Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 38

Search results for: Laurent Cantrel

38 Jacobson Semisimple Skew Inverse Laurent Series Rings

Authors: Ahmad Moussavi

Abstract:

In this paper, we are concerned with the Jacobson semisimple skew inverse Laurent series rings R((x−1; α, δ)) and the skew Laurent power series rings R[[x, x−1; α]], where R is an associative ring equipped with an automorphism α and an α-derivation δ. Examples to illustrate and delimit the theory are provided.

Keywords: skew polynomial rings, Laurent series, skew inverse Laurent series rings

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37 Formation of Volatile Iodine from Cesium Iodide Aerosols: A DFT Study

Authors: Houssam Hijazi, Laurent Cantrel, Jean-François Paul

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Periodic DFT calculations were performed to study the chemistry of CsI particles and the possible release of volatile iodine from CsI surfaces for nuclear safety interest. The results show that water adsorbs at low temperature associatively on the (011) surface of CsI, while water desorbs at higher temperatures. On the other hand, removing iodine species from the surface requires oxidizing the surface one time for each removed iodide atom. The activation energy of removing I2 from the surface in the presence of two OH is 1,2 eV.

Keywords: aerosols, CSI, reactivity, DFT, water adsorption

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36 Quantum Chemical Prediction of Standard Formation Enthalpies of Uranyl Nitrates and Its Degradation Products

Authors: Mohamad Saab, Florent Real, Francois Virot, Laurent Cantrel, Valerie Vallet

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All spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plants use the PUREX process (Plutonium Uranium Refining by Extraction), which is a liquid-liquid extraction method. The organic extracting solvent is a mixture of tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) and hydrocarbon solvent such as hydrogenated tetra-propylene (TPH). By chemical complexation, uranium and plutonium (from spent fuel dissolved in nitric acid solution), are separated from fission products and minor actinides. During a normal extraction operation, uranium is extracted in the organic phase as the UO₂(NO₃)₂(TBP)₂ complex. The TBP solvent can form an explosive mixture called red oil when it comes in contact with nitric acid. The formation of this unstable organic phase originates from the reaction between TBP and its degradation products on the one hand, and nitric acid, its derivatives and heavy metal nitrate complexes on the other hand. The decomposition of the red oil can lead to violent explosive thermal runaway. These hazards are at the origin of several accidents such as the two in the United States in 1953 and 1975 (Savannah River) and, more recently, the one in Russia in 1993 (Tomsk). This raises the question of the exothermicity of reactions that involve TBP and all other degradation products, and calls for a better knowledge of the underlying chemical phenomena. A simulation tool (Alambic) is currently being developed at IRSN that integrates thermal and kinetic functions related to the deterioration of uranyl nitrates in organic and aqueous phases, but not of the n-butyl phosphate. To include them in the modeling scheme, there is an urgent need to obtain the thermodynamic and kinetic functions governing the deterioration processes in liquid phase. However, little is known about the thermodynamic properties, like standard enthalpies of formation, of the n-butyl phosphate molecules and of the UO₂(NO₃)₂(TBP)₂ UO₂(NO₃)₂(HDBP)(TBP) and UO₂(NO₃)₂(HDBP)₂ complexes. In this work, we propose to estimate the thermodynamic properties with Quantum Methods (QM). Thus, in the first part of our project, we focused on the mono, di, and tri-butyl complexes. Quantum chemical calculations have been performed to study several reactions leading to the formation of mono-(H₂MBP), di-(HDBP), and TBP in gas and liquid phases. In the gas phase, the optimal structures of all species were optimized using the B3LYP density functional. Triple-ζ def2-TZVP basis sets were used for all atoms. All geometries were optimized in the gas-phase, and the corresponding harmonic frequencies were used without scaling to compute the vibrational partition functions at 298.15 K and 0.1 Mpa. Accurate single point energies were calculated using the efficient localized LCCSD(T) method to the complete basis set limit. Whenever species in the liquid phase are considered, solvent effects are included with the COSMO-RS continuum model. The standard enthalpies of formation of TBP, HDBP, and H2MBP are finally predicted with an uncertainty of about 15 kJ mol⁻¹. In the second part of this project, we have investigated the fundamental properties of three organic species that mostly contribute to the thermal runaway: UO₂(NO₃)₂(TBP)₂, UO₂(NO₃)₂(HDBP)(TBP), and UO₂(NO₃)₂(HDBP)₂ using the same quantum chemical methods that were used for TBP and its derivatives in both the gas and the liquid phase. We will discuss the structures and thermodynamic properties of all these species.

Keywords: PUREX process, red oils, quantum chemical methods, hydrolysis

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35 A Universal Hybrid Adsorbent Based on Chitosan for Water Treatment

Authors: Sandrine Delpeux-Ouldriane, Min Cai, Laurent Duclaux, Laurence Reinert, Fabrice Muller

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A novel hybrid adsorbent, based on chitosan biopolymer, clays and activated carbon was prepared. Hybrid chitosan beads containing dispersed clays and activated carbons were prepared by precipitation in basic medium. Such a composite material is still very porous and presents a wide adsorption spectrum. The obtained composite adsorbent is able to handle all the pollution types including heavy metals, polar and hydrophobic organic molecules and nitrates. It could find a place of choice in tertiary water treatment processes or for an ‘at source’ treatment concerning chemical or pharmaceutical industries.

