Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1088

Search results for: linearization bias circuit

1088 Design of 900 MHz High Gain SiGe Power Amplifier with Linearity Improved Bias Circuit

Authors: Guiheng Zhang, Wei Zhang, Jun Fu, Yudong Wang

Abstract:

A 900 MHz three-stage SiGe power amplifier (PA) with high power gain is presented in this paper. Volterra Series is applied to analyze nonlinearity sources of SiGe HBT device model clearly. Meanwhile, the influence of operating current to IMD3 is discussed. Then a β-helper current mirror bias circuit is applied to improve linearity, since the β-helper current mirror bias circuit can offer stable base biasing voltage. Meanwhile, it can also work as predistortion circuit when biasing voltages of three bias circuits are fine-tuned, by this way, the power gain and operating current of PA are optimized for best linearity. The three power stages which fabricated by 0.18 μm SiGe technology are bonded to the printed circuit board (PCB) to obtain impedances by Load-Pull system, then matching networks are done for best linearity with discrete passive components on PCB. The final measured three-stage PA exhibits 21.1 dBm of output power at 1 dB compression point (OP1dB) with power added efficiency (PAE) of 20.6% and 33 dB power gain under 3.3 V power supply voltage.

Keywords: high gain power amplifier, linearization bias circuit, SiGe HBT model, Volterra series

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1087 New Design of a Broadband Microwave Zero Bias Power Limiter

Authors: K. Echchakhaoui, E. Abdelmounim, J. Zbitou, H. Bennis, N. Ababssi, M. Latrach

Abstract:

In this paper a new design of a broadband microwave power limiter is presented and validated into simulation by using ADS software (Advanced Design System) from Agilent technologies. The final circuit is built on microstrip lines by using identical Zero Bias Schottky diodes. The power limiter is designed by Associating 3 stages Schottky diodes. The obtained simulation results permit to validate this circuit with a threshold input power level of 0 dBm until a maximum input power of 30 dBm.

Keywords: Limiter, microstrip, zero-biais, ADS

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1086 Low Power, Highly Linear, Wideband LNA in Wireless SOC

Authors: Amir Mahdavi

Abstract:

In this paper a highly linear CMOS low noise amplifier (LNA) for ultra-wideband (UWB) applications is proposed. The proposed LNA uses a linearization technique to improve second and third-order intercept points (IIP3). The linearity is cured by repealing the common-mode section of all intermodulation components from the cascade topology current with optimization of biasing current use symmetrical and asymmetrical circuits for biasing. Simulation results show that maximum gain and noise figure are 6.9dB and 3.03-4.1dB over a 3.1–10.6 GHz, respectively. Power consumption of the LNA core and IIP3 are 2.64 mW and +4.9dBm respectively. The wideband input impedance matching of LNA is obtained by employing a degenerating inductor (|S11|<-9.1 dB). The circuit proposed UWB LNA is implemented using 0.18 μm based CMOS technology.

Keywords: highly linear LNA, low-power LNA, optimal bias techniques

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1085 Maximum Deformation Estimation for Reinforced Concrete Buildings Using Equivalent Linearization Method

Authors: Chien-Kuo Chiu

Abstract:

In the displacement-based seismic design and evaluation, equivalent linearization method is one of the approximation methods to estimate the maximum inelastic displacement response of a system. In this study, the accuracy of two equivalent linearization methods are investigated. The investigation consists of three soil condition in Taiwan (Taipei Basin 1, 2, and 3) and five different heights of building (H_r= 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 m). The first method is the Taiwan equivalent linearization method (TELM) which was proposed based on Japanese equivalent linear method considering the modification factor, α_T= 0.85. On the basis of Lin and Miranda study, the second method is proposed with some modification considering Taiwan soil conditions. From this study, it is shown that Taiwanese equivalent linearization method gives better estimation compared to the modified Lin and Miranda method (MLM). The error index for the Taiwanese equivalent linearization method are 16%, 13%, and 12% for Taipei Basin 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Furthermore, a ductility demand spectrum of single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) system is presented in this study as a guide for engineers to estimate the ductility demand of a structure.

