Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1743

Search results for: scientific inquiry

1743 Secondary Science Teachers' Views about Purposes of Practical Works in School Science

Authors: Kew-Cheol Shim, Sung-Hwan Moon, Ji-Hyon Kil, Kyoungho Kim

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper was to examine views of secondary school science teachers about purposes to use practical works in school science. The instrument to survey consisted eighteen items, which were categorized into four components as follows: ‘Scientific inquiry’, ‘Scientific knowledge’, ‘Science-related attitude’, and ‘STS (science-technology-society)’. Subjects were 152 secondary school science teachers (male 70 and female 82; middle school 50 and high school 102), who are teaching in 42 schools of 8 provinces. On the survey, science teachers were asked to answer on 5-point Lickert scale (from 1 to 5) how they thought of using practical works on purposes with domains of science objectives in school. They had positive views about using practical works for improving scientific inquiry process skills, science-related attitudes, and perceptions about STS literacy, and acquiring scientific knowledge. They would have the most willingness of using practical works for ‘Scientific Inquiry’ among domains of science objectives in school.

Keywords: secondary school, science teacher, practical work, scientific inquiry, scientific knowledge, scientific attitude, STS

Procedia PDF Downloads 386
1742 The Convergence between Science Practical Work and Scientific Discourse: Lessons Learnt from Using a Practical Activity to Encourage Student Discourse

Authors: Abraham Motlhabane

Abstract:

In most practical-related science lessons, the focus is on completing the experimental procedure as directed by the teacher. However, the scientific discourse among learners themselves and teacher–learner discourse about scientific processes, scientific inquiry and the nature of science should play an important role in the teaching and learning of science. This means the incorporation of inquiry-based activities aimed at sparking debates about scientific concepts. This article analyses a science lesson presented by a teacher to his colleagues acting as learners. Six lessons were presented and transcribed. One of the lessons has been used for this study as the basis for the events as they unfolded during the lesson. Data was obtained through direct observations and the use of a predetermined observation schedule. Field notes were compiled during teacher preparations and the presentation of the lessons.

Keywords: discourse, inquiry, practical work, science, scientific

Procedia PDF Downloads 376
1741 Introducing Thermodynamic Variables through Scientific Inquiry for Engineering Students

Authors: Paola Utreras, Yazmina Olmos, Loreto Sanhueza

Abstract:

This work shows how the learning of physics is enriched with scientific inquiry practices, achieving learning that results in the use of higher-level cognitive skills. The activities, which were carried out with students of the 3rd semester of the courses of the Faculty of Sciences of the Engineering of the Austral University of Chile, focused on the understanding of the nature of the thermodynamic variables and how they relate to each other. This, through the analysis of atmospheric data obtained in the meteorological station Miraflores, located on the campus. The proposed activities consisted of the elaboration of time series, linear analysis of variables, as well as the analysis of frequencies and periods. From their results, the students reached conclusions associated with the nature of the thermodynamic variables studied and the relationships between them, to finally make public their results in a report using scientific writing standards. It is observed that introducing topics that are close to them, interesting and which affect their daily lives allows a better understanding of the subjects, which is reflected in higher levels of approval and motivation for the subject.

Keywords: basic sciences, inquiry-based learning, scientific inquiry, thermodynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
1740 Strategies for Achieving Application of Science in National Development

Authors: Orisakwe Chimuanya Favour Israel

Abstract:

In a world filled with the products of scientific inquiry, scientific literacy has become a necessity for everyone because it is indispensable to achieving technological development of any nation. Everyone needs to use scientific information to make choices that arise every day. Everyone needs to be able to engage intelligently in public discourse and debate about important issues that involves science and technology. And everyone deserves to share in the excitement and personal fulfillment that can come from -understanding and learning about the natural world. No doubt that industrialized countries have, through their control of science and technology education, developed the potential to increase production, and to improve the standard of living of their people. The main thrust of this paper therefore, is to present an overview of science education, strategies for achieving application of science in national development, such as teaching science with the right spirit of inquiry. Also, the paper discussed three research models that can help in national development and suggests the best out of the three which is more realistic for a developing country like ours (Nigeria) to follow for a sustainable national development and finally suggests some key ways of solving problems of development.