Keywords: adsorption, chitosan, clay mineral, activated carbon

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34 Mathematical Modeling of Cell Volume Alterations under Different Osmotic Conditions

Authors: Juliana A. Knocikova, Yann Bouret, Médéric Argentina, Laurent Counillon

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Cell volume, together with membrane potential and intracellular hydrogen ion concentration, is an essential biophysical parameter for normal cellular activity. Cell volumes can be altered by osmotically active compounds and extracellular tonicity. In this study, a simple mathematical model of osmotically induced cell swelling and shrinking is presented. Emphasis is given to water diffusion across the membrane. The mathematical description of the cellular behavior consists in a system of coupled ordinary differential equations. We compare experimental data of cell volume alterations driven by differences in osmotic pressure with mathematical simulations under hypotonic and hypertonic conditions. Implications for a future model are also discussed.

Keywords: eukaryotic cell, mathematical modeling, osmosis, volume alterations

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33 Risk, Capital Buffers, and Bank Lending: The Adjustment of Euro Area Banks

Authors: Laurent Maurin, Mervi Toivanen

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This paper estimates euro area banks’ internal target capital ratios and investigates whether banks’ adjustment to the targets have an impact on credit supply and holding of securities during the financial crisis in 2005-2011. Using data on listed banks and country-specific macro-variables a partial adjustment model is estimated in a panel context. The results indicate, firstly, that an increase in the riskiness of banks’ balance sheets influences positively on the target capital ratios. Secondly, the adjustment towards higher equilibrium capital ratios has a significant impact on banks’ assets. The impact is found to be more size-able on security holdings than on loans, thereby suggesting a pecking order.

Keywords: Euro area, capital ratios, credit supply, partial adjustment model

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32 Functional and Efficient Query Interpreters: Principle, Application and Performances’ Comparison

Authors: Laurent Thiry, Michel Hassenforder

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This paper presents a general approach to implement efficient queries’ interpreters in a functional programming language. Indeed, most of the standard tools actually available use an imperative and/or object-oriented language for the implementation (e.g. Java for Jena-Fuseki) but other paradigms are possible with, maybe, better performances. To proceed, the paper first explains how to model data structures and queries in a functional point of view. Then, it proposes a general methodology to get performances (i.e. number of computation steps to answer a query) then it explains how to integrate some optimization techniques (short-cut fusion and, more important, data transformations). It then compares the functional server proposed to a standard tool (Fuseki) demonstrating that the first one can be twice to ten times faster to answer queries.

Keywords: data transformation, functional programming, information server, optimization

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31 Utilization of Treated Spend Pot Lining by Product from the Primary Aluminum Production in Cement and Concrete

Authors: Hang Tran, Victor Brial, Luca Sorelli, Claudiane Ouellet-Plamondon, David Conciatori, Laurent Birry

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Spend pot lining (SPL) is a by-product generated from primary aluminum production. SPL consists of two parts, the first cut is rich in carbonaceous materials, and the second cut is rich in aluminum and silicon oxides. After treating by the hydrometallurgical Low Caustic Leaching and Liming process, the refractory part of SPL becomes an inert material, called LCLL ash in this project. LCLL ash was calcined at different temperatures (800 and 1000°C) and Calcined LCLL ash ground as fines of cement and replacement a part of cement in concrete production. The effect of LCLL ash on the chemical properties, mechanical properties and fresh behavior of concrete was evaluated by isothermal calorimetry, compressive test, and slump test. These results were compared to the reference mixture.

Keywords: spend pot lining, concrete, cement, compressive strength, calorimetry

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30 Development and Analysis of SFR Control Rod Design

Authors: Lenka Dujčíková, Laurent Buiron, Ján Haščík

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The study is dedicated to safety management of SFR CAPRA core with CFV design improvements. In the case of CAPRA core, demands for reactivity control are higher than for reference core. There are two possible ways how to ensure the certain amount of negative reactivity. One option is to boost control rods worth. The Greater part of the study is aimed at the proposal of appropriate control rod design. At first, the European Fast Reactor (EFR) control rod design with high-enriched boron carbide B4C as absorber material was tested. Considering costly and difficult enrichment process, usage of natural boron carbide absorbator is desired. Obviously, the use of natural boron leads to CR worth reduction. In order to increase it to required value, moderator material was inserted inside the control rod. Various materials and geometric configurations were examined to find optimal solution corresponding with EFR based CR worth value.

Keywords: boron carbide, CAPRA core, control rod design, low void effect design, melting temperature, moderator material

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29 The Proposal of Modification of California Pipe Method for Inclined Pipe

Authors: Wojciech Dąbrowski, Joanna Bąk, Laurent Solliec

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Nowadays technical and technological progress and constant development of methods and devices applied to sanitary engineering is indispensable. Issues related to sanitary engineering involve flow measurements for water and wastewater. The precise measurement is very important and pivotal for further actions, like monitoring. There are many methods and techniques of flow measurement in the area of sanitary engineering. Weirs and flumes are well–known methods and common used. But also there are alternative methods. Some of them are very simple methods, others are solutions using high technique. The old–time method combined with new technique could be more useful than earlier. Paper describes substitute method of flow gauging (California pipe method) and proposal of modification of this method used for inclined pipe. Examination of possibility of improving and developing old–time methods is direction of the investigation.