Keywords: displacement-based design, ductility demand spectrum, equivalent linearization method, RC buildings, single-degree-of-freedom

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1084 Optimal Feedback Linearization Control of PEM Fuel Cell

Authors: E. Shahsavari, R. Ghasemi, A. Akramizadeh

Abstract:

This paper presents a new method to design nonlinear feedback linearization controller for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). A nonlinear controller is designed based on nonlinear model to prolong the stack life of PEM fuel cells. Since it is known that large deviations between hydrogen and oxygen partial pressures can cause severe membrane damage in the fuel cell, feedback linearization is applied to the PEM fuel cell system so that the deviation can be kept as small as possible during disturbances or load variations. To obtain an accurate feedback linearization controller, tuning the linear parameters are always important. So in proposed study NSGA_II method was used to tune the designed controller in aim to decrease the controller tracking error. The simulation result showed that the proposed method tuned the controller efficiently.

Keywords: nonlinear dynamic model, polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, feedback linearization, optimal control, NSGA_II

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1083 Control of Underactuated Biped Robots Using Event Based Fuzzy Partial Feedback Linearization

Authors: Omid Heydarnia, Akbar Allahverdizadeh, Behnam Dadashzadeh, M. R. Sayyed Noorani

Abstract:

Underactuated biped robots control is one of the interesting topics in robotics. The main difficulties are its highly nonlinear dynamics, open-loop instability, and discrete event at the end of the gait. One of the methods to control underactuated systems is the partial feedback linearization, but it is not robust against uncertainties and disturbances that restrict its performance to control biped walking and running. In this paper, fuzzy partial feedback linearization is presented to overcome its drawback. Numerical simulations verify the effectiveness of the proposed method to generate stable and robust biped walking and running gaits.

Keywords: underactuated system, biped robot, fuzzy control, partial feedback linearization

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1082 Improving the LDMOS Temperature Compensation Bias Circuit to Optimize Back-Off

Authors: Antonis Constantinides, Christos Yiallouras, Christakis Damianou

Abstract:

The application of today's semiconductor transistors in high power UHF DVB-T linear amplifiers has evolved significantly by utilizing LDMOS technology. This fact provides engineers with the option to design a single transistor signal amplifier which enables output power and linearity that was unobtainable previously using bipolar junction transistors or later type first generation MOSFETS. The quiescent current stability in terms of thermal variations of the LDMOS guarantees a robust operation in any topology of DVB-T signal amplifiers. Otherwise, progressively uncontrolled heat dissipation enhancement on the LDMOS case can degrade the amplifier’s crucial parameters in regards to the gain, linearity, and RF stability, resulting in dysfunctional operation or a total destruction of the unit. This paper presents one more sophisticated approach from the traditional biasing circuits used so far in LDMOS DVB-T amplifiers. It utilizes a microprocessor control technology, providing stability in topologies where IDQ must be perfectly accurate.

Keywords: LDMOS, amplifier, back-off, bias circuit

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1081 Improved Small-Signal Characteristics of Infrared 850 nm Top-Emitting Vertical-Cavity Lasers

Authors: Ahmad Al-Omari, Osama Khreis, Ahmad M. K. Dagamseh, Abdullah Ababneh, Kevin Lear

Abstract:

High-speed infrared vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes (VCSELs) with Cu-plated heat sinks were fabricated and tested. VCSELs with 10 mm aperture diameter and 4 mm of electroplated copper demonstrated a -3dB modulation bandwidth (f-3dB) of 14 GHz and a resonance frequency (fR) of 9.5 GHz at a bias current density (Jbias) of only 4.3 kA/cm2, which corresponds to an improved f-3dB2/Jbias ratio of 44 GHz2/kA/cm2. At higher and lower bias current densities, the f-3dB2/ Jbias ratio decreased to about 30 GHz2/kA/cm2 and 18 GHz2/kA/cm2, respectively. Examination of the analogue modulation response demonstrated that the presented VCSELs displayed a steady f-3dB/ fR ratio of 1.41±10% over the whole range of the bias current (1.3Ith to 6.2Ith). The devices also demonstrated a maximum modulation bandwidth (f-3dB max) of more than 16 GHz at a bias current less than the industrial bias current standard for reliability by 25%.

