Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Search results for: A. Tyas

5 Determinants of Psychological Distress in Teenagers and Young Adults Affected by Cancer: A Systematic Review

Authors: Anna Bak-Klimek, Emily Spencer, Siew Lee, Karen Campbell, Wendy McInally

Abstract:

Background & Significance: Over half of Teenagers and Young Adults (TYAs) say that they experience psychological distress after cancer diagnosis and TYAs with cancer are at higher risk of developing distress compared to other age groups. Despite this there are no age-appropriate interventions to help TYAs manage distress and there is a lack of conceptual understanding of what causes distress in this population group. This makes it difficult to design a targeted, developmentally appropriate intervention. This review aims to identify the key determinants of distress in TYAs affected by cancer and to propose an integrative model of cancer-related distress for TYAs. Method: A literature search was performed in Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, EMBASE and PsycArticles in May-June, 2022. Quantitative literature was systematically reviewed on the relationship between psychological distress experienced by TYAs affected by cancer and a wide range of factors i.e. individual (demographic, psychological, developmental, and clinical factors) and contextual (social/environmental) factors. Evidence was synthesized and correlates were categorized using the Biopsychosocial Model. The full protocol is available from PROSPERO (CRD42022322069) Results: Thirty eligible quantitative studies met criteria for the review. A total of twenty-six studies were cross-sectional, three were longitudinal and one study was a case control study. The evidence on the relationship between the socio-demographic, illness and treatment-related factors and psychological distress is inconsistent and unclear. There is however consistent evidence on the link between psychological factors and psychological distress. For instance, the use of cognitive and defence coping, negative meta-cognitive beliefs, less optimism, a lack of sense of meaning and lower resilience levels were significantly associated with higher psychological distress. Furthermore, developmental factors such as poor self-image, identity issues and perceived conflict were strongly associated with higher distress levels. Conclusions: The current review suggests that psychological and developmental factors such as ineffective coping strategies, poor self-image and identity issues may play a key role in the development of psychological distress in TYAs affected by cancer. The review proposes a Positive Developmental Psychology Model of Distress for Teenagers and Young Adults affected by cancer. The review highlights that implementation of psychological interventions that foster optimism, improve resilience and address self-image may result in reduced distress in TYA’s with cancer.

Keywords: cancer, determinant, psychological distress, teenager and young adult, theoretical model

Procedia PDF Downloads 18
4 Robustness of Steel Beam to Column Moment Resisting Joints

Authors: G. Culache, M. P. Byfield, N. S. Ferguson, A. Tyas

Abstract:

Steel joints in building structures represent a weak link in the case of accidental transient loading. This type of loading can occur due to blast effects or impact with moving vehicles and will result in large deformations in the material as well as large rotations. This paper addresses the lack of experimental investigations into the response of moment resisting connections subjected to such loading. The current design philosophy was used to create test specimens with flush and extended end plates. The specimens were tested in a specially designed testing rig capable of delivering the sustained loading even beyond the point of failure. Types of failure that the authors attempted to obtain were bolt fracture, flange crushing and end plate fracture. Experimental data is presented, described and analyzed. The tests show that the strength and ductility can be significantly improved by replacing ordinary mild-steel bolts with their stainless steel equivalents. This minor modification is demonstrated to significantly improve the robustness when subjected to loading that results in high deformations and rotation, where loading is maintained during failure. Conclusions are drawn about the wider implications of this research and recommendations made on the direction of future research in this field.

Keywords: steel moment connections, high strain rates, dynamic loading, experimental testing

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
3 Effect of Goat Milk Kefir and Soy Milk Kefir on IL-6 in Diabetes Mellitus Wistar Mice Models Induced by Streptozotocin and Nicotinamide

Authors: Agatha Swasti Ayuning Tyas

Abstract:

Hyperglycemia in Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is an important factor in cellular and vascular damage, which is caused by activation of C Protein Kinase, polyol and hexosamine track, and production of Advanced Glycation End-Products (AGE). Those mentioned before causes the accumulation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). Oxidative stress increases the expression of proinflammatory factors IL-6 as one of many signs of endothelial disfunction. Genistein in soy milk has a high immunomodulator potential. Goat milk contains amino acids which have antioxidative potential. Fermented kefir has an anti-inflammatory activity which believed will also contribute in potentiating goat milk and soy milk. This study is a quasi-experimental posttest-only research to 30 Wistar mice. This study compared the levels of IL-6 between healthy Wistar mice group (G1) and 4 DM Wistar mice with intervention and grouped as follows: mice without treatment (G2), mice treated with 100% goat milk kefir (G3), mice treated with combination of 50% goat milk kefir and 50% soy milk kefir (G4), and mice treated with 100% soy milk kefir (G5). DM animal models were induced with Streptozotocin & Nicotinamide to achieve hyperglycemic condition. Goat milk kefir and soy milk kefir are given at a dose of 2 mL/kg body weight/day for four weeks to intervention groups. Blood glucose was analyzed by the GOD-POD principle. IL-6 was analyzed by enzyme-linked sandwich ELISA. The level of IL-6 in DM untreated control group (G2) showed a significant difference from the group treated with the combination of 50% goat milk kefir and 50% soy milk kefir (G3) (p=0,006) and the group treated with 100% soy milk kefir (G5) (p=0,009). Whereas the difference of IL-6 in group treated with 100% goat milk kefir (G3) was not significant (p=0,131). There is also synergism between glucose level and IL-6 in intervention groups treated with combination of 50% goat milk kefir and 50% soy milk kefir (G3) and the group treated with 100% soy milk kefir (G5). Combination of 50 % goat milk kefir and 50% soy milk kefir and administration of 100% soy milk kefir alone can control the level of IL-6 remained low in DM Wistar mice induced with streptozocin and nicotinamide.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, goat milk kefir, soy milk kefir, interleukin 6

