Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Search results for: Takamitsu Kodama

5 Circle of Learning Using High-Fidelity Simulators Promoting a Better Understanding of Resident Physicians on Point-of-Care Ultrasound in Emergency Medicine

Authors: Takamitsu Kodama, Eiji Kawamoto

Abstract:

Introduction: Ultrasound in emergency room has advantages of safer, faster, repeatable and noninvasive. Especially focused Point-Of-Care Ultrasound (POCUS) is used daily for prompt and accurate diagnoses, for quickly identifying critical and life-threatening conditions. That is why ultrasound has demonstrated its usefulness in emergency medicine. The true value of ultrasound has been once again recognized in recent years. It is thought that all resident physicians working at emergency room should perform an ultrasound scan to interpret signs and symptoms of deteriorating patients in the emergency room. However, a practical education on ultrasound is still in development. To resolve this issue, we established a new educational program using high-fidelity simulators and evaluated the efficacy of this course. Methods: Educational program includes didactic lectures and skill stations in half-day course. Instructor gives a lecture on POCUS such as Rapid Ultrasound in Shock (RUSH) and/or Focused Assessment Transthoracic Echo (FATE) protocol at the beginning of the course. Then, attendees are provided for training of scanning with cooperation of normal simulated patients. In the end, attendees learn how to apply focused POCUS skills at clinical situation using high-fidelity simulators such as SonoSim® (SonoSim, Inc) and SimMan® 3G (Laerdal Medical). Evaluation was conducted through surveillance questionnaires to 19 attendees after two pilot courses. The questionnaires were focused on understanding course concept and satisfaction. Results: All attendees answered the questionnaires. With respect to the degree of understanding, 12 attendees (number of valid responses: 13) scored four or more points out of five points. High-fidelity simulators, especially SonoSim® was highly appreciated to enhance learning how to handle ultrasound at an actual practice site by 11 attendees (number of valid responses: 12). All attendees encouraged colleagues to take this course because the high level of satisfaction was achieved. Discussion: Newly introduced educational course using high-fidelity simulators realizes the circle of learning to deepen the understanding on focused POCUS by gradual stages. SonoSim® can faithfully reproduce scan images with pathologic findings of ultrasound and provide experimental learning for a growth number of beginners such as resident physicians. In addition, valuable education can be provided if it is used combined with SimMan® 3G. Conclusions: Newly introduced educational course using high-fidelity simulators is supposed to be effective and helps in providing better education compared with conventional courses for emergency physicians.

Keywords: point-of-care ultrasound, high-fidelity simulators, education, circle of learning

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4 Hydrodynamics and Heat Transfer Characteristics of a Solar Thermochemical Fluidized Bed Reactor

Authors: Selvan Bellan, Koji Matsubara, Nobuyuki Gokon, Tatsuya Kodama, Hyun Seok-Cho

Abstract:

In concentrated solar thermal industry, fluidized-bed technology has been used to produce hydrogen by thermochemical two step water splitting cycles, and synthetic gas by gasification of coal coke. Recently, couple of fluidized bed reactors have been developed and tested at Niigata University, Japan, for two-step thermochemical water splitting cycles and coal coke gasification using Xe light, solar simulator. The hydrodynamic behavior of the gas-solid flow plays a vital role in the aforementioned fluidized bed reactors. Thus, in order to study the dynamics of dense gas-solid flow, a CFD-DEM model has been developed; in which the contact forces between the particles have been calculated by the spring-dashpot model, based on the soft-sphere method. Heat transfer and hydrodynamics of a solar thermochemical fluidized bed reactor filled with ceria particles have been studied numerically and experimentally for beam-down solar concentrating system. An experimental visualization of particles circulation pattern and mixing of two-tower fluidized bed system has been presented. Simulation results have been compared with experimental data to validate the CFD-DEM model. Results indicate that the model can predict the particle-fluid flow of the two-tower fluidized bed reactor. Using this model, the key operating parameters can be optimized.

Keywords: solar reactor, CFD-DEM modeling, fluidized bed, beam-down solar concentrating system

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3 Sex-Dependent Fitness Improvement of Hercules Beetle Larvae by Amendement of Thermophile-Fermented Compost to Humus

Authors: Futo Asano, Yusuke Yatsushiro, Hirokuni Miyamoto, Hiroaki Kodama

Abstract:

A thermophile-fermented compost is produced using small fishes, crabs and shrimps under the high temperature (approximately 75℃) by fermentation-associated self heating. This compost has been used as a feed additive for pigs and hens in Japan, and fecundity of these livestocks are enhanced. Firmicutes is a dominant phylum in the microbial composition of the compost. Here we first report that improvement of female larval fitness of Hercules beetle can be achieved by control of gut microbiota. When the 90-d-old larvae were reared for subsequent 72 days in the humus with this compost, the growth of female larvae was significantly enhanced when compared with the growth of female larvae in the humus without the compost. In contrast, the growth of male larvae was the same in the humus with or without the compost. The bacterial composition of feces of larvae was determined at 0 day and 46 days after transfer to the humus with or without the compost. The dominant bacterium was Xylanimonas. Interestingly, the growth improvement of female larvae was associated with increased abundance of Mollicutes. These results indicate that the compost act as a probiotic material for enhancing the female larvae growth by supporting Mollicutes. Next, we tried to isolate Mollicutes from the contens of midgut and hindgut of 3rd instar female larvae of Hercules beetle. These gut contents were spread onto a selective agar medium for Mollicutes (PPLO agar broth, BD Difco, NJ, USA). Although we cannot isolate Mollicutes until now, several bacteria that are closely related to Xylanimonas and Luteimicrobium were isolated. These isolates have the xylanase and glucanase (CMCase) activities. We will show the gut bacterial profiles of larvae and discuss how the fitness of female larvae of Hercules beetle is improved.