Keywords: current density, high-speed VCSELs, modulation bandwidth, small-signal characteristics, thermal impedance, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

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1080 Analysis of SCR-Based ESD Protection Circuit on Holding Voltage Characteristics

Authors: Yong Seo Koo, Jong Ho Nam, Yong Nam Choi, Dae Yeol Yoo, Jung Woo Han

Abstract:

This paper presents a silicon controller rectifier (SCR) based ESD protection circuit for IC. The proposed ESD protection circuit has low trigger voltage and high holding voltage compared with conventional SCR ESD protection circuit. Electrical characteristics of the proposed ESD protection circuit are simulated and analyzed using TCAD simulator. The proposed ESD protection circuit verified effective low voltage ESD characteristics with low trigger voltage and high holding voltage.

Keywords: electro-static discharge (ESD), silicon controlled rectifier (SCR), holding voltage, protection circuit

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1079 Investigation of Threshold Voltage Shift in Gamma Irradiated N-Channel and P-Channel MOS Transistors of CD4007

Authors: S. Boorboor, S. A. H. Feghhi, H. Jafari

Abstract:

The ionizing radiations cause different kinds of damages in electronic components. MOSFETs, most common transistors in today’s digital and analog circuits, are severely sensitive to TID damage. In this work, the threshold voltage shift of CD4007 device, which is an integrated circuit including P-channel and N-channel MOS transistors, was investigated for low dose gamma irradiation under different gate bias voltages. We used linear extrapolation method to extract threshold voltage from ID-VG characteristic curve. The results showed that the threshold voltage shift was approximately 27.5 mV/Gy for N-channel and 3.5 mV/Gy for P-channel transistors at the gate bias of |9 V| after irradiation by Co-60 gamma ray source. Although the sensitivity of the devices under test were strongly dependent to biasing condition and transistor type, the threshold voltage shifted linearly versus accumulated dose in all cases. The overall results show that the application of CD4007 as an electronic buffer in a radiation therapy system is limited by TID damage. However, this integrated circuit can be used as a cheap and sensitive radiation dosimeter for accumulated dose measurement in radiation therapy systems.

Keywords: threshold voltage shift, MOS transistor, linear extrapolation, gamma irradiation

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1078 Verb Bias in Mandarin: The Corpus Based Study of Children

Authors: Jou-An Chung

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to investigate the verb bias of the Mandarin verbs in children’s reading materials and provide the criteria for categorization. Verb bias varies cross-linguistically. As Mandarin and English are typological different, this study hopes to shed light on Mandarin verb bias with the use of corpus and provide thorough and detailed criteria for analysis. Moreover, this study focuses on children’s reading materials since it is a significant issue in understanding children’s sentence processing. Therefore, investigating verb bias of Mandarin verbs in children’s reading materials is also an important issue and can provide further insights into children’s sentence processing. The small corpus is built up for this study. The corpus consists of the collection of school textbooks and Mandarin Daily News for children. The files are then segmented and POS tagged by JiebaR (Chinese segmentation with R). For the ease of analysis, the one-word character verbs and intransitive verbs are excluded beforehand. The total of 20 high frequency verbs are hand-coded and are further categorized into one of the three types, namely DO type, SC type and other category. If the frequency of taking Other Type exceeds the threshold of 25%, the verb is excluded from the study. The results show that 10 verbs are direct object bias verbs, and six verbs are sentential complement bias verbs. The paired T-test was done to assure the statistical significance (p = 0.0001062 for DO bias verb, p=0.001149 for SC bias verb). The result has shown that in children’s reading materials, the DO biased verbs are used more than the SC bias verbs since the simplest structure of sentences is easier for children’s sentence comprehension or processing. In sum, this study not only discussed verb bias in child's reading materials but also provided basic coding criteria for verb bias analysis in Mandarin and underscored the role of context. Sentences are easier for children’s sentence comprehension or processing. In sum, this study not only discussed verb bias in child corpus, but also provided basic coding criteria for verb bias analysis in Mandarin and underscored the role of context.

