Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 92

Search results for: lightweights concretes

92 Necessity of Using Cellular Lightweights Concrete in Construction Sector

Authors: Soner Guler, Fuat Korkut


Recently, the using of lightweights concretes in construction sector is rapidly increasing all over the world. Faster construction, low density and thermal transmitting coefficient and high fire resistance are the remarkable characteristics of the lightweight concretes. Lightweight concrete can be described as a type of concrete which enhance the volume of the mixture while giving additional advantages such as to reduce the dead weight of the structures. It is lighter than the conventional concrete. The use of lightweight concrete has been widely spread across countries such as USA, United Kingdom, and Sweden. In this study, the necessity of the using of lightweights concretes in the construction sector is emphasized and evaluated briefly for the architectures and civil engineers.

Keywords: lightweights concretes, low density, low thermal coefficient, construction sector

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91 Use of Benin Laterites for the Mix Design of Structural Concrete

Authors: Yemalin D. Agossou, Andre Lecomte, Remi Boissiere, Edmond C. Adjovi, Abdelouahab Khelil


This paper presents a mixed design trial of structural concretes with laterites from Benin. These materials are often the only granular resources readily available in many tropical regions. In the first step, concretes were designed with raw laterites, but the performances obtained were rather disappointing in spite of high cement dosages. A detailed physical characterization of these materials then showed that they contained a significant proportion of fine clays and that the coarsest fraction (gravel) contained a variety of facies, some of which were not very dense or indurated. Washing these laterites, and even the elimination of the most friable grains of the gravel fraction, made it possible to obtain concretes with satisfactory properties in terms of workability, density and mechanical strength. However, they were found to be slightly less stiff than concretes made with more traditional aggregates. It is, therefore, possible to obtain structural concretes with only laterites and cement but at the cost of eliminating some of their granular constituents.

Keywords: laterites, aggregates, concretes, mix design, mechanical properties

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90 Use of Recycled Aggregates in Current Concretes

Authors: K. Krizova, R. Hela


The paper a summary of the results of concretes with partial substitution of natural aggregates with recycled concrete is solved. Design formulas of the concretes were characterised with 20, 40 and 60% substitution of natural 8-16 mm fraction aggregates with a selected recycled concrete of analogous coarse fractions. With the product samples an evaluation of coarse fraction aggregates influence on fresh concrete consistency and concrete strength in time was carried out. The results of concretes with aggregates substitution will be compared to reference formula containing only the fractions of natural aggregates.

Keywords: recycled concrete, natural aggregates, fresh concrete, properties of concrete

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89 Compressive Strength of Synthetic Fiber Reinforced Concretes

Authors: Soner Guler, Demet Yavuz, Fuat Korkut


Synthetic fibers are commonly used in many civil engineering applications because of its some superior characteristics such as non-corrosive and cheapness. This study presents the results of experimental study on compressive strength of synthetic fiber reinforced concretes. Two types of polyamide (PA) synthetic fiber with the length of 12 and 54 mm are used for this study. The fiber volume ratio is kept as 0.25%, 0.75%, and 0.75% in all mixes. The plain concrete compressive strength is 36.2 MPa. The test results clearly show that the increase in compressive strength for synthetic fiber reinforced concretes is significant. The greatest increase in compressive strength is 23% for PA synthetic fiber reinforced concretes with 0.75% fiber volume.

Keywords: synthetic fibers, polyamide fibers, fiber volume, compressive strength

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88 Correlation between Initial Absorption of the Cover Concrete, the Compressive Strength and Carbonation Depth

Authors: Bouzidi Yassine


This experimental work was aimed to characterize the porosity of the concrete cover zone using the capillary absorption test, and establish the links between open porosity characterized by the initial absorption, the compressive strength and carbonation depth. Eight formulations of workability similar made from ordinary Portland cement (CEM I 42.5) and a compound cement (CEM II/B 42.5) four of each type are studied. The results allow us to highlight the effect of the cement type. Indeed, concretes-based cement CEM II/B 42.5 carbonatent approximately faster than concretes-based cement CEM I 42.5. This effect is attributed in part to the lower content of portlandite Ca(OH)2 of concretes-based cement CEM II/B 42.5, but also the impact of the cement type on the open porosity of the cover concrete. The open porosity of concretes-based cement CEM I 42.5 is lower than that of concretes-based cement CEM II/B 42.5. The carbonation depth is a decreasing function of the compressive strength at 28 days and increases with the initial absorption. Through the results obtained, correlations between the quantity of water absorbed in 1 h, the carbonation depth at 180 days and the compressive strength at 28 days were performed in an acceptable manner.

