Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 69

Search results for: disappearance

69 The Promise of Nunca Más after Cambiemos: Representations of the 2x1 Decision of the Supreme Court and Santiago Maldonado's Disappearance in the Newspaper La Nación

Authors: Uluhan Berk Ondul


This article aims to shed light on the new stage of transitional justice in Argentina through examining the representations of the 2x1 decision of the Supreme Court and Santiago Maldonado’s Disappearance in the newspaper, La Nación. The two events hold the key to understanding Argentina’s journey since return to democracy as they are about the same crimes of the dictatorship, namely, the forced disappearance of civilians and the subsequent impunity that follows. In the case of a convicted torturer, The Supreme Court of Argentina ruled on 3rd of May 2017 that the days spent in preventive detention after two years should be counted double for the overall sentence. This court decision was met with severe resistance from the members of the parliament as well as the human rights movement. The second item on the list still continues and divides the country into two camps: (1) those who think that the police force has committed another act of forced disappearance in the case of activist Santiago Maldonado and (2) the others who blame the peronistas (the party and supporters of the ex-president Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner) of using this subject as a means to score political points. As a newspaper known for its proximity to the current administration, La Nación offers an insight to the direction of the country and also demonstrates how the neoliberal mindset works. The results of the study show that the transitional justice process in Argentina is far from being complete as the Promise of Nunca Más is still not a shared value but a political statement.

Keywords: Argentina, Fallo 2x1, impunity, Santiago Maldonado, transitional justice

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68 Big Data: Appearance and Disappearance

Authors: James Moir


The mainstay of Big Data is prediction in that it allows practitioners, researchers, and policy analysts to predict trends based upon the analysis of large and varied sources of data. These can range from changing social and political opinions, patterns in crimes, and consumer behaviour. Big Data has therefore shifted the criterion of success in science from causal explanations to predictive modelling and simulation. The 19th-century science sought to capture phenomena and seek to show the appearance of it through causal mechanisms while 20th-century science attempted to save the appearance and relinquish causal explanations. Now 21st-century science in the form of Big Data is concerned with the prediction of appearances and nothing more. However, this pulls social science back in the direction of a more rule- or law-governed reality model of science and away from a consideration of the internal nature of rules in relation to various practices. In effect Big Data offers us no more than a world of surface appearance and in doing so it makes disappear any context-specific conceptual sensitivity.

Keywords: big data, appearance, disappearance, surface, epistemology

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67 Application of the Carboxylate Platform in the Consolidated Bioconversion of Agricultural Wastes to Biofuel Precursors

Authors: Sesethu G. Njokweni, Marelize Botes, Emile W. H. Van Zyl


An alternative strategy to the production of bioethanol is by examining the degradability of biomass in a natural system such as the rumen of mammals. This anaerobic microbial community has higher cellulolytic activities than microbial communities from other habitats and degrades cellulose to produce volatile fatty acids (VFA), methane and CO₂. VFAs have the potential to serve as intermediate products for electrochemical conversion to hydrocarbon fuels. In vitro mimicking of this process would be more cost-effective than bioethanol production as it does not require chemical pre-treatment of biomass, a sterile environment or added enzymes. The strategies of the carboxylate platform and the co-cultures of a bovine ruminal microbiota from cannulated cows were combined in order to investigate and optimize the bioconversion of agricultural biomass (apple and grape pomace, citrus pulp, sugarcane bagasse and triticale straw) to high value VFAs as intermediates for biofuel production in a consolidated bioprocess. Optimisation of reactor conditions was investigated using five different ruminal inoculum concentrations; 5,10,15,20 and 25% with fixed pH at 6.8 and temperature at 39 ˚C. The ANKOM 200/220 fiber analyser was used to analyse in vitro neutral detergent fiber (NDF) disappearance of the feedstuffs. Fresh and cryo-frozen (5% DMSO and 50% glycerol for 3 months) rumen cultures were tested for the retainment of fermentation capacity and durability in 72 h fermentations in 125 ml serum vials using a FURO medical solutions 6-valve gas manifold to induce anaerobic conditions. Fermentation of apple pomace, triticale straw, and grape pomace showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the effect of 15 and 20 % inoculum concentrations for the total VFA yield. However, high performance liquid chromatographic separation within the two inoculum concentrations showed a significant difference (P < 0.05) in acetic acid yield, with 20% inoculum concentration being the optimum at 4.67 g/l. NDF disappearance of 85% in 96 h and total VFA yield of 11.5 g/l in 72 h (A/P ratio = 2.04) for apple pomace entailed that it was the optimal feedstuff for this process. The NDF disappearance and VFA yield of DMSO (82% NDF disappearance and 10.6 g/l VFA) and glycerol (90% NDF disappearance and 11.6 g/l VFA) stored rumen also showed significantly similar degradability of apple pomace with lack of treatment effect differences compared to a fresh rumen control (P > 0.05). The lack of treatment effects was a positive sign in indicating that there was no difference between the stored samples and the fresh rumen control. Retaining of the fermentation capacity within the preserved cultures suggests that its metabolic characteristics were preserved due to resilience and redundancy of the rumen culture. The amount of degradability and VFA yield within a short span was similar to other carboxylate platforms that have longer run times. This study shows that by virtue of faster rates and high extent of degradability, small scale alternatives to bioethanol such as rumen microbiomes and other natural fermenting microbiomes can be employed to enhance the feasibility of biofuels large-scale implementation.

