Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1241

Search results for: nuclear facility

1241 Analysis of Possible Causes of Fukushima Disaster

Authors: Abid Hossain Khan, Syam Hasan, M. A. R. Sarkar


Fukushima disaster is one of the most publicly exposed accidents in a nuclear facility which has changed the outlook of people towards nuclear power. Some have used it as an example to establish nuclear energy as an unsafe source, while others have tried to find the real reasons behind this accident. Many papers have tried to shed light on the possible causes, some of which are purely based on assumptions while others rely on rigorous data analysis. To our best knowledge, none of the works can say with absolute certainty that there is a single prominent reason that has paved the way to this unexpected incident. This paper attempts to compile all the apparent reasons behind Fukushima disaster and tries to analyze and identify the most likely one.

Keywords: fuel meltdown, Fukushima disaster, Manmade calamity, nuclear facility, tsunami

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1240 Investigation into Micro-Grids with Renewable Energy Sources for Use as High Reliability Electrical Power Supply in a Nuclear Facility

Authors: Gerard R. Lekhema, Willie A Cronje, Ian Korir


The objective of this research work is to investigate the use of a micro-grid system to improve the reliability and availability of emergency electrical power in a nuclear facility. The nuclear facility is a safety-critical application that requires reliable electrical power for safe startup, operation and normal or emergency shutdown conditions. The majority of the nuclear facilities around the world utilize diesel generators as emergency power supply during loss of offsite power events. This study proposes the micro-grid system with distributed energy sources and energy storage systems for use as emergency power supply. The systems analyzed include renewable energy sources, decay heat recovery system and large scale energy storage system. The configuration of the micro-grid system is realized with guidelines of nuclear safety standards and requirements. The investigation results presented include performance analysis of the micro-grid system in terms of reliability and availability.

Keywords: emergency power supply, micro-grid, nuclear facility, renewable energy sources

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
1239 Facility Data Model as Integration and Interoperability Platform

Authors: Nikola Tomasevic, Marko Batic, Sanja Vranes


Emerging Semantic Web technologies can be seen as the next step in evolution of the intelligent facility management systems. Particularly, this considers increased usage of open source and/or standardized concepts for data classification and semantic interpretation. To deliver such facility management systems, providing the comprehensive integration and interoperability platform in from of the facility data model is a prerequisite. In this paper, one of the possible modelling approaches to provide such integrative facility data model which was based on the ontology modelling concept was presented. Complete ontology development process, starting from the input data acquisition, ontology concepts definition and finally ontology concepts population, was described. At the beginning, the core facility ontology was developed representing the generic facility infrastructure comprised of the common facility concepts relevant from the facility management perspective. To develop the data model of a specific facility infrastructure, first extension and then population of the core facility ontology was performed. For the development of the full-blown facility data models, Malpensa and Fiumicino airports in Italy, two major European air-traffic hubs, were chosen as a test-bed platform. Furthermore, the way how these ontology models supported the integration and interoperability of the overall airport energy management system was analyzed as well.

Keywords: airport ontology, energy management, facility data model, ontology modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
1238 Robotic Solution for Nuclear Facility Safety and Monitoring System

Authors: Altab Hossain, Shakerul Islam, Golamur R. Khan, Abu Zafar M. Salahuddin


An effective identification of breakdowns is of premier importance for the safe and reliable operation of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) and its associated facilities. A great number of monitoring and diagnosis methodologies are applied and used worldwide in areas such as industry, automobiles, hospitals, and power plant to detect and reduce human disasters. The potential consequences of several hazardous activities may harm the society using nuclear and its associated facilities. Hence, one of the most popular and effective methods to ensure safety and monitor the entire nuclear facility and imply risk-free operation without human interference during the hazardous situation is using a robot. Therefore, in this study, an advanced autonomous robot has been designed and developed that can monitor several parameters in the NPP to ensure the safety and do some risky job in case of nuclear disaster. The robot consisted of autonomous track following unit, data processing and transmitting unit can follow a straight line and take turn as the bank greater than 90 degrees. The developed robot can analyze various parameters such as temperature, altitude, radiation, obstacle, humidity, detecting fire, measuring distance, ultrasonic scan and taking the heat of any particular object. It has an ability to broadcast live stream and can record the document to its own server memory. There is a separate control unit constructed with a baseboard which processes the recorded data and a transmitter which transmits the processed data. To make the robot user-friendly, the code is developed such a way that a user can control any of robotic arm as per types of work. To control at any place and without the track, there is an advanced code has been developed to take manual overwrite. Through this process, administrator who has logged in permission to Dynamic Host Client Protocol (DHCP) can make the handover of the control of the robot. In this process, this robot is provided maximum nuclear security from being hacked. Not only NPP, this robot can be used to maximize the real-time monitoring system of any nuclear facility as well as nuclear material transportation and decomposition system.