Keywords: initial absorption, cover concrete, compressive strength, carbonation depth

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87 Optimum Design of Alkali Activated Slag Concretes for Low Chloride Ion Permeability and Water Absorption Capacity

Authors: Müzeyyen Balçikanli, Erdoğan Özbay, Hakan Tacettin Türker, Okan Karahan, Cengiz Duran Atiş


In this research, effect of curing time (TC), curing temperature (CT), sodium concentration (SC) and silicate modules (SM) on the compressive strength, chloride ion permeability, and water absorption capacity of alkali activated slag (AAS) concretes were investigated. For maximization of compressive strength while for minimization of chloride ion permeability and water absorption capacity of AAS concretes, best possible combination of CT, CTime, SC and SM were determined. An experimental program was conducted by using the central composite design method. Alkali solution-slag ratio was kept constant at 0.53 in all mixture. The effects of the independent parameters were characterized and analyzed by using statistically significant quadratic regression models on the measured properties (dependent parameters). The proposed regression models are valid for AAS concretes with the SC from 0.1% to 7.5%, SM from 0.4 to 3.2, CT from 20 °C to 94 °C and TC from 1.2 hours to 25 hours. The results of test and analysis indicate that the most effective parameter for the compressive strength, chloride ion permeability and water absorption capacity is the sodium concentration.

Keywords: alkali activation, slag, rapid chloride permeability, water absorption capacity

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86 Heating and Cooling Scenario of Blended Concrete Subjected to 780 Degrees Celsius

Authors: J. E. Oti, J. M. Kinuthia, R. Robinson, P. Davies


In this study, The Compressive strength of concretes made with Ground Granulated Blast furnace Slag (GGBS), pulverised Fuel Ash (PFA), rice Husk Ash (RHA) and Waste Glass Powder (WGP) after they were exposed 7800C (exposure duration of around 60 minutes) and then allowed to cool down gradually in the furnace for about 280 minutes at water binder ratio of 0.50 was investigated. GGBS, PFA, RHA and WGP were used to replace up to 20% Portland cement in the control concrete. Test for the determination of workability, compressive strength and tensile splitting strength of the concretes were carried out and the results were compared with control concrete. The test results showed that the compressive strength decreased by an average of around 30% after the concretes were exposed to the heating and cooling scenario.

Keywords: concrete, heating, cooling, pulverised fuel ash, rice husk ash, waste glass powder, GGBS, workability

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85 Effect Different Moisture States of Surface-treated Recycled Concrete Aggregate on Properties of Fresh and Hardened Concrete

Authors: Sallehan Ismail, Mahyuddin Ramli


This study examined the properties of fresh and hardened concretes as influenced by the moisture state of the coarse recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) after surface treatment. Surface treatment was performed by immersing the coarse RCA in a calcium metasilicate (CM) solution. The treated coarse RCA was maintained in three controlled moisture states, namely, air-dried, oven-dried, and saturated surface-dried (SSD), prior to its use in a concrete mix. The physical properties of coarse RCA were evaluated after surface treatment during the first phase of the experiment to determine the density and the water absorption characteristics of the RCA. The second phase involved the evaluation of the slump, slump loss, density, and compressive strength of the concretes that were prepared with different proportions of natural and treated coarse RCA. Controlling the moisture state of the coarse RCA after surface treatment was found to significantly influence the properties of the fresh and hardened concretes.

Keywords: moisture state, recycled concrete aggregate, surface treatment

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84 Recycling of Aggregates from Construction Demolition Wastes in Concrete: Study of Physical and Mechanical Properties

Authors: M. Saidi, F. Ait Medjber, B. Safi, M. Samar


This work is focused on the study of valuation of recycled concrete aggregates, by measuring certain properties of concrete in the fresh and hardened state. In this study, rheological tests and physic-mechanical characterization on concretes and mortars were conducted with recycled concrete whose geometric properties were identified aggregates. Mortars were elaborated with recycled fine aggregate (0/5mm) and concretes were manufactured using recycled coarse aggregates (5/12.5 mm and 12.5/20 mm). First, a study of the mortars was conducted to determine the effectiveness of adjuvant polycarboxylate superplasticizer on the workability of these and their action deflocculating of the fine recycled sand. The rheological behavior of mortars based on fine aggregate recycled was characterized. The results confirm that the mortars composed of different fractions of recycled sand (0/5) have a better mechanical properties (compressive and flexural strength) compared to normal mortar. Also, the mechanical strengths of concretes made with recycled aggregates (5/12.5 mm and 12.5/20 mm), are comparable to those of conventional concrete with conventional aggregates, provided that the implementation can be improved by the addition of a superplasticizer.