Keywords: corpus linguistics, verb bias, child language, psycholinguistics

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1077 A Comparison of Bias Among Relaxed Divisor Methods Using 3 Bias Measurements

Authors: Sumachaya Harnsukworapanich, Tetsuo Ichimori

Abstract:

The apportionment method is used by many countries, to calculate the distribution of seats in political bodies. For example, this method is used in the United States (U.S.) to distribute house seats proportionally based on the population of the electoral district. Famous apportionment methods include the divisor methods called the Adams Method, Dean Method, Hill Method, Jefferson Method and Webster Method. Sometimes the results from the implementation of these divisor methods are unfair and include errors. Therefore, it is important to examine the optimization of this method by using a bias measurement to figure out precise and fair results. In this research we investigate the bias of divisor methods in the U.S. Houses of Representatives toward large and small states by applying the Stolarsky Mean Method. We compare the bias of the apportionment method by using two famous bias measurements: The Balinski and Young measurement and the Ernst measurement. Both measurements have a formula for large and small states. The Third measurement however, which was created by the researchers, did not factor in the element of large and small states into the formula. All three measurements are compared and the results show that our measurement produces similar results to the other two famous measurements.

Keywords: apportionment, bias, divisor, fair, measurement

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1076 Exploring Gender Bias in Self-Report Measures of Psychopathy

Authors: Katie Strong, Brian P. O'Connor, Jacqueline M. Kanippayoor

Abstract:

To date, self-report measures of psychopathy have largely been conceptualized with a male-focused understanding of the disorder, with the presumption that psychopathy expression is uniform across genders. However, generalizing this understanding to the female population may be misleading. The objective of this research was to explore gender differences in the expression of psychopathy and to assess current self-report psychopathy measures for gender bias. It was hypothesized that some items in commonly used measures of psychopathy may show gender bias and that existing measures may not contain enough items that are relevant to the manifestation of psychopathy in women. An exploratory investigation was conducted on statistical bias in common measures of psychopathy, and novel, relevant, but previously neglected items and measures were included in a new data collection. The participant pool included a sample of 403 university students and 354 participants recruited using Amazon Mechanical Turk. Item Response Theory methods - including Differential Item Functioning - were used to assess for the item- and test- level bias across several common self-report measures of psychopathy. Analyses indicated occasional and modest levels of item-level bias, and that some additional female-relevant items merit consideration for inclusion in measures of psychopathy. These findings suggest that current self-report measures of psychopathy may be demonstrating gender-bias and warrant further examination.

Keywords: gender, measurement bias, personality, psychopathy

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1075 Implicit Bias as One Obstacle to Gender Equity

Authors: Kellina Craig-Henderson

Abstract:

Today, there is increased attention to the role of social perceptions in the selection, hiring, and management of employees and the evaluation and promotion of students. In some contexts, where women or members of certain social groups have been historically underrepresented there is evidence that these perceptions reflect the implicit biases people harbor. Research in the social and psychological sciences reveals that implicit biases against women unfairly disadvantage them in academic and work settings. This presentation will provide an overview of the current state of knowledge on an implicit bias as well as the problems associated with it. How employers, educators and other evaluators can inoculate themselves from the pernicious effects of these biases will be considered.

