Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

Search results for: PEDOT:PSS

20 Controlled Conductivity of Poly (3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene): Poly (4-Styrene Sulfonate) Composites with Polyester

Authors: Kazui Sasakii, Seira Mormune-Moriya, Hiroaki Tanahashi, Shigeji Kongaya


Poly (3.4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly (4-styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT: PSS) attracted a great deal of attention because of its unique characteristics of flexibility, optical properties, heat resistance and colloidal dispersion in water. It is well known that when high boiling solvents such as ethylene glycol or dimethyl sulfoxide are added as a secondary dopant to the micellar structure, PEDOT microcrystallizes and becomes highly conductive. In previous study bis(4-hydroxyphenyl) sulfone (BPS) was used as a secondary dopant for PEDOT:PSS and the enhancement of the conductivity was revealed. However, ductility is one of the serious issues which limited the application of PEDOT:PSS/BPS. So far, the composition with polymer binders has been conducted, however, polymer binders decrease the conductivity of the materials. In this study, PEDOT: PSS composites with polyester (PEs) were prepared by a simple aqueous process using PEs emulsion. The structural studies revealed that PEDOT:PSS and PEs were homogeneously distributed in the composites. It was found that the properties of PEDOT:PSS were remarkably enhanced by the incorporation of PEs. According to the tensile test, the ductility of PEDOT:PSS was remarkably improved. Interestingly, the conductivity of PEDOT:PSS/PEs composites was higher than that of neat PEDOT:PSS. For example, the conductivity increased by 8% at PEs content of 25 wt%. Since PEDOT:PSS were homogeneously dispersed on the surface of PEs particles, it was assumed that the conductive pathway was constructed by PEs particles in the nanocomposites. Therefore, a significant increase in conductivity was achieved.

Keywords: polymer composites, conductivity, PEDOT:PSS, polyester

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19 Highly Stretchable, Intelligent and Conductive PEDOT/PU Nanofibers Based on Electrospinning and in situ Polymerization

Authors: Kun Qi, Yuman Zhou, Jianxin He


A facile fabrication strategy via electrospinning and followed by in situ polymerization to fabricate a highly stretchable and conductive Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/Polyurethane (PEDOT/PU) nanofibrous membrane is reported. PU nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning and then PEDOT was coated on the plasma modified PU nanofiber surface via in-situ polymerization to form flexible PEDOT/PU composite nanofibers with conductivity. The results show PEDOT is successfully synthesized on the surface of PU nanofiber and PEDOT/PU composite nanofibers possess skin-core structure. Furthermore, the experiments indicate the optimal technological parameters of the polymerization process are as follow: The concentration of EDOT monomers is 50 mmol/L, the polymerization time is 24 h and the temperature is 25℃. The PEDOT/PU nanofibers exhibit excellent electrical conductivity ( 27.4 S/cm). In addition, flexible sensor made from conductive PEDOT/PU nanofibers shows highly sensitive response towards tensile strain and also can be used to detect finger motion. The results demonstrate promising application of the as-obtained nanofibrous membrane in flexible wearable electronic fields.

Keywords: electrospinning, polyurethane, PEDOT, conductive nanofiber, flexible senor

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18 The Effect of Acid Treatment of PEDOT: PSS Anode for Organic Solar Cells

Authors: Ismail Borazan, Ayse Celik Bedeloglu, Ali Demir, David Carroll


In this project, PEDOT:PSS layer was treated with formic acid, sulphuric acid, and hydrochloric acid, methanol, acetone, and dichlorobenzene:methanol. The resistivity measurements with 2-probes were carried out and the best-chosen method was employed to make an organic solar cell device.