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
2 Radial Variation of Anatomical Characteristics in Three Native Fast-Growing Species Growing in South Kalimantan, Indonesia

Authors: Wiwin Tyas Istikowati, Futoshi Ishiguri, Haruna Aisho, Budi Sutiya, Imam Wahyudi, Kazuya Iizuka, Shinso Yokota

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to investigate the anatomical characteristics of three native fast-growing species, terap (Artocarpus elasticus Reinw. ex Blume), medang (Neolitsea latifolia (Blume) S. Moore), and balik angin (Alphitonia excelsa (Fenzel) Reissek ex Benth) growing in the secondary forest in South Kalimantan, Indonesia for evaluating the possibility of tree breeding for wood quality. Cell lengths were investigated for 5 trees in each species at several different height positions (1.0, 3.0, 5.0, 7.0, 9.0, and 11.0 m above the ground). The mean values of fiber and vessel element lengths in terap, medang, and balik angin were 1.52 and 0.44, 1.16 and 0.53, and 1.02 and 0.49 mm, respectively. Fiber length in terap and balik angin gradually increased from pith to bark, whereas it increased up to 2 cm and then became nearly constant to the bark in medang. Vessel element length was almost constant from pith to bark in terap and balik angin, while slightly increased from pith to bark in medang. Fiber length in terap has a fluctuation pattern from ground level to top of the tree. It decreased up to 3 m above the ground, increased up to 5 m, and then decreased to the top of the tree. On the other hand, vessel element length slightly increased up to 5 m above the ground, and then decreased to the top of the tree. Both fiber and vessel element lengths in medang were almost constant from ground level to top of the tree, whereas decreased from ground level to top of the tree in balik angin. Significant difference at 1% level among trees was found in both fiber and vessel element length in both radial and longitudinal directions for terap and medang. Based on obtained results, it is concluded that the wood quality in fiber and vessel element lengths of terap and medang can be improved by tree breeding programs.

Keywords: anatomical properties, fiber length, vessel elements length, fast-growing species

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
1 Expressing Locality in Learning English: A Study of English Textbooks for Junior High School Year VII-IX in Indonesia Context

Authors: Agnes Siwi Purwaning Tyas, Dewi Cahya Ambarwati

Abstract:

This paper concerns the language learning that develops as a habit formation and a constructive process while exercising an oppressive power to construct the learners. As a locus of discussion, the investigation problematizes the transfer of English language to Indonesian students of junior high school through the use of English textbooks ‘Real Time: An Interactive English Course for Junior High School Students Year VII-IX’. English language has long performed as a global language and it is a demand upon the non-English native speakers to master the language if they desire to become internationally recognized individuals. Generally, English teachers teach the language in accordance with the nature of language learning in which they are trained and expected to teach the language within the culture of the target language. This provides a potential soft cultural penetration of a foreign ideology through language transmission. In the context of Indonesia, learning English as international language is considered dilemmatic. Most English textbooks in Indonesia incorporate cultural elements of the target language which in some extent may challenge the sensitivity towards local cultural values. On the other hand, local teachers demand more English textbooks for junior high school students which can facilitate cultural dissemination of both local and global values and promote learners’ cultural traits of both cultures to avoid misunderstanding and confusion. It also aims to support language learning as bidirectional process instead of instrument of oppression. However, sensitizing and localizing this foreign language is not sufficient to restrain its soft infiltration. In due course, domination persists making the English language as an authoritative language and positioning the locality as ‘the other’. Such critical premise has led to a discursive analysis referring to how the cultural elements of the target language are presented in the textbooks and whether the local characteristics of Indonesia are able to gradually reduce the degree of the foreign oppressive ideology. The three textbooks researched were written by non-Indonesian author edited by two Indonesia editors published by a local commercial publishing company, PT Erlangga. The analytical elaboration examines the cultural characteristics in the forms of names, terminologies, places, objects and imageries –not the linguistic aspect– of both cultural domains; English and Indonesia. Comparisons as well as categorizations were made to identify the cultural traits of each language and scrutinize the contextual analysis. In the analysis, 128 foreign elements and 27 local elements were found in textbook for grade VII, 132 foreign elements and 23 local elements were found in textbook for grade VIII, while 144 foreign elements and 35 local elements were found in grade IX textbook, demonstrating the unequal distribution of both cultures. Even though the ideal pedagogical approach of English learning moves to a different direction by the means of inserting local elements, the learners are continuously imposed to the culture of the target language and forced to internalize the concept of values under the influence of the target language which tend to marginalize their native culture.

Keywords: bidirectional process, English, local culture, oppression

Procedia PDF Downloads 191