Keywords: scientific inquiry, scientific literacy, strategies, sustainable national development

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
1739 Psychometric Examination of the QUEST-25: An Online Assessment of Intellectual Curiosity and Scientific Epistemology

Authors: Matthew J. Zagumny

Abstract:

The current study reports an examination of the QUEST-25 (Q-Assessment of Undergraduate Epistemology and Scientific Thinking) online version for assessing the dispositional attitudes toward scientific thinking and intellectual curiosity among undergraduate students. The QUEST-25 consists of scientific thinking (SIQ-25) and intellectual curiosity (ICIQ-25), which were correlated in hypothesized directions with the Religious Commitment Inventory, Curiosity and Exploration Inventory, Belief in Science scale, and measures of academic self-efficacy. Additionally, concurrent validity was established by the resulting significant differences between those identifying the centrality of religious belief in their lives and those who do not self-identify as being guided daily by religious beliefs. This study demonstrates the utility of the QUEST-25 for research, evaluation, and theory development.

Keywords: guided-inquiry learning, intellectual curiosity, psychometric assessment, scientific thinking

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
1738 The Impact of Science Teachers' Epistemological Beliefs and Metacognition on Their Use of Inquiry Based Teaching Approaches

Authors: Irfan Ahmed Rind

Abstract:

Science education has recently become the top priority of government of Pakistan. Number of schemes has been initiated for the improvement of science teaching and learning at primary and secondary levels of education, most importantly training in-service science teachers on inquiry based teaching and learning to empower students and encourage creativity, critical thinking, and innovation among them. Therefore, this approach has been promoted in the recent continuous professional development trainings for the in-service teachers. However, the follow ups on trained science teachers and educators suggest that these teachers fail to implement the inquiry based teaching and learning in their classes. In addition, these trainings also fail to bring any significant change in students’ science content knowledge and understanding as per the annual national level surveys conducted by government and independent agencies. Research suggests that science has been taught using scientific positivism, which supports objectivity based on experiments and mathematics. In contrary, the inquiry based teaching and learning are based on constructivism, which conflicts with the positivist epistemology of science teachers. It was, therefore, assumed that science teachers struggle to implement the inquiry based teaching approach as it conflicts with their basic epistemological beliefs. With this assumption, this research aimed to (i) understand how science teachers conceptualize the nature of science, and how this influence their understanding of learning, learners, their own roles as teachers and their teaching strategies, (ii) identify the conflict of science teachers’ epistemological beliefs with the inquiry based teaching approach, and (iii) find the ways in which science teachers epistemological beliefs may be developed from positivism to constructivism, so that they may effectively use the inquiry based teaching approach in teaching science. Using qualitative case study approach, thirty six secondary and higher secondary science teachers (21 male and 15 female) were selected. Data was collected using interviewed, participatory observations (sixty lessons were observed), and twenty interviews from students for verifications of teachers’ responses. The findings suggest that most of the science teacher were positivist in defining the nature of science. Most of them limit themselves to one fix answer that is provided in the books and that there is only one 'right' way to teach science. There is no room for students’ or teachers’ own opinion or bias when it comes to scientific concepts. Inquiry based teaching seems 'no right' to them. They find it difficult to allow students to think out of the box. However, some interesting exercises were found to be very effective in bringing the change in teachers’ epistemological beliefs. These will be discussed in detail in the paper. The findings have major implications for the teachers, educators, and policymakers.

Keywords: science teachers, epistemology, metacognition, inquiry based teaching

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
1737 Students' Perception of Using Dental E-Models in an Inquiry-Based Curriculum

Authors: Yanqi Yang, Chongshan Liao, Cheuk Hin Ho, Susan Bridges

Abstract:

Aim: To investigate student’s perceptions of using e-models in an inquiry-based curriculum. Approach: 52 second-year dental students completed a pre- and post-test questionnaire relating to their perceptions of e-models and their use in inquiry-based learning. The pre-test occurred prior to any learning with e-models. The follow-up survey was conducted after one year's experience of using e-models. Results: There was no significant difference between the two sets of questionnaires regarding student’s perceptions of the usefulness of e-models and their willingness to use e-models in future inquiry-based learning. Most of the students preferred using both plaster models and e-models in tandem. Conclusion: Students did not change their attitude towards e-models and most of them agreed or were neutral that e-models are useful in inquiry-based learning. Whilst recognizing the utility of 3D models for learning, student's preference for combining these with solid models has implications for the development of haptic sensibility in an operative discipline.

Keywords: e-models, inquiry-based curriculum, education, questionnaire

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
1736 Inquiry-based Science Education in Computer Science Learning in Primary School

Authors: Maslin Masrom, Nik Hasnaa Nik Mahmood, Wan Normeza Wan Zakaria, Azizul Azizan, Norshaliza Kamaruddin

Abstract:

Traditionally, in science education, the teacher provides facts and the students learn them. It is outmoded for today’s students to equip them with real-life situations, mainly because knowledge and life skills are acquired passively from the instructors. Inquiry-Based Science Education (IBSE) is an approach that allows students to experiment, ask questions, and develop responses based on reasoning. It has provided students and teachers with opportunities to actively engage in collaborative learning via inquiry. This approach inspires the students to become active thinkers, research for solutions, and gain life-long experience and self-confidence. Therefore, the research aims to investigate how the primary-school teacher supports students or pupils through an inquiry-based science education approach for computer science, specifically coding skills. The results are presented and described.