Keywords: nuclear power plant, radiation, dynamic host client protocol, nuclear security

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1237 Energy Consumption Forecast Procedure for an Industrial Facility

Authors: Tatyana Aleksandrovna Barbasova, Lev Sergeevich Kazarinov, Olga Valerevna Kolesnikova, Aleksandra Aleksandrovna Filimonova


We regard forecasting of energy consumption by private production areas of a large industrial facility as well as by the facility itself. As for production areas the forecast is made based on empirical dependencies of the specific energy consumption and the production output. As for the facility itself implementation of the task to minimize the energy consumption forecasting error is based on adjustment of the facility’s actual energy consumption values evaluated with the metering device and the total design energy consumption of separate production areas of the facility. The suggested procedure of optimal energy consumption was tested based on the actual data of core product output and energy consumption by a group of workshops and power plants of the large iron and steel facility. Test results show that implementation of this procedure gives the mean accuracy of energy consumption forecasting for winter 2014 of 0.11% for the group of workshops and 0.137% for the power plants.

Keywords: energy consumption, energy consumption forecasting error, energy efficiency, forecasting accuracy, forecasting

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1236 Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Plants: The Current Position and Requirements

Authors: A. Stifi, S. Gentes


Undoubtedly from construction's perspective, the use of explosives will remove a large facility such as a 40-storey building , that took almost 3 to 4 years for construction, in few minutes. Usually, the reconstruction or decommissioning, the last phase of life cycle of any facility, is considered to be the shortest. However, this is proved to be wrong in the case of nuclear power plant. Statistics says that in the last 30 years, the construction of a nuclear power plant took an average time of 6 years whereas it is estimated that decommissioning of such plants may take even a decade or more. This paper is all about the decommissioning phase of a nuclear power plant which needs to be given more attention and encouragement from the research institutes as well as the nuclear industry. Currently, there are 437 nuclear power reactors in operation and 70 reactors in construction. With around 139 nuclear facilities already been shut down and are in different decommissioning stages and approximately 347 nuclear reactors will be in decommissioning phase in the next 20 years (assuming the operation time of a reactor as 40 years), This fact raises the following two questions (1) How far is the nuclear and construction Industry ready to face the challenges of decommissioning project? (2) What is required for a safety and reliable decommissioning project delivery? The decommissioning of nuclear facilities across the global have severe time and budget overruns. Largely the decommissioning processes are being executed by the force of manual labour where the change in regulations is respectively observed. In term of research and development, some research projects and activities are being carried out in this area, but the requirement seems to be much more. The near future of decommissioning shall be better through a sustainable development strategy where all stakeholders agree to implement innovative technologies especially for dismantling and decontamination processes and to deliever a reliable and safety decommissioning. The scope of technology transfer from other industries shall be explored. For example, remotery operated robotic technologies used in automobile and production industry to reduce time and improve effecincy and saftey shall be tried here. However, the innovative technologies are highly requested but they are alone not enough, the implementation of creative and innovative management methodologies should be also investigated and applied. Lean Management with it main concept "elimination of waste within process", is a suitable example here. Thus, the cooperation between international organisations and related industries and the knowledge-sharing may serve as a key factor for the successful decommissioning projects.

Keywords: decommissioning of nuclear facilities, innovative technology, innovative management, sustainable development

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1235 User Satisfaction Survey Based Facility Performance Evaluation

Authors: Gopikrishnan Seshadhri, V. M. Topkar


Facility management post occupation is a facet that has gained tremendous ground in the recent times. While the efficiency of expenditure and utilization of all types of resources are monitored to ensure timely completion with minimum cost and acceptable quality during construction phase, value for money comes out only when the facility performs satisfactorily post occupation, meeting aspirations and expectations of users of the facility. It is more so for the public facilities. Due to the paradigm shift in focus to outcome based performance evaluation, user satisfaction obtained mainly through questionnaires has become the single important criterion in performance evaluation. Questionnaires presently being used to gauge user satisfaction being subjective, the feedback obtained do not necessarily reflect actual performance. Hence, there is a requirement of developing a survey instrument that can gauge user satisfaction as objectively as possible and truly reflects the ground reality. A near correct picture of actual performance of the built facility from the user point of view will enable facility managers to address pertinent issues. This paper brings out the need for an effective survey instrument that will elicit more objective user response. It also lists steps involved in formulation of such an instrument.

Keywords: facility performance evaluation, attributes, attribute descriptors, user satisfaction surveys, statistical methods, performance indicators

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1234 An Operators’ Real-sense-based Fire Simulation for Human Factors Validation in Nuclear Power Plants

Authors: Sa-Kil Kim, Jang-Soo Lee


On March 31, 1993, a severe fire accident took place in a nuclear power plant located in Narora in North India. The event involved a major fire in the turbine building of NAPS unit-1 and resulted in a total loss of power to the unit for 17 hours. In addition, there was a heavy ingress of smoke in the control room, mainly through the intake of the ventilation system, forcing the operators to vacate the control room. The Narora fire accident provides us lessons indicating that operators could lose their mind and predictable behaviors during a fire. After the Fukushima accident, which resulted from a natural disaster, unanticipated external events are also required to be prepared and controlled for the ultimate safety of nuclear power plants. From last year, our research team has developed a test and evaluation facility that can simulate external events such as an earthquake and fire based on the operators’ real-sense. As one of the results of the project, we proposed a unit real-sense-based facility that can simulate fire events in a control room for utilizing a test-bed of human factor validation. The test-bed has the operator’s workstation shape and functions to simulate fire conditions such as smoke, heat, and auditory alarms in accordance with the prepared fire scenarios. Furthermore, the test-bed can be used for the operators’ training and experience.