Keywords: California pipe, sewerage, flow rate measurement, water, wastewater, improve, modification, hydraulic monitoring, stream

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28 Genetic Algorithms Based ACPS Safety

Authors: Emine Laarouchi, Daniela Cancila, Laurent Soulier, Hakima Chaouchi

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Cyber-Physical Systems as drones proved their efficiency for supporting emergency applications. For these particular applications, travel time and autonomous navigation algorithms are of paramount importance, especially when missions are performed in urban environments with high obstacle density. In this context, however, safety properties are not properly addressed. Our ambition is to optimize the system safety level under autonomous navigation systems, by preserving performance of the CPS. At this aim, we introduce genetic algorithms in the autonomous navigation process of the drone to better infer its trajectory considering the possible obstacles. We first model the wished safety requirements through a cost function and then seek to optimize it though genetics algorithms (GA). The main advantage in the use of GA is to consider different parameters together, for example, the level of battery for navigation system selection. Our tests show that the GA introduction in the autonomous navigation systems minimize the risk of safety lossless. Finally, although our simulation has been tested for autonomous drones, our approach and results could be extended for other autonomous navigation systems such as autonomous cars, robots, etc.

Keywords: safety, unmanned aerial vehicles , CPS, ACPS, drones, path planning, genetic algorithms

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27 Production of Cement-Free Construction Materials via Fly Ash Carbonation

Authors: Zhenhua Wei, Gabriel Falzone, Bu Wang, Laurent Pilon, Gaurav Sant

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The production of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) is a CO₂ intensive process. Specifically, cement clinkering reactions require not only substantial energy in the form of heat, but also result in the release of CO₂, from limestone decarbonation and the combustion of fuel. To overcome this CO₂ intensive process, clinkering-free cementation is demonstrated by the carbonation of fly ash; i.e., a by-product of coal combustion. It is shown that in moist environments and at sub-boiling temperatures, calcium-rich fly ashes readily react with gas-phase CO₂ to provide cementation. After seven days of CO₂ exposure at 75°C, such formulations achieve a compressive strength on the order of 35 MPa and take-up 9% CO₂ (by mass of the solid). On the other hand, calcium-deficient fly ashes, due to their lack of alkalinity (i.e., abundance of mobile Ca or Mg), show little if any potential for CO₂ uptake and strength gain. The role of the CO₂ concentration and processing temperature are discussed and linked to the progress of reactions, and the development of microstructure. The outcomes demonstrate a means for enabling clinkering-free cementation while enabling beneficial utilization of CO₂ and fly ash; i.e., two abundant but underutilized industrial by-products.

Keywords: fly ash, carbonation, concrete, strength

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26 Understanding the Thermal Resistance of Active Dry Yeast by Differential Scanning Calorimetry Approach

Authors: Pauline Ribert, Gaelle Roudaut, Sebastien Dupont, Laurent Beney

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Yeasts, anhydrobiotic organisms, can survive extreme water disturbances, thanks to the prolonged and reversible suspension of their cellular activity as well as the establishment of a defense arsenal. This property is exploited by many industrialists. One of the protection systems implemented by yeast is the vitrification of its cytoplasm by trehalose. The thermal resistance of dry yeasts is a crucial parameter for their use. However, studies on the thermal resistance of dry yeasts are often based on yeasts produced in laboratory conditions with non-optimal drying processes. We, therefore, propose a study on the thermal resistance of industrial dry yeasts in relation to their thermophysical properties. Heat stress was applied at three temperatures (50, 75, and 100°C) for 10, 30, or 60-minute treatments. The survival of yeasts to these treatments was estimated, and their thermophysical properties were studied by differential scanning calorimetry. The industrial dry yeasts resisted 60 minutes at 50°C and 75°C and 10 minutes at a temperature close to 100°C. At 100°C, yeast was above their glass transition temperature. Industrial dry yeasts are therefore capable of withstanding high thermal stress if maintained in a specific thermophysical state.

Keywords: dry yeast, glass transition, thermal resistance, vitrification

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25 3D Interferometric Imaging Using Compressive Hardware Technique

Authors: Mor Diama L. O., Matthieu Davy, Laurent Ferro-Famil

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In this article, inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) is combined with compressive imaging techniques in order to perform 3D interferometric imaging. Interferometric ISAR (InISAR) imaging relies on a two-dimensional antenna array providing diversities in the elevation and azimuth directions. However, the signals measured over several antennas must be acquired by coherent receivers resulting in costly and complex hardware. This paper proposes to use a chaotic cavity as a compressive device to encode the signals arising from several antennas into a single output port. These signals are then reconstructed by solving an inverse problem. Our approach is demonstrated experimentally with a 3-elements L-shape array connected to a metallic compressive enclosure. The interferometric phases estimated from a unique broadband signal are used to jointly estimate the target’s effective rotation rate and the height of the dominant scattering centers of our target. Our experimental results show that the use of the compressive device does not adversely affect the performance of our imaging process. This study opens new perspectives to reduce the hardware complexity of high-resolution ISAR systems.