Keywords: demolition wastes, recycled coarse aggregate, concrete, workability, mechanical strength, porosity/water absorption

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83 Photocatalytic Active Surface of LWSCC Architectural Concretes

Authors: P. Novosad, L. Osuska, M. Tazky, T. Tazky


Current trends in the building industry are oriented towards the reduction of maintenance costs and the ecological benefits of buildings or building materials. Surface treatment of building materials with photocatalytic active titanium dioxide added into concrete can offer a good solution in this context. Architectural concrete has one disadvantage – dust and fouling keep settling on its surface, diminishing its aesthetic value and increasing maintenance e costs. Concrete surface – silicate material with open porosity – fulfils the conditions of effective photocatalysis, in particular, the self-cleaning properties of surfaces. This modern material is advantageous in particular for direct finishing and architectural concrete applications. If photoactive titanium dioxide is part of the top layers of road concrete on busy roads and the facades of the buildings surrounding these roads, exhaust fumes can be degraded with the aid of sunshine; hence, environmental load will decrease. It is clear that options for removing pollutants like nitrogen oxides (NOx) must be found. Not only do these gases present a health risk, they also cause the degradation of the surfaces of concrete structures. The photocatalytic properties of titanium dioxide can in the long term contribute to the enhanced appearance of surface layers and eliminate harmful pollutants dispersed in the air, and facilitate the conversion of pollutants into less toxic forms (e.g., NOx to HNO3). This paper describes verification of the photocatalytic properties of titanium dioxide and presents the results of mechanical and physical tests on samples of architectural lightweight self-compacting concretes (LWSCC). The very essence of the use of LWSCC is their rheological ability to seep into otherwise extremely hard accessible or inaccessible construction areas, or sections thereof where concrete compacting will be a problem, or where vibration is completely excluded. They are also able to create a solid monolithic element with a large variety of shapes; the concrete will at the same meet the requirements of both chemical aggression and the influences of the surrounding environment. Due to their viscosity, LWSCCs are able to imprint the formwork elements into their structure and thus create high quality lightweight architectural concretes.

Keywords: photocatalytic concretes, titanium dioxide, architectural concretes, Lightweight Self-Compacting Concretes (LWSCC)

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82 Role of Sodium Concentration, Waiting Time and Constituents’ Temperature on the Rheological Behavior of Alkali Activated Slag Concrete

Authors: Muhammet M. Erdem, Erdoğan Özbay, Ibrahim H. Durmuş, Mustafa Erdemir, Murat Bikçe, Müzeyyen Balçıkanlı


In this paper, rheological behavior of alkali activated slag concretes were investigated depending on the sodium concentration (SC), waiting time (WT) after production, and constituents’ temperature (CT) parameters. For this purpose, an experimental program was conducted with four different SCs of 1.85, 3.0, 4.15, and 5.30%, three different WT of 0 (just after production), 15, and 30 minutes and three different CT of 18, 30, and 40 °C. Solid precursors are activated by water glass and sodium hydroxide solutions with silicate modulus (Ms = SiO2/Na2O) of 1. Slag content and (water + activator solution)/slag ratio were kept constant in all mixtures. Yield stress and plastic viscosity values were defined for each mixture by using the ICAR rheometer. Test results were demonstrated that all of the three studied parameters have tremendous effect on the yield stress and plastic viscosity values of the alkali activated slag concretes. Increasing the SC, WT, and CT drastically augmented the rheological parameters. At the 15 and 30 minutes WT after production, most of the alkali activated slag concretes were set instantaneously, and rheological measurements were not performed.

Keywords: alkali activation, slag, rheology, yield stress, plastic viscosity

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81 Influential Effect of Self-Healing Treatment on Water Absorption and Electrical Resistance of Normal and Light Weight Aggregate Concretes

Authors: B. Tayebani, N. Hosseinibalam, D. Mostofinejad


Interest in using bacteria in cement materials due to its positive influences has been increased. Cement materials such as mortar and concrete basically suffer from higher porosity and water absorption compared to other building materials such as steel materials. Because of the negative side-effects of certain chemical techniques, biological methods have been proposed as a desired and environmentally friendly strategy for reducing concrete porosity and diminishing water absorption. This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation carried out to evaluate the influence of Sporosarcina pasteurii bacteria on the behaviour of two types of concretes (light weight aggregate concrete and normal weight concrete). The resistance of specimens to water penetration by testing water absorption and evaluating the electrical resistance of those concretes was examined and compared. As a conclusion, 20% increase in electrical resistance and 10% reduction in water absorption of lightweight aggregate concrete (LWAC) and for normal concrete the results show 7% decrease in water absorption and almost 10% increase in electrical resistance.