Keywords: human behavior in fire, human factors validation, nuclear power plants, real-sense-based fire simulation

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1233 Manufacturing Facility Location Selection: A Numercal Taxonomy Approach

Authors: Seifoddini Hamid, Mardikoraeem Mahsa, Ghorayshi Roya


Manufacturing facility location selection is an important strategic decision for many industrial corporations. In this paper, a new approach to the manufacturing location selection problem is proposed. In this approach, cluster analysis is employed to identify suitable manufacturing locations based on economic, social, environmental, and political factors. These factors are quantified using the existing real world data.

Keywords: manufacturing facility, manufacturing sites, real world data

Procedia PDF Downloads 429
1232 Waste Management in a Hot Laboratory of Japan Atomic Energy Agency – 1: Overview and Activities in Chemical Processing Facility

Authors: Kazunori Nomura, Hiromichi Ogi, Masaumi Nakahara, Sou Watanabe, Atsuhiro Shibata


Chemical Processing Facility of Japan Atomic Energy Agency is a basic research field for advanced back-end technology developments with using actual high-level radioactive materials such as irradiated fuels from the fast reactor, high-level liquid waste from reprocessing plant. In the nature of a research facility, various kinds of chemical reagents have been offered for fundamental tests. Most of them were treated properly and stored in the liquid waste vessel equipped in the facility, but some were not treated and remained at the experimental space as a kind of legacy waste. It is required to treat the waste in safety. On the other hand, we formulated the Medium- and Long-Term Management Plan of Japan Atomic Energy Agency Facilities. This comprehensive plan considers Chemical Processing Facility as one of the facilities to be decommissioned. Even if the plan is executed, treatment of the “legacy” waste beforehand must be a necessary step for decommissioning operation. Under this circumstance, we launched a collaborative research project called the STRAD project, which stands for Systematic Treatment of Radioactive liquid waste for Decommissioning, in order to develop the treatment processes for wastes of the nuclear research facility. In this project, decomposition methods of chemicals causing a troublesome phenomenon such as corrosion and explosion have been developed and there is a prospect of their decomposition in the facility by simple method. And solidification of aqueous or organic liquid wastes after the decomposition has been studied by adding cement or coagulants. Furthermore, we treated experimental tools of various materials with making an effort to stabilize and to compact them before the package into the waste container. It is expected to decrease the number of transportation of the solid waste and widen the operation space. Some achievements of these studies will be shown in this paper. The project is expected to contribute beneficial waste management outcome that can be shared world widely.

Keywords: chemical processing facility, medium- and long-term management plan of JAEA facilities, STRAD project, treatment of radioactive waste

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1231 A Survey of Discrete Facility Location Problems

Authors: Z. Ulukan, E. Demircioğlu,


Facility location is a complex real-world problem which needs a strategic management decision. This paper provides a general review on studies, efforts and developments in Facility Location Problems which are classical optimization problems having a wide-spread applications in various areas such as transportation, distribution, production, supply chain decisions and telecommunication. Our goal is not to review all variants of different studies in FLPs or to describe very detailed computational techniques and solution approaches, but rather to provide a broad overview of major location problems that have been studied, indicating how they are formulated and what are proposed by researchers to tackle the problem. A brief, elucidative table based on a grouping according to “General Problem Type” and “Methods Proposed” used in the studies is also presented at the end of the work.

Keywords: discrete location problems, exact methods, heuristic algorithms, single source capacitated facility location problems

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1230 Multi-Criteria Decision Making Approaches for Facility Planning Problem Evaluation: A Survey

Authors: Ahmed M. El-Araby, Ibrahim Sabry, Ahmed El-Assal


The relationships between the industrial facilities, the capacity available for these facilities, and the costs involved are the main factors in deciding the correct selection of a facility layout. In general, an issue of facility layout is considered to be an unstructured problem of decision-making. The objective of this work is to provide a survey that describes the techniques by which a facility planning problem can be solved and also the effect of these techniques on the efficiency of the layout. The multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) techniques can be classified according to the previous researches into three categories which are the use of single MCDM, combining two or more MCDM, and the integration of MCDM with another technique such as genetic algorithms (GA). This paper presents a review of different multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) techniques that have been proposed in the literature to pick the most suitable layout design. These methods are particularly suitable to deal with complex situations, including various criteria and conflicting goals which need to be optimized simultaneously.