Keywords: organic solar cells, PEDOT:PSS, polymer electrodes, resistivity

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17 Iron(III)-Tosylate Doped PEDOT and PEG: A Nanoscale Conductivity Study of an Electrochemical System with Biosensing Applications

Authors: Giulio Rosati, Luciano Sappia, Rossana Madrid, Noemi Rozlòsnik


The addition of PEG of different molecular weights has important effects on the physical, electrical and electrochemical properties of iron(III)-tosylate doped PEDOT. This particular polymer can be easily spin coated over plastic discs, optimizing thickness and uniformity of the PEDOT-PEG films. The conductivity and morphological analysis of the hybrid PEDOT-PEG polymer by 4-point probe (4PP), 12-point probe (12PP), and conductive AFM (C-AFM) show strong effects of the PEG doping. Moreover, the conductive films kinetics at the nanoscale, in response to different bias voltages, change radically depending on the PEG molecular weight. The hybrid conductive films show also interesting electrochemical properties, making the PEDOT PEG doping appealing for biosensing applications both for EIS-based and amperometric affinity/catalytic biosensors.

Keywords: atomic force microscopy, biosensors, four-point probe, nano-films, PEDOT

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16 A Fabrication Method for PEDOT: PSS Based Humidity Sensor

Authors: Nazia Tarannum, M. Ayaz Ahmad


The main goal of this article is to report some interesting features for the fabrication/design of PEDOT:PSS based humidity sensor. Here first we fabricated humidity sensor and then studied its electro-mechanical characteristics. In general the humidity plays an important role in various private and government sectors all over the world. Monitoring and controlling the humidity is a great task for the reliable operation of various systems. The PEDOT:PSS is very much promising humidity sensor and also is fabricated by performing various analyses. The interdigited electrode (IDE) has channel length 200 microns prepared by lithography. Lithography of IDE was done on PPR coated glass substrate using negative mask and exposing it with UV light for 10 secs via DSA. During the above said fabrication, we have taken account for the following steps: •Plasma ashing of IDE •Spincoating of PEDOT:PSS was done @3000 rpm on IDE substrace •Baked the substrace at 130 °C up to time limit 15 mins. •Resistance measurement using Labtracer 2.9 software via Keithley 2400source meter.

Keywords: fabrication method, PEDOT:PSS material, humidity sensor, electro-mechanical

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15 Fabrication of Graphene Oxide Based Planar Hetero-Junction Perovskite Solar Cells

Authors: Khursheed Ahmad, Shaikh M. Mobin


In this work, we have developed a highly stable planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells (PSCs) with a architecture (ITO/GO/PEDOT:PSS/MAPbI3/PCBM/Carbon tape). The PSCs was fabricated under air using GO/PEDOT:PSS as hole transport layer while the carbon tape used as a back contact to complete the device. The fabricated PSCs device exhibited good stability and performance in terms of power conversion efficiency of 5.2%. The PSCs devices were exposed to ambient condition for 4 days which shows excellent stability confirmed by XRD analysis. We believed that the stability of the planar heterojunction perovskite solar cell may be due the presence of GO which inhibits the direct contact between PEDOT:PSS and MAPbI3.

Keywords: graphene oxide, perovskite solar cells, hole transport layer, PEDOT:PSS

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14 Effect of Chemical Concentration on the Rheology of Inks for Inkjet Printing

Authors: M. G. Tadesse, J. Yu, Y. Chen, L. Wang, V. Nierstrasz, C. Loghin


Viscosity and surface tension are the fundamental rheological property of an ink for inkjet printing. In this work, we optimized the viscosity and surface tension of inkjet inks by varying the concentration of glycerol with water, PEDOT:PSS with glycerol and water, finally by adding the surfactant. The surface resistance of the sample was characterized by four-probe measurement principle. The change in volume of PEDOT:PSS in water, as well as the change in weight of glycerol in water has got a great influence on the viscosity on both temperature dependence and shear dependence behavior of the ink solution. The surface tension of the solution changed from 37 to 28 mN/m due to the addition of Triton. Varying the volume of PEDOT:PSS and the volume of glycerol in water has a great influence on the viscosity of the ink solution for inkjet printing. Viscosity drops from 12.5 to 9.5 mPa s with the addition of Triton at 25 oC. The PEDOT:PSS solution was found to be temperature dependence but not shear dependence as it is a Newtonian fluid. The sample was used to connect the light emitting diode (LED), and hence the electrical conductivity, with a surface resistance of 0.158 KΩ/square, was sufficient enough to give transfer current for LED lamp. The rheology of the inkjet ink is very critical for the successful droplet formation of the inkjet printing.