Keywords: bacteria, biological method, normal weight concrete, lightweight aggregate concrete, water absorption, electrical resistance

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80 Acoustic Absorption of Hemp Walls with Ground Granulated Blast Slag

Authors: Oliver Kinnane, Aidan Reilly, John Grimes, Sara Pavia, Rosanne Walker


Unwanted sound reflection can create acoustic discomfort and lead to problems of speech comprehensibility. Contemporary building techniques enable highly finished internal walls resulting in sound reflective surfaces. In contrast, sustainable construction materials using natural and vegetal materials, are often more porous and absorptive. Hemp shiv is used as an aggregate and when mixed with lime binder creates a low-embodied-energy concrete. Cement replacements such as ground granulated blast slag (GGBS), a byproduct of other industrial processes, are viewed as more sustainable alternatives to high-embodied-energy cement. Hemp concretes exhibit good hygrothermal performance. This has focused much research attention on them as natural and sustainable low-energy alternatives to standard concretes. A less explored benefit is the acoustic absorption capability of hemp-based concretes. This work investigates hemp-lime-GGBS concrete specifically, and shows that it exhibits high levels of sound absorption.

Keywords: hemp, hempcrete, acoustic absorption, GGBS

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79 Influence of the Quality of the Recycled Aggregates in Concrete Pavement

Authors: Viviana Letelier, Ester Tarela, Bianca Lopez, Pedro Muñoz, Giacomo Moriconi


The environmental impact has become a global concern during the last decades. Several alternatives have been proposed and studied to minimize this impact in different areas. The reuse of aggregates from old concretes to manufacture new ones not only can reduce this impact but is also a way to optimize the resource management. The effect of the origin of the reused aggregates from two different origin materials in recycled concrete pavement is studied here. Using the dosing applied by a pavement company, coarse aggregates in the 6.3-25 mm fraction are replaced by recycled aggregates with two different origins: old concrete pavements with similar origin strength to the one of the control concrete, and precast concrete pipes with smaller strengths than the one of the control concrete. The replacement percentages tested are 30%, 40% and 50% in both cases. The compressive strength tests are performed after 7, 14, 28 and 90 curing days, the flexural strength tests and the elasticity modulus tests after 28 and 90 curing days. Results show that the influence of the quality of the origin concrete in the mechanical properties of recycled concretes is not despicable. Concretes with up to a 50% of recycled aggregates from the concrete pavement have similar compressive strengths to the ones of the control concrete and slightly smaller flexural strengths that, however, in all cases exceed the minimum of 5MPa after 28 curing days stablished by the Chilean regulation for pavement concretes. On the other hand, concretes with recycled aggregates from precast concrete pipes show significantly lower compressive strengths after 28 curing days. The differences with the compressive strength of the control concrete increase with the percentage of replacement, reaching a 13% reduction when 50% of the aggregates are replaced. The flexural strength also suffers significant reductions that increase with the percentage of replacement, only obeying the Chilean regulation when 30% of the aggregates are recycled after 28 curing days. Nevertheless, after 90 curing days, all series obey the regulation requirements. Results show, not only the importance of the quality of the origin concrete, but also the significance of the curing days, that may allow the use of less quality recycled material without important strength losses.

Keywords: flexural strength of recycled concrete., mechanical properties of recycled concrete, recycled aggregates, recycled concrete pavements

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78 Possibilities of Utilization Zeolite in Concrete

Authors: M. Sedlmajer, J. Zach, J. Hroudova, P. Rovnaníkova


There are several possibilities of reducing the required amount of cement in concrete production. Natural zeolite is one of the raw materials which can partly substitute Portland cement. The effort to reduce the amount of Portland cement used in concrete production is brings both economical as well as ecological benefits. The paper presents the properties of concrete containing natural zeolite as an active admixture in the concrete which partly substitutes Portland cement. The properties discussed here bring information about the basic mechanical properties and frost resistance of concrete containing zeolite. The properties of concretes with the admixture of zeolite are compared with a reference concrete with no content of zeolite. The properties of the individual concretes are observed for 360 days.

