Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 35

Search results for: Imane Allam

35 Banking Risk Management between the Prudential and the Operational Approaches

Authors: Mustapha Achibane, Imane Allam

Abstract:

Since the nineties, all Moroccan banking institutions have to respect an arsenal of prudential ratios. The respect of these prudential measures aims to ensure the financial system stability. In order to do so, regulatory authorities tried to reduce the financial and operational risks incurred by the banking entities. Meanwhile, regulatory authorities demanded a balance sheet management work from banks. They also asked them to establish a management control system to manage operational risk, as well as an effort in terms of incurred risk-based commitments. Therefore, the prudential approach has a macroeconomic nature and it is presented as a determinant of the operational, microeconomic approach. This operational approach takes the form of a strategy that each banking entity must develop to manage the different banking risks. This study seeks to analyze the problem of risk management between the prudential and the operational approaches. It was processed through a literature review followed by an analysis of the Moroccan banking sector’s performance. At first, we will reconcile the inductive logic and then, the analytical one. The first approach consists of analyzing the phenomenon from a normative and conceptual perspective, while the second one will consist of considering the Moroccan banking system and analyzing the behavior of Moroccan banking entities in terms of risk management and performance. The results identified a favorable growth in terms of performance, despite the huge provisioning effort made to meet the international standards and the harmonization of the regulations.

Keywords: banking performance, financial intermediation, operational approach, prudential standards, risk management

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
34 Influence of Sodium Acetate on Electroless Ni-P Deposits and Effect of Heat Treatment on Corrosion Behavior

Authors: Y. El Kaissi, M. Allam, A. Koulou, M. Galai, M. Ebn Touhami

Abstract:

The aim of our work is to develop an industrial bath of nickel alloy deposit on mild steel. The optimization of the operating parameters made it possible to obtain a stable Ni-P alloy deposition formulation. To understand the reaction mechanism of the deposition process, a kinetic study was performed by cyclic voltammetry and by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The coatings obtained have a very high corrosion resistance in a very aggressive acid medium which increases with the heat treatment.

Keywords: cyclic voltammetry, EIS, electroless Ni–P coating, heat treatment, potentiodynamic polarization

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33 Contribution to Improving the DFIG Control Using a Multi-Level Inverter

Authors: Imane El Karaoui, Mohammed Maaroufi, Hamid Chaikhy

Abstract:

Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) is one of the most reliable wind generator. Major problem in wind power generation is to generate Sinusoidal signal with very low THD on variable speed caused by inverter two levels used. This paper presents a multi-level inverter whose objective is to reduce the THD and the dimensions of the output filter. This work proposes a three-level NPC-type inverter, the results simulation are presented demonstrating the efficiency of the proposed inverter.

Keywords: DFIG, multilevel inverter, NPC inverter, THD, induction machine

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
32 Relation Between Demodex Folliculorum and Rosacea

Authors: Maha M. Eissa, Safia M. Ali, Sonia R. Allam, Ezzat A. Badawy, Nahid M. Baddour

Abstract:

The obligate follicle mite Demodex folliculorum (Df) has been demonstrated in increased numbers in patients with rosacea. The significance of this finding is still not completely understood, because many people free of skin disease may also have mites. So, the aim of this work was to study the possible role of Df in patients with rosacea. Facial punch biopsy specimens were taken from patients with rosacea (either telangiectatic, papulopustular, squamous, granulomatous form or with rhinophyma) and age and sex matched healthy subjects. Results of this study showed that 63.3% of the rosacea patients were harbouring the mite with higher incidence in patients with papulopustular form.

Keywords: Demodex folliculorum, rosacea, papulopustular, punch biopsy

Procedia PDF Downloads 17
31 A Horn Antenna Loaded with FSS of Crossed Dipoles

Authors: Ibrahim Mostafa El-Mongy, Abdelmegid Allam

Abstract:

In this article analysis and investigation of the effect of loading a horn antenna with frequency selective surface (FSS) of crossed dipoles of finite size is presented. It is fabricated on Rogers RO4350 (lossy) of relative permittivity 3.33, thickness 1.524 mm and loss tangent 0.004. Basically it is applied for filtering and minimizing the interference and noise in the desired band. The filtration is carried out using a finite FSS of crossed dipoles of overall dimensions 98x58 mm2. The filtration is shown by limiting the transmission bandwidth from 4 GHz (8–12 GHz) to 0.25 GHz (10.75–11 GHz). It is simulated using CST MWS and measured using network analyzer. There is a good agreement between the simulated and measured results.

Keywords: antenna, filtenna, frequency selective surface (FSS), horn

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30 Merging of Results in Distributed Information Retrieval Systems

Authors: Larbi Guezouli, Imane Azzouz

Abstract:

This work is located in the domain of distributed information retrieval ‘DIR’. A simplified view of the DIR requires a multi-search in a set of collections, which forces the system to analyze results found in these collections, and merge results back before sending them to the user in a single list. Our work is to find a fusion method based on the relevance score of each result received from collections and the relevance of the local search engine of each collection.

