Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 1501

Search results for: serial shipping container code

1501 Pallet Tracking and Cost Optimization of the Flow of Goods in Logistics Operations by Serial Shipping Container Code

Authors: Dominika Crnjac Milic, Martina Martinovic, Vladimir Simovic

Abstract:

The case study method in this paper shows the implementation of Information Technology (IT) and the Serial Shipping Container Code (SSCC) in a Croatian company that deals with logistics operations and provides logistics services in the cold chain segment. This company is aware of the sensitivity of the goods entrusted to them by the user of the service, as well as of the importance of speed and accuracy in providing logistics services. To that end, it has implemented and used the latest IT to ensure the highest standard of high-quality logistics services to its customers. Looking for efficiency and optimization of supply chain management, while maintaining a high level of quality of the products that are sold, today's users of outsourced logistics services are open to the implementation of new IT products that ultimately deliver savings. By analysing the positive results and the difficulties that arise when using this technology, we aim to provide an insight into the potential of this approach of the logistics service provider.

Keywords: logistics operations, serial shipping container code, information technology, cost optimization

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1500 Virtual Container Yard: Assessing the Perceived Impact of Legal Implications to Container Carriers

Authors: L. Edirisinghe, P. Mukherjee, H. Edirisinghe

Abstract:

Virtual Container Yard (VCY) is a modern concept that helps to reduce the empty container repositioning cost of carriers. The concept of VCY is based on container interchange between shipping lines. Although this mechanism has been theoretically accepted by the shipping community as a feasible solution, it has not yet achieved the necessary momentum among container shipping lines (CSL). This paper investigates whether there is any legal influence on this industry myopia about the VCY. It is believed that this is the first publication that focuses on the legal aspects of container exchange between carriers. Not much literature on this subject is available. This study establishes with statistical evidence that there is a phobia prevailing in the shipping industry that exchanging containers with other carriers may lead to various legal implications. The complexity of exchange is two faceted. CSLs assume that offering a container to another carrier (obviously, a competitor in terms of commercial context) or using a container offered by another carrier may lead to undue legal implications. This research reveals that this fear is reflected through four types of perceived components, namely: shipping associate; warehouse associate; network associate; and trading associate. These components carry eighteen subcomponents that comprehensively cover the entire process of a container shipment. The statistical explanation has been supported through regression analysis; INCO terms were used to illustrate the shipping process.

Keywords: virtual container yard, legal, maritime law, inventory

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1499 Mitigating the Cost of Empty Container Repositioning through the Virtual Container Yard: An Appraisal of Carriers’ Perceptions

Authors: L. Edirisinghe, Z. Jin, A. W. Wijeratne, R. Mudunkotuwa

Abstract:

Empty container repositioning is a fundamental problem faced by the shipping industry. The virtual container yard is a novel strategy underpinning the container interchange between carriers that could substantially reduce this ever-increasing shipping cost. This paper evaluates the shipping industry perception of the virtual container yard using chi-square tests. It examines if the carriers perceive that the selected independent variables, namely culture, organization, decision, marketing, attitudes, legal, independent, complexity, and stakeholders of carriers, impact the efficiency and benefits of the virtual container yard. There are two major findings of the research. Firstly, carriers view that complexity, attitudes, and stakeholders may impact the effectiveness of container interchange and may influence the perceived benefits of the virtual container yard. Secondly, the three factors of legal, organization, and decision influence only the perceived benefits of the virtual container yard. Accordingly, the implementation of the virtual container yard will be influenced by six key factors, namely complexity, attitudes, stakeholders, legal, organization and decision. Since the virtual container yard could reduce overall shipping costs, it is vital to examine the carriers’ perception of this concept.

Keywords: virtual container yard, imbalance, management, inventory

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
1498 Virtual Container Yard: A Paradigm Shift in Container Inventory Management

Authors: Lalith Edirisinghe, Zhihong Jin, A.W. Wijeratne, Hansa Edirisinghe, Lakshmi Ranwala Rashika Mudunkotuwa

Abstract:

A paradigm shift in container inventory management (CIM) is a long-awaited industry need. Virtual container yard (VCY) is a concept developed in 2013 and its primary objective is to minimize shipping transport cost through implementing container exchange between carriers. Shipping lines always try to maintain lower container idle time and provide higher customer satisfaction. However, it is disappointing to note that carriers turn a blind eye to the escalating cost resulted from the present inefficient CIM mechanism. The cost of empty container management is simply transferred to the importers and exporters as freight adjustments. It also creates an environmental hazard. Therefore, it has now become a problem for the society. Therefore, a paradigm shift may be required as the present CIM system is not working for common interests of human beings as it should be.