Keywords: agricultural wastes, carboxylate platform, rumen microbiome, volatile fatty acids

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
66 Numerical Simulation of Two-Phase Flows Using a Pressure-Based Solver

Authors: Lei Zhang, Jean-Michel Ghidaglia, Anela Kumbaro


This work focuses on numerical simulation of two-phase flows based on the bi-fluid six-equation model widely used in many industrial areas, such as nuclear power plant safety analysis. A pressure-based numerical method is adopted in our studies due to the fact that in two-phase flows, it is common to have a large range of Mach numbers because of the mixture of liquid and gas, and density-based solvers experience stiffness problems as well as a loss of accuracy when approaching the low Mach number limit. This work extends the semi-implicit pressure solver in the nuclear component CUPID code, where the governing equations are solved on unstructured grids with co-located variables to accommodate complicated geometries. A conservative version of the solver is developed in order to capture exactly the shock in one-phase flows, and is extended to two-phase situations. An inter-facial pressure term is added to the bi-fluid model to make the system hyperbolic and to establish a well-posed mathematical problem that will allow us to obtain convergent solutions with refined meshes. The ability of the numerical method to treat phase appearance and disappearance as well as the behavior of the scheme at low Mach numbers will be demonstrated through several numerical results. Finally, inter-facial mass and heat transfer models are included to deal with situations when mass and energy transfer between phases is important, and associated industrial numerical benchmarks with tabulated EOS (equations of state) for fluids are performed.

Keywords: two-phase flows, numerical simulation, bi-fluid model, unstructured grids, phase appearance and disappearance

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65 SiO2-Ag+Chlorex vs SilverSulfaDiazine: An 'in vitro' and 'in vivo' Silver Challenge

Authors: Roberto Cassino, Valeria Dissette, Carlo Alberto Bignozzi, Daniele Pazzi


Background and Aims: The aim of this work was to investigate, both ‘in vitro’ and ‘in vivo’, if the new SCX technology (SiO2-Ag+Chlorex) can easily defeat infections and it is really more effective than SSD (SilverSulfaDiazine). ‘In vitro’ methods: we tested ‘in vitro’ the effectiveness of both silver materials using a pool of 5 strains: Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia Coli, Enterococcus hirae and Candida Albicans. 100 µl of this pool have been seeded on Petri dishes and kept for 24 hours in incubation at 37 C°. ‘In vivo’ methods: we enrolled patients with multiple infectious chronic wounds (according with cutting & harding criteria for infection); after a qualitative evaluation of the wounds bacterial population, taking a sample by plug, we included in the study 6 patients for a total of 10 wounds, infected by one or more of the microorganisms used for the ‘in vitro’ test. The protocol consisted of a treatment with a spray powder of SSD every 48 hours for 14 days; in case of worsening we should have to start a new treatment with a spray powder containing silicon dioxide, ionic silver and chlorexidine (SiO2-Ag+Chlorex) every 48 hours for 14 days. We evaluated the number of clinical signs of infection and the disappearance or not of the wound edge erithema. ‘In vitro’ results: SSD demonstrated a wide zone of inhibition within 24 hours, but after 5 days there was no more signs of inhibition; on the contrary SCX had a good inhibition ring that lasted more than 5 days. ‘In vivo’ results: all wounds treated with SSD got worse; the signs of infection increased and the wound edge erithema did not disappear. According with the protocol, we treated then all wounds with SCX and they all improved within the period of observation with complete disappearance of clinical signs of infection and no more wound edge erithema. Conclusions: the study demonstrated the effectiveness of SiO2-Ag+Chlorex, especially in terms of long lasting antimicrobial action. We had the same results ‘in vitro’, so that there has been a perfect correspondence between the laboratory outcomes and the clinical ones.

Keywords: chronic wounds, infections, ionic silver, SSD

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64 Spatiotemporal Variability of Snow Cover and Snow Water Equivalent over Eurasia

Authors: Yinsheng Zhang


Changes in the extent and amount of snow cover in Eurasia are of great interest because of their vital impacts on the global climate system and regional water resource management. This study investigated the spatial and temporal variability of the snow cover extent (SCE) and snow water equivalent (SWE) of continental Eurasia using the Northern Hemisphere Equal-Area Scalable Earth Grid (EASE-Grid) Weekly SCE data for 1972–2006 and the Global Monthly EASE-Grid SWE data for 1979–2004. The results indicated that, in general, the spatial extent of snow cover significantly decreased during spring and summer, but varied little during autumn and winter over Eurasia in the study period. The date at which snow cover began to disappear in spring has significantly advanced, whereas the timing of snow cover onset in autumn did not vary significantly during 1972–2006. The snow cover persistence period declined significantly in the western Tibetan Plateau as well as the partial area of Central Asia and northwestern Russia but varied little in other parts of Eurasia. ‘Snow-free breaks’ (SFBs) with intermittent snow cover in the cold season were mainly observed in the Tibetan Plateau and Central Asia, causing a low sensitivity of snow cover persistence period to the timings of snow cover onset and disappearance over the areas with shallow snow. The averaged SFBs were 1–14 weeks in the Tibetan Plateau during 1972–2006 and the maximum intermittence could reach 25 weeks in some extreme years. At a seasonal scale, the SWE usually peaked in February or March but fell gradually since April across Eurasia. Both annual mean and annual maximum SWE decreased significantly during 1979–2004 in most parts of Eurasia except for eastern Siberia as well as northwestern and northeastern China.