Keywords: inquiry-based science education, student-centered learning, computer science, primary school

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
1735 Identification of Coauthors in Scientific Database

Authors: Thiago M. R Dias, Gray F. Moita

Abstract:

The analysis of scientific collaboration networks has contributed significantly to improving the understanding of how does the process of collaboration between researchers and also to understand how the evolution of scientific production of researchers or research groups occurs. However, the identification of collaborations in large scientific databases is not a trivial task given the high computational cost of the methods commonly used. This paper proposes a method for identifying collaboration in large data base of curriculum researchers. The proposed method has low computational cost with satisfactory results, proving to be an interesting alternative for the modeling and characterization of large scientific collaboration networks.

Keywords: extraction, data integration, information retrieval, scientific collaboration

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
1734 Development of Instructional Material Using Scientific Approach to Make the Nature of Science (NOS) and Critical Thinking Explicit on Chemical Bonding and Intermolecular Forces Topics

Authors: Ivan Ashif Ardhana, Intan Mahanani

Abstract:

Chemistry education tends to change from triplet representation among macroscopic, microscopic, and symbolic to tetrahedron shape. This change set the aspect of human element on the top of learning. Meaning that students are expected to solve the problems involving the ethic, morality, and humanity through the class. Ability to solve the problems connecting either theories or applications is called scientific literacy which have been implemented in curriculum 2013 implicitly. Scientific literacy has an aspect of nature science and critical thinking. Both can be integrated to learning using scientific approach and scientific inquiry. Unfortunately, students’ ability of scientific literacy in Indonesia is far from expectation. A survey from PISA had proven it. Scientific literacy of Indonesian students is always at bottom five position from 2002 till 2012. Improving a scientific literacy needs many efforts against them. Developing an instructional material based on scientific approach is one kind of that efforts. Instructional material contains both aspect of nature of science and critical thinking which is instructed explicitly to improve the students’ understanding about science. Developing goal is to produce a prototype and an instructional material using scientific approach whose chapter is chemical bonding and intermolecular forces for high school students grade ten. As usual, the material is subjected to get either quantitative mark or suggestion through validation process using validation sheet instrument. Development model is adapted from 4D model containing four steps. They are define, design, develop, and disseminate. Nevertheless, development of instructional material had only done until third step. The final step wasn’t done because of time, cost, and energy limitations. Developed instructional material had been validated by four validators. They are coming from chemistry lecture and high school’s teacher which two at each. The result of this development research shown the average of quantitative mark of students’ book is 92.75% with very proper in criteria. Given at same validation process, teacher’s guiding book got the average mark by 96.98%, similar criteria with students’ book. Qualitative mark including both comments and suggestions resulted from validation process were used as consideration for the revision. The result concluded us how the instructional materials using scientific approach to explicit nature of science and critical thinking on the topic of chemical bonding and intermolecular forces are very proper if they are used at learning activity.

Keywords: critical thinking, instructional material, nature of science, scientific literacy

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
1733 Engaging Teacher Inquiry via New Media in Traditional and E-Learning Environments

Authors: Daniel A. Walzer

Abstract:

As the options for course delivery and development expand, plenty of misconceptions still exist concerning e-learning and online course delivery. Classroom instructors often discuss pedagogy, methodologies, and best practices regarding teaching from a singular, traditional in-class perspective. As more professors integrate online, blended, and hybrid courses into their dossier, a clearly defined rubric for gauging online course delivery is essential. The transition from a traditional learning structure towards an updated distance-based format requires careful planning, evaluation, and revision. This paper examines how new media stimulates reflective practice and guided inquiry to improve pedagogy, engage interdisciplinary collaboration, and supply rich qualitative data for future research projects in media arts disciplines.

Keywords: action research, inquiry, new media, reflection

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
1732 Exploring Students’ Visual Conception of Matter and Its Implications to Teaching and Learning Chemistry

Authors: Allen A. Espinosa, Arlyne C. Marasigan, Janir T. Datukan

Abstract:

The study explored how students visualize the states and classifications of matter using scientific models. It also identified misconceptions of students in using scientific models. In general, high percentage of students was able to use scientific models correctly and only a little misconception was identified. From the result of the study, a teaching framework was formulated wherein scientific models should be employed in classroom instruction to visualize abstract concepts in chemistry and for better conceptual understanding.