Keywords: collaboation, inventory, shipping, virtual container yard

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
1497 The Virtual Container Yard: Identifying the Persuasive Factors in Container Interchange

Authors: L. Edirisinghe, Zhihong Jin, A. W. Wijeratne, R. Mudunkotuwa

Abstract:

The virtual container yard is an effective solution to the container inventory imbalance problem which is a global issue. It causes substantial cost to carriers, which inadvertently adds to the prices of consumer goods. The virtual container yard is rooted in the fundamentals of container interchange between carriers. If carriers opt to interchange their excess containers with those who are deficit, a substantial part of the empty reposition cost could be eliminated. Unlike in other types of ships, cargo cannot be directly loaded to a container ship. Slots and containers are supplementary components; thus, without containers, a carrier cannot ship cargo if the containers are not available and vice versa. Few decades ago, carriers recognized slot (the unit of space in a container ship) interchange as a viable solution for the imbalance of shipping space. Carriers interchange slots among them and it also increases the advantage of scale of economies in container shipping. Some of these service agreements between mega carriers have provisions to interchange containers too. However, the interchange mechanism is still not popular among carriers for containers. This is the paradox that prevails in the liner shipping industry. At present, carriers reposition their excess empty containers to areas where they are in demand. This research applied factor analysis statistical method. The paper reveals that five major components may influence the virtual container yard namely organisation, practice and culture, legal and environment, international nature, and marketing. There are 12 variables that may impact the virtual container yard, and these are explained in the paper.

Keywords: virtual container yard, shipping, imbalance, management, inventory

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1496 An Empirical Analysis of the Freight Forwarders’ Buying Behaviour: Implications for the Ocean Container Carriers

Authors: Peter Dzakah Fanam, Hong O. Nguyen, Stephen Cahoon

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to explore the buying behavior of the freight forwarders and to evaluate how their buying decision affects the ocean container carriers’ market share. This study analysed the buying decisions of the freight forwarders and validated the process of stages that the freight forwarders’ pass through before choosing an ocean container carrier. Factor analysis was applied to data collected from 105 freight forwarding companies to unveil the influential factors the freight forwarders’ consider important when selecting an ocean container carrier. This study did not only analysed the buying behaviour of the freight forwarders but also unveiled the influential factors affecting the competitiveness of the ocean container carriers in their market share maximisation. Furthermore, the study have made a methodological contribution that helps in better understanding of the critical factors influencing the selection of the ocean container carriers from the freight forwarders’ perspective. The implications of the freight forwarders’ buying behaviour is important to the ocean container carriers because it have severe effect on the market share of the ocean container carriers and the percentage of customers they control within the liner shipping sector. The findings of this study will help the ocean container carriers to formulate relevant marketing strategies in attracting the freight forwarders in purchasing the liner shipping service.

Keywords: ocean carrier, freight forwarder, buying behaviour, influential factors

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
1495 Alternative Housing Solutions in Southern California

Authors: Scott Kelting, Lucas Nozick

Abstract:

The perpetually growing population and economy within the United States necessitates building construction of all types. Increased building generates environmental concerns, and rightfully so. This industry accounts for approximately 4% of the total GDP in the United States while creating around two-thirds of the material waste annually. The green building movement is certainly gaining popularity in both application and recognition through entities such as the United States Green Building Council (USGBC) and their LEED program; however, builders are also producing their ideas. Alternative housing solutions that include pre-fabricated building components and shipping container homes are making great strides in the residential construction industry, and will certainly play an important role in the future. This paper will compare the cost and schedule of modular, panelized and shipping container homes to traditional stick frame home construction in the Greater Los Angeles Metropolitan Area and recommend the best application for each option.