Keywords: Eurasia, snow cover extent, snow cover persistence period, snow-free breaks, onset and disappearance timings, snow water equivalent

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63 Patterns of Occurrence of Bovine Haemoparasitic Diseases and Its Co-Incidence with Viral Epidemics of Foot and Mouth Disease and Lumpy Skin Disease

Authors: Amir Hamed Abd-Elrahman, Mohamed Bessat


450 fattening cattle and buffaloes aged from 6 to 30 months old were examined clinically to determine patterns of occurrence of hemoparasitic diseases and the efficacy of different anti theilerial drugs. 420 animals examined clinically to determine relation between different outbreak of FMD and LSD in Egypt 2012- 2013 and haemoprotozoal diseases. The clinical pictures of haemoprotozoal diseases are variable, from sever to mild, depending on the endemic situation which governed by frequent previous exposure and tick infestation. B. bigemina is the most common haemoprotozoal diseases in the area of study and the infection rate in a descending manner for B. bigemina, A. marginale and T. annulata were 20%, 9.7% and 6.6% respectively. The species susceptibility of B. bigemina and T. annulata showed a higher incidence in cattle than buffaloes while in A. marginale showed a little difference in cattle and buffaloes susceptibility by 10% and 9.2% respectively. The breed susceptibility of B. bigemina and T. annulata showed a higher incidence in crossbred cattle than native baladi cattle while A. marginale showed a higher incidence in native baladi cattle than crossbred cattle. The maximal infection rates were recorded during summer months. The infection rates of B. bigemina and A. marginale were higher among young animals over 6 months and declined above 2 year old while in T. annulata the infection rates were lower among young animals and increased above 2 year old. The case fatality of T. annulata was higher than A. marginale and B. bigemina. Efficacy of different anti theilerial drugs were studied, cure rate of chlouroquine group and Butalex group were 60% disappearance of schizont in lymph node smear after 9 days and 5 days respectively while cure rate of Oxytetracycline Dihydrate (Alamycine) group 20% with disappearance of schizont in lymph node smear after 14 days. FMD and LSD infection enhancement the occurrence of bovine haemoprotozoal diseases.

Keywords: Babesia bigemina, Anaplasma marginale, Theileria annulata, FMD, LSD, ephemeral fever

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62 Synthesis, Spectroscopic and Thermal Studies of Copper(I) Chlorido Complexes of Thioureas

Authors: Muhammad Mufakkar, Ghulam Hussain Bhatti, Maryem Rana


The study of the coordination behavior of thiones is of considerable interest due to the similarity of their binding sites to those in living systems. The complexation of thiones towards Copper(I) has also received considerable attraction in view of their variable bonding modes, structural diversity and promising biological implications. Copper (I) complexes of thioureas of the general formula: CuLCl, CuL2Cl and CuL3Cl [where L= Thiourea and its N- and N, N/- mono and di alkyl and phenyl derivatives] have been prepared using Cu(I)CN in the presence of HCl. The complexes have been characterized by thermal, IR and NMR(1H and 13C) spectroscopy. An upfield shift in 13C NMR and downfield shifts in 1H NMR are consistent with the sulfur coordination to Copper(I). The disappearance of a band around 2200 cm⁻¹ in IR and a resonance around 146 ppm in 13C NMR indicates that during the course of reaction the cyanide group of the Copper(I) salt has been replaced by chloride leading to the formation of chlorido complexes.

Keywords: Thiones, complexation, spectra, TGA, thermogram, chemical shifts, deshielding, resonance

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61 A Research Review on the Presence of Pesticide Residues in Apples Carried out in Poland in the Years 1980-2015

Authors: Bartosz Piechowicz, Stanislaw Sadlo, Przemyslaw Grodzicki, Magdalena Podbielska


Apples are popular fruits. They are eaten freshly and/or after processing. For instance Golden Delicious is an apple variety commonly used in production of foods for babies and toddlers. It is no wonder that complex analyses of the pesticide residue levels in those fruits have been carried out since eighties, and continued for the next years up to now. The results obtained were presented, usually as a teamwork, at the scientific sessions organised by the (IOR) Institute of Plant Protection-National Research Institute in Poznań and published in Scientific Works of the Institute (now Progress in Plant Protection/ Postępy w Ochronie Roślin) or Journal of Plant Protection Research, and in many non-periodical publications. These reports included studies carried out by IOR Laboratories in Poznań, Sośnicowice, Rzeszów and Bialystok. First detailed studies on the presence of pesticide residues in apple fruits by the laboratory in Rzeszów were published in 1991 in the article entitled 'The presence of pesticides in apples of late varieties from the area of south-eastern Poland in the years 1986-1989', in Annals of National Institute of Hygiene in Warsaw. These surveys gave the scientific base for business contacts between the Polish company Alima and the American company Gerber. At the beginning of XXI century, in Poland, systematic and complex studies on the deposition of pesticide residues in apples were initiated. First of all, the levels of active ingredients of plant protection products applied against storage diseases at 2-3 weeks before the harvest were determined. It is known that the above mentioned substances usually generate the highest residue levels. Also, the assessment of the fungicide residues in apples during their storage in controlled atmosphere and during their processing was carried out. Taking into account the need of actualisation the Maximum Residue Levels of pesticides, in force in Poland and in other European countries, and rationalisation of the ways of their determination, a lot of field tests on the behaviour of more important fungicides on the mature fruits just before their harvesting, were carried out. A rate of their disappearance and mathematical equation that showed the relationship between the residue level of any substance and the used dose, have been determined. The two parameters have allowed to evaluate the Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) of pesticides, which were in force at that time, and to propose a coherent model of their determination in respect to the new substances. The obtained results were assessed in terms of the health risk for adult consumers and children, and to such determination of terms of treatment that mature apples could meet the rigorous level of 0.01 mg/kg.