Keywords: visual conception, scientific models, mental models, states of matter, classification of matter

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
1731 Chinese Language Teaching as a Second Language: Immersion Teaching

Authors: Lee Bih Ni, Kiu Su Na

Abstract:

This paper discusses the Chinese Language Teaching as a Second Language by focusing on Immersion Teaching. Researchers used narrative literature review to describe the current states of both art and science in focused areas of inquiry. Immersion teaching comes with a standard that teachers must reliably meet. Chinese language-immersion instruction consists of language and content lessons, including functional usage of the language, academic language, authentic language, and correct Chinese sociocultural language. Researchers used narrative literature reviews to build a scientific knowledge base. Researchers collected all the important points of discussion, and put them here with reference to the specific field where this paper is originally based on. The findings show that Chinese Language in immersion teaching is not like standard foreign language classroom; immersion setting provides more opportunities to teach students colloquial language than academic. Immersion techniques also introduce a language’s cultural and social contexts in a meaningful and memorable way. It is particularly important that immersion teachers connect classwork with real-life experiences. Immersion also includes more elements of discovery and inquiry based learning than do other kinds of instructional practices. Students are always and consistently interpreted the conclusions and context clues.

Keywords: a second language, Chinese language teaching, immersion teaching, instructional strategies

Procedia PDF Downloads 361
1730 Introduction of a Medicinal Plants Garden to Revitalize a Botany Curriculum for Non-Science Majors

Authors: Rosa M. Gambier, Jennifer L. Carlson

Abstract:

In order to revitalize the science curriculum for botany courses for non-science majors, we have introduced the use of the medicinal plants into a first-year botany course. We have connected the use of scientific method, scientific inquiry and active learning in the classroom with the study of Western Traditional Medical Botany. The students have researched models of Botanical medicine and have designed a sustainable medicinal plants garden using native medicinal plants from the northeast. Through the semester, the students have researched their chosen species, planted seeds in the college greenhouse, collected germination ratios, growth ratios and have successfully produced a beginners medicinal plant garden. Phase II of the project will be to tie in SCCCs community outreach goals by involving the public in the expanded development of the garden as a way of sharing learning about medicinal plants and traditional medicine outside the classroom.

Keywords: medicinal plant garden, botany curriculum, active learning, community outreach

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
1729 The Use of Webquests in Developing Inquiry Based Learning: Views of Teachers and Students in Qatar

Authors: Abdullah Abu-Tineh, Carol Murphy, Nigel Calder, Nasser Mansour

Abstract:

This paper reports on an aspect of e-learning in developing inquiry-based learning (IBL). We present data on the views of teachers and students in Qatar following a professional development programme intended to help teachers implement IBL in their science and mathematics classrooms. Key to this programme was the use of WebQuests. Views of the teachers and students suggested that WebQuests helped students to develop technical skills, work collaboratively and become independent in their learning. The use of WebQuests also enabled a combination of digital and non-digital tools that helped students connect ideas and enhance their understanding of topics.

Keywords: digital technology, inquiry-based learning, mathematics and science education, professional development

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
1728 Ontology-Based Systemizing of the Science Information Devoted to Waste Utilizing by Methanogenesis

Authors: Ye. Shapovalov, V. Shapovalov, O. Stryzhak, A. Salyuk

Abstract:

Over the past decades, amount of scientific information has been growing exponentially. It became more complicated to process and systemize this amount of data. The approach to systematization of scientific information on the production of biogas based on the ontological IT platform “T.O.D.O.S.” has been developed. It has been proposed to select semantic characteristics of each work for their further introduction into the IT platform “T.O.D.O.S.”. An ontological graph with a ranking function for previous scientific research and for a system of selection of microorganisms has been worked out. These systems provide high performance of information management of scientific information.

Keywords: ontology-based analysis, analysis of scientific data, methanogenesis, microorganism hierarchy, 'T.O.D.O.S.'

Procedia PDF Downloads 84
1727 The Wellness Wheel: A Tool to Reimagine Schooling

Authors: Jennifer F. Moore

Abstract:

The wellness wheel as a tool for school growth and change is currently being piloted by a startup school in Chicago, IL. In this case study, members of the school community engaged in the appreciative inquiry process to plan their organizational development around the wellness wheel. The wellness wheel (comprised of physical, emotional, social, spiritual, environmental, cognitive, and financial wellness) is used as a planning tool by teachers, students, parents, and administrators. Through the appreciative inquiry method of change, the community is reflecting on their individual level of wellness and developing organizational structures to ensure the well being of children and adults. The goal of the case study is to test the appropriateness of the use of appreciative inquiry (as a method) and the wellness wheel (as a tool) for school growth and development. Findings of the case study will be realized by the conference. The research is in process now.