Keywords: information retrieval, distributed IR systems, merging results, datamining

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29 Design of a Rectifier with Enhanced Efficiency and a High-gain Antenna for Integrated and Compact-size Rectenna Circuit

Authors: Rawaa Maher, Ahmed Allam, Haruichi Kanaya, Adel B. Abdelrahman

Abstract:

In this paper, a compact, high-efficiency integrated rectenna is presented to operate in the 2.45 GHz band. A comparison between two rectifier topologies is performed to verify the benefits of removing the matching network from the rectifier. A rectifier high conversion efficiency of 74.1% is achieved. To complete the rectenna system, a novel omnidirectional antenna with high gain (3.72 dB) and compact size (25 mm * 29 mm) is designed and fabricated. The same antenna is used with a reflector for raising the gain to nearly 8.3 dB. The simulation and measurement results of the antenna are in good agreement.

Keywords: internet of things, integrated rectenna, rectenna, RF energy harvesting, wireless sensor networks(WSN)

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
28 Thermal Processing of Zn-Bi Layered Double Hydroxide ZnO Doped Bismuth for a Photo-Catalytic Efficiency under Light Visible

Authors: Benyamina Imane, Benalioua Bahia, Mansour Meriem, Bentouami Abdelhadi

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to use a synthetic route of the layered double hydroxide as a method of zinc oxide by doping a transition metal. The material is heat-treated at different temperatures then tested on the photo-fading of an acid dye indigo carmine under visible radiation compared with ZnO. The photo catalytic efficiency of Bi-ZnO in a visible light of 500 W was tested on photo-bleaching of an indigoid dye in comparison with the commercial ZnO. Indeed, a complete discoloration of indigo carmine solution of 16 mg / L was obtained after 40 and 120 minutes of irradiation in the presence of ZnO and ZnO-Bi respectively.

Keywords: LDH, POA, photo-catalysis, Bi-ZnO doping

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27 A Horn Antenna Loaded with SIW FSS of Crossed Dipoles

Authors: Ibrahim Mostafa El-Mongy, Abdelmegid Allam

Abstract:

In this article analysis and investigation of the effect of loading a horn antenna with substrate integrated waveguide frequency selective surface (SIW FSS) of crossed dipoles of finite size is presented. It is fabricated on Rogers RO4350 (lossy) of relative permittivity 3.33, thickness 1.524mm and loss tangent 0.004. This structure is called a filtering antenna (filtenna). Basically it is applied for filtering and minimizing the interference and noise in the desired band. The filtration is carried out using a finite SIW FSS of crossed dipoles of overall dimensions 98x58 mm2. The filtration is shown by limiting the transmission bandwidth from 4 GHz (8–12 GHz) to 0.3 GHz (0.955–0.985 GHz). It is simulated using CST MWS and measured using network analyzer. There is a good agreement between the simulated and measured results.

Keywords: antenna, filtenna, frequency-selective surface (FSS), horn antennas

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
26 Harmony Search-Based K-Coverage Enhancement in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Shaimaa M. Mohamed, Haitham S. Hamza, Imane A. Saroit

Abstract:

Many wireless sensor network applications require K-coverage of the monitored area. In this paper, we propose a scalable harmony search based algorithm in terms of execution time, K-Coverage Enhancement Algorithm (KCEA), it attempts to enhance initial coverage, and achieve the required K-coverage degree for a specific application efficiently. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm achieves coverage improvement of 5.34% compared to K-Coverage Rate Deployment (K-CRD), which achieves 1.31% when deploying one additional sensor. Moreover, the proposed algorithm is more time efficient.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), harmony search algorithms, K-Coverage, Mobile WSN

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25 Recovery of Proteins from EDAM Whey Using Membrane Ultrafiltration

Authors: F. Yelles-Allam, A. A. Nouani

Abstract:

In Algeria, whey is discarded without any treatment and this causes not only pollution problem, but also a loss in nutritive components of milk. In this paper, characterization of EDAM whey, which is resulted from pasteurised mixture of cow’s milk and skim milk, and recovery of whey protein by ultrafiltration / diafiltration, was studied. The physical-chemical analysis of whey has emphasized on its pollutant and nutritive characteristics. In fact, its DBO5 and DCO are 49.33, and 127.71 gr of O2/l of whey respectively. It contains: fat (1,90±0,1 gr/l), lactose (47.32±1,57 gr/l), proteins (8.04±0,2 gr/l) and ashes (5,20±0,15 gr/l), calcium (0,48±0,04 gr/l), Na (1.104gr/l), K (1.014 gr/l), Mg (0.118 gr/l) and P (0.482 gr/l). Ultrafiltration was carried out in a polyetersulfone membrane with a cut-off of 10K. Its hydraulic intrinsic resistance and permeability are respectively: 2.041.1012 m-1 and 176,32 l/h.m2 at PTM of 1 bar. The retentate obtained at FC6, contains 16,33g/l of proteins and 70,25 g/l of dry matter. The retention rate of protein is 97, 7% and the decrease in DBO5 and DCO are at 18.875 g /l and 42.818 g/l respectively. Diafiltration performed on protein concentrates allowed the complete removal of lactose and minerals. The ultrafiltration of the whey before the disposal is an alternative for Algéria dairy industry.