Keywords: apple, disappearance, health risk, MRL, pesticide residue, research

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60 Butterfly Diversity along Urban-Rural Gradient in Kolkata, India

Authors: Sushmita Chaudhuri, Parthiba Basu


Urbanization leads to habitat degradation and is responsible for the fast disappearance of native butterfly species. Random sampling of rural, suburban and urban sites in an around Kolkata metropolis revealed the presence of 28 species of butterfly belonging to 5 different families in winter (February-March). Butterfly diversity, species richness and abundance decreased with increase in urbanization. Psyche (Leptosia nina of family Pieridae) was the most predominant butterfly species found everywhere in Kolkata during the winter period. The most dominant family was Nymphalidae (11species), followed by Pieridae (6 species), Lycaenidae (5 species), Papilionidae (4 species) and Hesperiidae (2 species). The rural and suburban sites had butterfly species that were unique to those sites. Vegetation cover and flowering shrub density were significantly related to butterfly diversity.

Keywords: butterfly, Kolkata metropolis, Shannon-Weiner diversity index, species diversity

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59 Historical Landscape Affects Present Tree Density in Paddy Field

Authors: Ha T. Pham, Shuichi Miyagawa


Ongoing landscape transformation is one of the major causes behind disappearance of traditional landscapes, and lead to species and resource loss. Tree in paddy fields in the northeast of Thailand is one of those traditional landscapes. Using three different historical time layers, we acknowledged the severe deforestation and rapid urbanization happened in the region. Despite the general thinking of decline in tree density as consequences, the heterogeneous trend of changes in total tree density in three studied landscapes denied the hypothesis that number of trees in paddy field depend on the length of land use practice. On the other hand, due to selection of planting new trees on levees, existence of trees in paddy field are now rely on their values for human use. Besides, changes in land use and landscape structure had a significant impact on decision of which tree density level is considered as suitable for the landscape.

Keywords: aerial photographs, land use change, traditional landscape, tree in paddy fields

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58 A Corpus-Based Discourse Analysis of the Disappearance of MH370 in Malaysia and United Kingdom Newspapers: A Pilot Study

Authors: Theng Theng Ong


This pilot study adopts a corpus-based discourse analysis to explore the construction of Malaysia airline tragedy MH370 in the selected Malaysian and United Kingdom (UK) newspapers. Fairclough’s three-dimensional model is adopted in the study to support the corpus-based analysis. The analysis aims to determine the ways in which Malaysian Airline tragedy MH370 is linguistically defined and constructed in terms of keywords and collocation. The study also seeks to identify the types of discourse that are presented in the news articles. In addition, the differences or similarities in terms of keywords, topics or issues covered by the selected Malaysian and UK news media are examined.

Keywords: corpus, CDA, newspapers, airline tragedies

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57 Treatment of Pharmaceutical Industrial Effluent by Catalytic Ozonation in a Semi-Batch Reactor: Kinetics, Mass Transfer and Improved Biodegradability Studies

Authors: Sameena Malik, Ghosh Prakash, Sandeep Mudliar, Vishal Waindeskar, Atul Vaidya


In this study, the biodegradability enhancement along with COD color and toxicity removal of pharmaceutical effluent by O₃, O₃/Fe²⁺, O₃/nZVI processes has been evaluated. The nZVI particles were synthesized and characterized by XRD and SEM analysis. Kinetic model was reasonably developed to select the ozone doses to be applied based on the ozonation kinetic and mass transfer coefficient values. Nano catalytic ozonation process (O₃/nZVI) effectively enhanced the biodegradability (BI=BOD₅/COD) of pharmaceutical effluent up to 0.63 from 0.18 of control with a COD, color and toxicity removal of 62.3%, 93%, and 75% respectively compared to O₃, O₃/Fe²⁺ pretreatment processes. From the GC-MS analysis, 8 foremost organic compounds were predominantly detected in the pharmaceutical effluent. The disappearance of the corresponding GC-MS spectral peaks during catalyzed ozonation process indicated the degradation of the effluent. The changes in the FTIR spectra confirms the transformation/destruction of the organic compounds present in the effluent to new compounds. Subsequent aerobic biodegradation of pretreated effluent resulted in biodegradation rate enhancement by 5.31, 2.97, and 1.22 times for O₃, O₃/Fe²⁺ and O₃/nZVI processes respectively.

Keywords: iron nanoparticles, pharmaceutical effluent, ozonation, kinetics, mass transfer

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56 An Evaluation of the Impact of Epoxidized Neem Seed Azadirachta indica Oil on the Mechanical Properties of Polystyrene

Authors: Salihu Takuma


Neem seed oil has high contents of unsaturated fatty acids which can be converted to epoxy fatty acids. The vegetable oil – based epoxy material are sustainable, renewable and biodegradable materials replacing petrochemical – based epoxy materials in some applications. Polystyrene is highly brittle with limited mechanical applications. Raw neem seed oil was obtained from National Research Institute for Chemical Technology (NARICT), Zaria, Nigeria. The oil was epoxidized at 60 0C for three (3) hours using formic acid generated in situ. The epoxidized oil was characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The disappearance of C = C stretching peak around 3011.7 cm-1and formation of a new absorption peak around 943 cm-1 indicate the success of epoxidation. The epoxidized oil was blended with pure polystyrene in different weight percent compositions using solution casting in chloroform. The tensile properties of the blends demonstrated that the addition of 5 wt % ENO to PS led to an increase in elongation at break, but a decrease in tensile strength and modulus. This is in accordance with the common rule that plasticizers can decrease the tensile strength of the polymer.