Keywords: interferometric imaging, inverse synthetic aperture radar, compressive device, computational imaging

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24 Nonlinear Analysis of Postural Sway in Multiple Sclerosis

Authors: Hua Cao, Laurent Peyrodie, Olivier Agnani, Cecile Donze

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Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease, which affects the central nervous system, and causes balance problem. In clinical, this disorder is usually evaluated using static posturography. Some linear or nonlinear measures, extracted from the posturographic data (i.e. center of pressure, COP) recorded during a balance test, has been used to analyze postural control of MS patients. In this study, the trend (TREND) and the sample entropy (SampEn), two nonlinear parameters were chosen to investigate their relationships with the expanded disability status scale (EDSS) score. Forty volunteers with different EDSS scores participated in our experiments with eyes open (EO) and closed (EC). TREND and two types of SampEn (SampEn1 and SampEn2) were calculated for each combined COP’s position signal. The results have shown that TREND had a weak negative correlation to EDSS while SampEn2 had a strong positive correlation to EDSS. Compared to TREND and SampEn1, SampEn2 showed a better significant correlation to EDSS and an ability to discriminate the MS patients in the EC case. In addition, the outcome of the study suggests that the multi-dimensional nonlinear analysis could provide some information about the impact of disability progression in MS on dynamics of the COP data.

Keywords: balance, multiple sclerosis, nonlinear analysis, postural sway

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23 Evaluation of Deteriorated Fired Clay Bricks Based on Schmidt Hammer Tests

Authors: Laurent Debailleux

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Although past research has focused on parameters influencing the vulnerability of brick and its decay, in practice ancient fired clay bricks are usually replaced without any particular assessment of their characteristics. This paper presents results of non-destructive Schmidt hammer tests performed on ancient fired clay bricks sampled from historic masonry. Samples under study were manufactured between the 18th and 20th century and came from facades and interior walls. Tests were performed on three distinct brick surfaces, depending on their position within the masonry unit. Schmidt hammer tests were carried out in order to measure the mean rebound value (Rn), which refers to the resistance of the surface to successive impacts of the hammer plunger tip. Results indicate that rebound values increased with successive impacts at the same point. Therefore, mean Schmidt hammer rebound values (Rn), limited to the first impact on a surface minimises the estimation of compressive strength. In addition, the results illustrate that this technique is sensitive enough to measure weathering differences, even for different surfaces of a particular sample. Finally, the paper also highlights the relevance of considering the position of the brick within the masonry when conducting particular assessments of the material’s strength.

Keywords: brick, non-destructive tests, rebound number, Schmidt hammer, weathering grade

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22 Proposition of an Intelligent System Based on the Augmented Reality for Warehouse Logistics

Authors: Safa Gharbi, Hayfa Zgaya, Nesrine Zoghlami, Slim Hammadi, Cyril De Barbarin, Laurent Vinatier, Christiane Coupier

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Increasing productivity and quality of service, improving the working comfort and ensuring the efficiency of all processes are important challenges for every warehouse. The order picking is recognized to be the most important and costly activity of all the process in warehouses. This paper presents a new approach using Augmented Reality (AR) in the field of logistics. It aims to create a Head-Up Display (HUD) interface with a Warehouse Management System (WMS), using AR glasses. Integrating AR technology allows the optimization of order picking by reducing time of picking process, increasing the efficiency and delivering quickly. The picker will be able to access immediately to all the information needed for his tasks. All the information is displayed when needed in the field of vision (FOV) of the operator, without any action requested from him. These research works are part of the industrial project RASL (Réalité Augmentée au Service de la Logistique) which gathers two major partners: the LAGIS (Laboratory of Automatics, Computer Engineering and Signal Processing in Lille-France) and Genrix Group, European leader in warehouses logistics, who provided his software for implementation, and his logistics expertise.

Keywords: Augmented Reality (AR), logistics and optimization, Warehouse Management System (WMS), Head-Up Display (HUD)

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21 Evidences for Better Recall with Compatible Items in Episodic Memory

Authors: X. Laurent, M. A. Estevez, P. Mari-Beffa

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A focus of recent research is to understand the role of our own response goals in the selection of information that will be encoded in episodic memory. For example, if we respond to a target in the presence of distractors, an important aspect under study is whether the distractor and the target share a common response (compatible) or not (incompatible). Some studies have found that compatible objects tend to be groups together and stored in episodic memory, whereas others found that targets in the presence of incompatible distractors are remembered better. Our current research seems to support both views. We used a Tulving-based definition of episodic memory to differentiate memory from episodic and non-episodic traces. In this task, participants first had to classify a blue object as human or animal (target) which appeared in the presence of a green one (distractor) that could belong to the same category of the target (compatible), to the opposite (incompatible) or to an irrelevant one (neutral). Later they had to report the identity (What), location (Where) and time (When) of both target objects (which had been previously responded to) and distractors (which had been ignored). Episodic memory was inferred when the three scene properties (identity, location and time) were correct. The measure of non-episodic memory consisted of those trials in which the identity was correctly remembered, but not the location or time. Our results showed that episodic memory for compatible stimuli is significantly superior to incompatible ones. In sharp contrast, non-episodic measures found superior memory for targets in the presence of incompatible distractors. Our results demonstrate that response compatibility affects the encoding of episodic and non-episodic memory traces in different ways.

