical and not difficult rigid steel connection for HSS column building. In this paper, the results of numerous analytical studies performed for moment structures with HSS columns with through bolt based on AISC standard codes are shown.

Keywords: through bolt, moment resistant connection, HSS columns section, construction engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
811 Human Gait Recognition Using Moment with Fuzzy

Authors: Jyoti Bharti, Navneet Manjhi, M. K.Gupta, Bimi Jain


A reliable gait features are required to extract the gait sequences from an images. In this paper suggested a simple method for gait identification which is based on moments. Moment values are extracted on different number of frames of gray scale and silhouette images of CASIA database. These moment values are considered as feature values. Fuzzy logic and nearest neighbour classifier are used for classification. Both achieved higher recognition.

Keywords: gait, fuzzy logic, nearest neighbour, recognition rate, moments

Procedia PDF Downloads 547
810 Studies of Substituent and Solvent Effect on Spectroscopic Properties Of 6-OH-4-CH3, 7-OH-4-CH3 and 7-OH-4-CF3 Coumarin

Authors: Sanjay Kumar


This paper reports the solvent effects on the electronic absorption and fluorescence emission spectra of 6-OH-4-CH3, 7-OH-4-CH3 and 7-OH-4-CF3 coumarin derivatives having -OH, -CH3 and -CF3 substituent at different positions in various solvents (Polar and Non-Polar). The first excited singlet state dipole moment and ground state dipole moment were calculated using Bakhshiev, Kawski-Chamma-Viallet and Reichardt-Dimroth equations and were compared for all the coumarin studied. In all cases the dipole moments were found to be higher in the excited singlet state than in the ground state indicating a substantial redistribution of Π-electron density in the excited state. The angle between the excited singlet state and ground state dipole moment is also calculated. The red shift of the absorption and fluorescence emission bands, observed for all the coumarin studied upon increasing the solvent polarity indicating that the electronic transitions were Π → Π* nature.

Keywords: coumarin, solvent effects, absorption spectra, emission spectra, excited singlet state dipole moment, ground state dipole moment, solvatochromism

Procedia PDF Downloads 424
809 Relation of the Anomalous Magnetic Moment of Electron with the Proton and Neutron Masses

Authors: Sergei P. Efimov


The anomalous magnetic moment of the electron is calculated by introducing the effective mass of the virtual part of the electron structure. In this case, the anomalous moment is inversely proportional to the effective mass Meff, which is shown to be a linear combination of the neutron, proton, and electrostatic electron field masses. The spin of a rotating structure is assumed to be equal to 3/2, while the spin of a 'bare' electron is equal to unity, the resultant spin being 1/2. A simple analysis gives the coefficients for a linear combination of proton and electron masses, the approximation precision giving here nine significant digits after the decimal point. The summand proportional to α² adds four more digits. Thus, the conception of the effective mass Meff leads to the formula for the total magnetic moment of the electron, which is accurate to fourteen digits. Association with the virtual beta-decay reaction and possible reasons for simplicity of the derived formula are discussed.

Keywords: anomalous magnetic moment of electron, comparison with quantum electrodynamics. effective mass, fifteen significant figures, proton and neutron masses

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
808 Evaluation of Prestressed Reinforced Concrete Slab Punching Shear Using Finite Element Method

Authors: Zhi Zhang, Liling Cao, Seyedbabak Momenzadeh, Lisa Davey


Reinforced concrete (RC) flat slab-column systems are commonly used in residential or office buildings, as the flat slab provides efficient clearance resulting in more stories at a given height than regular reinforced concrete beam-slab system. Punching shear of slab-column joints is a critical component of two-way reinforced concrete flat slab design. The unbalanced moment at the joint is transferred via slab moment and shear forces. ACI 318 provides an equation to evaluate the punching shear under the design load. It is important to note that the design code considers gravity and environmental load when considering the design load combinations, while it does not consider the effect from differential foundation settlement, which may be a governing load condition for the slab design. This paper describes how prestressed reinforced concrete slab punching shear is evaluated based on ACI 318 provisions and finite element analysis. A prestressed reinforced concrete slab under differential settlements is studied using the finite element modeling methodology. The punching shear check equation is explained. The methodology to extract data for punching shear check from the finite element model is described and correlated with the corresponding code provisions. The study indicates that the finite element analysis results should be carefully reviewed and processed in order to perform accurate punching shear evaluation. Conclusions are made based on the case studies to help engineers understand the punching shear behavior in prestressed and non-prestressed reinforced concrete slabs.