Keywords: gender equity, implicit bias, social psychology, unconscious bias

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1074 Positive Bias and Length Bias in Deep Neural Networks for Premises Selection

Authors: Jiaqi Huang, Yuheng Wang

Abstract:

Premises selection, the task of selecting a set of axioms for proving a given conjecture, is a major bottleneck in automated theorem proving. An array of deep-learning-based methods has been established for premises selection, but a perfect performance remains challenging. Our study examines the inaccuracy of deep neural networks in premises selection. Through training network models using encoded conjecture and axiom pairs from the Mizar Mathematical Library, two potential biases are found: the network models classify more premises as necessary than unnecessary, referred to as the ‘positive bias’, and the network models perform better in proving conjectures that paired with more axioms, referred to as ‘length bias’. The ‘positive bias’ and ‘length bias’ discovered could inform the limitation of existing deep neural networks.

Keywords: automated theorem proving, premises selection, deep learning, interpreting deep learning

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1073 Cyclostationary Gaussian Linearization for Analyzing Nonlinear System Response Under Sinusoidal Signal and White Noise Excitation

Authors: R. J. Chang

Abstract:

A cyclostationary Gaussian linearization method is formulated for investigating the time average response of nonlinear system under sinusoidal signal and white noise excitation. The quantitative measure of cyclostationary mean, variance, spectrum of mean amplitude, and mean power spectral density of noise is analyzed. The qualitative response behavior of stochastic jump and bifurcation are investigated. The validity of the present approach in predicting the quantitative and qualitative statistical responses is supported by utilizing Monte Carlo simulations. The present analysis without imposing restrictive analytical conditions can be directly derived by solving non-linear algebraic equations. The analytical solution gives reliable quantitative and qualitative prediction of mean and noise response for the Duffing system subjected to both sinusoidal signal and white noise excitation.

Keywords: cyclostationary, duffing system, Gaussian linearization, sinusoidal, white noise

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1072 Design Data Sorter Circuit Using Insertion Sorting Algorithm

Authors: Hoda Abugharsa

Abstract:

In this paper we propose to design a sorter circuit using insertion sorting algorithm. The circuit will be designed using Algorithmic State Machines (ASM) method. That means converting the insertion sorting flowchart into an ASM chart. Then the ASM chart will be used to design the sorter circuit and the control unit.

Keywords: insert sorting algorithm, ASM chart, sorter circuit, state machine, control unit

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1071 An Application of Graph Theory to The Electrical Circuit Using Matrix Method

Authors: Samai'la Abdullahi

Abstract:

A graph is a pair of two set and so that a graph is a pictorial representation of a system using two basic element nodes and edges. A node is represented by a circle (either hallo shade) and edge is represented by a line segment connecting two nodes together. In this paper, we present a circuit network in the concept of graph theory application and also circuit models of graph are represented in logical connection method were we formulate matrix method of adjacency and incidence of matrix and application of truth table.

Keywords: euler circuit and path, graph representation of circuit networks, representation of graph models, representation of circuit network using logical truth table

Procedia PDF Downloads 433
1070 Simulation of Surge Protection for a Direct Current Circuit

Authors: Pedro Luis Ferrer Penalver, Edmundo da Silva Braga

Abstract:

In this paper, the performance of a simple surge protection for a direct current circuit was simulated. The protection circuit was developed from modified electric macro models of a gas discharge tube and a transient voltage suppressor diode. Moreover, a combination wave generator circuit was used as source of energy surges. The simulations showed that the circuit presented ensures immunity corresponding with test level IV of the IEC 61000-4-5:2014 international standard. The developed circuit can be modified to meet the requirements of any other equipment to be protected. Similarly, the parameters of the combination wave generator can be changed to provide different surge amplitudes.