Keywords: episodic memory, action systems, compatible response, what-where-when task

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20 Production of Nitric Oxide by Thienopyrimidine TP053

Authors: Elena G. Salina, Laurent R. Chiarelli, Maria R. Pasca, Vadim A. Makarov

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Tuberculosis is one of the most challenging threats to human health, confronted by the problem of drug resistance. Evidently, new drugs for tuberculosis are urgently needed. Thienopyrimidine TP053 is one of the most promising new antitubercular prodrugs. Mycothiol-dependent reductase Mrx2, encoded by rv2466c, is known to be a TP053 activator; however, the precise mode of action of this compound remained unclear. Being highly active against both replicating and non-replicating tuberculosis bacilli, TP053 also revealed dose-escalating activity for M. tuberculosis-infected murine macrophages. The chemical structure of TP053 is characterized by the presence of NO₂ group which was suggested to be responsible for the toxic effects of the activated compound. Reduction of a nitroaromatic moiety of TP53 by Mrx2 was hypothesized to result in NO release. Analysis of the products of enzymatic activation of TP053 by Mrx2 by the Greiss reagent clearly demonstrated production of nitric oxide in a time-dependent manner. Mass-spectra of cell lysates of TP-treated M. tuberculosis bacilli demonstrated the transformation of TP053 to its non-active metabolite with Mw=261 that corresponds NO release. The mechanism of NO toxicity for bacteria includes DNA damage and degradation of iron-sulfur centers, especially under oxygen depletion. Thus, TP-053 drug-like scaffold is prospective for further development of novel anti-TB drug. This work was financially supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Grant 17-04-00342).

Keywords: drug discovery, M. tuberculosis, nitric oxide, NO donors

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19 Compact Optical Sensors for Harsh Environments

Authors: Branislav Timotijevic, Yves Petremand, Markus Luetzelschwab, Dara Bayat, Laurent Aebi

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Optical miniaturized sensors with remote readout are required devices for the monitoring in harsh electromagnetic environments. As an example, in turbo and hydro generators, excessively high vibrations of the end-windings can lead to dramatic damages, imposing very high, additional service costs. A significant change of the generator temperature can also be an indicator of the system failure. Continuous monitoring of vibrations, temperature, humidity, and gases is therefore mandatory. The high electromagnetic fields in the generators impose the use of non-conductive devices in order to prevent electromagnetic interferences and to electrically isolate the sensing element to the electronic readout. Metal-free sensors are good candidates for such systems since they are immune to very strong electromagnetic fields and given the fact that they are non-conductive. We have realized miniature optical accelerometer and temperature sensors for a remote sensing of the harsh environments using the common, inexpensive silicon Micro Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) platform. Both devices show highly linear response. The accelerometer has a deviation within 1% from the linear fit when tested in a range 0 – 40 g. The temperature sensor can provide the measurement accuracy better than 1 °C in a range 20 – 150 °C. The design of other type of sensors for the environments with high electromagnetic interferences has also been discussed.

Keywords: optical MEMS, temperature sensor, accelerometer, remote sensing, harsh environment

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18 Determination of Fatigue Limit in Post Impacted Carbon Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Polymer (CFRP) Specimens Using Self Heating Methodology

Authors: Deepika Sudevan, Patrick Rozycki, Laurent Gornet

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This paper presents the experimental identification of the fatigue limit for pristine and impacted Carbon Fiber Reinforced Epoxy polymer (CFRP) woven composites based on the relatively new self-heating methodology for composites. CFRP composites of [0/90]8 and quasi isotropic configurations prepared using hand-layup technique are subjected to low energy impacts (20 J energy) simulating a barely visible impact damage (BVID). Runway debris strike, tool drop or hailstone impact can cause a BVID on an aircraft fuselage made of carbon composites and hence understanding the post-impact fatigue response of CFRP laminates is of immense importance to the aerospace community. The BVID zone on the specimens is characterized using X-ray Tomography technique. Both pristine and impacted specimens are subjected to several blocks of constant amplitude (CA) fatigue loading keeping R-ratio a constant but with increments in the mean loading stress after each block. The number of loading cycles in each block is a subjective parameter and it varies for pristine and impacted CFRP specimens. To monitor the temperature evolution during fatigue loading, thermocouples are pasted on the CFRP specimens at specific locations. The fatigue limit is determined by two strategies, first is by considering the stabilized temperature in every block and second is by considering the change in the temperature slope per block. The results show that both strategies can be adopted to determine the fatigue limit in both pristine and impacted CFRP composites.

Keywords: CFRP, fatigue limit, low energy impact, self-heating, WRM

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17 Obesity, Leptin Levels and Leptin Receptor Gene Polymorphisms in Afro-Caribbean Subjects

Authors: Lydia Foucan, Christine Rambhojan, Rachel Billy, Christophe Armand, Carl-Thony Michel, Jean-Marc Lacorte, Laurent Larifla

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Leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, modulates insulin secretion and action via the leptin receptor (LEPR) that is expressed in pancreatic beta cells, adipose tissue, and muscle. Several polymorphisms have been described in the human LEPR gene including p.K109R (rs1137100), p.Q223R (rs1137101) and p.K656N (rs1805094) polymorphisms. The role of these polymorphisms is not yet studied in Guadeloupian population. Our aim was to explore the association of LEPR polymorphisms (K109R, Q223R and K656N) with leptin levels and obesity in non-diabetic Afro-Caribbean subjects. Genotypic analysis of the three polymorphisms was performed in 425 subjects using TaqMan and KASPar Assays. Serum leptin was measured with ELISA kits Biovendor® (RD191001100). Logistic regressions were used for assessment of statistical associations. Mean age was 47.6 ± 12.7 years. Among the participants, 238 (56 %) were women, 124 (30%) were obese and 155 (36.5%) had abdominal obesity. Carriers of LEPR K656N rs1805094 rare allele had significant higher frequencies of obesity (P = 0.007), abdominal obesity (P = 0.004) and metabolic syndrome (P = 0.021) but mean leptin level was not significantly different between both groups (P = 0.075). Odds ratios, adjusted for age and sex associated with presence of rs1805094 rare allele were 1.8 (1.1-2.9), P = 0.012 for obesity, 2.0 (1.2-3.3), P = 0.008 for abdominal obesity and 1.8 (1.1-3.0), P = 0.031 for MetS. No significant association was found with K109R, Q223R. These findings suggest that the K656N polymorphism (but not the K109R or Q223R polymorphism) of LEPR is associated with obesity, abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome in this Afro-Caribbean non-diabetic population.