Keywords: differential settlement, finite element model, prestressed reinforced concrete slab, punching shear

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807 Seismic Response of Moment Resisting Steel Frame with Hysteresis Envelope Model of Joints

Authors: Krolo Paulina


The seismic response of moment-resisting steel frames depends on the behavior of the joints, especially when they are considered as ductile zones. The aim of this research is to provide a realistic assessment of the moment-resisting steel frame behavior under seismic loading using nonlinear static pushover analysis (N2 method). The hysteresis behavior of the joints in the frame model was described using a new hysteresis envelope model. The obtained seismic response was compared with the results of the seismic analysis obtained for the same steel frame that takes into account the monotonic model of the joints.

Keywords: beam-to-column joints, hysteresis envelope model, moment-resisting frame, nonlinear static pushover analysis, N2 method

Procedia PDF Downloads 77
806 Sensitivity Parameter Analysis of Negative Moment Dynamic Load Allowance of Continuous T-Girder Bridge

Authors: Fan Yang, Ye-Lu Wang, Yang Zhao


The dynamic load allowance, as an application result of the vehicle-bridge coupled vibration theory, is an important parameter for bridge design and evaluation. Based on the coupled vehicle-bridge vibration theory, the current work establishes a full girder model of a dynamic load allowance, selects a planar five-degree-of-freedom three-axis vehicle model, solves the coupled vehicle-bridge dynamic response using the APDL language in the spatial finite element program ANSYS, selects the pivot point 2 sections as the representative of the negative moment section, and analyzes the effects of parameters such as travel speed, unevenness, vehicle frequency, span diameter, span number and forced displacement of the support on the negative moment dynamic load allowance through orthogonal tests. The influence of parameters such as vehicle speed, unevenness, vehicle frequency, span diameter, span number, and forced displacement of the support on the negative moment dynamic load allowance is analyzed by orthogonal tests, and the influence law of each influencing parameter is summarized. It is found that the effects of vehicle frequency, unevenness, and speed on the negative moment dynamic load allowance are significant, among which vehicle frequency has the greatest effect on the negative moment dynamic load allowance; the effects of span number and span diameter on the negative moment dynamic load allowance are relatively small; the effects of forced displacement of the support on the negative moment dynamic load allowance are negligible.

Keywords: continuous T-girder bridge, dynamic load allowance, sensitivity analysis, vehicle-bridge coupling

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805 Finite Element Study of Coke Shape Deep Beam to Column Moment Connection Subjected to Cyclic Loading

Authors: Robel Wondimu Alemayehu, Sihwa Jung, Manwoo Park, Young K. Ju


Following the aftermath of the 1994 Northridge earthquake, intensive research on beam to column connections is conducted, leading to the current design basis. The current design codes require the use of either a prequalified connection or a connection that passes the requirements of large-scale cyclic qualification test prior to use in intermediate or special moment frames. The second alternative is expensive both in terms of money and time. On the other hand, the maximum beam depth in most of the prequalified connections is limited to 900mm due to the reduced rotation capacity of deeper beams. However, for long span beams the need to use deeper beams may arise. In this study, a beam to column connection detail suitable for deep beams is presented. The connection detail comprises of thicker-tapered beam flange adjacent to the beam to column connection. Within the thicker-tapered flange region, two reduced beam sections are provided with the objective of forming two plastic hinges within the tapered-thicker flange region. In addition, the length, width, and thickness of the tapered-thicker flange region are proportioned in such a way that a third plastic hinge forms at the end of the tapered-thicker flange region. As a result, the total rotation demand is distributed over three plastic zones. Making it suitable for deeper beams that have lower rotation capacity at one plastic hinge. The effectiveness of this connection detail is studied through finite element analysis. For the study, a beam that has a depth of 1200mm is used. Additionally, comparison with welded unreinforced flange-welded web (WUF-W) moment connection and reduced beam section moment connection is made. The results show that the rotation capacity of a WUF-W moment connection is increased from 2.0% to 2.2% by applying the proposed moment connection detail. Furthermore, the maximum moment capacity, energy dissipation capacity and stiffness of the WUF-W moment connection is increased up to 58%, 49%, and 32% respectively. In contrast, applying the reduced beam section detail to the same WUF-W moment connection reduced the rotation capacity from 2.0% to 1.50% plus the maximum moment capacity and stiffness of the connection is reduced by 22% and 6% respectively. The proposed connection develops three plastic hinge regions as intended and it shows improved performance compared to both WUF-W moment connection and reduced beam section moment connection. Moreover, the achieved rotation capacity satisfies the minimum required for use in intermediate moment frames.