Keywords: diafiltration, DBO, DCO, protein, ultrafiltration, whey

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24 Two-Dimensional Modeling of Spent Nuclear Fuel Using FLUENT

Authors: Imane Khalil, Quinn Pratt

Abstract:

In a nuclear reactor, an array of fuel rods containing stacked uranium dioxide pellets clad with zircalloy is the heat source for a thermodynamic cycle of energy conversion from heat to electricity. After fuel is used in a nuclear reactor, the assemblies are stored underwater in a spent nuclear fuel pool at the nuclear power plant while heat generation and radioactive decay rates decrease before it is placed in packages for dry storage or transportation. A computational model of a Boiling Water Reactor spent fuel assembly is modeled using FLUENT, the computational fluid dynamics package. Heat transfer simulations were performed on the two-dimensional 9x9 spent fuel assembly to predict the maximum cladding temperature for different input to the FLUENT model. Uncertainty quantification is used to predict the heat transfer and the maximum temperature profile inside the assembly.

Keywords: spent nuclear fuel, conduction, heat transfer, uncertainty quantification

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23 Development of Extemporaneous Pediatric Syrup of Prednisone

Authors: Amel Chenafa, Sihem Boulenouar, Linda Aoued, Imane Sediri, Ismahan Djebbar, Mohamed Adil Selka

Abstract:

Introduction: The specialties intended for adults are often inadequate marketed for pediatric use, such as for a galenic form or in the dosage. For an industrial, development of a pediatric drug is confronted to various problems. So, the hospital pharmacies have to respond to adaptation needs of pharmaceutical forms for pediatric use. The objective of our work is to develop an oral form of prednisone for pediatric use since no adapted form to children is commercialized. Materials and Methods: Therefore an extemporaneous syrup of prednisone was prepared at the concentration of 0,5mg/ml from 5mg tablets and stored in amber glass bottles. Organoleptic and microbiological stability was studied in two temperatures: 5°C and 25°C, and evaluated at D0, D15, and D30. Results: No organoleptic changes have been detected on the syrup conserved at 25 and 5°C. The results show that there is no presence of bacteria, yeasts, and molds in the syrups stored at both temperatures during the analysis period. Conclusion: Sheltered from light, the developed syrup of prednisone remained stable at room temperature and/or refrigerator for 30 days.

Keywords: extemporaneous syrup, pediatric drug, prednisone, stability

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22 Spectroscopic Study of Eu³⁺ Ions Doped Potassium Lead Alumino Borate Glasses for Photonic Device Application

Authors: Nisha Deopa, Allam Srinivasa Rao

Abstract:

Quaternary potassium lead alumino borate (KPbAlB) glasses doped with different concentration of Eu³⁺ ions have been synthesized by melt quench technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Photoluminescence (PL), Time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) and CIE-chromaticity co-ordinates to study their luminescence behavior. A broad hump was observed in XRD spectrum confirms glassy nature of as-prepared glasses. By using Judd-Ofelt (J-O) theory, various radiative parameters for the prominent fluorescent levels of Eu³⁺ have been investigated. The intense emission peak was observed at 613 nm (⁵D₀→⁷F₂) under 393 nm excitation, matches well with the excitation of n-UV LED chips. The decay profiles observed for ⁵D₀ level were exponential for lower Eu³⁺ ion concentration while non-exponential for higher concentration, which may be due to efficient energy transfer between Eu³⁺-Eu³⁺ through cross relaxation and subsequent quenching observed. From the emission cross-sections, branching ratios, quantum efficiency and CIE coordinates, it was concluded that 7 mol % of Eu³⁺ ion concentration (glass B) is optimum in KPbAlB glasses for photonic device application.

Keywords: energy transfer, glasses, J-O parameters, photoluminescence

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21 Impact of Sericin Treatment on Perfection Dyeing of Polyester Viscose Blend

Authors: Omaima G. Allam, O. A. Hakeim, K. Haggag, N. S. Elshemy

Abstract:

In the midst of the two decades the use of microwave dielectric warming in the field of science has transformed into a powerful methodology to redesign compound procedures. The potential benefit of the application of these modern methods of treatment emphasize so as to reach to optimum treatment conditions and the best results, especially hydrophobicity, moisture content and increase dyeing processing while maintaining the physical and chemical properties of each textile. Moreover, polyester fibres are sometimes spun together with natural fibres to produce a cloth with blended properties. So that at the present task, the polyester/viscose mix fabrics (60 /40) were pretreated with 4 g/l of KOH for 2 min in microwave irradiation with a liquor ratio 1:25. Subsequently fabrics were inundated with different concentrations of sericin (10, 30, 50 g/l). Treated fabrics were coloured with the commercial dyes samples: Reactive Red 84(Dye 1). C. I. Acid Blue 203(Dye 2) and C.I. Reactive violet 5 (Dye 3). Colour value was specified as well as fastness properties. Likewise, the physical properties of untreated and treated fabrics such as moisture content %, tensile strength, elongation % and were evaluated. The untreated and treated fabrics are described by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy.