Keywords: biodegradable, elongation at break, epoxidation, epoxy fatty acids, sustainable, tensile strength and modulus

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55 Half-Metallic Ferromagnetism in Ternary Zinc Blende Fe/In0.5Ga0.5 as/in Psuperlattice: First-Principles Study

Authors: N. Berrouachedi, M. Bouslama, S. Rioual, B. Lescop, J. Langlois


Using first-principles calculations within the LSDA (Local Spin Density Approximation) method based on density functional theory (DFT), the electronic structure and magnetic properties of zinc blende Fe/In0.5Ga0.5As/InPsuperlattice are investigated. This compound are found to be half -metallic ferromagnets with a total magnetic moment of 2.25μB per Fe. In addition to this, we reported the DRX measurements of the thick iron sample before and after annealing. One should note, after the annealing treatment at a higher temperature, the disappearance of the peak associated to the Fe(001) plane. In contrast to this report, we observed after the annealing at low temperature the additional peaks attributed to the presence of indium and Fe2As. This suggests a subsequent process consisting in a strong migration of atoms followed with crystallization at the higher temperature.To investigate the origin of magnetism and electronic structure in these zb compounds, we calculated the total and partial DOS of FeInP.One can see that µtotal=4.24µBand µFe=3.27µB in contrast µIn=0.021µB and µP=0.049µB.These results predicted that FeInP compound do belong to the class of zb half metallic HM ferromagnetswith a pseudo gap= 0.93 eVare more promising materials for spintronics devices.

Keywords: zincblend structure, half metallic ferromagnet, spin moments, total and partial DOS, DRX, Wien2k

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54 Juniperus thurefera Multiplication Tests by Cauttigs in Aures, Algeria

Authors: N. Khater, S. A. Menina, H. Benbouza


Juniperus thurefera is an endemic cupressacée constitutes a forest cover in the mountains of Aures (Algeria). It is a heritage and important ecological richness but continues to decline, highly endangered species in danger of extinction, these populations show significant originality due to climatic conditions of the environment, because of its strength and extraordinary vitality, made a powerful but fragile and unique ecosystem in which natural regeneration by seed is almost absent in Algeria. Because of the quality of seeds that are either dormant or affected at the tree and the ground level by a large number of pests and parasites, which will lead to the total disappearance of this species and consequently leading to the biodiversity. View the ecological and socio- economic interest presented by this case, it deserves to be preserved and produced in large quantities in this respect. The present work aims to try to regenerate the Juniperus thurefera via vegetative propagation. We studied the potential of cuttings to form adventitious roots and buds. Cuttings were taken from young subjects from 5 to 20 years treated with indole butyric acid (AIB) and planted out-inside perlite under atomizer whose temperature and light are controlled. Results indicated that the percentage of developing buds on cuttings is better than the rooting ones.

Keywords: Juniperus thurefera, indole butyric acid, cutting, buds, rooting

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53 Evolution of Economic Urban Spaces: Barcelona's Trafalgar Garment District, 1940-2017

Authors: Rafael Vicente Salar


Cities are steadily transforming their productive systems based on value-adding strategies, with the aim of becoming more competitive in a globalized economy. This fact is reflected in inner urban spaces which are increasingly accommodating new economic activities related to knowledge, culture, creativity, and tourism, to the detriment of traditional activities. This is the case of the Trafalgar Garment District (TGD), located in Barcelona´s Eixample Dret neighborhood, an economic urban space historically devoted to the garment wholesale trade. This district is currently experiencing the transformation of its traditional economic specialization. In the last 50 years, external and internal factors have caused, firstly, the disintegration of the Catalonian garment regional cluster. This has resulted in the closure of the majority of metropolitan garment workshops. Secondly, this has also caused either the disappearance of wholesale firms or their relocation to more suitable spaces in the metropolitan area. Specifically, the TGD's economic restructuration is related to the attraction of firms related to the lodging industry and the new economy. In addition, some of the wholesale businesses are adopting new management strategies in order to remain in the TGD. These initiatives are thought to allow them, on one hand, to upgrade their products and, on the other, to reconfigure their internal organization in order to be more competitive.

Keywords: Barcelona, garment district, new economy, tourism, garmen wholesale trade

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52 Deficiency Risk in Islamic and Conventional Banks

Authors: Korbi Fakhri


The management of assets and liability is a vital task for every bank as far as a good direction allows its stability; however, a bad running forewarns its disappearance. Equity of a bank is among the most important rubrics in the liability side because, actually, these funds ensure three notably primordial functions for the survival of the bank. From one hand, equity is useful to bankroll the investments and cover the unexpected losses. From another hand, they attract the fund lessors since they inspire trust. So we are going to tackle some points including whether equity of the Islamic banks are oversized. In spite of the efforts made on the subject, the relationship between the capital and the deficiency probability has not been defined with certainty. In this article, we have elaborated a study over the nature of financial intermediation in Islamic banks by comparison to those of conventional ones. We have found a striking difference between two kinds of intermediation. We tried, from another side, to study the relationship between the capital level and deficiency risk relying on econometric model, and we have obtained a positive and significant relation between the capital and the deficiency risk for the conventional banks. This means that when the capital of these banks increases, the deficiency risk increases as well. In return, since the Islamic banks are constrained to respect the Sharia Committee as well as customers’ demands who may, in certain contracts, choose to invest their capitals in projects they are interested in. These constraints have as effects to reduce the deficiency risk even when the capital increases.