Keywords: education, schools, well being, wellness

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
1726 Evaluation Means in English and Russian Academic Discourse: Through Comparative Analysis towards Translation

Authors: Albina Vodyanitskaya

Abstract:

Given the culture- and language-specific nature of evaluation, this phenomenon is widely studied around the linguistic world and may be regarded as a challenge for translators. Evaluation penetrates all the levels of a scientific text, influences its composition and the reader’s attitude towards the information presented. One of the most challenging and rarely studied phenomena is the individual style of the scientific writer, which is mostly reflected in the use of evaluative language means. The evaluative and expressive potential of a scientific text is becoming more and more welcoming area for researchers, which stems in the shift towards anthropocentric paradigm in linguistics. Other reasons include: the cognitive and psycholinguistic processes that accompany knowledge acquisition, a genre-determined nature of a scientific text, the increasing public concern about the quality of scientific papers and some such. One more important issue, is the fact that linguists all over the world still argue about the definition of evaluation and its functions in the text. The author analyzes various approaches towards the study of evaluation and scientific texts. A comparative analysis of English and Russian dissertations and other scientific papers with regard to evaluative language means reveals major differences and similarities between English and Russian scientific style. Though standardized and genre-specific, English scientific texts contain more figurative and expressive evaluative means than the Russian ones, which should be taken into account while translating scientific papers. The processes that evaluation undergoes while being expressed by means of a target language are also analyzed. The author offers a target-language-dependent strategy for the translation of evaluation in English and Russian scientific texts. The findings may contribute to the theory and practice of translation and can increase scientific writers’ awareness of inter-language and intercultural differences in evaluative language means.

Keywords: academic discourse, evaluation, scientific text, scientific writing, translation

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
1725 Bibliometric Analysis of the Impact of Funding on Scientific Development of Researchers

Authors: Ashkan Ebadi, Andrea Schiffauerova

Abstract:

Every year, a considerable amount of money is being invested on research, mainly in the form of funding allocated to universities and research institutes. To better distribute the available funds and to set the most proper R&D investment strategies for the future, evaluation of the productivity of the funded researchers and the impact of such funding is crucial. In this paper, using the data on 15 years of journal publications of the NSERC (Natural Sciences and Engineering research Council of Canada) funded researchers and by means of bibliometric analysis, the scientific development of the funded researchers and their scientific collaboration patterns will be investigated in the period of 1996-2010. According to the results it seems that there is a positive relation between the average level of funding and quantity and quality of the scientific output. In addition, whenever funding allocated to the researchers has increased, the number of co-authors per paper has also augmented. Hence, the increase in the level of funding may enable researchers to get involved in larger projects and/or scientific teams and increase their scientific output respectively.

Keywords: bibliometrics, collaboration, funding, productivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
1724 Relative Effectiveness of Inquiry: Approach and Expository Instructional Methods in Fostering Students’ Retention in Chemistry

Authors: Joy Johnbest Egbo

Abstract:

The study was designed to investigate the relative effectiveness of inquiry role approach and expository instructional methods in fostering students’ retention in chemistry. Two research questions were answered and three null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. A quasi-experimental (the non-equivalent pretest, posttest control group) design was adopted for the study. The population for the study comprised all senior secondary school class two (SS II) students who were offering Chemistry in single sex schools in Enugu Education Zone. The instrument for data collection was a self-developed Chemistry Retention Test (CRT). Relevant data were collected from a sample of one hundred and forty–one (141) students drawn from two secondary schools (1 male and 1 female schools) using simple random sampling technique. A reliability co-efficient of 0.82 was obtained for the instrument using Kuder Richardson formular20 (K-R20). Mean and Standard deviation scores were used to answer the research questions while two–way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to test the hypotheses. The findings showed that the students taught with Inquiry role approach retained the chemistry concept significantly higher than their counterparts taught with expository method. Female students retained slightly higher than their male counterparts. There is significant interaction between instructional packages and gender on Chemistry students’ retention. It was recommended, among others, that teachers should be encouraged to employ the use of Inquiry-role approach more in the teaching of chemistry and other subjects in general. By so doing, students’ retention of the subject could be increased.