Keywords: Afro-Caribbean, leptin levels, leptin receptor gene polymorphisms, obesity

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16 Building a Comprehensive Repository for Montreal Gamelan Archives

Authors: Laurent Bellemare

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After the showcase of traditional Indonesian performing arts at the Vancouver Expo 1986, Canadian universities inherited sets of Indonesian gamelan orchestras and soon began offering courses for music students interested in learning these diverse traditions. Among them, Université de Montréal was offered two sets of Balinese orchestras, a novelty that allowed a community of Montreal gamelan enthusiasts to form and engage with this music. A few generations later, a large body of archives have amassed, framing the history of this niche community’s achievements. This data, scattered in public and private archive collections, comes in various formats: Digital Audio Tape, audio cassettes, Video Home System videotape, digital files, photos, reel-to-reel audiotape, posters, concert programs, letters, TV shows, reports and more. Attempting to study these documents in order to unearth a chronology of gamelan in Montreal has proven to be challenging since no suitable platform for preservation, storage, and research currently exists. These files are, therefore, hard to find due to their decentralized locations. Additionally, most of the documents in older formats have yet to be digitized. In the case of recent digital files, such as pictures or rehearsal recordings, their locations can be even messier and their quantity overwhelming. Aside from the basic issue of choosing a suitable repository platform, questions of legal rights and methodology arise. For posterity, these documents should nonetheless be digitized, organized, and stored in an easily accessible online repository. This paper aims to underline the various challenges encountered in the early stages of such a project as well as to suggest ways of overcoming the obstacles to a thorough archival investigation.

Keywords: archival work, archives, Balinese gamelan, Canada, Gamelan, Indonesia, Javanese gamelan, Montreal

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15 Control Strategy for a Solar Vehicle Race

Authors: Francois Defay, Martim Calao, Jean Francois Dassieu, Laurent Salvetat

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Electrical vehicles are a solution for reducing the pollution using green energy. The shell Eco-Marathon provides rules in order to minimize the battery use for the race. The use of solar panel combined with efficient motor control and race strategy allow driving a 60kg vehicle with one pilot using only the solar energy in the best case. This paper presents a complete modelization of a solar vehicle used for the shell eco-marathon. This project called Helios is cooperation between non-graduated students, academic institutes, and industrials. The prototype is an ultra-energy-efficient vehicle based on one-meter square solar panel and an own-made brushless controller to optimize the electrical part. The vehicle is equipped with sensors and embedded system to provide all the data in real time in order to evaluate the best strategy for the course. A complete modelization with Matlab/Simulink is used to test the optimal strategy to increase the global endurance. Experimental results are presented to validate the different parts of the model: mechanical, aerodynamics, electrical, solar panel. The major finding of this study is to provide solutions to identify the model parameters (Rolling Resistance Coefficient, drag coefficient, motor torque coefficient, etc.) by means of experimental results combined with identification techniques. One time the coefficients are validated, the strategy to optimize the consumption and the average speed can be tested first in simulation before to be implanted for the race. The paper describes all the simulation and experimental parts and provides results in order to optimize the global efficiency of the vehicle. This works have been started four years ago and evolved many students for the experimental and theoretical parts and allow to increase the knowledge on electrical self-efficient vehicle.

Keywords: electrical vehicle, endurance, optimization, shell eco-marathon

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14 High-Frequency Monitoring Results of a Piled Raft Foundation under Wind Loading

Authors: Laurent Pitteloud, Jörg Meier

Abstract:

Piled raft foundations represent an efficient and reliable technique for transferring high vertical and horizontal loads to the subsoil. Piled raft foundations were success­fully implemented for several high-rise buildings world­wide over the last decades. For the structural design of this foundation type the stiffnesses of both the piles and the raft have to be deter­mined for the static (e.g. dead load, live load) and the dynamic load cases (e.g. earthquake). In this context the question often arises, to which proportion wind loads are to be considered as dynamic loads. Usually a piled raft foundation has to be monitored in order to verify the design hypotheses. As an additional benefit, the analysis of this monitoring data may lead to a better under­standing of the behaviour of this foundation type for future projects in similar subsoil conditions. In case the measurement frequency is high enough, one may also draw conclusions on the effect of wind loading on the piled raft foundation. For a 41-storey office building in Basel, Switzerland, the preliminary design showed that a piled raft foundation was the best solution to satisfy both design requirements, as well as economic aspects. A high-frequency monitoring of the foundation including pile loads, vertical stresses under the raft, as well as pore water pressures was performed over 5 years. In windy situations the analysis of the measure­ments shows that the pile load increment due to wind consists of a static and a cyclic load term. As piles and raft react with different stiffnesses under static and dynamic loading, these measure­ments are useful for the correct definition of stiffnesses of future piled raft foundations. This paper outlines the design strategy and the numerical modelling of the aforementioned piled raft foundation. The measurement results are presented and analysed. Based on the findings, comments and conclusions on the definition of pile and raft stiffnesses for vertical and wind loading are proposed.