Keywords: concrete, zeolite, compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, durability

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77 Effects of the Usage of Marble Powder as Partial Replacement of Cement on the Durability of High Performance Concrete

Authors: Talah Aissa


This paper reports an experimental study of the influence of marble powder used as a partial substitute for Portland cement (PC) on the mechanical properties and durability of high-performance concretes. The analysis of the experimental results on concrete at 15% content of marble powder with a fineness modulus of 11500 cm2/g, in a chloride environment, showed that it contributes positively to the perfection of its mechanical characteristics, its durability with respect to migration of chloride ions and oxygen permeability. On the basis of the experiments performed, it can be concluded that the marble powder is suitable for formulation of high performance concretes (HPC) and their properties are significantly better compared to the reference concrete (RC).

Keywords: marble powder, durability, concrete, cement

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76 Freeze-Thaw Resistance of Concretes with BFSA

Authors: Alena Sicakova


Air-cooled Blast furnace slag aggregate (BFSA) is usually referred to as a material providing for unique properties of concrete. On the other hand, negative influences are also presented in many aspects. The freeze-thaw resistance of concrete is dependent on many factors, including regional specifics and when a concrete mix is specified it is still difficult to tell its exact freeze-thaw resistance due to the different components affecting it. An important consideration in working with BFSA is the granularity and whether slag is sorted or not. The experimental part of the article represents a comparative testing of concrete using both the sorted and unsorted BFSA through the freeze-thaw resistance as an indicator of durability. Unsorted BFSA is able to be successfully used for concretes as they are specified for exposure class XF4 with providing that the type of cement is precisely selected.

Keywords: blast furnace slag aggregate, concrete, freeze-thaw resistance

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75 An Investigation on Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity of Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Concretes

Authors: Soner Guler, Demet Yavuz, Refik Burak Taymuş, Fuat Korkut


Because of the easy applying and not costing too much, ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) is one of the most used non-destructive techniques to determine concrete characteristics along with impact-echo, Schmidt rebound hammer (SRH) and pulse-echo. This article investigates the relationship between UPV and compressive strength of hybrid fiber reinforced concretes. Water/cement ratio (w/c) was kept at 0.4 for all concrete mixes. Compressive strength of concrete was targeted at 35 MPa. UPV testing and compressive strength tests were carried out at the curing age of 28 days. The UPV of concrete containing steel fibers has been found to be higher than plain concrete for all the testing groups. It is decided that there is not a certain relationship between fiber addition and strength.

Keywords: ultrasonic pulse velocity, hybrid fiber, compressive strength, fiber

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74 Experimental Study on Strength and Durability Properties of Bio-Self-Cured Fly Ash Based Concrete under Aggressive Environments

Authors: R. Malathy


High performance concrete is not only characterized by its high strength, workability, and durability but also by its smartness in performance without human care since the first day. If the concrete can cure on its own without external curing without compromising its strength and durability, then it is said to be high performance self-curing concrete. In this paper, an attempt is made on the performance study of internally cured concrete using biomaterials, namely Spinacea pleracea and Calatropis gigantea as self-curing agents, and it is compared with the performance of concrete with existing self-cure chemical, namely polyethylene glycol. The present paper focuses on workability, strength, and durability study on M20, M30, and M40 grade concretes replacing 30% of fly ash for cement. The optimum dosage of Spinacea pleracea, Calatropis gigantea, and polyethylene glycol was taken as 0.6%, 0.24%, and 0.3% by weight of cement from the earlier research studies. From the slump tests performed, it was found that there is a minimum variation between conventional concrete and self-cured concrete. The strength activity index is determined by keeping compressive strength of conventionally cured concrete for 28 days as unity and observed that, for self-cured concrete, it is more than 1 after 28 days and more than 1.15 after 56 days because of secondary reaction of fly ash. The performance study of concretes in aggressive environment like acid attack, sea water attack, and chloride attack was made, and the results are positive and encouraging in bio-self-cured concretes which are ecofriendly, cost effective, and high performance materials.

Keywords: bio materials, Calatropis gigantea, self curing concrete, Spinacea oleracea

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73 Effect of Volcanic Ash and Recycled Aggregates in Concrete