Keywords: shear rate, surface tension, surfactant, viscosity

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13 In-Vitro Evaluation of the Long-Term Stability of PEDOT:PSS Coated Microelectrodes for Chronic Recording and Electrical Stimulation

Authors: A. Schander, T. Tessmann, H. Stemmann, S. Strokov, A. Kreiter, W. Lang


For the chronic application of neural prostheses and other brain-computer interfaces, long-term stable microelectrodes for electrical stimulation are essential. In recent years many developments were done to investigate different appropriate materials for these electrodes. One of these materials is the electrical conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), which has lower impedance and higher charge injection capacity compared to noble metals like gold and platinum. However the long-term stability of this polymer is still unclear. Thus this paper reports on the in-vitro evaluation of the long-term stability of PEDOT coated gold microelectrodes. For this purpose a highly flexible electrocorticography (ECoG) electrode array, based on the polymer polyimide, is used. This array consists of circular gold electrodes with a diameter of 560 µm (0.25 mm2). In total 25 electrodes of this array were coated simultaneously with the polymer PEDOT:PSS in a cleanroom environment using a galvanostatic electropolymerization process. After the coating the array is additionally sterilized using a steam sterilization process (121°C, 1 bar, 20.5 min) to simulate autoclaving prior to the implantation of such an electrode array. The long-term measurements were performed in phosphate-buffered saline solution (PBS, pH 7.4) at the constant body temperature of 37°C. For the in-vitro electrical stimulation a one channel bipolar current stimulator is used. The stimulation protocol consists of a bipolar current amplitude of 5 mA (cathodal phase first), a pulse duration of 100 µs per phase, a pulse pause of 50 µs and a frequency of 1 kHz. A PEDOT:PSS coated gold electrode with an area of 1 cm2 serves as the counter electrode. The electrical stimulation is performed continuously with a total amount of 86.4 million bipolar current pulses per day. The condition of the PEDOT coated electrodes is monitored in between with electrical impedance spectroscopy measurements. The results of this study demonstrate that the PEDOT coated electrodes are stable for more than 3.6 billion bipolar current pulses. Also the unstimulated electrodes show currently no degradation after the time period of 5 months. These results indicate an appropriate long-term stability of this electrode coating for chronic recording and electrical stimulation. The long-term measurements are still continuing to investigate the life limit of this electrode coating.

Keywords: chronic recording, electrical stimulation, long-term stability, microelectrodes, PEDOT

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12 Poly (3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene) Prepared by Vapor Phase Polymerization for Stimuli-Responsive Ion-Exchange Drug Delivery

Authors: M. Naveed Yasin, Robert Brooke, Andrew Chan, Geoffrey I. N. Waterhouse, Drew Evans, Darren Svirskis, Ilva D. Rupenthal


Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) is a robust conducting polymer (CP) exhibiting high conductivity and environmental stability. It can be synthesized by either chemical, electrochemical or vapour phase polymerization (VPP). Dexamethasone sodium phosphate (dexP) is an anionic drug molecule which has previously been loaded onto PEDOT as a dopant via electrochemical polymerisation; however this technique requires conductive surfaces from which polymerization is initiated. On the other hand, VPP produces highly organized biocompatible CP structures while polymerization can be achieved onto a range of surfaces with a relatively straight forward scale-up process. Following VPP of PEDOT, dexP can be loaded and subsequently released via ion-exchange. This study aimed at preparing and characterising both non-porous and porous VPP PEDOT structures including examining drug loading and release via ion-exchange. Porous PEDOT structures were prepared by first depositing a sacrificial polystyrene (PS) colloidal template on a substrate, heat curing this deposition and then spin coating it with the oxidant solution (iron tosylate) at 1500 rpm for 20 sec. VPP of both porous and non-porous PEDOT was achieved by exposing to monomer vapours in a vacuum oven at 40 mbar and 40 °C for 3 hrs. Non-porous structures were prepared similarly on the same substrate but without any sacrificial template. Surface morphology, compositions and behaviour were then characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) respectively. Drug loading was achieved by 50 CV cycles in a 0.1 M dexP aqueous solution. For drug release, each sample was exposed to 20 mL of phosphate buffer saline (PBS) placed in a water bath operating at 37 °C and 100 rpm. Film was stimulated (continuous pulse of ± 1 V at 0.5 Hz for 17 mins) while immersed into PBS. Samples were collected at 1, 2, 6, 23, 24, 26 and 27 hrs and were analysed for dexP by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC Agilent 1200 series). AFM and SEM revealed the honey comb nature of prepared porous structures. XPS data showed the elemental composition of the dexP loaded film surface, which related well with that of PEDOT and also showed that one dexP molecule was present per almost three EDOT monomer units. The reproducible electroactive nature was shown by several cycles of reduction and oxidation via CV. Drug release revealed success in drug loading via ion-exchange, with stimulated porous and non-porous structures exhibiting a proof of concept burst release upon application of an electrical stimulus. A similar drug release pattern was observed for porous and non-porous structures without any significant statistical difference, possibly due to the thin nature of these structures. To our knowledge, this is the first report to explore the potential of VPP prepared PEDOT for stimuli-responsive drug delivery via ion-exchange. The produced porous structures were ordered and highly porous as indicated by AFM and SEM. These porous structures exhibited good electroactivity as shown by CV. Future work will investigate porous structures as nano-reservoirs to increase drug loading while sealing these structures to minimize spontaneous drug leakage.

Keywords: PEDOT for ion-exchange drug delivery, stimuli-responsive drug delivery, template based porous PEDOT structures, vapour phase polymerization of PEDOT

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11 Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Doped Poly (3,4 Ethylenedioxythiophene) Composites Based Electrochemical Nano-Biosensor for Organophosphate Detection

Authors: Navpreet Kaur, Himkusha Thakur, Nirmal Prabhakar


One of the most publicized and controversial issue in crop production is the use of agrichemicals- also known as pesticides. This is evident in many reports that Organophosphate (OP) insecticides, among the broad range of pesticides are mainly involved in acute and chronic poisoning cases. Therefore, detection of OPs is very necessary for health protection, food and environmental safety. In our study, a nanocomposite of poly (3,4 ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) has been deposited electrochemically onto the surface of fluorine doped tin oxide sheets (FTO) for the analysis of malathion OP. The -COOH functionalization of MWCNTs has been done for the covalent binding with amino groups of AChE enzyme. The use of PEDOT-MWCNT films exhibited an excellent conductivity, enables fast transfer kinetics and provided a favourable biocompatible microenvironment for AChE, for the significant malathion OP detection. The prepared PEDOT-MWCNT/FTO and AChE/PEDOT-MWCNT/FTO nano-biosensors were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), Field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and electrochemical studies. Electrochemical studies were done using Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) or Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). Various optimization studies were done for different parameters including pH (7.5), AChE concentration (50 mU), substrate concentration (0.3 mM) and inhibition time (10 min). The detection limit for malathion OP was calculated to be 1 fM within the linear range 1 fM to 1 µM. The activity of inhibited AChE enzyme was restored to 98% of its original value by 2-pyridine aldoxime methiodide (2-PAM) (5 mM) treatment for 11 min. The oxime 2-PAM is able to remove malathion from the active site of AChE by means of trans-esterification reaction. The storage stability and reusability of the prepared nano-biosensor is observed to be 30 days and seven times, respectively. The application of the developed nano-biosensor has also been evaluated for spiked lettuce sample. Recoveries of malathion from the spiked lettuce sample ranged between 96-98%. The low detection limit obtained by the developed nano-biosensor made them reliable, sensitive and a low cost process.