Keywords: combination wave generator, IEC 61000-4-5, Pspice simulation, surge protection

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1069 An Algorithm to Compute the State Estimation of a Bilinear Dynamical Systems

Authors: Abdullah Eqal Al Mazrooei

Abstract:

In this paper, we introduce a mathematical algorithm which is used for estimating the states in the bilinear systems. This algorithm uses a special linearization of the second-order term by using the best available information about the state of the system. This technique makes our algorithm generalizes the well-known Kalman estimators. The system which is used here is of the bilinear class, the evolution of this model is linear-bilinear in the state of the system. Our algorithm can be used with linear and bilinear systems. We also here introduced a real application for the new algorithm to prove the feasibility and the efficiency for it.

Keywords: estimation algorithm, bilinear systems, Kakman filter, second order linearization

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1068 Realization of a Temperature Based Automatic Controlled Domestic Electric Boiling System

Authors: Shengqi Yu, Jinwei Zhao

Abstract:

This paper presents a kind of analog circuit based temperature control system, which is mainly composed by threshold control signal circuit, synchronization signal circuit and trigger pulse circuit. Firstly, the temperature feedback signal function is realized by temperature sensor TS503F3950E. Secondly, the main control circuit forms the cycle controlled pulse signal to control the thyristor switching model. Finally two reverse paralleled thyristors regulate the output power by their switching state. In the consequence, this is a modernized and energy-saving domestic electric heating system.

Keywords: time base circuit, automatic control, zero-crossing trigger, temperature control

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1067 Linearization of Y-Force Equation of Rigid Body Equation of Motion and Behavior of Fighter Aircraft under Imbalance Weight on Wings during Combat

Authors: Jawad Zakir, Syed Irtiza Ali Shah, Rana Shaharyar, Sidra Mahmood

Abstract:

Y-force equation comprises aerodynamic forces, drag and side force with side slip angle β and weight component along with the coupled roll (φ) and pitch angles (θ). This research deals with the linearization of Y-force equation using Small Disturbance theory assuming equilibrium flight conditions for different state variables of aircraft. By using assumptions of Small Disturbance theory in non-linear Y-force equation, finally reached at linearized lateral rigid body equation of motion; which says that in linearized Y-force equation, the lateral acceleration is dependent on the other different aerodynamic and propulsive forces like vertical tail, change in roll rate (Δp) from equilibrium, change in yaw rate (Δr) from equilibrium, change in lateral velocity due to side force, drag and side force components due to side slip, and the lateral equation from coupled rotating frame to decoupled rotating frame. This paper describes implementation of this lateral linearized equation for aircraft control systems. Another significant parameter considered on which y-force equation depends is ‘c’ which shows that any change bought in the weight of aircrafts wing will cause Δφ and cause lateral force i.e. Y_c. This simplification also leads to lateral static and dynamic stability. The linearization of equations is required because much of mathematics control system design for aircraft is based on linear equations. This technique is simple and eases the linearization of the rigid body equations of motion without using any high-speed computers.

Keywords: Y-force linearization, small disturbance theory, side slip, aerodynamic force drag, lateral rigid body equation of motion

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1066 The Aspect of the Human Bias in Decision Making within Quality Management Systems and LEAN Theory

Authors: Adriana Avila Zuniga Nordfjeld

Abstract:

This paper provides a literature review to document the state of the art with respect to handling 'human bias' in decision making within the established quality management systems (QMS) and LEAN theory, in the context of shipbuilding. Previous research shows that in shipbuilding there is a huge deviation from the planned man-hours under the project management to the actual man-hours used because of errors in planning and reworks caused by human bias in the information flows among others. This reduces the efficiency and increases operational costs. Thus, the research question is how QMS and LEAN handle biases. The findings show the gap in studying the integration of methods to handle human bias in decision making into QMS and lean, not only within shipbuilding but also in general. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed for researchers and practitioners in the areas of decision making QMS, LEAN, and future research is suggested.

Keywords: human bias, decision making, LEAN shipbuilding, quality management systems

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1065 Biases in Numerically Invariant Joint Signatures

Authors: Reza Aghayan

Abstract:

This paper illustrates that numerically invariant joint signatures suffer biases in the resulting signatures. Next, we classify the arising biases as Bias Type 1 and Bias Type 2 and show how they can be removed.