Authors: Viviana Letelier, Ester Tarela, Giacomo Moriconi


The cement industry is responsible for around a 5% of the CO2 emissions worldwide and considering that concrete is one of the most used materials in construction its total effect is important. An alternative to reduce the environmental impact of concrete production is to incorporate certain amount of residuals in the dosing, limiting the replacement percentages to avoid significant losses in the mechanical properties of the final material. This study analyses the variation in the mechanical properties of structural concretes with recycled aggregates and volcanic ash as cement replacement to test the effect of the simultaneous use of different residuals in the same material. Analyzed concretes are dosed for a compressive strength of 30MPa. The recycled aggregates are obtained from prefabricated pipe debris with a compressive strength of 20MPa. The volcanic ash was obtained from the Ensenada (Chile) area after the Calbuco eruption in April 2015. The percentages of natural course aggregates that are replaced by recycled aggregates are of 0% and 30% and the percentages of cement replaced by volcanic ash are of 0%, 5%, 10% and 15%. The combined effect of both residuals in the mechanical properties of the concrete is evaluated through compressive strength tests after, 28 curing days, flexural strength tests after 28 days, and the elasticity modulus after 28 curing days. Results show that increasing the amount of volcanic ash used increases the losses in compressive strength. However, the use of up to a 5% of volcanic ash allows obtaining concretes with similar compressive strength to the control concrete, whether recycled aggregates are used or not. Furthermore, the pozzolanic reaction that occurs between the amorphous silica and the calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) provokes an increase of a 10% in the compressive strength when a 5% of volcanic ash is combined with a 30% of recycled aggregates. Flexural strength does not show significant changes with neither of the residues. On the other hand, decreases between a 14% and a 25% in the elasticity modulus have been found. Concretes with up to a 30% of recycled aggregates and a 5% of volcanic ash as cement replacement can be produced without significant losses in their mechanical properties, reducing considerably the environmental impact of the final material.

Keywords: compressive strength of recycled concrete, mechanical properties of recycled concrete, recycled aggregates, volcanic ash as cement replacement

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72 Polymer Modification of Fine Grained Concretes Used in Textile Reinforced Cementitious Composites

Authors: Esma Gizem Daskiran, Mehmet Mustafa Daskiran, Mustafa Gencoglu


Textile reinforced cementitious composite (TRCC) is a development of a composite material where textile and fine-grained concrete (matrix) materials are used in combination. These matrices offer high performance properties in many aspects. To achieve high performance, polymer modified fine-grained concretes were used as matrix material which have high flexural strength. In this study, ten latex polymers and ten powder polymers were added to fine-grained concrete mixtures. These latex and powder polymers were added to the mixtures at different rates related to binder weight. Mechanical properties such as compressive and flexural strength were studied. Results showed that latex polymer and redispersible polymer modified fine-grained concretes showed different mechanical performance. A wide range of both latex and redispersible powder polymers were studied. As the addition rate increased compressive strength decreased for all mixtures. Flexural strength increased as the addition rate increased but significant enhancement was not observed through all mixtures.

Keywords: textile reinforced composite, cement, fine grained concrete, latex, redispersible powder

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71 Effect of Local Steel Slag as a Coarse Aggregate in the Properties of Fly Ash Based-Geopolymer Concrete

Authors: O. M. Omar, A. M. Heniegal, G. D. Abd Elhameed, H. A. Mohamadien


Local steel slag is produced as a by-product during the oxidation of steel pellets in an electric arc furnace. Using local steel slag waste as a hundred substitute of crushed stone in construction materials would resolve the environmental problems caused by the large-scale depletion of the natural sources of dolomite. This paper reports the experimental study to investigate the influence of a hundred replacement of dolomite as a coarse aggregate with local steel slag, on the fresh and hardened geopolymer concrete properties. The investigation includes traditional testing of hardening concrete, for selected mixes of cement and geopolymer concrete. It was found that local steel slag as a coarse aggregate enhanced the slump test of the fresh state of cement and geopolymer concretes. Nevertheless the unit weight of concretes was affected. Meanwhile, the good performance was observed when fly ash used as geopolymer concrete based.

Keywords: geopolymer, molarity, steel slag, sodium hydroxide, sodium silicate

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70 Minimum Ratio of Flexural Reinforcement for High Strength Concrete Beams

Authors: Azad A. Mohammed, Dunyazad K. Assi, Alan S. Abdulrahman


Current ACI 318 Code provides two limits for minimum steel ratio for concrete beams. When concrete compressive strength be larger than 31 MPa the limit of √(fc')/4fy usually governs. In this paper shortcomings related to using this limit was fairly discussed and showed that the limit is based on 90% safety factor and was derived based on modulus of rupture equation suitable for concretes of compressive strength lower than 31 MPa. Accordingly, the limit is nor suitable and critical for concretes of higher compressive strength. An alternative equation was proposed for minimum steel ratio of rectangular beams and was found that the proposed limit is accurate for beams of wide range of concrete compressive strength. Shortcomings of the current ACI 318 Code equation and accuracy of the proposed equation were supported by test data obtained from testing six reinforced concrete beams.