Keywords: compost, beetle, mollicutes, woody biomass

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2 Effect of Total Body Irradiation for Metastatic Lymph Node and Lung Metastasis in Early Stage

Authors: Shouta Sora, Shizuki Kuriu, Radhika Mishra, Ariunbuyan Sukhbaatar, Maya Sakamoto, Shiro Mori, Tetsuya Kodama

Abstract:

Lymph node (LN) metastasis accounts for 20 - 30 % of all deaths in patients with head and neck cancer. Therefore, the control of metastatic lymph nodes (MLNs) is necessary to improve the life prognosis of patients with cancer. In a classical metastatic theory, tumor cells are thought to metastasize hematogenously through a bead-like network of lymph nodes. Recently, a lymph node-mediated hematogenous metastasis theory has been proposed, in which sentinel LNs are regarded as a source of distant metastasis. Therefore, the treatment of MLNs at the early stage is essential to prevent distant metastasis. Radiation therapy is one of the primary therapeutic modalities in cancer treatment. In addition, total body irradiation (TBI) has been reported to act as activation of natural killer cells and increase of infiltration of CD4+ T-cells to tumor tissues. However, the treatment effect of TBI for MLNs remains unclear. This study evaluated the possibilities of low-dose total body irradiation (L-TBI) and middle-dose total body irradiation (M-TBI) for the treatment of MLNs. Mouse breast cancer FM3A-Luc cells were injected into subiliac lymph node (SiLN) of MXH10/Mo/LPR mice to induce the metastasis to the proper axillary lymph node (PALN) and lung. Mice were irradiated for the whole body on 4 days after tumor injection. The L-TBI and M-TBI were defined as irradiations to the whole body at 0.2 Gy and 1.0 Gy, respectively. Tumor growth was evaluated by in vivo bioluminescence imaging system. In the non-irradiated group, tumor activities on SiLN and PALN significantly increased over time, and the metastasis to the lung from LNs was confirmed 28 days after tumor injection. The L-TBI led to a tumor growth delay in PALN but did not control tumor growth in SiLN and metastasis to the lung. In contrast, it was found that the M-TBI significantly delayed the tumor growth of both SiLN and PALN and controlled the distant metastasis to the lung compared with non-irradiated and L-TBI groups. These results suggest that the M-TBI is an effective treatment method for MLNs in the early stage and distant metastasis from lymph nodes via blood vessels connected with LNs.

Keywords: metastatic lymph node, lung metastasis, radiation therapy, total body irradiation, lymphatic system

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1 CD97 and Its Role in Glioblastoma Stem Cell Self-Renewal

Authors: Niklas Ravn-Boess, Nainita Bhowmick, Takamitsu Hattori, Shohei Koide, Christopher Park, Dimitris Placantonakis

Abstract:

Background: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and deadly primary brain malignancy in adults. Tumor propagation, brain invasion, and resistance to therapy critically depend on GBM stem-like cells (GSCs); however, the mechanisms that regulate GSC self-renewal are incompletely understood. Given the aggressiveness and poor prognosis of GBM, it is imperative to find biomarkers that could also translate into novel drug targets. Along these lines, we have identified a cell surface antigen, CD97 (ADGRE5), an adhesion G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), that is expressed on GBM cells but is absent from non-neoplastic brain tissue. CD97 has been shown to promote invasiveness, angiogenesis, and migration in several human cancers, but its frequency of expression and functional role in regulating GBM growth and survival, and its potential as a therapeutic target has not been investigated. Design: We assessed CD97 mRNA and protein expression in patient derived GBM samples and cell lines using publicly available RNA-sequencing datasets and flow cytometry, respectively. To assess CD97 function, we generated shRNA lentiviral constructs that target a sequence in the CD97 extracellular domain (ECD). A scrambled shRNA (scr) with no predicted targets in the genome was used as a control. We evaluated CD97 shRNA lentivirally transduced GBM cells for Ki67, Annexin V, and DAPI. We also tested CD97 KD cells for their ability to self-renew using clonogenic tumorsphere formation assays. Further, we utilized synthetic Abs (sAbs) generated against the ECD of CD97 to test for potential antitumor effects using patient-derived GBM cell lines. Results: CD97 mRNA expression was expressed at high levels in all GBM samples available in the TCGA cohort. We found high levels of surface CD97 protein expression in 6/6 patient-derived GBM cell cultures, but not human neural stem cells. Flow cytometry confirmed downregulation of CD97 in CD97 shRNA lentivirally transduced cells. CD97 KD induced a significant reduction in cell growth in 3 independent GBM cell lines representing mesenchymal and proneural subtypes, which was accompanied by reduced (~20%) Ki67 staining and increased (~30%) apoptosis. Incubation of GBM cells with sAbs (20 ug/ ml) against the ECD of CD97 for 3 days induced GSC differentiation, as determined by the expression of GFAP and Tubulin. Using three unique GBM patient derived cultures, we found that CD97 KD attenuated the ability of GBM cells to initiate sphere formation by over 300 fold, consistent with an impairment in GSC self-renewal. Conclusion: Loss of CD97 expression in patient-derived GBM cells markedly decreases proliferation, induces cell death, and reduces tumorsphere formation. sAbs against the ECD of CD97 reduce tumorsphere formation, recapitulating the phenotype of CD97 KD, suggesting that sAbs that inhibit CD97 function exhibit anti-tumor activity. Collectively, these findings indicate that CD97 is necessary for the proliferation and survival of human GBM cells and identify CD97 as a promising therapeutically targetable vulnerability in GBM.

Keywords: adhesion GPCR, CD97, GBM stem cell, glioblastoma

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