Keywords: Euclidean and affine geometries, differential invariant signature curves, numerically invariant joint signatures, numerical analysis, numerical bias, curve analysis

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1064 Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor-Only Process Corner Monitoring Circuit

Authors: Davit Mirzoyan, Ararat Khachatryan

Abstract:

A process corner monitoring circuit (PCMC) is presented in this work. The circuit generates a signal, the logical value of which depends on the process corner only. The signal can be used in both digital and analog circuits for testing and compensation of process variations (PV). The presented circuit uses only metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) transistors, which allow increasing its detection accuracy, decrease power consumption and area. Due to its simplicity the presented circuit can be easily modified to monitor parametrical variations of only n-type and p-type MOS (NMOS and PMOS, respectively) transistors, resistors, as well as their combinations. Post-layout simulation results prove correct functionality of the proposed circuit, i.e. ability to monitor the process corner (equivalently die-to-die variations) even in the presence of within-die variations.

Keywords: detection, monitoring, process corner, process variation

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1063 Stabilization of Displaced Periodic Orbit Using Feedback Linearization Control Scheme

Authors: Arun Kumar Yadav, Badam Singh Kushvah

Abstract:

In the present work, we investigated displaced periodic orbits in the linear order in the circular restricted three-body Sun-Jupiter system, where the third mass-less body utilizes solar electric sail. The electric solar sail is a new space propulsion concept which uses the solar wind momentum for producing thrust, and it is somewhat like to the more well-known solar radiation pressure sail which is often called simply the solar sail. Moreover, we implement the feedback linearization control scheme to perform the stabilization and trajectory tracking for the nonlinear system. Further, we derived periodic orbits analytically in linear order by introducing a first order approximation. These approximate analytic solutions are utilized in a numerical search to determine displaced periodic orbit in the full nonlinear model. We found the displaced periodic orbit for the defined non-linear model and stabilized the model.

Keywords: solar electric sail, circular restricted three-body problem (CRTBP), displaced orbit, feedback linearization control

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1062 Bit Error Rate Monitoring for Automatic Bias Control of Quadrature Amplitude Modulators

Authors: Naji Ali Albakay, Abdulrahman Alothaim, Isa Barshushi

Abstract:

The most common quadrature amplitude modulator (QAM) applies two Mach-Zehnder Modulators (MZM) and one phase shifter to generate high order modulation format. The bias of MZM changes over time due to temperature, vibration, and aging factors. The change in the biasing causes distortion to the generated QAM signal which leads to deterioration of bit error rate (BER) performance. Therefore, it is critical to be able to lock MZM’s Q point to the required operating point for good performance. We propose a technique for automatic bias control (ABC) of QAM transmitter using BER measurements and gradient descent optimization algorithm. The proposed technique is attractive because it uses the pertinent metric, BER, which compensates for bias drifting independently from other system variations such as laser source output power. The proposed scheme performance and its operating principles are simulated using OptiSystem simulation software for 4-QAM and 16-QAM transmitters.

Keywords: automatic bias control, optical fiber communication, optical modulation, optical devices

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1061 The Development of Local-Global Perceptual Bias across Cultures: Examining the Effects of Gender, Education, and Urbanisation

Authors: Helen J. Spray, Karina J. Linnell

Abstract:

Local-global bias in adulthood is strongly dependent on environmental factors and a global bias is not the universal characteristic of adult perception it was once thought to be: whilst Western adults typically demonstrate a global bias, Namibian adults living in traditional villages possess a strong local bias. Furthermore, environmental effects on local-global bias have been shown to be highly gender-specific; whereas urbanisation promoted a global bias in urbanised Namibian women but not men, education promoted a global bias in urbanised Namibian men but not women. Adult populations, however, provide only a snapshot of the gene-environment interactions which shape perceptual bias. Yet, to date, there has been little work on the development of local-global bias across environmental settings. In the current study, local-global bias was assessed using a similarity-matching task with Navon figures in children aged between 4 and 15 years from across three populations: traditional Namibians, urban Namibians, and urban British. For the two Namibian groups, measures of urbanisation and education were obtained. Data were subjected to both between-group and within-group analyses. Between-group analyses compared developmental trajectories across population and gender. These analyses revealed a global bias from even as early as 4 in the British sample, and showed that the developmental onset of a global bias is not fixed. Urbanised Namibian children ultimately developed a global bias that was indistinguishable from British children; however, a global bias did not emerge until much later in development. For all populations, the greatest developmental effects were observed directly following the onset of formal education. No overall gender effects were observed; however, there was a significant gender by age interaction which was difficult to reconcile with existing biological-level accounts of gender differences in the development of local-global bias. Within-group analyses compared the effects of urbanisation and education on local-global bias for traditional and urban Namibian boys and girls separately. For both traditional and urban boys, education mediated all effects of age and urbanisation; however, this was not the case for girls. Traditional Namibian girls retained a local bias regardless of age, education, or urbanisation, and in urbanised girls, the development of a global bias was not attributable to any one factor specifically. These results are broadly consistent with aforementioned findings that education promoted a global bias in urbanised Namibian men but not women. The development of local-global bias does not follow a fixed trajectory but is subject to environmental control. Understanding how variability in the development of local-global bias might arise, particularly in the context of gender, may have far-reaching implications. For example, a number of educationally important cognitive functions (e.g., spatial ability) are known to show consistent gender differences in childhood and local-global bias may mediate some of these effects. With education becoming an increasingly prevalent force across much of the developing world it will be important to understand the processes that underpin its effects and their implications.

Keywords: cross-cultural, development, education, gender, local-global bias, perception, urbanisation, urbanization

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1060 The Effects of Applied Negative Bias Voltage on Structure and Optical Properties of a-C:H Films

Authors: X. L. Zhou, S. Tunmee, I. Toda, K. Komatsu, S. Ohshio, H. Saitoh

Abstract:

Hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) films have been synthesized by a radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (rf-PECVD) technique with different bias voltage from 0.0 to -0.5 kV. The Raman spectra displayed the polymer-like hydrogenated amorphous carbon (PLCH) film with 0.0 to -0.1 and a-C:H films with -0.2 to -0.5 kV of bias voltages. The surface chemical information of all films were studied by X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS) technique, presented to C-C (sp2 and sp3) and C-O bonds, and relative carbon (C) and oxygen (O) atomics contents. The O contamination had affected on structure and optical properties. The true density of PLCH and a-C:H films were characterized by X-ray refractivity (XRR) method, showed the result as in the range of 1.16-1.73 g/cm3 that depending on an increasing of bias voltage. The hardness was proportional to the true density of films. In addition, the optical properties i.e. refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k) of these films were determined by a spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) method that give formation to in 1.62-2.10 (n) and 0.04-0.15 (k) respectively. These results indicated that the optical properties confirmed the Raman results as presenting the structure changed with applied bias voltage increased.

Keywords: negative bias voltage, a-C:H film, oxygen contamination, optical properties

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1059 Electrical Dault Detection of Photovoltaic System: A Short-Circuit Fault Case

Authors: Moustapha H. Ibrahim, Dahir Abdourahman

Abstract:

This document presents a short-circuit fault detection process in a photovoltaic (PV) system. The proposed method is developed in MATLAB/Simulink. It determines whatever the size of the installation number of the short circuit module. The proposed algorithm indicates the presence or absence of an abnormality on the power of the PV system through measures of hourly global irradiation, power output, and ambient temperature. In case a fault is detected, it displays the number of modules in a short circuit. This fault detection method has been successfully tested on two different PV installations.

Keywords: PV system, short-circuit, fault detection, modelling, MATLAB-Simulink

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