Keywords: polyester viscose blends fabric, sericin, dyes, colour value

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
20 Thermal Transformation of Zn-Bi Double Hydroxide Lamellar in ZnO Doped with Bismuth in Application for Photo Catalysis under Visible Light

Authors: Benyamina Imane, Benalioua Bahia, Mansour Meriem, Bentouami Abdelhadi

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to use a synthetic route of the layered double hydroxide as a method of zinc oxide by doping a transition metal. The material is heat-treated at different temperatures then tested on the photo-fading of acid dye indigo carmine under visible radiation compared with ZnO. The material having a better efficacy was characterized by XRD and thereafter SEM. The result of XRD untreated Bi-Zn-LDH material thermally revealed peaks characteristic lamellar materials. Indeed, the lamellar morphology is very visible, observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, the lamellar character partially disappears when the material is treated at 550 °C in a muffle furnace. Thus obtained, a zinc oxide doped with bismuth confirmed by XRD. The photocatalytic efficiency of Bi-ZnO in a visible light of 500 W at 114,6 µw/cm2 as maximum of irradiance was tested on photo-bleaching of an indigoid dye in comparison with the commercial ZnO. Indeed, a complete discoloration of indigo carmine solution of 16 mg / L was obtained after 40 and 120 minutes of irradiation in the presence of Bi-ZnO and ZnO respectively.

Keywords: photocatalysis, Bi-ZnO-LDH, doping, ZnO

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19 SC-LSH: An Efficient Indexing Method for Approximate Similarity Search in High Dimensional Space

Authors: Sanaa Chafik, Imane Daoudi, Mounim A. El Yacoubi, Hamid El Ouardi

Abstract:

Locality Sensitive Hashing (LSH) is one of the most promising techniques for solving nearest neighbour search problem in high dimensional space. Euclidean LSH is the most popular variation of LSH that has been successfully applied in many multimedia applications. However, the Euclidean LSH presents limitations that affect structure and query performances. The main limitation of the Euclidean LSH is the large memory consumption. In order to achieve a good accuracy, a large number of hash tables is required. In this paper, we propose a new hashing algorithm to overcome the storage space problem and improve query time, while keeping a good accuracy as similar to that achieved by the original Euclidean LSH. The Experimental results on a real large-scale dataset show that the proposed approach achieves good performances and consumes less memory than the Euclidean LSH.

Keywords: approximate nearest neighbor search, content based image retrieval (CBIR), curse of dimensionality, locality sensitive hashing, multidimensional indexing, scalability

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
18 Cellulose Acetate/Polyacrylic Acid Filled with Nano-Hydroxapatite Composites: Spectroscopic Studies and Search for Biomedical Applications

Authors: E. M. AbdelRazek, G. S. ElBahy, M. A. Allam, A. M. Abdelghany, A. M. Hezma

Abstract:

Polymeric biocomposite of hydroxyapatite/polyacrylic acid were prepared and their thermal and mechanical properties were improved by addition of cellulose acetate. FTIR spectroscopy technique and X-ray diffraction analysis were employed to examine the physical and chemical characteristics of the biocomposites. Scanning electron microscopy shows a uniform distribution of HAp nano-particles through the polymeric matrix of two organic/inorganic composites weight ratios (60/40 and 70/30), at which the material crystallinity reaches a considerable value appropriate for the needed applications were studied and revealed that the HAp nano-particles are uniformly distributed in the polymeric matrix. Kinetic parameters were determined from the weight loss data using non isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Also, the main degradation steps were described and discussed. The mechanical properties of composites were evaluated by measuring tensile strength and elastic modulus. The data indicate that the addition of cellulose acetate can make homogeneous composites scaffold significantly resistant to higher stress. Elastic modulus of the composites was also improved by the addition of cellulose acetate, making them more appropriate for bioapplications.

Keywords: biocomposite, chemical synthesis, infrared spectroscopy, mechanical properties

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17 Advanced Nanostructured Materials and Their Application for Solar Fuel

Authors: A. Hegazy, Ahmed Elsayed, Essam El Shenawy, N. Allam, Hala Handal, K. R. Mahmoud

Abstract:

Highly crystalline, TiO₂ pristine sub-10 nm anatase nanocrystals were fabricated at low temperatures by post hydrothermal treatment of the as-prepared TiO₂ nanoparticles. This treatment resulted in bandgap narrowing and increased photocurrent density value (3.8 mA/cm²) when this material was employed in water splitting systems. The achieved photocurrent values are among the highest reported ones so far for the fabricated nanoparticles at this low temperature. This might be explained by the increased surface defects of the prepared nanoparticles. It resulted in bandgap narrowing that was further investigated using positron annihilation experiments by measuring positron lifetime and Doppler broadening. Besides, homogeneous spherical TiO₂ nanoparticles were synthesized in large diameter and high surface area and the high percentage of (001) facet by sol-gel method using potassium persulfate (K₂S₂O₈) as an oxidizing agent. The fabricated particles exhibited high exposed surface area, high photoactivity and reduced band gap. Enhanced performance for water splitting applications was displayed by formed TiO₂ nanoparticles. Their morphological and structural properties were studied to optimize their synthesis parameters in an attempt to construct more applicable fuel cells in the industry for hydrogen fuel production.