Keywords: PEDOT-MWCNT, malathion, organophosphates, acetylcholinesterase, nano-biosensor, oxime (2-PAM)

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10 Charge Transport of Individual Thermoelectric Bi₂Te₃ Core-Poly(3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene):Polystyrenesulfonate Shell Nanowires Determined Using Conductive Atomic Force Microscopy and Spectroscopy

Authors: W. Thongkham, K. Sinthiptharakoon, K. Tantisantisom, A. Klamchuen, P. Khanchaitit, K. Jiramitmongkon, C. Lertsatitthanakorn, M. Liangruksa


Due to demands of sustainable energy, thermoelectricity converting waste heat into electrical energy has become one of the intensive fields of worldwide research. However, such harvesting technology has shown low device performance in the temperature range below 150℃. In this work, a hybrid nanowire of inorganic bismuth telluride (Bi₂Te₃) and organic poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) synthesized using a simple in-situ one-pot synthesis, enhancing efficiency of the nanowire-incorporated PEDOT:PSS-based thermoelectric converter is highlighted. Since the improvement is ascribed to the increased electrical conductivity of the thermoelectric host material, the individual hybrid nanowires are investigated using voltage-dependent conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM) and spectroscopy (CAFS) considering that the electrical transport measurement can be performed either on insulating or conducting areas of the sample. Correlated with detailed chemical information on the crystalline structure and compositional profile of the nanowire core-shell structure, an electrical transporting pathway through the nanowire and the corresponding electronic-band structure have been determined, in which the native oxide layer on the Bi₂Te₃ surface is not considered, and charge conduction on the topological surface states of Bi₂Te₃ is suggested. Analyzing the core-shell nanowire synthesized using the conventional mixing of as-prepared Bi₂Te₃ nanowire with PEDOT:PSS for comparison, the oxide-removal effect of the in-situ encapsulating polymeric layer is further supported. The finding not only provides a structural information for mechanistic determination of the thermoelectricity, but it also encourages new approach toward more appropriate encapsulation and consequently higher efficiency of the nanowire-based thermoelectric generation.

Keywords: electrical transport measurement, hybrid Bi₂Te₃-PEDOT:PSS nanowire, nanoencapsulation, thermoelectricity, topological insulator

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9 Blade-Coating Deposition of Semiconducting Polymer Thin Films: Light-To-Heat Converters

Authors: M. Lehtihet, S. Rosado, C. Pradère, J. Leng


Poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT: PSS), is a polymer mixture well-known for its semiconducting properties and is widely used in the coating industry for its visible transparency and high electronic conductivity (up to 4600 S/cm) as a transparent non-metallic electrode and in organic light-emitting diodes (OLED). It also possesses strong absorption properties in the Near Infra-Red (NIR) range (λ ranging between 900 nm to 2.5 µm). In the present work, we take advantage of this absorption to explore its potential use as a transparent light-to-heat converter. PEDOT: PSS aqueous dispersions are deposited onto a glass substrate using a blade-coating technique in order to produce uniform coatings with controlled thicknesses ranging in ≈ 400 nm to 2 µm. Blade-coating technique allows us good control of the deposit thickness and uniformity by the tuning of several experimental conditions (blade velocity, evaporation rate, temperature, etc…). This liquid coating technique is a well-known, non-expensive technique to realize thin film coatings on various substrates. For coatings on glass substrates destined to solar insulation applications, the ideal coating would be made of a material able to transmit all the visible range while reflecting the NIR range perfectly, but materials possessing similar properties still have unsatisfactory opacity in the visible too (for example, titanium dioxide nanoparticles). NIR absorbing thin films is a more realistic alternative for such an application. Under solar illumination, PEDOT: PSS thin films heat up due to absorption of NIR light and thus act as planar heaters while maintaining good transparency in the visible range. Whereas they screen some NIR radiation, they also generate heat which is then conducted into the substrate that re-emits this energy by thermal emission in every direction. In order to quantify the heating power of these coatings, a sample (coating on glass) is placed in a black enclosure and illuminated with a solar simulator, a lamp emitting a calibrated radiation very similar to the solar spectrum. The temperature of the rear face of the substrate is measured in real-time using thermocouples and a black-painted Peltier sensor measures the total entering flux (sum of transmitted and re-emitted fluxes). The heating power density of the thin films is estimated from a model of the thin film/glass substrate describing the system, and we estimate the Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC) to quantify the light-to-heat conversion efficiency of such systems. Eventually, the effect of additives such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or optical scatterers (particles) on the performances are also studied, as the first one can alter the IR absorption properties of PEDOT: PSS drastically and the second one can increase the apparent optical path of light within the thin film material.