Keywords: concrete beam, compressive strength, minimum steel ratio, modulus of rupture

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69 Formulation and Physico-Mechanical Characterization of a Self-Compacting Concrete Containing Seashells as an Addition Material

Authors: Brahim Safi, Mohammed Saidi, A. Benmounah, Jozef Mitterpach


The aim of this work is to study the rheological and physico-mechanical properties of a self-compacting concrete elaborated with sea shells as an addition cementitious (total replacement of limestone fillers) and sand (partial and total substitution fine aggregate). Also, this present study is registered in the context of sustainable development by using this waste type which caused environmental problems. After preparation the crushed shells (obtaining fine aggregate) and finely crushed shells (obtaining end powder), concretes were manufactured using these two products. Rheological characterization tests (fluidity, filling capacity and segregation) and physico-mechanical properties (density and strength) were carried on these concretes. The results obtained show that it can be used as fin addition (by total replacement of limestone) or also used as sand by total substitution of natural sand.

Keywords: seashells, limestone, sand, self-compacting concrete, fluidity, compressive strength, flexural strength

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68 Adjuvant Effect and Mineral Addition in Aggressive Environments on the Sustainability of Using Local Materials Concretes

Authors: M. Belouadah, S. Rahmouni, N. Teballe


The durability of concrete is not one of its features, but its response to service loads and environmental conditions. Thus, the durability of concrete depends on a variety of material characteristics, but also the aggressiveness of the environment. Much durability problems encountered in tropical regions (region M'sila) due to the presence of chlorides and sulfates (in the ground or in the aggregate) with the additional aggravation of the effect of hot weather and arid. This lack of sustainability has a direct influence on the structure of the building and can lead to the complete deterioration of many buildings. The characteristics of the nature of fillers are evaluated based on the degree of aggressiveness of the environment considering as a means of characterization: mechanical strength, porosity. Specimens will be exposed to different storage media chemically aggressive drinking water, salts and sulfates (sodium chloride, MgSO4), solutions are not renewed or PH control solutions. The parameters taken into account are: age, the nature and degree of aggressiveness of the environment conservation, the incorporation of adjuvant type superplasticizer dosage and mineral additives.

Keywords: ordinary concretes, marble powder fillers, adjuvant, strength

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67 Effect of Fiber Types and Elevated Temperatures on the Bond Characteristic of Fiber Reinforced Concretes

Authors: Erdoğan Özbay, Hakan T. Türker, Müzeyyen Balçıkanlı, Mohamed Lachemi


In this paper, the effects of fiber types and elevated temperatures on compressive strength, modulus of rapture and the bond characteristics of fiber reinforced concretes (FRC) are presented. By using the three different types of fibers (steel fiber-SF, polypropylene-PPF and polyvinyl alcohol-PVA), FRC specimens were produced and exposed to elevated temperatures up to 800 ºC for 1.5 hours. In addition, a plain concrete (without fiber) was produced and used as a control. Test results obtained showed that the steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) had the highest compressive strength, modulus of rapture and bond stress values at room temperatures, the residual bond, flexural and compressive strengths of both FRC and plain concrete dropped sharply after exposure to high temperatures. The results also indicated that the reduction of bond, flexural and compressive strengths with increasing the exposed temperature was relatively less for SFRC than for plain, and FRC with PPF and PVA.

Keywords: bond stress, compressive strength, elevated temperatures, fiber reinforced concrete, modulus of rapture

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66 Cementing Efficiency of Low Calcium Fly Ash in Fly Ash Concretes

Authors: T. D. Gunneswara Rao, Mudimby Andal


Research on the utilization of fly ash will no longer refer the fly ash as a waste material of thermal power plants. Use of fly ash in concrete making, makes the concrete economical as well as durable. The fly ash is being added to the concrete in three ways namely, as partial replacement to cement, partial replacement to fine aggregates and admixture. Addition of fly ash to the concrete in each one of the form mentioned above, makes the concrete more workable and durable than the conventional concrete. Studies on fly ash as partial replacement to cement gained momentum as such replacement makes the concrete economical. In the present study, an attempt has been made to understand the effects of fly ash on the workability characteristics and strength aspects of fly ash concretes. In India, major number of thermal power plants are producing low calcium fly ash. Hence, in the present investigation, low calcium fly ash has been used. Fly ash in concrete was considered for the partial replacement of cement. The percentage replacement of cement by fly ash varied from 0% to 40% at regular intervals of 10%. Moreover the fine aggregate to coarse aggregate ratio also has been varied as 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3. The workability tests revealed that up to 30% replacement of cement by fly ash in concrete mixes water demand for reduces and beyond 30% replacement of cement by fly ash demanded more water content for constant workability.