Keywords: positron annihilation, solar energy, TiO2 nanoparticles, water splitting

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
16 Enhanced Biosorption of Copper Ions by Luffa Cylindrica: Biosorbent Characterization and Batch Experiments

Authors: Nouacer Imane, Benalia Mokhtar, Djedid Mabrouk

Abstract:

The adsorption ability of a powdered activated carbons (PAC) derived from Luffa cylindrica investigated in an attempt to produce more economic and effective sorbents for the control of Cu(II) ion from industrial liquid streams. Carbonaceous sorbents derived from local luffa cylindrica, were prepared by chemical activation methods using ZnCl2 as activating reagents. Adsorption of Cu (II) from aqueous solutions was investigated. The effects of pH, initial adsorbent concentration, the effect of particle size, initial metal ion concentration and temperature were studied in batch experiments. The maximum adsorption capacity of copper onto grafted Luffa cylindrica fiber was found to be 14.23 mg/g with best fit for Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The values of thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy change, ∆H (-0.823 kJ/mol), entropy change, ∆S (-9.35 J/molK) and free energy change, ∆G (−1.56 kJ/mol) were also calculated. Adsorption process was found spontaneous and exothermic in nature. Finally, the luffa cylindrica has been evaluated by FTIR, MO and x-ray diffraction in order to determine if the biosorption process modifies its chemical structure and morphology, respectively. Luffa cylindrica has been proven to be an efficient biomaterial useful for heavy metal separation purposes that is not altered by the process.

Keywords: adsorption, cadmium, isotherms, thermodynamic, luffa sponge

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15 Electrodeposition and Selenization of Cuin Alloys for the Synthesis of Photoactive Cu2in1-X Gax Se2 (Cigs) Thin Films

Authors: Mohamed Benaicha, Mahdi Allam

Abstract:

A new two stage electrochemical process as a safe, large area and low processing cost technique for the production of semi-conducting CuInSe2 (CIS) thin films is studied. CuIn precursors were first potentiostatically electrodeposited onto molybdenum substrates from an acidic thiocyanate electrolyte. In a second stage, the prepared metallic CuIn layers were used as substrate in the selenium electrochemical deposition system and subjected to a thermal treatment in vacuum atmosphere, to eliminate binary phase formation by reaction of the Cu2-x Se and InxSey selenides, leading to the formation of CuInSe2 thin film. Electrochemical selenization from aqueous electrolyte is introduced as an alternative to toxic and hazardous H2Se or Se vapor phase selenization used in physical techniques. In this study, the influence of film deposition parameters such as bath composition, temperature and potential on film properties was studied. The electrochemical, morphological, structural and compositional properties of electrodeposited thin films were characterized using various techniques. Results of Cyclic and Stripping-Cyclic Voltammetry (CV, SCV), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray microanalysis (EDX) investigations revealed good reproducibility and homogeneity of the film composition. Thereby optimal technological parameters for the electrochemical production of CuIn, Se as precursors for CuInSe2 thin layers are determined.

Keywords: photovoltaic, CIGS, copper alloys, electrodeposition, thin films

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14 Impact of Natural Degradation of Low Density Polyethylene on Its Morphology

Authors: Meryem Imane Babaghayou, Asma Abdelhafidi, Salem Fouad Chabira, Mohammed Sebaa

Abstract:

A challenge of plastics industries is the realization of materials that resist the degradation in its application environment, and that to guarantee a longer life time therefore an optimal time of use. Blown extruded films of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) supplied by SABIC SAUDI ARABIA blown and extruded in SOFIPLAST company in Setif ALGERIA , have been subjected to climatic ageing in a sub-Saharan facility at Laghouat (Algeria) with direct exposure to sun. Samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques after prescribed amounts of time up to 8 months. It has been shown via these two techniques the impact of UV irradiation on the morphological development of a plastic material, especially the crystallinity degree which increases with exposure time. The reason of these morphological changes is related to photooxidative reactions leading to cross linking in the beginning and to chain scissions for an advanced stage of ageing this last ones are the first responsible. The crystallinity degree change is essentially controlled by the secondary crystallization of the amorphous chains whose mobility is enhanced by the chain scission processes. The diffusion of these short segments integrates the surface of the lamellae increasing in this way their thicknesses. The results presented highlight the complexity of the involved phenomena.