Keywords: facility layout, MCDM, GA, literature review

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1229 Thermodynamic Evaluation of Coupling APR-1400 with a Thermal Desalination Plant

Authors: M. Gomaa Abdoelatef, Robert M. Field, Lee, Yong-Kwan


Growing human populations have placed increased demands on water supplies and a heightened interest in desalination infrastructure. Key elements of the economics of desalination projects are thermal and electrical inputs. With growing concerns over the use of fossil fuels to (indirectly) supply these inputs, coupling of desalination with nuclear power production represents a significant opportunity. Individually, nuclear and desalination technologies have a long history and are relatively mature. For desalination, Reverse Osmosis (RO) has the lowest energy inputs. However, the economically driven output quality of the water produced using RO, which uses only electrical inputs, is lower than the output water quality from thermal desalination plants. Therefore, modern desalination projects consider that RO should be coupled with thermal desalination technologies (MSF, MED, or MED-TVC) with attendant steam inputs to permit blending to produce various qualities of water. A large nuclear facility is well positioned to dispatch large quantities of both electrical and thermal power. This paper considers the supply of thermal energy to a large desalination facility to examine heat balance impact on the nuclear steam cycle. The APR1400 nuclear plant is selected as prototypical from both a capacity and turbine cycle heat balance perspective to examine steam supply and the impact on electrical output. Extraction points and quantities of steam are considered parametrically along with various types of thermal desalination technologies to form the basis for further evaluations of economically optimal approaches to the interface of nuclear power production with desalination projects. In our study, the thermodynamic evaluation will be executed by DE-TOP which is the IAEA desalination program, it is approved to be capable of analyzing power generation systems coupled to desalination systems through various steam extraction positions, taking into consideration the isolation loop between the APR-1400 and the thermal desalination plant for safety concern.

Keywords: APR-1400, desalination, DE-TOP, IAEA, MSF, MED, MED-TVC, RO

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1228 Comparative Analysis of Local Acceptance of Renewable Energy Facilities and Spent Nuclear Fuel Repositories

Authors: Taehyun Kim, Hyunjoo Park, Taehyun Kim


Public deliberation committee on Shin-Gori Nuclear Reactors No. 5 & 6 in South Korea recently suggested policy recommendation in July 2017 including complementary measures for resumption of construction: 1) nuclear power generation reduction, 2) expansion of investment to increase proportion of renewable energy, 3) repositories of spent nuclear fuel. Even when constructing eco-friendly renewable energy facilities such as solar and wind power plants, local residents are opposed to construction of these facilities due to environmental pollution and health impacts. In order to transform eco-friendly energy, it is necessary to convert nuclear energy into renewable energy and to take measures to increase the acceptance of residents through the participation of citizens. Therefore, this study aims to compare the factors of local acceptance of renewable energy facilities and spent nuclear fuel repositories through literature review and in-depth interview. The results show that environmental and economic concerns, risk perceptions, sociality, demographic characteristics and subjective recognition types affect the local acceptance for spent nuclear fuel repository. The factors of local acceptance for renewable energy facilities are partially coincide with those for spent nuclear fuel repository. The results of this study will contribute to improving residents' acceptance and reducing conflicts when determining the location of facilities in the future.

Keywords: local acceptance, renewable energy facility, spent nuclear fuel repository, interview

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1227 Designing the First Oil Tanker Shipyard Facility in Kuwait

Authors: Fatma Al Abdullah, Shahad Al Ameer, Ritaj Jaragh, Fatimah Khajah, Rawan Qambar, Amr Nounou


Kuwait currently manufactures its tankers in foreign countries. Oil tankers play a role in the supply chain of the oil industry. Therefore, with Kuwait’s sufficient financial resources, the country should secure itself strategically in order to protect its oil industry to sustain economic development. The purpose of this report is designing an oil tankers’ shipyard facility. Basing the shipyard facility in Kuwait will have great economic rewards. The shipbuilding industry directly enhances the industrial chain in terms of new job and business opportunities as well as educational fields. Heavy Engineering Industries & Shipbuilding Co. K.S.C. (HEISCO) was chosen as a host due to benefits that will result from HEISCO’s existing infrastructure and expertise to reduce cost. The Facility Design methodology chosen has been used because it covers all aspects needed for the report. The oil tanker market is witnessing a shift from crude tankers to product tankers. Therefore the Panamax tanker (product tanker) was selected to be manufactured in the facility. The different departments needed in shipyards were identified based on studying different global shipyards. Technologies needed to build ships helped in the process design. It was noticed that ships are engineer to order. The new layout development of the proposed shipyard is currently in progress. A feasibility study will be conducted to ensure the success of the facility after developing the shipyard’s layout.