Keywords: connections, finite element analysis, seismic design, steel intermediate moment frame

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
804 Optimal Planning of Dispatchable Distributed Generators for Power Loss Reduction in Unbalanced Distribution Networks

Authors: Mahmoud M. Othman, Y. G. Hegazy, A. Y. Abdelaziz


This paper proposes a novel heuristic algorithm that aims to determine the best size and location of distributed generators in unbalanced distribution networks. The proposed heuristic algorithm can deal with the planning cases where power loss is to be optimized without violating the system practical constraints. The distributed generation units in the proposed algorithm is modeled as voltage controlled node with the flexibility to be converted to constant power factor node in case of reactive power limit violation. The proposed algorithm is implemented in MATLAB and tested on the IEEE 37 -node feeder. The results obtained show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

Keywords: distributed generation, heuristic approach, optimization, planning

Procedia PDF Downloads 413
803 Evaluation of Minimization of Moment Ratio Method by Physical Modeling

Authors: Amin Eslami, Jafar Bolouri Bazaz


Under active stress conditions, a rigid cantilever retaining wall tends to rotate about a pivot point located within the embedded depth of the wall. For purely granular and cohesive soils, a methodology was previously reported called minimization of moment ratio to determine the location of the pivot point of rotation. The usage of this new methodology is to estimate the rotational stability safety factor. Moreover, the degree of improvement required in a backfill to get a desired safety factor can be estimated by the concept of the shear strength demand. In this article, the accuracy of this method for another type of cantilever walls called Contiguous Bored Pile (CBP) retaining wall is evaluated by using physical modeling technique. Based on observations, the results of moment ratio minimization method are in good agreement with the results of the carried out physical modeling.

Keywords: cantilever retaining wall, physical modeling, minimization of moment ratio method, pivot point

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
802 First Cracking Moments of Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Polymer-Steel Reinforced Concrete Beams

Authors: Saruhan Kartal, Ilker Kalkan


The present paper reports the cracking moment estimates of a set of steel-reinforced, Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP)-reinforced and hybrid steel-FRP reinforced concrete beams, calculated from different analytical formulations in the codes, together with the experimental cracking load values. A total of three steel-reinforced, four FRP-reinforced, 12 hybrid FRP-steel over-reinforced and five hybrid FRP-steel under-reinforced concrete beam tests were analyzed within the scope of the study. Glass FRP (GFRP) and Basalt FRP (BFRP) bars were used in the beams as FRP bars. In under-reinforced hybrid beams, rupture of the FRP bars preceded crushing of concrete, while concrete crushing preceded FRP rupture in over-reinforced beams. In both types, steel yielding took place long before the FRP rupture and concrete crushing. The cracking moment mainly depends on two quantities, namely the moment of inertia of the section at the initiation of cracking and the flexural tensile strength of concrete, i.e. the modulus of rupture. In the present study, two different definitions of uncracked moment of inertia, i.e. the gross and the uncracked transformed moments of inertia, were adopted. Two analytical equations for the modulus of rupture (ACI 318M and Eurocode 2) were utilized in the calculations as well as the experimental tensile strength of concrete from prismatic specimen tests. The ACI 318M modulus of rupture expression produced cracking moment estimates closer to the experimental cracking moments of FRP-reinforced and hybrid FRP-steel reinforced concrete beams when used in combination with the uncracked transformed moment of inertia, yet the Eurocode 2 modulus of rupture expression gave more accurate cracking moment estimates in steel-reinforced concrete beams. All of the analytical definitions produced analytical values considerably different from the experimental cracking load values of the solely FRP-reinforced concrete beam specimens.

Keywords: polymer reinforcement, four-point bending, hybrid use of reinforcement, cracking moment

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801 Analytical Modelling of the Moment-Rotation Behavior of Top and Seat Angle Connection with Stiffeners

Authors: Merve Sagiroglu


The earthquake-resistant steel structure design is required taking into account the behavior of beam-column connections besides the basic properties of the structure such as material and geometry. Beam-column connections play an important role in the behavior of frame systems. Taking into account the behaviour of connection in analysis and design of steel frames is important due to presenting the actual behavior of frames. So, the behavior of the connections should be well known. The most important force which transmitted by connections in the structural system is the moment. The rotational deformation is customarily expressed as a function of the moment in the connection. So, the moment-rotation curves are the best expression of behaviour of the beam-to-column connections. The designed connections form various moment-rotation curves according to the elements of connection and the shape of placement. The only way to achieve this curve is with real-scale experiments. The experiments of some connections have been carried out partially and are formed in the databank. It has been formed the models using this databank to express the behavior of connection. In this study, theoretical studies have been carried out to model a real behavior of the top and seat angles connections with angles. Two stiffeners in the top and seat angle to increase the stiffness of the connection, and two stiffeners in the beam web to prevent local buckling are used in this beam-to-column connection. Mathematical models have been performed using the database of the beam-to-column connection experiments previously by authors. Using the data of the tests, it has been aimed that analytical expressions have been developed to obtain the moment-rotation curve for the connection details whose test data are not available. The connection has been dimensioned in various shapes and the effect of the dimensions of the connection elements on the behavior has been examined.