Keywords: inquiry role approach, retention, exposition method, chemistry

Procedia PDF Downloads 426
1723 Publish/Subscribe Scientific Workflow Interoperability Framework (PS-SWIF) Architecture and Design

Authors: Ahmed Alqaoud

Abstract:

This paper describes Publish/Subscribe Scientific Workflow Interoperability Framework (PS-SWIF) architecture and its components that collectively provide interoperability between heterogeneous scientific workflow systems. Requirements to achieve interoperability are identified. This paper also provides a detailed investigation and design of models and solutions for system requirements, and considers how workflow interoperability models provided by Workflow Management Coalition (WfMC) can be achieved using the PS-SWIF system.

Keywords: publish/subscribe, scientific workflow, web services, workflow interoperability

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
1722 Effect of Three Instructional Strategies on Pre-service Teachers’ Learning Outcomes in Practical Chemistry in Niger State, Nigeria

Authors: Akpokiere Ugbede Roseline

Abstract:

Chemistry is an activity oriented subject in which many students achievement over the years are not encouraging. Among the reasons found to be responsible for student’s poor performance in chemistry are ineffective teaching strategies. This study, therefore, sought to determine the effect of guided inquiry, guided inquiry with demonstration, and demonstration with conventional approach on pre-service teachers’ cognitive attainment and practical skills acquisition on stoichiometry and chemical reactions in practical chemistry, Two research questions and hypotheses were each answered and tested respectively. The study was a quasi-experimental research involving 50 students in each of the experimental groups and 50 students in the control group. Out of the five instruments used for the study, three were on stimulus and two on response (Test of Cognitive Attainment and Test of Practical Skills in Chemistry) instruments administered, and dataobtained were analyzed with t-test and Analysis of Variance. Findings revealed, among others, that there was a significant effect of treatments on students' cognitive attainment and on practical skills acquisition. Students exposed to guided inquiry (with/without demonstration) strategies achieved better than those exposed to demonstration with conventional strategy. It is therefore recommended, among others, that Lecturers in Colleges of Education should utilize the guided inquiry strategy for teaching concepts in chemistry.

Keywords: instructional strategy, practical chemistry, learning outcomes, pre-service teachers

Procedia PDF Downloads 2
1721 A Valid Professional Development Framework For Supporting Science Teachers In Relation To Inquiry-Based Curriculum Units

Authors: Fru Vitalis Akuma, Jenna Koenen

Abstract:

The science education community is increasingly calling for learning experiences that mirror the work of scientists. Although inquiry-based science education is aligned with these calls, the implementation of this strategy is a complex and daunting task for many teachers. Thus, policymakers and researchers have noted the need for continued teacher Professional Development (PD) in the enactment of inquiry-based science education, coupled with effective ways of reaching the goals of teacher PD. This is a complex problem for which educational design research is suitable. The purpose at this stage of our design research is to develop a generic PD framework that is valid as the blueprint of a PD program for supporting science teachers in relation to inquiry-based curriculum units. The seven components of the framework are the goal, learning theory, strategy, phases, support, motivation, and an instructional model. Based on a systematic review of the literature on effective (science) teacher PD, coupled with developer screening, we have generated a design principle per component of the PD framework. For example, as per the associated design principle, the goal of the framework is to provide science teachers with experiences in authentic inquiry, coupled with enhancing their competencies linked to the adoption, customization and design; then the classroom implementation and the revision of inquiry-based curriculum units. The seven design principles have allowed us to synthesize the PD framework, which, coupled with the design principles, are the preliminary outcomes of the current research. We are in the process of evaluating the content and construct validity of the framework, based on nine one-on-one interviews with experts in inquiry-based classroom and teacher learning. To this end, we have developed an interview protocol with the input of eight such experts in South Africa and Germany. Using the protocol, the expert appraisal of the PD framework will involve three experts from Germany, South Africa, and Cameroon, respectively. These countries, where we originate and/or work, provide a variety of inquiry-based science education contexts, making the countries suitable in the evaluation of the generic PD framework. Based on the evaluation, we will revise the framework and its seven design principles to arrive at the final outcomes of the current research. While the final content and construct a valid version of the framework will serve as an example of the needed ways through which effective inquiry-based science teacher PD may be achieved, the final design principles will be useful to researchers when transforming the framework for use in any specific educational context. For example, in our further research, we will transform the framework to one that is practical and effective in supporting inquiry-based practical work in resource-constrained physical sciences classrooms in South Africa. Researchers in other educational contexts may similarly consider the final framework and design principles in their work. Thus, our final outcomes will inform practice and research around the support of teachers to increase the incorporation of learning experiences that mirror the work of scientists in a worldwide manner.