Keywords: cost, prefabricated, schedule, shipping container, stick framed

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
1494 A Rapid Code Acquisition Scheme in OOC-Based CDMA Systems

Authors: Keunhong Chae, Seokho Yoon

Abstract:

We propose a code acquisition scheme called improved multiple-shift (IMS) for optical code division multiple access systems, where the optical orthogonal code is used instead of the pseudo noise code. Although the IMS algorithm has a similar process to that of the conventional MS algorithm, it has a better code acquisition performance than the conventional MS algorithm. We analyze the code acquisition performance of the IMS algorithm and compare the code acquisition performances of the MS and the IMS algorithms in single-user and multi-user environments.

Keywords: code acquisition, optical CDMA, optical orthogonal code, serial algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 414
1493 Analytic Hierarchy Process for the Container Terminal Choice from Multiple Terminals within the Port of Colombo

Authors: G. M. B. P. Abeysekara, W. A. D. C. Wijerathna

Abstract:

Terminal choice from the multiple terminals region is not a simple decision and it is very complex, because shipping lines should consider on influential factors for the terminal choice at once according to their requirement. Therefore, terminal choice is a multiple criterion decision making (MCDM) situation under a specially designed decision hierarchy. Identification of perspective of shipping lines regarding terminal choice is vital important for the decision makers regarding container terminals. Thus this study is evaluated perception on main and feeder shipping lines’ regarding port of Colombo container terminals, and ranked terminals according to shipping lines preference. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) model is adapted to this study, since it has features similar to the MCDM, it is weighted every influential factor by using pair wise comparisons, and consistency of the decision makers’ judgments are checked to evaluate trustworthiness of gathered data. And rating method is used to rank the terminals within Port of Colombo by assigning particular preference values with respect to the criteria and sub criteria. According to the findings of this study, main lines’ mainly concern on water depth of approach channel, depth of berth, handling charges and handling equipment facilities. And feeder lines’ main concerns were handling equipment facilities, loading and discharging efficiency, depth of berth and handling charges. Findings of the study suggested concentrating regarding the emphasized areas in order to enhance the competitiveness of terminals, and to increase number of vessel callings at the Port of Colombo. Application of above finding of the terminals within Port of Colombo lead to a far better competition among terminals and would uplift the overall level of services.

Keywords: AHP, Main and feeder shipping lines, criteria, sub criteria

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
1492 Communal Shipping Container Home Design for Reducing Homelessness in Glasgow

Authors: Matthew Brady

Abstract:

Lack of affordable housing for individuals has the potential to create gaps in society, which result in thousands of people facing homelessness every year in some of the worlds most affluent cities. This paper examines strategies for providing a more economic living environment for single occupants. Focusing on comparisons of successful examples reducing homeless populations around the world, with an emphasis on social inclusion and community living. Practically exploring the architectural considerations of ensuring a suitable living environment for multiple single occupancy residents, as well as selecting the appropriate materials to ensure costs are kept to manageable level for investment from local governments. The aim of this paper is to make some practical recommendations for low cost communal living space, with particular reference to recycled shipping container homes on a potential unused site on the River Clyde in Glasgow. Ideally, the suggestions and recommendations put forward in this paper can be replicable or used for reference in other similar situations. The proposal explored in this paper is sensitive towards addressing people's standard of living and adapting homes to match may be one solution to reducing the number of people being evicted from unaffordable homes as the generally upward global trend for urbanization continues.

Keywords: affordable housing, community living, shipping container, urban regeneration

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
1491 The Exploitation of the MOSES Project Outcomes on Supply Chain Optimisation

Authors: Reza Karimpour

Abstract:

Ports play a decisive role in the EU's external and internal trade, as about 74% of imports and exports and 37% of exchanges go through ports. Although ports, especially Deep Sea Shipping (DSS) ports, are integral nodes within multimodal logistic flows, Short Sea Shipping (SSS) and inland waterways are not so well integrated. The automated vessels and supply chain optimisations for sustainable shortsea shipping (MOSES) project aims to enhance the short sea shipping component of the European supply chain by addressing the vulnerabilities and strains related to the operation of large containerships. The MOSES concept can be shortly described as a large containership (mother-vessel) approaching a DSS port (or a large container terminal). Upon her arrival, a combined intelligent mega-system consisting of the MOSES Autonomous tugboat swarm for manoeuvring and the MOSES adapted AutoMoor system. Then, container handling processes are ready to start moving containers to their destination via hinterland connections (trucks and/or rail) or to be shipped to destinations near small ports (on the mainland or island). For the first case, containers are stored in a dedicated port area (Storage area), waiting to be moved via trucks and/or rail. For the second case, containers are stacked by existing port equipment near-dedicated berths of the DSS port. They then are loaded on the MOSES Innovative Feeder Vessel, equipped with the MOSES Robotic Container-Handling System that provides (semi-) autonomous (un) feeding of the feeder. The Robotic Container-Handling System is remotely monitored through a Shore Control Centre. When the MOSES innovative Feeder vessel approaches the small port, where her docking is achieved without tugboats, she automatically unloads the containers using the Robotic Container-Handling System on the quay or directly on trucks. As a result, ports with minimal or no available infrastructure may be effectively integrated with the container supply chain. Then, the MOSES innovative feeder vessel continues her voyage to the next small port, or she returns to the DSS port. MOSES exploitation activity mainly aims to exploit research outcomes beyond the project, facilitate utilisation of the pilot results by others, and continue the pilot service after the project ends. By the mid-lifetime of the project, the exploitation plan introduces the reader to the MOSES project and its key exploitable results. It provides a plan for delivering the MOSES innovations to the market as part of the overall exploitation plan.

Keywords: automated vessels, exploitation, shortsea shipping, supply chain

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1490 Determinants of Extra Charges for Container Shipments: A Case Study of Nexus Zone Logistics

Authors: Zety Shakila Binti Mohd Yusof, Muhammad Adib Bin Ishak, Hajah Fatimah Binti Hussein

Abstract:

The international shipping business is related to numerous controls or regulations of export and import shipments. It is costly and time consuming, and when something goes wrong or when the buyer or seller fails to comply with the regulations, it can result in penalties, delays, and unexpected costs etc. For the focus of this study, the researchers have selected a local forwarder that provides forwarding and clearance services, Nexus Zone Logistics. It was identified that this company currently has many extra costs to be paid including local and detention charges, which negatively impacts the flow of income and reduces overall stability. Two variables have been identified as factors of extra charges; loaded containers entering the port by exceeded closing time and late delivery of empty containers to the container yard. This study is a qualitative in nature and the secondary data collected was analyzed using self-administered observation. The findings of this study were covered by one selected case for each export and import shipment between July and December 2014. The data were analyzed using frequency analysis based on tables and graphs. The researcher recommends Nexus Zone Logistics impose a 1% deposit payment per container for each shipment (export and import) to its customers.

Keywords: international shipping, export and import, detention charges, container shipment

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
1489 Use of Shipping Containers as Office Buildings in Brazil: Thermal and Energy Performance for Different Constructive Options and Climate Zones

Authors: Lucas Caldas, Pablo Paulse, Karla Hora

Abstract:

Shipping containers are present in different Brazilian cities, firstly used for transportation purposes, but which become waste materials and an environmental burden in their end-of-life cycle. In the last decade, in Brazil, some buildings made partly or totally from shipping containers started to appear, most of them for commercial and office uses. Although the use of a reused container for buildings seems a sustainable solution, it is very important to measure the thermal and energy aspects when they are used as such. In this context, this study aims to evaluate the thermal and energy performance of an office building totally made from a 12-meter-long, High Cube 40’ shipping container in different Brazilian Bioclimatic Zones. Four different constructive solutions, mostly used in Brazil were chosen: (1) container without any covering; (2) with internally insulated drywall; (3) with external fiber cement boards; (4) with both drywall and fiber cement boards. For this, the DesignBuilder with EnergyPlus was used for the computational simulation in 8760 hours. The EnergyPlus Weather File (EPW) data of six Brazilian capital cities were considered: Curitiba, Sao Paulo, Brasilia, Campo Grande, Teresina and Rio de Janeiro. Air conditioning appliance (split) was adopted for the conditioned area and the cooling setpoint was fixed at 25°C. The coefficient of performance (CoP) of air conditioning equipment was set as 3.3. Three kinds of solar absorptances were verified: 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 of exterior layer. The building in Teresina presented the highest level of energy consumption, while the one in Curitiba presented the lowest, with a wide range of differences in results. The constructive option of external fiber cement and drywall presented the best results, although the differences were not significant compared to the solution using just drywall. The choice of absorptance showed a great impact in energy consumption, mainly compared to the case of containers without any covering and for use in the hottest cities: Teresina, Rio de Janeiro, and Campo Grande. This study brings as the main contribution the discussion of constructive aspects for design guidelines for more energy-efficient container buildings, considering local climate differences, and helps the dissemination of this cleaner constructive practice in the Brazilian building sector.