Keywords: top and seat angle connection, stiffener, moment-rotation curves, analytical study

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800 Unbalanced Mean-Time and Buffer Effects in Lines Suffering Breakdown

Authors: Sabry Shaaban, Tom McNamara, Sarah Hudson


This article studies the performance of unpaced serial production lines that are subject to breakdown and are imbalanced in terms of both of their processing time means (MTs) and buffer storage capacities (BCs). Simulation results show that the best pattern in terms of throughput is a balanced line with respect to average buffer level; the best configuration is a monotone decreasing MT order, together with an ascending BC arrangement. Statistical analysis shows that BC, patterns of MT and BC imbalance, line length and degree of imbalance all contribute significantly to performance. Results show that unbalanced lines cope well with unreliability.

Keywords: unreliable unpaced serial lines, simulation, unequal mean operation times, uneven buffer capacities, patterns of imbalance, throughput, average buffer level

Procedia PDF Downloads 379
799 Combining the Deep Neural Network with the K-Means for Traffic Accident Prediction

Authors: Celso L. Fernando, Toshio Yoshii, Takahiro Tsubota


Understanding the causes of a road accident and predicting their occurrence is key to preventing deaths and serious injuries from road accident events. Traditional statistical methods such as the Poisson and the Logistics regressions have been used to find the association of the traffic environmental factors with the accident occurred; recently, an artificial neural network, ANN, a computational technique that learns from historical data to make a more accurate prediction, has emerged. Although the ability to make accurate predictions, the ANN has difficulty dealing with highly unbalanced attribute patterns distribution in the training dataset; in such circumstances, the ANN treats the minority group as noise. However, in the real world data, the minority group is often the group of interest; e.g., in the road traffic accident data, the events of the accident are the group of interest. This study proposes a combination of the k-means with the ANN to improve the predictive ability of the neural network model by alleviating the effect of the unbalanced distribution of the attribute patterns in the training dataset. The results show that the proposed method improves the ability of the neural network to make a prediction on a highly unbalanced distributed attribute patterns dataset; however, on an even distributed attribute patterns dataset, the proposed method performs almost like a standard neural network.

Keywords: accident risks estimation, artificial neural network, deep learning, k-mean, road safety

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798 Cantilever Secant Pile Constructed in Sand: Capping Beam-Piles Bending Moments Interaction

Authors: Khaled R. Khater


this paper is an extension to previously published two papers; all share the first part of their titles. The papers theme is soil-structure interaction in the ground of soil retaining structures. The secant pile wall is the concern, while the focus is its capping beam. The earlier papers suggested a technique to structurally analyze capping beam. It has been proved that; pile rigidity shares the capping beam rigidity to resist the wall deformations. The current paper explains how the beam-pile integration re-distributes the pile’s bending moment for the benefits of wall deformations. It is concluded that re-distribution of pile bending moment is completely different than the calculated by plain strain analysis, values, and distributions. The pile diameter, beam rigidity, pile spacing, and the 3D-analysis-effect individually or all together affect the pile bending moment. The Plaxis-2D and STAAD-Pro 3D are the used software’s. Throughout this study, three sand densities, various pile and beam rigidities, and three excavation depths, i.e., 3.0-m, 4.0-m and 5.0-m have been considered.

Keywords: bending moment, capping beam, numerical analysis, secant pile, sandy soil

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797 An Analysis of Classification of Imbalanced Datasets by Using Synthetic Minority Over-Sampling Technique

Authors: Ghada A. Alfattni


Analysing unbalanced datasets is one of the challenges that practitioners in machine learning field face. However, many researches have been carried out to determine the effectiveness of the use of the synthetic minority over-sampling technique (SMOTE) to address this issue. The aim of this study was therefore to compare the effectiveness of the SMOTE over different models on unbalanced datasets. Three classification models (Logistic Regression, Support Vector Machine and Nearest Neighbour) were tested with multiple datasets, then the same datasets were oversampled by using SMOTE and applied again to the three models to compare the differences in the performances. Results of experiments show that the highest number of nearest neighbours gives lower values of error rates. 

Keywords: imbalanced datasets, SMOTE, machine learning, logistic regression, support vector machine, nearest neighbour

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796 Global Communication: Trends and Impact of Unbalanced Information in Nigerian Society

Authors: Uchenna Patricia Ekwugha, Cornelius Aghadiegwu Ukwueze


Global communication has changed life at the international scene affecting on the whole social, cultural and political life of individuals in a global community. It has brought about a changing trend in the field of communication and allowed people to learn, create and process information through mainline media and new media technologies. The paper debates that music is an integral form of global communication that cannot be overlooked because it is a beautiful and powerful tool in relating information to the people which they gladly imbibe. It is worrisome that through global communication there has been consistent clash of values on information’s disseminated to the global community of which the developing countries like Nigerians are the sufferers. Particularly involved in this vicious social dogma are the Nigerian youths, who learn defiant behaviour through global communication and lose touch of African cultural values.

Keywords: global communication, trends, impact, unbalanced information

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