Keywords: Low Density poly (Ethylene), crystallinity, ageing, XRD, DSC

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13 Spectroscopic and 1.08mm Laser Properties of Nd3+ Doped Oxy-Fluoro Borate Glasses

Authors: Swapna Koneru, Srinivasa Rao Allam, Vijaya Prakash Gaddem

Abstract:

The different concentrations of neodymium-doped (Nd-doped) oxy fluoroborate (OFB) glasses were prepared by melt quenching method and characterized through optical absorption, emission and decay curve measurements to understand the lasing potentialities of these glasses. Optical absorption spectra were recorded and have been analyzed using Judd–Ofelt theory. The dipole strengths are parameterized in terms of three phenomenological Judd–Ofelt intensity parameters Ωλ (λ=2, 4 and 6) to elucidate the glassy matrix around Nd3+ ion as well as to determine the 4F3/2 metastable state radiative properties such as the transition probability (AR), radiative lifetime (τR), branching ratios (βR) and integrated absorption cross-section (σa) have been measured for most of the fluorescent levels of Nd3+. The emission spectra recorded for these glasses exhibit two peaks at 1085 and 1328 nm corresponding to 4F3/2 to 4I11/2 and 4I13/2 transitions have been obtained for all the glasses upon 808 nm diode laser excitation in the near infrared region. The emission intensity of the 4F3/2 to 4I11/2 transition increases with increase of Nd3+ concentration up to 1 mol% and then concentration quenching is observed for 2.0 mol% of Nd3+ concentration. The lifetimes for the 4F3/2 level are found to decrease with increase in Nd2O3 concentration in the glasses due to the concentration quenching. The decay curves of all these glasses show single exponential behavior. The spectroscopy of Nd3+ in these glasses is well understood and laser properties can be accurately determined from measured spectroscopic properties. The results obtained are compared with reports on similar glasses. The results indicate that the present glasses could be useful for 1.08 µm laser applications.

Keywords: glasses, luminescence, optical properties, photoluminescence spectroscopy

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12 Photoluminescence and Spectroscopic Studies of Tm3+ Ions Doped Lead Tungsten Tellurite Glasses for Visible Red and Near-Ir Laser Applications

Authors: M. Venkateswarlu, Srinivasa Rao Allam, S. K. Mahamuda, K. Swapna, G. Vijaya Prakash

Abstract:

Lead Tungsten Tellurite (LTT) glasses doped with different concentrations of Tm3+ ions were prepared by using melt quenching technique and characterized through optical absorption, photoluminescence and decay spectral studies to know the feasibility of using these glasses as luminescent devices in visible Red and NIR regions. By using optical absorption spectral data, the energy band gaps for all the glasses were evaluated and were found to be in the range of 2.34-2.59 eV; which is very useful for the construction of optical devices. Judd-Ofelt (J-O)theory has been applied to the optical absorption spectral profiles to calculate the J-O intensity parameters Ωλ (λ=2, 4 and 6) and consecutively used to evaluate various radiative properties such as radiative transition probability (AR), radiative lifetimes (τ_R) and branching ratios (β_R) for the prominent luminescent levels. The luminescence spectra for all the LTT glass samples have shown two intense peaks in bright red and Near Infrared regions at 650 nm (1G4→3F4) and 800 nm (3H4→3H6) respectively for which effective bandwidths (〖Δλ〗_P), experimental branching ratios (β_exp) and stimulated emission cross-sections (σ_se) are evaluated. The decay profiles for all the glasses were also recorded to measure the quantum efficiency of the prepared LTT glasses by coupling the radiative and experimental lifetimes. From the measured emission cross-sections, quantum efficiency and CIE chromaticity coordinates, it was found that 0.5 mol% of Tm3+ ions doped LTT glass is most suitable for generating bright visible red and NIR lasers to operate at 650 and 800 nm respectively.

Keywords: glasses, JO parameters, optical materials, thullium

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11 Spectroscopic Study of Tb³⁺ Doped Calcium Aluminozincate Phosphor for Display and Solid-State Lighting Applications

Authors: Sumandeep Kaur, Allam Srinivasa Rao, Mula Jayasimhadri

Abstract:

In recent years, rare earth (RE) ions doped inorganic luminescent materials are seeking great attention due to their excellent physical and chemical properties. These materials offer high thermal and chemical stability and exhibit good luminescence properties due to the presence of RE ions. The luminescent properties of these materials are attributed to their intra-configurational f-f transitions in RE ions. A series of Tb³⁺ doped calcium aluminozincate has been synthesized via sol-gel method. The structural and morphological studies have been carried out by recording X-ray diffraction patterns and SEM image. The luminescent spectra have been recorded for a comprehensive study of their luminescence properties. The XRD profile reveals the single-phase orthorhombic crystal structure with an average crystallite size of 65 nm as calculated by using DebyeScherrer equation. The SEM image exhibits completely random, irregular morphology of micron size particles of the prepared samples. The optimization of luminescence has been carried out by varying the dopant Tb³⁺ concentration within the range from 0.5 to 2.0 mol%. The as-synthesized phosphors exhibit intense emission at 544 nm pumped at 478 nm excitation wavelength. The optimized Tb³⁺ concentration has been found to be 1.0 mol% in the present host lattice. The decay curves show bi-exponential fitting for the as-synthesized phosphor. The colorimetric studies show green emission with CIE coordinates (0.334, 0.647) lying in green region for the optimized Tb³⁺ concentration. This report reveals the potential utility of Tb³⁺ doped calcium aluminozincate phosphors for display and solid-state lighting devices.