Keywords: Islamic bank, conventional bank, deficiency risk, financial intermediation

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51 Unusual High Origin and Superficial Course of Radial Artery: A Case Report with Embryological Explanation

Authors: Anasuya Ghosh, Subhramoy Chaudhury


During routine cadaveric dissection at gross anatomy lab of our institution, a radial artery was found with unusual origin and superficial course. Normally the radial artery takes its origin as one of the terminal branches of brachial artery at the level of the neck of radius. It usually lies along the lateral border of fore arm deep to the brachioradialis muscle. While dissecting a 72-year-old Caucasian female cadaver, it was found that the right sided radial artery originated from the upper part of brachial artery of arm, 2 cm below the lower border of teres major muscle, from the lateral aspect of brachial artery. Then the radial artery superficially crossed the brachial artery and median nerve from lateral to medial direction and rested superficially at the cubital fossa. Embryologically, it can be explained as a failure of disappearance, or abnormal persistence of some insignificant embryonic vessels may give rise to this kind of vascular anomalies. As radial artery is one of the most important upper limb arteries, its variation and related complications are clinically significant. This unusual origin and course of radial artery should be kept in mind by all healthcare providers including surgeons and radiologists during routine venipuncture, orthopedic and plastic surgeries of arm, coronary angiographic procedures in radial approach etc. to prevent unwanted complications.

Keywords: brachial artery anomalies, brachio-radial artery, high origin radial artery, superficial radial artery

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50 Preventive Effects of Silymarin in Retinal Intoxication with Methanol in Rat: Transmission Electron Microscope Study

Authors: A. Zarenezhad, A. Esfandiari, E. Zarenezhad, M. Mardkhoshnood


The aim of this study was to investigate the ultra-structure of the photoreceptor layer of male rats under the effect of methanol intoxication and protective effect of silymarin against the methanol toxicity. Fifteen adult male rats were divided into three groups: Control group, Experimental group I (received 4g/kg methanol by intraperitoneal injection for five days), Experimental group II (received 4 g/kg methanol by intraperitoneal injection for five days and received 250 mg/kg silymarin orally for three months). At the end of the experiment, the eyes were removed; retina was separated near the optic disc and studied by transmission electron microscope. Results showed that the retina in the experimental group I exhibited loss of outer segments and disorganization in inner segment. Increased extra cellular space, disappearance of outer limiting membrane and pyknotic nuclei were seen in this group. But normal outer segment, organized inner segment and normal outer limiting membrane were obvious after treatment with silymarin in experimental group II. These findings show that methanol causes damage in the photoreceptor layer of the rat retina and silymarin can protect the damage to retina against the methanol intoxication.

Keywords: ultra-structure, photoreceptor layer, methanol intoxication, silymarin, rat

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49 Esterification Reaction of Stearic Acid with Methanol Over Surface Functionalised PAN Fibrous Solid Acid Catalyst

Authors: Rawaz A. Ahmed, Katherine Huddersman


High-lipid Fats, Oils and Grease (FOGs) from wastewater are underutilized despite their potential for conversion into valuable fuels; this work describes a surface-functionalized fibrous Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) mesh as a novel heterogeneous acid catalyst for the conversion of free fatty acids (FFAs), via a catalytic esterification process into biodiesel. The esterification of stearic acid (SA) with methanol was studied over an acidified PAN solid acid catalyst. Disappearance of the carboxylic acid (C=O) peak of the stearic acid at 1696 cm-1 in the FT-IR spectrum with the associated appearance of the ester (C=O) peak at 1739 cm-1 confirmed the production of the methyl stearate. This was further supported by 1H NMR spectra with the appearance of the ester (-CH₂OCOR) at 3.60-3.70 ppm. Quantitate analysis by GC-FID showed the catalyst has excellent activity with >95 % yield of methyl stearate (MS) at 90 ◦C after 3 h and a molar ratio of methanol to SA of 35:1. To date, to our best knowledge, there is no research in the literature on the esterification reaction for biodiesel production using a modified PAN mesh as a catalyst. It is noteworthy that this acidified PAN mesh catalyst showed comparable activity to conventional Brönsted acids, namely H₂SO₄ and p-TSA, as well as exhibiting higher activity than various other heterogeneous catalysts such as zeolites, ion-exchange resins and acid clay.

Keywords: fats oil and greases (FOGs), free fatty acid, esterification reaction, methyl ester, PAN

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48 Effect of Two Radial Fins on Heat Transfer and Flow Structure in a Horizontal Annulus

Authors: Anas El Amraoui, Abdelkhalek Cheddadi, Mohammed Touhami Ouazzani


Laminar natural convection in a cylindrical annular cavity filled with air and provided with two fins is studied numerically using the discretization of the governing equations with the Centered Finite Difference method based on the Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI) scheme. The fins are attached to the inner cylinder of radius ri (hot wall of temperature Ti). The outer cylinder of radius ro is maintained at a temperature To (To < Ti). Two values of the dimensionless thickness of the fins are considered: 0.015 and 0.203. We consider a low fin height equal to 0.078 and medium fin heights equal to 0.093 and 0.203. The position of the fin is 0.82π and the radius ratio is equal to 2. The effect of Rayleigh number, Ra, on the flow structure and heat transfer is analyzed for a range of Ra from 103 to 104. The results for established flow structures and heat transfer at low height indicate that the flow regime that occurs is unicellular for all Ra and fin thickness; in addition, the heat transfer rate increases with increasing Rayleigh number and is the same for both thicknesses. At median fin heights 0.093 and 0.203, the increase of Rayleigh number leads to transitions of flow structure which correspond to significant variations of the heat transfer. The critical Rayleigh numbers, and Rac.disp corresponding to the appearance of the bicellular flow regime and its disappearance, are determined and their influence on the change of heat transfer rate is analyzed.