Keywords: bioclimatic zones, Brazil, shipping containers, thermal and energy performance

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1488 New Restoration Reagent for Development of Erased Serial Number on Copper Metal Surface

Authors: Lav Kesharwani, Nalini Shankar, A. K. Gupta

Abstract:

A serial number is a unique code assigned for identification of a single unit. Serial number are present on many objects. In an attempt to hide the identity of the numbered item, the numbers are often obliterated or removed by mechanical methods. The present work was carried out with an objective to develop less toxic, less time consuming, more result oriented chemical etching reagent for restoration of serial number on the copper metal plate. Around nine different reagents were prepared using different combination of reagent along with standard reagent and it was applied over 50 erased samples of copper metal and compared it with the standard reagent for restoration of erased marks. After experiment, it was found that the prepared Etching reagent no. 3 (10 g FeCl3 + 20 ml glacial acetic acid + 100 ml distilled H2O) showed the best result for restoration of erased serial number on the copper metal plate .The reagent was also less toxic and less time consuming as compared to standard reagent (19 g FeCl3 + 6 ml cans. HCl + 100 ml distilled H2O).

Keywords: serial number restoration, copper plate, obliteration, chemical method

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1487 A Simulation Modeling Approach for Optimization of Storage Space Allocation in Container Terminal

Authors: Gamal Abd El-Nasser A. Said, El-Sayed M. El-Horbaty

Abstract:

Container handling problems at container terminals are NP-hard problems. This paper presents an approach using discrete-event simulation modeling to optimize solution for storage space allocation problem, taking into account all various interrelated container terminal handling activities. The proposed approach is applied on a real case study data of container terminal at Alexandria port. The computational results show the effectiveness of the proposed model for optimization of storage space allocation in container terminal where 54% reduction in containers handling time in port is achieved.

Keywords: container terminal, discrete-event simulation, optimization, storage space allocation

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1486 Experimental Simulation of Soil Boundary Condition for Dynamic Studies

Authors: Omar S. Qaftan, T. T. Sabbagh

Abstract:

This paper studies the free-field response by adopting a flexible membrane container as soil boundary for experimental shaking table tests. The influence of the soil container boundary on the soil behaviour and the dynamic soil properties under seismic effect were examined. A flexible container with 1/50 scale factor was adopted in the experimental tests, including construction, instrumentation, and determination of the results of dynamic tests on a shaking table. Horizontal face displacements and accelerations were analysed to determine the influence of the container boundary on the performance of the soil. The outputs results show that the flexible boundary container allows more displacement and larger accelerations. The soil in a rigid wall container cannot deform as similar as the soil in the real field does. Therefore, the response of flexible container tested is believed to be more reliable for soil boundary than that in the rigid container.

Keywords: soil, seismic, earthquake, interaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
1485 Lowering Error Floors by Concatenation of Low-Density Parity-Check and Array Code

Authors: Cinna Soltanpur, Mohammad Ghamari, Behzad Momahed Heravi, Fatemeh Zare

Abstract:

Low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes have been shown to deliver capacity approaching performance; however, problematic graphical structures (e.g. trapping sets) in the Tanner graph of some LDPC codes can cause high error floors in bit-error-ratio (BER) performance under conventional sum-product algorithm (SPA). This paper presents a serial concatenation scheme to avoid the trapping sets and to lower the error floors of LDPC code. The outer code in the proposed concatenation is the LDPC, and the inner code is a high rate array code. This approach applies an interactive hybrid process between the BCJR decoding for the array code and the SPA for the LDPC code together with bit-pinning and bit-flipping techniques. Margulis code of size (2640, 1320) has been used for the simulation and it has been shown that the proposed concatenation and decoding scheme can considerably improve the error floor performance with minimal rate loss.