Keywords: PEDOT: PSS, blade-coating, heat, thin-film, Solar spectrum

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
8 An Electrochemical Enzymatic Biosensor Based on Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Poly (3,4 Ethylenedioxythiophene) Nanocomposites for Organophosphate Detection

Authors: Navpreet Kaur, Himkusha Thakur, Nirmal Prabhakar


The most controversial issue in crop production is the use of Organophosphate insecticides. This is evident in many reports that Organophosphate (OP) insecticides, among the broad range of pesticides are mainly involved in acute and chronic poisoning cases. OPs detection is of crucial importance for health protection, food and environmental safety. In our study, a nanocomposite of poly (3,4 ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) has been deposited electrochemically onto the surface of fluorine doped tin oxide sheets (FTO) for the analysis of malathion OP. The -COOH functionalization of MWCNTs has been done for the covalent binding with amino groups of AChE enzyme. The use of PEDOT-MWCNT films exhibited an excellent conductivity, enables fast transfer kinetics and provided a favourable biocompatible microenvironment for AChE, for the significant malathion OP detection. The prepared biosensors were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), Field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and electrochemical studies. Various optimization studies were done for different parameters including pH (7.5), AChE concentration (50 mU), substrate concentration (0.3 mM) and inhibition time (10 min). Substrate kinetics has been performed and studied for the determination of Michaelis Menten constant. The detection limit for malathion OP was calculated to be 1 fM within the linear range 1 fM to 1 µM. The activity of inhibited AChE enzyme was restored to 98% of its original value by 2-pyridine aldoxime methiodide (2-PAM) (5 mM) treatment for 11 min. The oxime 2-PAM is able to remove malathion from the active site of AChE by means of trans-esterification reaction. The storage stability and reusability of the prepared biosensor is observed to be 30 days and seven times, respectively. The application of the developed biosensor has also been evaluated for spiked lettuce sample. Recoveries of malathion from the spiked lettuce sample ranged between 96-98%. The low detection limit obtained by the developed biosensor made them reliable, sensitive and a low cost process.

Keywords: PEDOT-MWCNT, malathion, organophosphates, acetylcholinesterase, biosensor, oxime (2-PAM)

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
7 Zinc Oxide Nanorods Decorated Nanofibers Based Flexible Electrodes for Capacitive Energy Storage Applications