Keywords: natural convection, fins, critical Rayleigh number, heat transfer, fluid flow regime, horizontal annulus

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47 Shear Layer Investigation through a High-Load Cascade in Low-Pressure Gas Turbine Conditions

Authors: Mehdi Habibnia Rami, Shidvash Vakilipour, Mohammad H. Sabour, Rouzbeh Riazi, Hossein Hassannia


This paper deals with the steady and unsteady flow behavior on the separation bubble occurring on the rear portion of the suction side of T106A blade. The first phase was to implement the steady condition capturing the separation bubble. To accurately predict the separated region, the effects of three different turbulence models and computational grids were separately investigated. The results of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model on the finest grid structure are acceptably in a good agreement with its relevant experimental results. The second phase is mainly to address the effects of wake entrance on bubble disappearance in unsteady situation. In the current simulations, from what was suggested in an experiment, simulating the flow unsteadiness, with concentrations on small scale disturbances instead of simulating a complete oncoming wake, is the key issue. Subsequently, the results from the current strategy to apply the effects of the wake and two other experimental work were compared to be in a good agreement. Between the two experiments, one of them deals with wake passing unsteady flow, and the other one implements experimentally the same approach as the current Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation.

Keywords: low-pressure turbine cascade, large-Eddy simulation (LES), RANS turbulence models, unsteady flow measurements, flow separation

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46 Preliminary Study of the Potential of Propagation by Cuttings of Juniperus thurefera in Aures (Algeria)

Authors: N. Khater, I. Djbablia, A. Telaoumaten, S. A. Menina, H. Benbouza


Thureferous Juniper is an endemic cupressacée constitutes a forest cover in the mountains of Aures (Algeria ). It is an heritage and important ecological richness, but continues to decline, highly endangered species in danger of extinction, these populations show significant originality due to climatic conditions of the environment, because of its strength and extraordinary vitality, made a powerful but fragile and unique ecosystem in which natural regeneration by seed is almost absent in Algeria. Because of the quality of seeds that are either dormant or affected at the tree and the ground level by a large number of pests and parasites, which will lead to the total disappearance of this species and consequently leading to the biodiversity. View the ecological and social- economic interest presented by this case, it deserves to be preserved and produced in large quantities in this respect. The present work aims to try to regenerate the Juniperus thurefera via vegetative propagation. We studied the potential of cuttings to form adventitious roots and buds. Cuttings were taken from young subjects from 5 to 20 years treated with indole butyric acid (AIB) and planted out inside perlite under atomizer whose temperature and light are controlled. The results show that the rate of rooting is important and encourages the regeneration of this species through vegetative propagation.

Keywords: juniperus thurefera, indole butyric acid, cutting, buds, rooting

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45 Statistical Scientific Investigation of Popular Cultural Heritage in the Relationship between Astronomy and Weather Conditions in the State of Kuwait

Authors: Ahmed M. AlHasem


The Kuwaiti society has long been aware of climatic changes and their annual dates and trying to link them to astronomy in an attempt to forecast the future weather conditions. The reason for this concern is that many of the economic, social and living activities of the society depend deeply on the nature of the weather conditions directly and indirectly. In other words, Kuwaiti society, like the case of many human societies, has in the past tried to predict climatic conditions by linking them to astronomy or popular statements to indicate the timing of climate changes. Accordingly, this study was devoted to scientific investigation based on the statistical analysis of climatic data to show the accuracy and compatibility of some of the most important elements of the cultural heritage in relation to climate change and to relate it scientifically to precise climatic measurements for decades. The research has been divided into 10 topics, each topic has been focused on one legacy, whether by linking climate changes to the appearance/disappearance of star or a popular statement inherited through generations, through explain the nature and timing and thereby statistical analysis to indicate the proportion of accuracy based on official climatic data since 1962. The study's conclusion is that the relationship is weak and, in some cases, non-existent between the popular heritage and the actual climatic data. Therefore, it does not have a dependable relationship and a reliable scientific prediction between both the popular heritage and the forecast of weather conditions.

Keywords: astronomy, cultural heritage, statistical analysis, weather prediction

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44 Influence of JHA and Ecdysteroid on Reproduction in Dysdercus similis (Hemiptera: Pyrrhocoridae)

Authors: Versha Sharma


Juvenile hormone analogue, fenoxycarb and ecdysterone, when applied at varying concentrations in the adult females of Dysdercus similis, in situ histochemical observations of treated ovarian and adipose tissues during the first gonotrophic cycle elicited drastic histomorphological changes in both tissues. The action and effect of both JHa and ecdysterone on ovarian development, vitellogenesis, the activity of follicular epithelium, chorion formation all were monitored in detail. SDS-PAGE electrophoretic analysis showed drastic downregulation on the protein profile of differently treated tissue samples. After exogenous JHa supply, resorption of the developing oocytes was also often noticed. Gradational decline and disappearance of different protein bands in treated both ovarian and adipose tissues noticed could be due to the depletion of specific metabolites essential for oocyte development and maturation. Natural products support both crop production and the environment that being effective in pest control, less toxic to non-target organisms and at the same time biodegradable. Hence, these could be utilized as an attractive alternative to the synthetic chemical insecticides for at least cotton bug pest management. Increasing IGR dosages is found to elicit both qualitative and quantitative depletion of protein metabolites and drastic histochemical changes in the gonads of the treated forms brought forth the production of a large number of immature mal-formed oocytes. Findings in greater detail could be discussed.