Keywords: cementing efficiency, compressive strength, low calcium fly ash, workability

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65 The Influence of High Temperatures on HVFA Concrete Columns by NDT Methods

Authors: D. Jagath Kumari, K. Srinivasa Rao


Quality assurance of the structures subjected to high temperatures is now enforcing measure for the Structural Engineers. The existing relations between strength and nondestructive measurements have been established under normal conditions are not suitable to concretes that have been exposed to high temperatures. The scope of the work is to investigate the influence of high temperatures of short durations on the residual properties of reinforced HVFA concrete columns that affect the strength by non-destructive tests (NDT). Fly ash concrete is increasingly used in the design of normal strength, high strength and high performance concretes. In this paper, the authors revealed the influence of high temperatures on HVFA concrete columns. These columns are heated from 100oC to 800oC with increments of 100oC and allowed to cool to room temperature by two methods one is air cooling method and the other immediate water quenching method. All the specimens were tested identically, before heating and after heating for compressive strength and material integrity by rebound hammer and ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) meter respectively. HVFA concrete retained more residual strength by water quenching method than air-cooling method.

Keywords: HVFA concrete, NDT methods, residual strength, non-destructive tests

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64 Influence of Recycled Polymer-Based Aggregates on Mechanical Properties of Polymer Concrete

Authors: Ahmet Kurklu, Abdussamed Sarp, Gokmen Arikan, Akin Eren, Arif Ulu, Ferit Cakir


Our natural resources are diminishing day by day with the needs of the growing world population. There is a danger that these resources will be depleted if they are not used in a controlled manner. As a result of the rapid increase in the consumption of limited natural resources, one of the issues where studies have gained importance is recycling. Many countries have carried out various research and development activities on recycling and reuse to prevent wastage of resources. For sustainable and healthy living, the limited amount of raw material resources in nature should be consumed consciously, and the necessary awareness should be given for recycling activities. One of the sectors where the consumption of raw materials is high is the construction sector. With the changing consumption habits of the evolving technology in the construction sector, the need to use special concrete along with the normal concrete has arisen. With the increasing need for specialty concretes, polymer concrete, which was discovered in the early 1900s, has evolved to the present day. Polymer concretes are special concretes with high strength, water impermeability, resistance to chemical action, and low surface roughness. Thanks to these properties, they find wide applications in many fields such as swimming pools, drainage systems, repair works. In the study, the effect of using recycled aggregates instead of natural aggregates in the production of polymer concrete on the performance of polymer concrete is investigated. In the experiments conducted for this purpose, the use of natural aggregate is reduced at certain rates, and instead, recycled aggregate is added at the same rate. The recycled aggregate to be used in the study is obtained from the polymer concrete drainage channel production facility of Mert Casting Co., Istanbul, Turkey. In order to clearly observe the effect of recycled materials on the product in the study, the other components (resin, hardener, accelerator, and additive) are kept constant in the concrete mix. In the study, fresh and hardened concrete tests are to be carried out on the mixes to be prepared.

Keywords: concrete, mechanical properties, polymer concrete, recycle aggregate

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63 Elaboration and Characterization of Self-Compacting Mortar Based Biopolymer

Authors: I. Djefour, M. Saidi, I. Tlemsani, S. Toubal


Lignin is a molecule derived from wood and also generated as waste from the paper industry. With a view to its valorization and protection of the environment, we are interested in its use as a superplasticizer-type adjuvant in mortars and concretes to improve their mechanical strengths. The additives of the concrete have a very strong influence on the properties of the fresh and / or hardened concrete. This study examines the development and use of industrial waste and lignin extracted from a renewable natural source (wood) in cementitious materials. The use of these resources is known at present as a definite resurgence of interest in the development of building materials. Physicomechanical characteristics of mortars are determined by optimization quantity of the natural superplasticizer. The results show that the mechanical strengths of mortars based on natural adjuvant have improved by 20% (64 MPa) for a W/C ratio = 0.4, and the amount of natural adjuvant of dry extract needed is 40 times smaller than commercial adjuvant. This study has a scientific impact (improving the performance of the mortar with an increase in compactness and reduction of the quantity of water), ecological use of the lignin waste generated by the paper industry) and economic reduction of the cost price necessary to elaboration of self-compacting mortars and concretes).

Keywords: biopolymer (lignin), industrial waste, mechanical resistances, self compacting mortars (SCM)

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