Keywords: design, dynamic, foundation, monitoring, pile, raft, wind load

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13 Murine Pulmonary Responses after Sub-Chronic Exposure to Environmental Ultrafine Particles

Authors: Yara Saleh, Sebastien Antherieu, Romain Dusautoir, Jules Sotty, Laurent Alleman, Ludivine Canivet, Esperanza Perdrix, Pierre Dubot, Anne Platel, Fabrice Nesslany, Guillaume Garcon, Jean-Marc Lo-Guidice

Abstract:

Air pollution is one of the leading causes of premature death worldwide. Among air pollutants, particulate matter (PM) is a major health risk factor, through the induction of cardiopulmonary diseases and lung cancers. They are composed of coarse, fine and ultrafine particles (PM10, PM2.5, and PM0.1 respectively). Ultrafine particles are emerging unregulated pollutants that might have greater toxicity than larger particles, since they are more abundant and consequently have higher surface area per unit of mass. Our project aims to develop a relevant in vivo model of sub-chronic exposure to atmospheric particles in order to elucidate the specific respiratory impact of ultrafine particles compared to fine particulate matter. Quasi-ultrafine (PM0.18) and fine (PM2.5) particles have been collected in the urban industrial zone of Dunkirk in north France during a 7-month campaign, and submitted to physico-chemical characterization. BALB/c mice were then exposed intranasally to 10µg of PM0.18 or PM2.5 3 times a week. After 1 or 3-month exposure, broncho alveolar lavages (BAL) were performed and lung tissues were harvested for histological and transcriptomic analyses. The physico-chemical study of the collected particles shows that there is no major difference in elemental and surface chemical composition between PM0.18 and PM2.5. Furthermore, the results of the cytological analyses carried out show that both types of particulate fractions can be internalized in lung cells. However, the cell count in BAL and preliminary transcriptomic data suggest that PM0.18 could be more reactive and induce a stronger lung inflammation in exposed mice than PM2.5. Complementary studies are in progress to confirm these first data and to identify the metabolic pathways more specifically associated with the toxicity of ultrafine particles.

Keywords: environmental pollution, lung affect, mice, ultrafine particles

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12 Identification of Rare Mutations in Genes Involved in Monogenic Forms of Obesity and Diabetes in Obese Guadeloupean Children through Next-Generation Sequencing

Authors: Lydia Foucan, Laurent Larifla, Emmanuelle Durand, Christine Rambhojan, Veronique Dhennin, Jean-Marc Lacorte, Philippe Froguel, Amelie Bonnefond

Abstract:

In the population of Guadeloupe Island (472,124 inhabitants and 80% of subjects of African descent), overweight and obesity were estimated at 23% and 9% respectively among children. High prevalence of diabetes has been reported (~10%) in the adult population. Nevertheless, no study has investigated the contribution of gene mutations to childhood obesity in this population. We aimed to investigate rare genetic mutations in genes involved in monogenic obesity or diabetes in obese Afro-Caribbean children from Guadeloupe Island using next-generation sequencing. The present investigation included unrelated obese children, from a previous study on overweight conducted in Guadeloupe Island in 2013. We sequenced coding regions of 59 genes involved in monogenic obesity or diabetes. A total of 25 obese schoolchildren (with Z-score of body mass index [BMI]: 2.0 to 2.8) were screened for rare mutations (non-synonymous, splice-site, or insertion/deletion) in 59 genes. Mean age of the study population was 12.4 ± 1.1 years. Seventeen children (68%) had insulin-resistance (HOMA-IR > 3.16). A family history of obesity (mother or father) was observed in eight children and three of the accompanying parent presented with type 2 diabetes. None of the children had gonadotrophic abnormality or mental retardation. We detected five rare heterozygous mutations, in four genes involved in monogenic obesity, in five different obese children: MC4R p.Ile301Thr and SIM1 p.Val326Thrfs*43 mutations which were pathogenic; SIM1 p.Ser343Pro and SH2B1 p.Pro90His mutations which were likely pathogenic; and NTRK2 p.Leu140Phe that was of uncertain significance. In parallel, we identified seven carriers of mutation in ABCC8 or KCNJ11 (involved in monogenic diabetes), which were of uncertain significance (KCNJ11 p.Val13Met, KCNJ11 p.Val151Met, ABCC8 p.Lys1521Asn and ABCC8 p.Ala625Val). Rare pathogenic or likely pathogenic mutations, linked to severe obesity were detected in more than 15% of this Afro-Caribbean population at high risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes.