Keywords: concatenated coding, low–density parity–check codes, array code, error floors

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
1484 Bypassing Docker Transport Layer Security Using Remote Code Execution

Authors: Michael J. Hahn

Abstract:

Docker is a powerful tool used by many companies such as PayPal, MetLife, Expedia, Visa, and many others. Docker works by bundling multiple applications, binaries, and libraries together on top of an operating system image called a container. The container runs on a Docker engine that in turn runs on top of a standard operating system. This centralization saves a lot of system resources. In this paper, we will be demonstrating how to bypass Transport Layer Security and execute remote code within Docker containers built on a base image of Alpine Linux version 3.7.0 through the use of .apk files due to flaws in the Alpine Linux package management program. This exploit renders any applications built using Docker with a base image of Alpine Linux vulnerable to unwanted outside forces.

Keywords: cloud, cryptography, Docker, Linux, security

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1483 The Lexicographic Serial Rule

Authors: Thi Thao Nguyen, Andrew McLennan, Shino Takayama

Abstract:

We study the probabilistic allocation of finitely many indivisible objects to finitely many agents. Well known allocation rules for this problem include random priority, the market mechanism proposed by Hylland and Zeckhauser [1979], and the probabilistic serial rule of Bogomolnaia and Moulin [2001]. We propose a new allocation rule, which we call the lexico-graphic (serial) rule, that is tailored for situations in which each agent's primary concern is to maximize the probability of receiving her favourite object. Three axioms, lex efficiency, lex envy freeness and fairness, are proposed and fully characterize the lexicographic serial rule. We also discuss how our axioms and the lexicographic rule are related to other allocation rules, particularly the probabilistic serial rule.

Keywords: Efficiency, Envy free, Lexicographic, Probabilistic Serial Rule

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1482 Sloshing Response of Liquid in Prismatic Container under Oscillation

Authors: P. R. Maiti, S. K. Bhattacharyya

Abstract:

Sloshing is a physical phenomenon characterized by the oscillation of unrestrained free surface of liquid in a partially liquid filled container subjected to external excitation. Determination of sloshing frequency in container is important to avoid resonance condition of the system. The complex behavior of the free surface movement and its combined mode of vibration make difficulty for exact analysis of sloshing. In the present study, numerical analysis is carried out for a partially liquid filled tank under external forces. Boundary element approach is used to formulate the sloshing problem in two -dimensional prismatic container with potential flow. Effort has been made to find slosh response for two dimensional problems in partially liquid filled prismatic container.

Keywords: sloshing, boundary element method, prismatic container, oscillation

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1481 Code-Switching and Code Mixing among Ogba-English Bilingual Conversations

Authors: Ben-Fred Ohia

Abstract:

Code-switching and code-mixing are linguistic behaviours that arise in a bilingual situation. They limit speakers in a conversation to decide which code they should use to utter particular phrases or words in the course of carrying out their utterance. Every human society is characterized by the existence of diverse linguistic varieties. The speakers of these varieties at some points have various degrees of contact with the non-speakers of their variety, which one of the outcomes of the linguistic contact is code-switching or code-mixing. The work discusses the nature of code-switching and code-mixing in Ogba-English bilinguals’ speeches. It provides a detailed explanation of the concept of code-switching and code-mixing and explains the typology of code-switching and code-mixing and their manifestation in Ogba-English bilingual speakers’ speeches. The findings reveal that code-switching and code-mixing are functionally motivated and being triggered by various conversational contexts.

Keywords: bilinguals, code-mixing, code-switching, Ogba

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1480 Seismic Behavior of a Jumbo Container Crane in the Low Seismicity Zone Using Time-History Analyses

Authors: Huy Q. Tran, Bac V. Nguyen, Choonghyun Kang, Jungwon Huh

Abstract:

Jumbo container crane is an important part of port structures that needs to be designed properly, even when the port locates in low seismicity zone such as in Korea. In this paper, 30 artificial ground motions derived from the elastic response spectra of Korean Building Code (2005) are used for time history analysis. It is found that the uplift might not occur in this analysis when the crane locates in the low seismic zone. Therefore, a selection of a pinned or a gap element for base supporting has not much effect on the determination of the total base shear. The relationships between the total base shear and peak ground acceleration (PGA) and the relationships between the portal drift and the PGA are proposed in this study.