Keywords: concentration quenching, phosphor, photoluminescence, XRD

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10 Cadmium Concentrations in Breast Milk and Factors of Exposition: Systematic Review

Authors: Abha Cherkani Hassani, Imane Ghanname, Nezha Mouane

Abstract:

Background: This is the first systematic review summarizing 43 years of research from 36 countries in the assessment of cadmium in breast milk; a suitable matrix in human biomonitoring. Objectives: To report from the published literature the levels of cadmium in breast milk and the affecting factors causing the increase of cadmium concentrations; also to gather several quantitative data which might be useful to evaluate the international degrees of maternal and infant exposure. Methods: We reviewed the literature for studies reporting quantitative data about cadmium levels in human breast milk in the world that have been published between 1971 and 2014 and that are available on Pubmed, Science direct and Google scholar. The aim of the study, country, period of samples collection, size of samples, sampling method, time of lactation, mother’s age, area of residence, cadmium concentration and other information were extracted. Results: 67 studies were selected and included in this systematic review. Some concentrations greatly exceed the limit of the WHO, However about 50% of the studies had less than 1 µg/l cadmium concentration (the recommendation of the WHO); as well many factors have shown their implication in breast milk contamination by Cadmium as lactation stage, smoking, diet, supplement intake, interaction with other mineral elements, age of mothers, parity and other parameters. Conclusion: Breast milk is a pathway of maternal excretion of cadmium. It is also a biological indicator of the degree of environmental pollution and cadmium exposure of the lactating women and the nourished infant. Therefore preventive measures and continuous monitoring are necessary.

Keywords: breast milk, cadmium level, factors, systematic review

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9 Design and Implementation of Smart Watch Textile Antenna for Wi-Fi Bio-Medical Applications in Millimetric Wave Band

Authors: M. G. Ghanem, A. M. M. A. Allam, Diaa E. Fawzy, Mehmet Faruk Cengiz

Abstract:

This paper is devoted to the design and implementation of a smartwatch textile antenna for Wi-Fi bio-medical applications in millimetric wave bands. The antenna is implemented on a leather textile-based substrate to be embedded in a smartwatch. It enables the watch to pick Wi-Fi signals without the need to be connected to a mobile through Bluetooth. It operates at 60 GHz or WiGig (Wireless Gigabit Alliance) band with a wide band for higher rate applications. It also could be implemented over many stratified layers of the body organisms to be used in the diagnosis of many diseases like diabetes and cancer. The structure is designed and simulated using CST (Studio Suite) program. The wearable patch antenna has an octagon shape, and it is implemented on leather material that acts as a flexible substrate with a size of 5.632 x 6.4 x 2 mm3, a relative permittivity of 2.95, and a loss tangent of 0.006. The feeding is carried out using differential feed (discrete port in CST). The work provides five antenna implementations; antenna without ground, a ground is added at the back of the antenna in order to increase the antenna gain, the substrate dimensions are increased to 15 x 30 mm2 to resemble the real hand watch size, layers of skin and fat are added under the ground of the antenna to study the effect of human body tissues human on the antenna performance. Finally, the whole structure is bent. It is found that the antenna can achieve a simulated peak realized gain in dB of 5.68, 7.28, 6.15, 3.03, and 4.37 for antenna without ground, antenna with the ground, antenna with larger substrate dimensions, antenna with skin and fat, and bent structure, respectively. The antenna with ground exhibits high gain; while adding the human organisms absorption, the gain is degraded because of human absorption. The bent structure contributes to higher gain.

Keywords: bio medical engineering, millimetric wave, smart watch, textile antennas, Wi-Fi

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8 Mechanical and Microstructural Study of Photo-Aged Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) Films

Authors: Meryem Imane Babaghayou, Abdelhafidi Asma

Abstract:

This study deals with the ageing of Blown extruded films of low-density polyethylene (LDPE), used for greenhouse covering. The LDPE have been subjected to climatic ageing in a sub-Saharan facility at Laghouat (Algeria) with direct exposure to sun. The microstructural changes in the films were analyzed by IRFT for different states of ageing. The mechanical characterization was performed on a uniaxial tensile apparatus. The mechanical properties such as Young's modulus, strain at break, and stress at break have been followed for different states of exposure time (0 to 6 months). The Climatic ageing of LDPE films shows the effect of ageing on the microstructural Plan which leads to: i) To an oxidation of the molecular chains. ii) To the formation of cross-linkings and breaking chains, which both of them are responsible for the mechanical behavior’s modifications of the material. Cross-links are in favor of strengthening of the mechanical properties at break (the increase of σr and εr). In other side, the chains breaking leads to a decrease of these properties. The increase in the Young's modulus also seems to be related to those structural changes since the cross-links increase the average molecular weight. Branchings and tangles are favorable pairs for the ductile nature of the material. And in other side, the chains breaking reduces the average molecular weight and therefore promotes the stiffening (following to morphological changes) so the material becomes fragile. The post-mortem analysis of the samples shows that the mechanical stress has an effect on the molecular structure of the material. Although if quantitatively the concentrations of different chemical species exchanges, from a quantitative point of view only the unsaturations raises the polemics of a possible microstructural modification induced by mechanical stress applied during the tensile test. Also, we recommend a more rigorous analysis with other means of investigation.