Keywords: oil tankers, shipbuilding, shipyard, facility design, Kuwait

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1226 Waste Management in a Hot Laboratory of Japan Atomic Energy Agency – 3: Volume Reduction and Stabilization of Solid Waste

Authors: Masaumi Nakahara, Sou Watanabe, Hiromichi Ogi, Atsuhiro Shibata, Kazunori Nomura


In the Japan Atomic Energy Agency, three types of experimental research, advanced reactor fuel reprocessing, radioactive waste disposal, and nuclear fuel cycle technology, have been carried out at the Chemical Processing Facility. The facility has generated high level radioactive liquid and solid wastes in hot cells. The high level radioactive solid waste is divided into three main categories, a flammable waste, a non-flammable waste, and a solid reagent waste. A plastic product is categorized into the flammable waste and molten with a heating mantle. The non-flammable waste is cut with a band saw machine for reducing the volume. Among the solid reagent waste, a used adsorbent after the experiments is heated, and an extractant is decomposed for its stabilization. All high level radioactive solid wastes in the hot cells are packed in a high level radioactive solid waste can. The high level radioactive solid waste can is transported to the 2nd High Active Solid Waste Storage in the Tokai Reprocessing Plant in the Japan Atomic Energy Agency.

Keywords: high level radioactive solid waste, advanced reactor fuel reprocessing, radioactive waste disposal, nuclear fuel cycle technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
1225 A Feasibility Study of Crowdsourcing Data Collection for Facility Maintenance Management

Authors: Mohamed Bin Alhaj, Hexu Liu, Mohammed Sulaiman, Osama Abudayyeh


An effective facility maintenance management (FMM) system plays a crucial role in improving the quality of services and maintaining the facility in good condition. Current FMM heavily relies on the quality of the data collection function of the FMM systems, at times resulting in inefficient FMM decision-making. The new technology-based crowdsourcing provides great potential to improve the current FMM practices, especially in terms of timeliness and quality of data. This research aims to investigate the feasibility of using new technology-driven crowdsourcing for FMM and highlight its opportunities and challenges. A survey was carried out to understand the human, data, system, geospatial, and automation characteristics of crowdsourcing for an educational campus FMM via social networks. The survey results were analyzed to reveal the challenges and recommendations for the implementation of crowdsourcing for FMM. This research contributes to the body of knowledge by synthesizing the challenges and opportunities of using crowdsourcing for facility maintenance and providing a road map for applying crowdsourcing technology in FMM. In future work, a conceptual framework will be proposed to support data-driven FMM using social networks.

Keywords: crowdsourcing, facility maintenance management, social networks

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1224 A Clustering-Sequencing Approach to the Facility Layout Problem

Authors: Saeideh Salimpour, Sophie-Charlotte Viaux, Ahmed Azab, Mohammed Fazle Baki


The Facility Layout Problem (FLP) is key to the efficient and cost-effective operation of a system. This paper presents a hybrid heuristic- and mathematical-programming-based approach that divides the problem conceptually into those of clustering and sequencing. First, clusters of vertically aligned facilities are formed, which are later on sequenced horizontally. The developed methodology provides promising results in comparison to its counterparts in the literature by minimizing the inter-distances for facilities which have more interactions amongst each other and aims at placing the facilities with more interactions at the centroid of the shop.

Keywords: clustering-sequencing approach, mathematical modeling, optimization, unequal facility layout problem

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1223 A Bi-Objective Model to Optimize the Total Time and Idle Probability for Facility Location Problem Behaving as M/M/1/K Queues

Authors: Amirhossein Chambari


This article proposes a bi-objective model for the facility location problem subject to congestion (overcrowding). Motivated by implementations to locate servers in internet mirror sites, communication networks, one-server-systems, so on. This model consider for situations in which immobile (or fixed) service facilities are congested (or queued) by stochastic demand to behave as M/M/1/K queues. We consider for this problem two simultaneous perspectives; (1) Customers (desire to limit times of accessing and waiting for service) and (2) Service provider (desire to limit average facility idle-time). A bi-objective model is setup for facility location problem with two objective functions; (1) Minimizing sum of expected total traveling and waiting time (customers) and (2) Minimizing the average facility idle-time percentage (service provider). The proposed model belongs to the class of mixed-integer nonlinear programming models and the class of NP-hard problems. In addition, to solve the model, controlled elitist non-dominated sorting genetic algorithms (Controlled NSGA-II) and controlled elitist non-dominated ranking genetic algorithms (NRGA-I) are proposed. Furthermore, the two proposed metaheuristics algorithms are evaluated by establishing standard multiobjective metrics. Finally, the results are analyzed and some conclusions are given.

Keywords: bi-objective, facility location, queueing, controlled NSGA-II, NRGA-I

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1222 Altasreef: Automated System of Quran Verbs for Urdu Language

Authors: Haq Nawaz, Muhammad Amjad Iqbal, Kamran Malik


"Altasreef" is an automated system available for Web and Android users which provide facility to the users to learn the Quran verbs. It provides the facility to the users to practice the learned material and also provide facility of exams of Arabic verbs variation focusing on Quran text. Arabic is a highly inflectional language. Almost all of its words connect to roots of three, four or five letters which approach the meaning of all their inflectional forms. In Arabic, a verb is formed by inserting the consonants into one of a set of verb patterns. Suffixes and prefixes are then added to generate the meaning of number, person, and gender. The active/passive voice and perfective aspect and other patterns are than generated. This application is designed for learners of Quranic Arabic who already have learn basics of Arabic conjugation. Application also provides the facility of translation of generated patterns. These translations are generated with the help of rule-based approach to give 100% results to the learners.