Keywords: jumbo container crane, portal drift, time history analysis, total base shear

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1479 Appraisal of Shipping Trade Influence on Economic Growth in Nigeria

Authors: Ikpechukwu Njoku

Abstract:

The study examined appraisal of shipping trade influence on the economic growth in Nigeria from 1981-2016 by the use of secondary data collected from the Central Bank of Nigeria. The main objectives are to examine the trend of shipping trade in Nigeria as well as determine the influence of economic growth on gross domestic product (GDP). The study employed both descriptive and influential tools. The study adopted cointegration regression method for the analysis of each of the variables (shipping trade, external reserves and external debts). The results show that there is a statistically significant relationship between GDP and external reserves with p-value 0.0190. Also the result revealed that there is a statistically significant relationship between GDP and shipping trade with p-value 0.000. However, shipping trade and external reserves contributed positively at 1% and 5% level of significance respectively while external debts impacted negatively to GDP at 5% level of significance with a long run variance of cointegration regression. Therefore, the study suggests that government should do all it can to curtail foreign dominance and repatriation of profit for a more sustainable economy as well as upgrade port facilities, prevent unnecessary delays and encourage exportable goods for maximum deployment of ships.

Keywords: external debts, external reserve, GDP, shipping trade

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1478 Parallel Vector Processing Using Multi Level Orbital DATA

Authors: Nagi Mekhiel

Abstract:

Many applications use vector operations by applying single instruction to multiple data that map to different locations in conventional memory. Transferring data from memory is limited by access latency and bandwidth affecting the performance gain of vector processing. We present a memory system that makes all of its content available to processors in time so that processors need not to access the memory, we force each location to be available to all processors at a specific time. The data move in different orbits to become available to other processors in higher orbits at different time. We use this memory to apply parallel vector operations to data streams at first orbit level. Data processed in the first level move to upper orbit one data element at a time, allowing a processor in that orbit to apply another vector operation to deal with serial code limitations inherited in all parallel applications and interleaved it with lower level vector operations.

Keywords: Memory Organization, Parallel Processors, Serial Code, Vector Processing

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1477 Development of a Firmware Downloader for AVR Microcontrollers for Educational Purposes

Authors: Jungho Moon, Lae Jeong Park

Abstract:

This paper introduces the development of a firmware downloader for students attending microcontroller-related courses taught by the authors In the courses, AVR microcontroller experiment kits are used for programming exercise and the AVR microcontroller is programmed through a serial communication interface using a bootloader preinstalled on it. To use the bootloader, a matching firmware downloader that runs on a host computer and communicates with the bootloader is also required. When firmware downloading is completed, the serial port used for it needs to be closed. If the downloaded firmware uses serial communication, the serial port needs to be reopened in a serial terminal. As a result, the programmer of the AVR board switches from the downloader program and the serial terminal and vice versa. It is a simple task but quite a hassle to do each time new firmware needs downloading. To provide a more convenient programming environment for the courses, the authors developed a downloader program that includes a serial terminal in it. The program operates in downloader or terminal mode and the mode switching is performed automatically; therefore manual mode switching is not necessary. The feature provides a more convenient development environment by eliminating the need for manual mode switching each time firmware downloading is required.

Keywords: bootloader, firmware downloader, microcontroller, serial communication

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
1476 A Novel Integration of Berth Allocation, Quay Cranes and Trucks Scheduling Problems in Container Terminals

Authors: M. Moharami Gargari, S. Javdani Zamani, A. Mohammadnejad, S. Abuali

Abstract:

As maritime container transport is developing fast, the need arises for efficient operations at container terminals. One of the most important determinants of container handling efficiency is the productivity of quay cranes and internal transportation vehicles, which are responsible transporting of containers for unloading and loading operations for container vessels. For this reason, this paper presents an integrated mathematical model formulation for discrete berths with quay cranes and internal transportations vehicles. The problems have received increasing attention in the literature and the present paper deals with the integration of these interrelated problems. A new mixed integer linear formulation is developed for the Berth Allocation Problem (BAP), Quay Crane Assignment and Scheduling Problem (QCASP) and Internal Transportation Scheduling (ITS), which accounts for cranes and trucks positioning conditions.