Authors: Syed Kamran Sami, Saqib Siddiqui


In recent times, flexible supercapacitors retaining high electrochemical performance and steadiness along with mechanical endurance has developed as a spring of attraction due to the exponential progress and innovations in energy storage devices. To meet the rampant increasing demand of energy storage device with the small form factor, a unique, low cost and high-performance supercapacitor with considerably higher capacitance and mechanical robustness is required to recognize their real-life applications. Here in this report, synthesis route of electrode materials with low rigidity and high charge storage performance is reported using 1D-1D hybrid structure of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods, and conductive polymer smeared polyvinylidene fluoride–trifluoroethylene (P(VDF–TrFE)) electrospun nanofibers. The ZnO nanorods were uniformly grown on poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT: PSS) coated P(VDF-TrFE) nanofibers using hydrothermal growth to manufacture light weight, permeable electrodes for supercapacitor. The PEDOT: PSS coated P(VDF-TrFE) porous web of nanofibers act as framework with high surface area. The incorporation of ZnO nanorods further boost the specific capacitance by 59%. The symmetric device using the fabricated 1D-1D hybrid electrodes reveals fairly high areal capacitance of 1.22mF/cm² at a current density of 0.1 mA/cm² with a power density of more than 1600 W/Kg. Moreover, the fabricated electrodes show exceptional flexibility and high endurance with 90% and 76% specific capacitance retention after 1000 and 5000 cycles respectively signifying the astonishing mechanical durability and long-term stability. All the properties exhibited by the fabricated electrode make it convenient for making flexible energy storage devices with the low form factor.

Keywords: ZnO nanorods, electrospinning, mechanical endurance, flexible supercapacitor

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6 Morphology Study of Inverted Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells in Sequential Deposition

Authors: Asmat Nawaz, Ali Koray Erdinc, Burak Gultekin, Muhammad Tayyib, Ceylan Zafer, Kaiying Wang, M. Nadeem Akram


In this study, a sequential deposition process is used for the fabrication of PEDOT: PSS based inverted planar perovskite solar cell. A small amount of additive deionized water (DI-H2O) was added into PbI2 + Dimethyl formamide (DMF) precursor solution in order to increase the solubility of PbI2 in DMF, and finally to manipulate the surface morphology of the perovskite films. A morphology transition from needle like structure to hexagonal plates, and then needle-like again has been observed as the DI-H2O was added continuously (0.0 wt% to 3.0wt%). The latter one leads to full surface coverage of the perovskite, which is essential for high performance solar cell.

Keywords: charge carrier diffusion lengths, Methylamonium lead iodide, precursor composition, perovskite solar cell, sequential deposition

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5 Improved Morphology in Sequential Deposition of the Inverted Type Planar Heterojunction Solar Cells Using Cheap Additive (DI-H₂O)

Authors: Asmat Nawaz, Ceylan Zafer, Ali K. Erdinc, Kaiying Wang, M. Nadeem Akram


Hybrid halide Perovskites with the general formula ABX₃, where X = Cl, Br or I, are considered as an ideal candidates for the preparation of photovoltaic devices. The most commonly and successfully used hybrid halide perovskite for photovoltaic applications is CH₃NH₃PbI₃ and its analogue prepared from lead chloride, commonly symbolized as CH₃NH₃PbI₃_ₓClₓ. Some researcher groups are using lead free (Sn replaces Pb) and mixed halide perovskites for the fabrication of the devices. Both mesoporous and planar structures have been developed. By Comparing mesoporous structure in which the perovskite materials infiltrate into mesoporous metal oxide scaffold, the planar architecture is much simpler and easy for device fabrication. In a typical perovskite solar cell, a perovskite absorber layer is sandwiched between the hole and electron transport. Upon the irradiation, carriers are created in the absorber layer that can travel through hole and electron transport layers and the interface in between. We fabricated inverted planar heterojunction structure ITO/PEDOT/ Perovskite/PCBM/Al, based solar cell via two-step spin coating method. This is also called Sequential deposition method. A small amount of cheap additive H₂O was added into PbI₂/DMF to make a homogeneous solution. We prepared four different solution such as (W/O H₂O, 1% H₂O, 2% H₂O, 3% H₂O). After preparing, the whole night stirring at 60℃ is essential for the homogenous precursor solutions. We observed that the solution with 1% H₂O was much more homogenous at room temperature as compared to others. The solution with 3% H₂O was precipitated at once at room temperature. The four different films of PbI₂ were formed on PEDOT substrates by spin coating and after that immediately (before drying the PbI₂) the substrates were immersed in the methyl ammonium iodide solution (prepared in isopropanol) for the completion of the desired perovskite film. After getting desired films, rinse the substrates with isopropanol to remove the excess amount of methyl ammonium iodide and finally dried it on hot plate only for 1-2 minutes. In this study, we added H₂O in the PbI₂/DMF precursor solution. The concept of additive is widely used in the bulk- heterojunction solar cells to manipulate the surface morphology, leading to the enhancement of the photovoltaic performance. There are two most important parameters for the selection of additives. (a) Higher boiling point w.r.t host material (b) good interaction with the precursor materials. We observed that the morphology of the films was improved and we achieved a denser, uniform with less cavities and almost full surface coverage films but only using precursor solution having 1% H₂O. Therefore, we fabricated the complete perovskite solar cell by sequential deposition technique with precursor solution having 1% H₂O. We concluded that with the addition of additives in the precursor solutions one can easily be manipulate the morphology of the perovskite film. In the sequential deposition method, thickness of perovskite film is in µm and the charge diffusion length of PbI₂ is in nm. Therefore, by controlling the thickness using other deposition methods for the fabrication of solar cells, we can achieve the better efficiency.