Keywords: NLP, Quran, Computational Linguistics, E Learning

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1221 Analysis of Operation System Reorganization for Load Balancing of Parcel Sorting

Authors: J. H. Lee


As the internet and smartphone use increases, the E-Commerce is constantly growing. Therefore, the parcel is increasing continuously every year. If the larger amount than the processing capacity of the current facilities is received, they do not process, and the delivery quality becomes low. In this paper, therefore, we analyze comparatively at the cost perspective between the case of building a new facility for the increasing parcel volumes and the case of reorganizing the current operating system. We propose the optimal discount policy per parcel by calculating the construction cost of new automated facility and manual facilities until the construction of the new automated facility, and discount price.

Keywords: system reorganization, load balancing, parcel sorting, discount policy

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1220 Resolving Increased Water-Cut in South and East Kuwait Areas through Water Knock-Out Facility Project

Authors: Sunaitan Al Mutairi, Kumar Vallatharasu, Batool Ismaeel


The Water Knock-Out (WKO) facility project is to handle the undesirable impact of the increasing water production rate in South and East Kuwait (S&EK) areas and break the emulsions and ensure sufficient separation of water at the new upstream facility, to reduce the load on the existing separation equipment in the Gathering Centers (GC). As the existing separation equipment in the Gathering Centers are not efficient to separate the emulsions, the Compact Electrostatic Coalescer (CEC) and Vessel Internal Electrostatic Coalescer (VIEC) technologies have been selected for enhancing the liquid-liquid separation by using the alternating voltage/frequency on electrical fields, to handle the increasing water-cut in S&EK. In the Compact Electrostatic Coalescer (CEC) technology method, the CEC equipment is installed downstream of the inlet separator externally, whereas in the Vessel Internal Electrostatic Coalescer (VIEC) technology method, the VIEC is built inside the treater vessel, downstream of the inlet separator with advanced internals for implementing electrocoalescence of water particles and hence enhancing liquids separation. The CEC and VIEC technologies used in the Water Knockout Facility project has the ability to resolve the increasing water cut in the S&EK area and able to enhance the liquid-liquid separation in the WKO facility separation equipment. In addition, the WKO facility is minimizing the load on the existing Gathering Center’s separation equipment, by tackling the high water-cut wells, upstream of each GC. The required performances at the outlet of the WKO facility are Oil in Water 100ppmv, Water in Oil 15% volume, liquid carryover in gas 0.1 US gal/MMSCFD, for the water cut ranging from 37.5 to 75% volume. The WKO facility project is used to sustain, support and maintain Greater Burgan production at 1.7 Million Barrels of Oil Per Day (MMBOPD), by handling the increasing water production rate.

Keywords: emulsion, increasing water-cut, production, separation equipment

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1219 Framing Opposition to Nuclear Power: Case of Akkuyu Nuclear Power

Authors: Pinar Temocin


Although the Akkuyu nuclear power project has been in the planning the Akkuyu nuclear power plant in the Mersin Province of Southern Turkey, recent events have increased its visibility in the Turkish debate. The Fukushima accident, the 2010 nuclear deal with Russia followed by several consequent nuclear revelations of administrative deficiencies, and waste issues all spurted widespread protests across Turkey and have polarized the nation into two camps; supporters and detractors. Those who support a nuclear Turkey include energy entrepreneurs, local investors, and technical experts who are heavily involved in paving the way for the realization of a nuclear project. Civil society activists and environmentalists overwhelmingly oppose the nuclear program. This study focuses on the latter, analyzing how groups opposing nuclear power plants (NPPs) have framed the Akkuyu nuclear project as a dangerous, risky, disadvantageous, and irrational policy choice.

Keywords: nuclear energy, anti-nuclear movements, environmentalists, civil society, Turkey

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1218 Implementing Internet of Things through Building Information Modelling in Order to Assist with the Maintenance Stage of Commercial Buildings

Authors: Ushir Daya, Zenadene Lazarus, Dimelle Moodley, Ehsan Saghatforoush


It was found through literature that there is a lack of implementation of the Internet of Things (IoT) incorporated into Building Information Modelling (BIM) in South Africa. The research aims to find if the implementation of IoT into BIM will make BIM more useful during the maintenance stage of buildings and assist facility managers when doing their job. The research will look at the existing problematic areas with building information modelling, specifically BIM 7D. This paper will look at the capabilities of IoT and what issues IoT will be able to resolve in BIM software, as well as how IoT into BIM will assist facility managers and if such an implementation will make a facility manager's job more efficient.