Keywords: design principles, educational design research, evaluation, inquiry-based science education, professional development framework

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
1720 The Predictive Power of Successful Scientific Theories: An Explanatory Study on Their Substantive Ontologies through Theoretical Change

Authors: Damian Islas

Abstract:

Debates on realism in science concern two different questions: (I) whether the unobservable entities posited by theories can be known; and (II) whether any knowledge we have of them is objective or not. Question (I) arises from the doubt that since observation is the basis of all our factual knowledge, unobservable entities cannot be known. Question (II) arises from the doubt that since scientific representations are inextricably laden with the subjective, idiosyncratic, and a priori features of human cognition and scientific practice, they cannot convey any reliable information on how their objects are in themselves. A way of understanding scientific realism (SR) is through three lines of inquiry: ontological, semantic, and epistemological. Ontologically, scientific realism asserts the existence of a world independent of human mind. Semantically, scientific realism assumes that theoretical claims about reality show truth values and, thus, should be construed literally. Epistemologically, scientific realism believes that theoretical claims offer us knowledge of the world. Nowadays, the literature on scientific realism has proceeded rather far beyond the realism versus antirealism debate. This stance represents a middle-ground position between the two according to which science can attain justified true beliefs concerning relational facts about the unobservable realm but cannot attain justified true beliefs concerning the intrinsic nature of any objects occupying that realm. That is, the structural content of scientific theories about the unobservable can be known, but facts about the intrinsic nature of the entities that figure as place-holders in those structures cannot be known. There are two possible versions of SR: Epistemological Structural Realism (ESR) and Ontic Structural Realism (OSR). On ESR, an agnostic stance is preserved with respect to the natures of unobservable entities, but the possibility of knowing the relations obtaining between those entities is affirmed. OSR includes the rather striking claim that when it comes to the unobservables theorized about within fundamental physics, relations exist, but objects do not. Focusing on ESR, questions arise concerning its ability to explain the empirical success of a theory. Empirical success certainly involves predictive success, and predictive success implies a theory’s power to make accurate predictions. But a theory’s power to make any predictions at all seems to derive precisely from its core axioms or laws concerning unobservable entities and mechanisms, and not simply the sort of structural relations often expressed in equations. The specific challenge to ESR concerns its ability to explain the explanatory and predictive power of successful theories without appealing to their substantive ontologies, which are often not preserved by their successors. The response to this challenge will depend on the various and subtle different versions of ESR and OSR stances, which show a sort of progression through eliminativist OSR to moderate OSR of gradual increase in the ontological status accorded to objects. Knowing the relations between unobserved entities is methodologically identical to assert that these relations between unobserved entities exist.

Keywords: eliminativist ontic structural realism, epistemological structuralism, moderate ontic structural realism, ontic structuralism

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
1719 Analysis of Atomic Models in High School Physics Textbooks

Authors: Meng-Fei Cheng, Wei Fneg

Abstract:

New Taiwan high school standards emphasize employing scientific models and modeling practices in physics learning. However, to our knowledge. Few studies address how scientific models and modeling are approached in current science teaching, and they do not examine the views of scientific models portrayed in the textbooks. To explore the views of scientific models and modeling in textbooks, this study investigated the atomic unit in different textbook versions as an example and provided suggestions for modeling curriculum. This study adopted a quantitative analysis of qualitative data in the atomic units of four mainstream version of Taiwan high school physics textbooks. The models were further analyzed using five dimensions of the views of scientific models (nature of models, multiple models, purpose of the models, testing models, and changing models); each dimension had three levels (low, medium, high). Descriptive statistics were employed to compare the frequency of describing the five dimensions of the views of scientific models in the atomic unit to understand the emphasis of the views and to compare the frequency of the eight scientific models’ use to investigate the atomic model that was used most often in the textbooks. Descriptive statistics were further utilized to investigate the average levels of the five dimensions of the views of scientific models to examine whether the textbooks views were close to the scientific view. The average level of the five dimensions of the eight atomic models were also compared to examine whether the views of the eight atomic models were close to the scientific views. The results revealed the following three major findings from the atomic unit. (1) Among the five dimensions of the views of scientific models, the most portrayed dimension was the 'purpose of models,' and the least portrayed dimension was 'multiple models.' The most diverse view was the 'purpose of models,' and the most sophisticated scientific view was the 'nature of models.' The least sophisticated scientific view was 'multiple models.' (2) Among the eight atomic models, the most mentioned model was the atomic nucleus model, and the least mentioned model was the three states of matter. (3) Among the correlations between the five dimensions, the dimension of 'testing models' was highly related to the dimension of 'changing models.' In short, this study examined the views of scientific models based on the atomic units of physics textbooks to identify the emphasized and disregarded views in the textbooks. The findings suggest how future textbooks and curriculum can provide a thorough view of scientific models to enhance students' model-based learning.