Keywords: discrete berths, container terminal, truck scheduling, dynamic vessel arrival

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1475 Experimental and Numerical Studies on Hydrogen Behavior in a Small-Scale Container with Passive Autocatalytic Recombiner

Authors: Kazuyuki Takase, Yoshihisa Hiraki, Gaku Takase, Isamu Kudo

Abstract:

One of the most important issue is to ensure the safety of long-term waste storage containers in which fuel debris and radioactive materials are accumulated. In this case, hydrogen generated by water decomposition by radiation is accumulated in the container for a long period of time, so it is necessary to reduce the concentration of hydrogen in the container. In addition, a condition that any power supplies from the outside of the container are unnecessary is requested. Then, radioactive waste storage containers with the passive autocatalytic recombiner (PAR) would be effective. The radioactive waste storage container with PAR was used for moving the fuel debris of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 to the storage location. However, the effect of PAR is not described in detail. Moreover, the reduction of hydrogen concentration during the long-term storage period was performed by the venting system, which was installed on the top of the container. Therefore, development of a long-term storage container with PAR was started with the aim of safely storing fuel debris picked up at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant for a long period of time. A fundamental experiment for reducing the concentration of hydrogen which generates in a nuclear waste long-term storage container was carried out using a small-scale container with PAR. Moreover, the circulation flow behavior of hydrogen in the small-scale container resulting from the natural convection by the decay heat was clarified. In addition, preliminary numerical analyses were performed to predict the experimental results regarding the circulation flow behavior and the reduction of hydrogen concentration in the small-scale container. From the results of the present study, the validity of the container with PAR was experimentally confirmed on the reduction of hydrogen concentration. In addition, it was predicted numerically that the circulation flow behavior of hydrogen in the small-scale container is blocked by steam which generates by chemical reaction of hydrogen and oxygen.

Keywords: hydrogen behavior, reduction of concentration, long-term storage container, small-scale, PAR, experiment, analysis

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1474 Mathematical Model and Algorithm for the Berth and Yard Resource Allocation at Seaports

Authors: Ming Liu, Zhihui Sun, Xiaoning Zhang

Abstract:

This paper studies a deterministic container transportation problem, jointly optimizing the berth allocation, quay crane assignment and yard storage allocation at container ports. The problem is formulated as an integer program to coordinate the decisions. Because of the large scale, it is then transformed into a set partitioning formulation, and a framework of branchand- price algorithm is provided to solve it.

Keywords: branch-and-price, container terminal, joint scheduling, maritime logistics

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1473 Application of Container Technique to High-Risk Children: Its Effect on Their Levels of Stress, Anxiety and Depression

Authors: Nguyen Thi Loan, Phan Ngoc Thanh Tra

Abstract:

Container is one of the techniques used in Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EDMR) Therapy. This paper presents the positive results of applying Container technique to “high risk children”. The sample for this research is composed of 60 “high risk children” whose ages range from 11 to 18 years old, housed in Ho Chi Minh City Youth Center. They have been under the program of the Worldwide Orphans Foundation since August 2015 for various reasons such as, loss of parents, anti-social behaviors, homelessness, child labor among others. These “high risk children” are under high levels of stress, anxiety and depression. The subjects were divided into two groups: the control and the experimental with 30 members each. The experimental group was applied Container Technique and the instruments used to measure their levels of stress, anxiety, and depression are DASS-42 and ASEBA. Results show that after applying the Container Technique to the experimental group, there are significant differences between the two groups’ levels of stress, anxiety and depression. The experimental group’s levels of stress, anxiety and depression decreased significantly. The results serve as a basis for the researchers to make an appeal to psychologists to apply Container Technique in doing psychological treatment in a suitable context.

Keywords: anxiety, depression, container technique, EMDR

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1472 General Framework for Price Regulation of Container Terminals

Authors: Murat Yildiz, Burcu Yildiz

Abstract:

Price Cap Regulation is a form of economic regulation designed in the 1980s in the United Kingdom. Price cap regulation sets a cap on the price that the utility provider can charge. The cap is set according to several economic factors, such as the price cap index, expected efficiency savings and inflation. It has been used by several countries as a regulatory regime in several sectors. Container port privatization is still in early stages in some countries. Lack of a general framework can be an impediment to privatization. This paper aims a general framework to comprising decisions to be made for variables which are able to accommodate the variety of container terminals. Several approaches that may be needed as well as a passage between approaches.

Keywords: Price Cap Regulation, ports privatization, container terminal price regime, earning sharing

Procedia PDF Downloads 202