Keywords: internet of things, building information modeling, facilities management, structural health monitoring

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1217 Development of DEMO-FNS Hybrid Facility and Its Integration in Russian Nuclear Fuel Cycle

Authors: Yury S. Shpanskiy, Boris V. Kuteev


Development of a fusion-fission hybrid facility based on superconducting conventional tokamak DEMO-FNS runs in Russia since 2013. The main design goal is to reach the technical feasibility and outline prospects of industrial hybrid technologies providing the production of neutrons, fuel nuclides, tritium, high-temperature heat, electricity and subcritical transmutation in Fusion-Fission Hybrid Systems. The facility should operate in a steady-state mode at the fusion power of 40 MW and fission reactions of 400 MW. Major tokamak parameters are the following: major radius R=3.2 m, minor radius a=1.0 m, elongation 2.1, triangularity 0.5. The design provides the neutron wall loading of ~0.2 MW/m², the lifetime neutron fluence of ~2 MWa/m², with the surface area of the active cores and tritium breeding blanket ~100 m². Core plasma modelling showed that the neutron yield ~10¹⁹ n/s is maximal if the tritium/deuterium density ratio is 1.5-2.3. The design of the electromagnetic system (EMS) defined its basic parameters, accounting for the coils strength and stability, and identified the most problematic nodes in the toroidal field coils and the central solenoid. The EMS generates toroidal, poloidal and correcting magnetic fields necessary for the plasma shaping and confinement inside the vacuum vessel. EMC consists of eighteen superconducting toroidal field coils, eight poloidal field coils, five sections of a central solenoid, correction coils, in-vessel coils for vertical plasma control. Supporting structures, the thermal shield, and the cryostat maintain its operation. EMS operates with the pulse duration of up to 5000 hours at the plasma current up to 5 MA. The vacuum vessel (VV) is an all-welded two-layer toroidal shell placed inside the EMS. The free space between the vessel shells is filled with water and boron steel plates, which form the neutron protection of the EMS. The VV-volume is 265 m³, its mass with manifolds is 1800 tons. The nuclear blanket of DEMO-FNS facility was designed to provide functions of minor actinides transmutation, tritium production and enrichment of spent nuclear fuel. The vertical overloading of the subcritical active cores with MA was chosen as prospective. Analysis of the device neutronics and the hybrid blanket thermal-hydraulic characteristics has been performed for the system with functions covering transmutation of minor actinides, production of tritium and enrichment of spent nuclear fuel. A study of FNS facilities role in the Russian closed nuclear fuel cycle was performed. It showed that during ~100 years of operation three FNS facilities with fission power of 3 GW controlled by fusion neutron source with power of 40 MW can burn 98 tons of minor actinides and 198 tons of Pu-239 can be produced for startup loading of 20 fast reactors. Instead of Pu-239, up to 25 kg of tritium per year may be produced for startup of fusion reactors using blocks with lithium orthosilicate instead of fissile breeder blankets.

Keywords: fusion-fission hybrid system, conventional tokamak, superconducting electromagnetic system, two-layer vacuum vessel, subcritical active cores, nuclear fuel cycle

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1216 Analysis of Spatial Disparities of Population for Delicate Configuration of Public Service Facilities:Case of Gongshu District, Hangzhou, China

Authors: Ruan Yi-Chen, Li Wang-Ming, Fang Yuan


With the rapid growth of urbanization in China in recent years, public services are in short supply because of expanding population and limitation of financial support, which makes delicate configuration of public service facilities to become a trend in urban planning. Besides, the facility configuration standard implemented in China is equal to the whole the urban area without considering internal differences in it. Therefore, this article focuses on population Spatial disparities analysis in order to optimize facility configuration in communities of main city district. The used data, including population of 93 communities during 2010 to 2015, comes from GongShu district, Hangzhou city, PRC. Through the analysis of population data, especially the age structure of those communities, the communities finally divided into 3 types. Obviously, urban public service facilities allocation situation directly affect the quality of residents common lives, which turns out that deferent kinds of communities with deferent groups of citizens will have divergences in facility demanding. So in the end of the article, strategies of facility configuration will be proposed based on the population analysis in order to optimize the quantity and location of facilities with delicacy.

Keywords: delicacy, facility configuration, population spatial disparities, urban area

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1215 A Solution for Production Facility Assignment: An Automotive Subcontract Case

Authors: Cihan Çetinkaya, Eren Özceylan, Kerem Elibal


This paper presents a solution method for selection of production facility. The motivation has been taken from a real life case, an automotive subcontractor which has two production facilities at different cities and parts. The problem is to decide which part(s) should be produced at which facility. To the best of our knowledge, until this study, there was no scientific approach about this problem at the firm and decisions were being given intuitively. In this study, some logistic cost parameters have been defined and with these parameters a mathematical model has been constructed. Defined and collected cost parameters are handling cost of parts, shipment cost of parts and shipment cost of welding fixtures. Constructed multi-objective mathematical model aims to minimize these costs while aims to balance the workload between two locations. Results showed that defined model can give optimum solutions in reasonable computing times. Also, this result gave encouragement to develop the model with addition of new logistic cost parameters.