Keywords: atomic models, textbooks, science education, scientific model

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
1718 A Research on Tourism Market Forecast and Its Evaluation

Authors: Min Wei

Abstract:

The traditional prediction methods of the forecast for tourism market are paid more attention to the accuracy of the forecasts, ignoring the results of the feasibility of forecasting and predicting operability, which had made it difficult to predict the results of scientific testing. With the application of Linear Regression Model, this paper attempts to construct a scientific evaluation system for predictive value, both to ensure the accuracy, stability of the predicted value, and to ensure the feasibility of forecasting and predicting the results of operation. The findings show is that a scientific evaluation system can implement the scientific concept of development, the harmonious development of man and nature co-ordinate.

Keywords: linear regression model, tourism market, forecast, tourism economics

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
1717 Application of WebGIS-Based Water Environment Capacity Inquiry and Planning System in Water Resources Management

Authors: Tao Ding, Danjia Yan, Jinye Li, Chao Ren, Xinhua Hu

Abstract:

The paper based on the research background of the current situation of water shortage in China and intelligent management of water resources in the information era. And the paper adopts WebGIS technology, combining the mathematical model of water resources management to develop a WebGIS-based water environment capacity inquiry and polluted water emission planning. The research significance of the paper is that it can inquiry the water environment capacity of Jinhua City in real time and plan how to drain polluted water into the river, so as to realize the effective management of water resources. This system makes sewage planning more convenient and faster. For the planning of the discharge enterprise, the decision on the optimal location of the sewage outlet can be achieved through calculation of the Sewage discharge planning model in the river, without the need for site visits. The system can achieve effective management of water resources and has great application value.

Keywords: sewerage planning, water environment capacity, water resources management, WebGIS

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
1716 Active Learning Based on Science Experiments to Improve Scientific Literacy

Authors: Kunihiro Kamataki

Abstract:

In this study, active learning based on simple science experiments was developed in a university class of the freshman, in order to improve their scientific literacy. Through the active learning based on simple experiments of generation of cloud in a plastic bottle, students increased the interest in the global atmospheric problem and were able to discuss and find solutions about this problem positively from various viewpoints of the science technology, the politics, the economy, the diplomacy and the relations among nations. The results of their questionnaires and free descriptions of this class indicate that they improve the scientific literacy and motivations of other classroom lectures to acquire knowledge. It is thus suggested that the science experiment is strong tool to improve their intellectual curiosity rapidly and the connections that link the impression of science experiment and their interest of the social problem is very important to enhance their learning effect in this education.

Keywords: active learning, scientific literacy, simple scientific experiment, university education

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
1715 Q-Test of Undergraduate Epistemology and Scientific Thought: Development and Testing of an Assessment of Scientific Epistemology

Authors: Matthew J. Zagumny

Abstract:

The QUEST is an assessment of scientific epistemic beliefs and was developed to measure students’ intellectual development in regards to beliefs about knowledge and knowing. The QUEST utilizes Q-sort methodology, which requires participants to rate the degree to which statements describe them personally. As a measure of personal theories of knowledge, the QUEST instrument is described with the Q-sort distribution and scoring explained. A preliminary demonstration of the QUEST assessment is described with two samples of undergraduate students (novice/lower division compared to advanced/upper division students) being assessed and their average QUEST scores compared. The usefulness of an assessment of epistemology is discussed in terms of the principle that assessment tends to drive educational practice and university mission. The critical need for university and academic programs to focus on development of students’ scientific epistemology is briefly discussed.

Keywords: scientific epistemology, critical thinking, Q-sort method, STEM undergraduates

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
1714 Analysis of the Topics of Research of Brazilian Researchers Acting in the Areas of Engineering

Authors: Jether Gomes, Thiago M. R. Dias, Gray F. Moita

Abstract:

The production and publication of scientific works have increased significantly in the last years, being the Internet the main factor of access and diffusion of these. In view of this, researchers from several areas of knowledge have carried out several studies on scientific production data in order to analyze phenomena and trends about science. The understanding of how research has evolved can, for example, serve as a basis for building scientific policies for further advances in science and stimulating research groups to become more productive. In this context, the objective of this work is to analyze the main research topics investigated along the trajectory of the Brazilian science of researchers working in the areas of engineering, in order to map scientific knowledge and identify topics in highlights. To this end, studies are carried out on the frequency and relationship of the keywords of the set of scientific articles registered in the existing curricula in the Lattes Platform of each one of the selected researchers, counting with the aid of bibliometric analysis features.

Keywords: research topics, bibliometrics, topics of interest, Lattes Platform

Procedia PDF Downloads 144