Keywords: juvenile hormone, ecdysone, P. picta, Dysdercus similis

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43 Historiography of Wood Construction in Portugal

Authors: João Gago dos Santos, Paulo Pereira Almeida


The present study intends to deepen and understand the reasons that led to the decline and disappearance of wooden construction systems in Portugal, for that reason, its use in history must be analyzed. It is observed that this material was an integral part of the construction systems in Europe and Portugal for centuries, and it is possible to conclude that its decline happens with the appearance of hybrid construction and later with the emergence and development of reinforced concrete technology. It is also verified that wood as a constructive element, and for that reason, an element of development had great importance in national construction, with its peak being the Pombaline period, after the 1755 earthquake. In this period, the great scarcity of materials in the metropolis led to the import wood from Brazil for the reconstruction of Lisbon. This period is linked to an accentuated exploitation of forests, resulting in laws and royal decrees aimed at protecting them, guaranteeing the continued existence of profitable forests, crucial to the reconstruction effort. The following period, with the gradual loss of memory of the catastrophe, resulted in a construction that was weakened structurally as a response to a time of real estate speculation and great urban expansion. This was the moment that precluded the inexistence of the use of wood in construction. At the beginning of the 20th century and in the 30s and 40s, with the appearance and development of reinforced concrete, it became part of the great structures of the state, and it is considered a versatile material capable of resolving issues throughout the national territory. It is at this point that the wood falls into disuse and practically disappears from the new works produced.

Keywords: construction history, construction in portugal, construction systems, wood construction

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42 Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Slow Reversible Deformation of Concrete in Surface-Active Media

Authors: Nika Botchorishvili, Olgha Giorgishvili


Many-year investigations of the nature of damping creep of rigid bodies and materials led to the discovery of the fundamental character of this phenomenon. It occurs only when a rigid body comes in contact with a surface-active medium (liquid or gaseous), which brings about a decrease of the free surface energy of a rigid body as a result of adsorption, chemo-sorption or wetting. The reversibility of the process consists of a gradual disappearance of creep deformation when the action of a surface-active medium stops. To clarify the essence of processes, a physical model is constructed by using Griffith’s scheme and the well-known representation formulas of deformation origination and failure processes. The total creep deformation is caused by the formation and opening of microcracks throughout the material volume under the action of load. This supposedly happens in macroscopically homogeneous silicate and organic glasses, while in polycrystals (tuff, gypsum, steel) contacting with a surface-active medium micro crack are formed mainly on the grain boundaries. The creep of rubber is due to its swelling activated by stress. Acknowledgment: All experiments are financially supported by Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation of Georgia. Study of Properties of Concretes (Both Ordinary and Compacted) Made of Local Building Materials and Containing Admixtures, and Their Further Introduction in Construction Operations and Road Building. DP2016_26. 22.12.2016.

Keywords: process reversibility, surface-active medium, Rebinder’s effect, micro crack, creep

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41 Comparative Scanning Electron Microscopic Observations of Anthelminthic Effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum on Paramphistomum cervi in Buffalo

Authors: Kiran Roat, Bhanupriya Sanger, Gayatri Swarnakar


Amphistomiasis disease is the main health problem throughout of the world and responsible for great economic losses to cattle industries, mostly to poor cattle farmers in developing countries. Among the rumen parasites, the Paramphistomum cervi were collected from the rumen of freshly slaughtered buffalo for the further treatment process. Trigonella foenum-graecum is commonly known as methi and fenugreek and their seeds are known for their therapeutic value. The present study was considered to evaluate in vitro efficacy of aqueous extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum on P. cervi. 130 mg/ml concentration of aqueous extract shows total mortality of P. cervi at 5 hours. The ultrastructural surface topography of untreated animal was compared with a treated animal by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The body of untreated P. cervi in conical shape, tegumental surface is highly ridged with transverse folds and present abundance number of papillaes. Observations demonstrated that the body of treated P. cervi become shrunken & elongated. Treated parasite shows the deep breakage in tegument and the disappearance of tegumental folds & papillae. Severe blebs formations have been found. Above findings, it can be concluded that the seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum can be used as an anthelminthic agent to eliminate P. cervi from the body of buffalo.

Keywords: Paramphistomum cervi, Trigonella foenum-graecum, scanning electron microscope, buffalo

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
40 Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Polyaniline Films for Improved Dielectric Properties

Authors: Anjana Jain, S. Jayanth Kumar


Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) is a well-known material for remarkable mechanical properties, resistance to chemicals and superior ferroelectric performances. This endows PVDF the potential for application in supercapacitor devices. The dielectric properties of PVDF, however, are not very high. To improve the dielectric properties of Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), Piezoelectric polymer nanocomposites are prepared without affecting the other useful properties of PVDF. Polyaniline (PANI) was chosen as a filler material to prepare the nanocomposites. PVDF-PANI nanocomposite films were prepared using solvent cast method with different volume fractions of PANI varying from 0.04% to 0.048% of PANI content. The films are characterized for structural, mechanical, and surface morphological properties using X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimeter, Raman spectra, Infrared spectra, tensile testing, and scanning electron microscopy. The X-ray diffraction analysis shows that, prepared films were in β-phase. The DSC scans indicated that the degree of crystallinity in PVDF-PANI is improved. Raman and Infrared spectrum further confirm the presence of β-phase of PVDF-PANI film. Tensile properties of PVDF-PANI films were in good agreement with those reported in literature. The surface feature shows that PANI is uniformly distributed in PVDF and also results in disappearance of spherulites. The influence of volume fraction of PANI in PVDF on dielectric properties was analyzed. The results showed that the dielectric permittivity of PVDF-PANI (120) was much higher than that of PVDF (12). The sensitivity of these films was studied on application of a pressure and a constant output voltage was obtained.

Keywords: dielectric Properties, PANI, PVDF, smart materials

Procedia PDF Downloads 310