Keywords: automotive subcontract, facility assignment, logistic costs, multi-objective models

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1214 A Qualitative Analysis of Factors Influencing the Intention of Selecting the Charged Nursing Care

Authors: Hyunsik Park


Objective: To provide information of charged nursing care facility for helping to establish geriatric health care policy, and to figure out which factors would be the main determinants for the choice of it. Method: 46 males and 53 females, and the same number of their caregivers admitted into the charged nursing care facility were recruited for intensive interview including personal information, disease information, and economic, familial, marital and emotional statuses. This is a cross-sectional study and we analyzed the data qualitatively. Results: Patients had 3.2 diseases and a hospitalization for 2.3 years on average. They were consists of 46 singles (46.9%), 8 unmarried (8.2%), 5 divorced (5.1%) and 32 married (32.7%). More than two third (70.1%) were supported by their eldest son or daughter. Mostly, the family caregivers decided to admit into the facilities by the doctor’s recommendation (68.4%). When they made a choice for a facility, most of them (42.9%) considered environmental and sanitary conditions. According to their expectation for management in nursing care facility, most caregivers (59.2%) wanted simple-staying for the duration, but most patients (61.3%) expected to be home after taking comprehensive rehabilitation. Three-quarter of the caregivers would agree to use nursing care facilities in the future, if they would be the same situation. Conclusion: Life style and environment are rapidly changing. In the near future, we need lots of the charged nursing care facilities for the old, thus this study can be the good reference for the preparing upcoming aged and super-aged society.

Keywords: nursing care facility, aged society, qualitative analysis, health

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1213 Supply Chain Design: Criteria Considered in Decision Making Process

Authors: Lenka Krsnakova, Petr Jirsak


Prior research on facility location in supply chain is mostly focused on improvement of mathematical models. It is due to the fact that supply chain design has been for the long time the area of operational research that underscores mainly quantitative criteria. Qualitative criteria are still highly neglected within the supply chain design research. Facility location in the supply chain has become multi-criteria decision-making problem rather than single criteria decision due to changes of market conditions. Thus, both qualitative and quantitative criteria have to be included in the decision making process. The aim of this study is to emphasize the importance of qualitative criteria as key parameters of relevant mathematical models. We examine which criteria are taken into consideration when Czech companies decide about their facility location. A literature review on criteria being used in facility location decision making process creates a theoretical background for the study. The data collection was conducted through questionnaire survey. Questionnaire was sent to manufacturing and business companies of all sizes (small, medium and large enterprises) with the representation in the Czech Republic within following sectors: automotive, toys, clothing industry, electronics and pharmaceutical industry. Comparison of which criteria prevail in the current research and which are considered important by companies in the Czech Republic is made. Despite the number of articles focused on supply chain design, only minority of them consider qualitative criteria and rarely process supply chain design as a multi-criteria decision making problem. Preliminary results of the questionnaire survey outlines that companies in the Czech Republic see the qualitative criteria and their impact on facility location decision as crucial. Qualitative criteria as company strategy, quality of working environment or future development expectations are confirmed to be considered by Czech companies. This study confirms that the qualitative criteria can significantly influence whether a particular location could or could not be right place for a logistic facility. The research has two major limitations: researchers who focus on improving of mathematical models mostly do not mention criteria that enter the model. Czech supply chain managers selected important criteria from the group of 18 available criteria and assign them importance weights. It does not necessarily mean that these criteria were taken into consideration when the last facility location was chosen, but how they perceive that today. Since the study confirmed the necessity of future research on how qualitative criteria influence decision making process about facility location, the authors have already started in-depth interviews with participating companies to reveal how the inclusion of qualitative criteria into decision making process about facility location influence the company´s performance.

Keywords: criteria influencing facility location, Czech Republic, facility location decision-making, qualitative criteria

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1212 Dynamics of India's Nuclear Identity

Authors: Smita Singh


Through the constructivist perspective, this paper explores the transformation of India’s nuclear identity from an irresponsible nuclear weapon power to a ‘de-facto nuclear power’ in the emerging international nuclear order From a nuclear abstainer to a bystander and finally as a ‘de facto nuclear weapon state’, India has put forth its case as a unique and exceptional nuclear power as opposed to Iran, Iraq and North Korea with similar nuclear ambitions, who have been snubbed as ‘rogue states’ by the international community. This paper investigates the reasons behind international community’s gradual acceptance of India’s nuclear weapons capabilities and nuclear identity after the Indo-U.S. Nuclear Deal. In this paper, the central concept of analysis is the inter-subjective nature of identity in the nuclear arena. India’s nuclear behaviour has been discursively constituted by India through evolving images of the ‘self’ and the ‘other.’ India’s sudden heightened global status is not solely the consequence of its 1998 nuclear tests but a calibrated projection as a responsible stakeholder in other spheres such as economic potential, market prospects, democratic credentials and so on. By examining India’s nuclear discourse this paper contends that India has used its material and discursive power in presenting a n striking image as a responsible nuclear weapon power (though not yet a legal nuclear weapon state as per the NPT). By historicising India’s nuclear trajectory through an inter-subjective analysis of identities, this paper moves a step ahead in providing a theoretical interpretation of state actions and nuclear identity construction.

Keywords: nuclear identity, India, constructivism, international stakeholder

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