Keywords: low-density polyethylene, ageing, mechanical properties, IRTF

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7 Kinetics of Inhibition of Xanthine Oxidase by Lycium Arabicum and Its Protective Effect against Oxonate-Induced Hyperuricemia and Renal Dysfunction in Mice

Authors: Naouel Boussoualim, Hayat Trabsa, Imane Krache, Seddik Khennouf, Noureddine Charef, Lekhmici Arrar, Abderrahmane Baghiani

Abstract:

Purpose: To evaluate the in-vitro inhibition of xanthine oxidase (purified from bovine milk) by extracts of Lycium arabicum, as well as it is in vivo hypouricemic and renal protective effects. Methods: Four extracts of Lycium arabicum, methanol (CrE), chloroform (ChE), ethyl acetate (EaE) and aqueous (AqE) extracts, were screened for their total phenolics and potential inhibitory effects on purified bovine milk xanthine oxidase (XO) activity by measuring the formation of uric acid or superoxide radical. The mode of inhibition was investigated and compared with the standard drugs, allopurinol, quercitin, and catechin. To evaluate their hypouricemic effect, the extracts were administered to potassium oxonate-induced hyperuricemic mice at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight. Results: The results showed that EaE had the highest content of phenolic compounds and was the most potent inhibitor of uric acid formation (IC50 = 0.017 ± 0.001 mg/mL) and formation of superoxide (IC50 = 0.035 ± 0.001 mg/ml). Lineweaver-Burk analysis showed that CrE and EaE inhibited XO competitively, whereas the inhibitory activities exerted by ChE and AqE were of a mixed type. Intraperetoneal injection of L. arabicum extracts (50 mg/kg) elicited hypouricemic actions in hyperuricemic mice. Hyperuricemic mice presented a serum uric acid concentration of 4.71 ± 0.29 mg/L but this was reduced to 1.78 ± 0.11 mg/L by EaE, which was the most potent hyporuricemic extract. Conclusion: L. arabicum fractions have a strong inhibitory effect on xanthine oxidase and and also have a significantly lowering effect on serum and liver creatinine and urea levels in hyperuricemic mice.

Keywords: lycium arabicum, uric acid, creatinine, superoxide, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, hyperuricemia

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6 Dy3+ Ions Doped Single and Mixed Alkali Fluoro Tungstunate Tellurite Glasses for Laser and White LED Applications

Authors: Allam Srinivasa Rao, Ch. Annapurna Devi, G. Vijaya Prakash

Abstract:

A new-fangled series of white light emitting 1 mol% of Dy3+ ions doped Single-Alklai and Mixed-Alkai fluoro tungstunate tellurite glasses have been prepared using melt quenching technique and their spectroscopic behaviour was investigated by studying XRD, optical absorption, photoluminescence and lifetime measurements. The bonding parameter studies reveal the ionic nature of the Dy-O bond in the present glasses. From the absorption spectra, the Judd–Ofelt (J-O) intensity parameters have been determined which are used to explore the nature of bonding and symmetry orientation of the Dy–ligand field environment. The evaluated J-O parameters (Ω_4>Ω_2>Ω_6) for all the glasses are following the same trend. The photoluminescence spectra of all the glasses exhibit two intensified peaks in blue and Yellow regions corresponding to the transitions 4F9/2→6H15/2 (483 nm) and 4F9/2→6H13/2 (575 nm) respectively. From the photoluminescence spectra, it is observed that the luminescence intensity is maximum for Dy3+ ion doped potassium combination of fluoro tungstunate tellurite glass (TeWK: 1Dy). The J-O intensity parameters have been used to determine the various radiative properties for the different emission transitions from the 4F9/2 fluorescent level. The highest emission cross-section and branching ratio values observed for the 4F9/2→6H15/2 and 4F9/2→6H13/2 transitions suggest the possible laser action in the visible region from these glasses. By using the experimental lifetimes (τ_exp) measured from the decay spectral features and radiative lifetimes (τ_R), the quantum efficiencies (η) for all the glasses have been evaluated. Among all the glasses, the potassium combined fluoro tungstunate tellurite (TeWK:1Dy) glass has the highest quantum efficiency (94.6%). The CIE colour chromaticity coordinates (x, y), (u, v), colour correlated temperature (CCT) and Y/B ratio were also estimated from the photoluminescence spectra for different compositions of glasses. The (x, y) and (u, v) chromaticity colour coordinates fall within the white light region and the white light can be tuned by varying the composition of the glass. From all these studies, we are suggesting that the 1 mol% of Dy3+ ions doped TeWK glass is more suitable for lasing and White-LED applications.

Keywords: dysprosium, Judd-Ofelt parameters, photo luminescence, tellurite glasses

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