Keywords: childhood obesity, MC4R, monogenic obesity, SIM1

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11 Towards Conservation and Recovery of Species at Risk in Ontario: Progress on Recovery Planning and Implementation and an Overview of Key Research Needs

Authors: Rachel deCatanzaro, Madeline Austen, Ken Tuininga, Kathy St. Laurent, Christina Rohe

Abstract:

In Canada, the federal Species at Risk Act (SARA) provides protection for wildlife species at risk and a national legislative framework for the conservation or recovery of species that are listed as endangered, threatened, or special concern under Schedule 1 of SARA. Key aspects of the federal species at risk program include the development of recovery documents (recovery strategies, action plans, and management plans) outlining threats, objectives, and broad strategies or measures for conservation or recovery of the species; the identification and protection of critical habitat for threatened and endangered species; and working with groups and organizations to implement on-the-ground recovery actions. Environment Canada’s progress on the development of recovery documents and on the identification and protection of critical habitat in Ontario will be presented, along with successes and challenges associated with on-the ground implementation of recovery actions. In Ontario, Environment Canada is currently involved in several recovery and monitoring programs for at-risk bird species such as the Loggerhead Shrike, Piping Plover, Golden-winged Warbler and Cerulean Warbler and has provided funding for a wide variety of recovery actions targeting priority species at risk and geographic areas each year through stewardship programs including the Habitat Stewardship Program, Aboriginal Fund for Species at Risk, and the Interdepartmental Recovery Fund. Key research needs relevant to the recovery of species at risk have been identified, and include: surveys and monitoring of population sizes and threats, population viability analyses, and addressing knowledge gaps identified for individual species (e.g., species biology and habitat needs). The engagement of all levels of government, the local and international conservation communities, and the scientific research community plays an important role in the conservation and recovery of species at risk in Ontario– through surveying and monitoring, filling knowledge gaps, conducting public outreach, and restoring, protecting, or managing habitat – and will be critical to the continued success of the federal species at risk program.

Keywords: conservation biology, habitat protection, species at risk, wildlife recovery

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10 Fabric Softener Deposition on Cellulose Nanocrystals and Cotton Fibers

Authors: Evdokia K. Oikonomou, Nikolay Christov, Galder Cristobal, Graziana Messina, Giovani Marletta, Laurent Heux, Jean-Francois Berret

Abstract:

Fabric softeners are aqueous formulations that contain ~10 wt. % double tailed cationic surfactants. Here, a formulation in which 50% surfactant was replaced with low quantities of natural guar polymers was developed. Thanks to the reduced surfactant quantity this product has less environmental impact while the guars presence was found to maintain the product’s performance. The objective of this work is to elucidate the effect of the guar polymers on the softener deposition and the adsorption mechanism on the cotton surface. The surfactants in these formulations are assembled into large distributed (0.1 – 1 µm) vesicles that are stable in the presence of guars and upon dilution. The effect of guars on the vesicles adsorption on cotton was first estimated by using cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) as a stand-in for cotton. The dispersion of CNC in water permits to follow the interaction between the vesicles, guars, and CNC in the bulk. It was found that guars enhance the deposition on CNC and that the vesicles are deposited intactly on the fibers driven by electrostatics. The mechanism of the vesicles/guars adsorption on cellulose fibers was identified by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring. It was found that the guars increase the surfactant deposited quantity, in agreement with the results in the bulk. Also, the structure of the adsorbed surfactant on the fibers' surfaces (vesicle or bilayer) was influenced by the guars presence. Deposition studies on cotton fabrics were also conducted. Attenuated total reflection and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the effect of the polymers on this deposition. Finally, fluorescent microscopy was used to follow the adsorption of surfactant vesicles, labeled with a fluorescent dye, on cotton fabrics in water. It was found that, in the presence or not of polymers, the surfactant vesicles are adsorbed on fiber maintaining their vesicular structure in water (supported vesicular bilayer structure). The guars influence this process. However, upon drying the vesicles are transformed into bilayers and eventually wrap the fibers (supported lipid bilayer structure). This mechanism is proposed for the adsorption of vesicular conditioner on cotton fiber and can be affected by the presence of polymers.

Keywords: cellulose nanocrystals, cotton fibers, fabric softeners, guar polymers, surfactant vesicles

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9 Early Age Behavior of Wind Turbine Gravity Foundations

Authors: Janet Modu, Jean-Francois Georgin, Laurent Briancon, Eric Antoinet

Abstract:

The current practice during the repowering phase of wind turbines is deconstruction of existing foundations and construction of new foundations to accept larger wind loads or once the foundations have reached the end of their service lives. The ongoing research project FUI25 FEDRE (Fondations d’Eoliennes Durables et REpowering) therefore serves to propose scalable wind turbine foundation designs to allow reuse of the existing foundations. To undertake this research, numerical models and laboratory-scale models are currently being utilized and implemented in the GEOMAS laboratory at INSA Lyon following instrumentation of a reference wind turbine situated in the Northern part of France. Sensors placed within both the foundation and the underlying soil monitor the evolution of stresses from the foundation’s early age to stresses during service. The results from the instrumentation form the basis of validation for both the laboratory and numerical works conducted throughout the project duration. The study currently focuses on the effect of coupled mechanisms (Thermal-Hydro-Mechanical-Chemical) that induce stress during the early age of the reinforced concrete foundation, and scale factor considerations in the replication of the reference wind turbine foundation at laboratory-scale. Using THMC 3D models on COMSOL Multi-physics software, the numerical analysis performed on both the laboratory-scale and the full-scale foundations simulate the thermal deformation, hydration, shrinkage (desiccation and autogenous) and creep so as to predict the initial damage caused by internal processes during concrete setting and hardening. Results show a prominent effect of early age properties on the damage potential in full-scale wind turbine foundations. However, a prediction of the damage potential at laboratory scale shows significant differences in early age stresses in comparison to the full-scale model depending on the spatial position in the foundation. In addition to the well-known size effect phenomenon, these differences may contribute to inaccuracies encountered when predicting ultimate deformations of the on-site foundation using laboratory scale models.

Keywords: cement hydration, early age behavior, reinforced concrete, shrinkage, THMC 3D models, wind turbines

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