Keywords: methylammonium lead iodide, perovskite solar cell, precursor composition, sequential deposition

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4 Polyvinyl Alcohol Processed Templated Polyaniline Films: Preparation, Characterization and Assessment of Tensile Strength

Authors: J. Subbalakshmi, G. Dhruvasamhith, S. M. Hussain


Polyaniline (PANI) is one of the most extensively studied material among the conducting polymers due to its simple synthesis by chemical and electrochemical routes. PANIs have advantages of chemical stability and high conductivity making their commercial applications quite attractive. However, to our knowledge, very little work has been reported on the tensile strength properties of templated PANIs processed with polyvinyl alcohol and also, detailed study has not been carried out. We have investigated the effect of small molecule and polymers as templates on PANI. Stable aqueous colloidal suspensions of trisodium citrate (TSC), poly(ethylenedioxythiophene)-polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT-PSS), and polyethylene glycol (PEG) templated PANIs were prepared through chemical synthesis, processed with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and were fabricated into films by solution casting. Absorption and infra-red spectra were studied to gain insight into the possible molecular interactions. Surface morphology was studied through scanning electron microscope and optical microscope. Interestingly, tensile testing studies revealed least strain for pure PVA when compared to the blends of templated PANI. Furthermore, among the blends, TSC templated PANI possessed maximum elasticity. The ultimate tensile strength for PVA processed, PEG-templated PANI was found to be five times more than other blends considered in this study. We establish structure–property correlation with morphology, spectral characterization and tensile testing studies.

Keywords: surface morphology, processed films, polyvinyl alcohol, templated polyanilines, tensile testing

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3 ZnS and Graphene Quantum Dots Nanocomposite as Potential Electron Acceptor for Photovoltaics

Authors: S. M. Giripunje, Shikha Jindal


Zinc sulphide (ZnS) quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized successfully via simple sonochemical method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis revealed the average size of QDs of the order of 3.7 nm. The band gap of the QDs was tuned to 5.2 eV by optimizing the synthesis parameters. UV-Vis absorption spectra of ZnS QD confirm the quantum confinement effect. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis confirmed the formation of single phase ZnS QDs. To fabricate the diode, blend of ZnS QDs and P3HT was prepared and the heterojunction of PEDOT:PSS and the blend was formed by spin coating on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate. The diode behaviour of the heterojunction was analysed, wherein the ideality factor was found to be 2.53 with turn on voltage 0.75 V and the barrier height was found to be 1.429 eV. ZnS-Graphene QDs nanocomposite was characterised for the surface morphological study. It was found that the synthesized ZnS QDs appear as quasi spherical particles on the graphene sheets. The average particle size of ZnS-graphene nanocomposite QDs was found to be 8.4 nm. From voltage-current characteristics of ZnS-graphene nanocomposites, it is observed that the conductivity of the composite increases by 104 times the conductivity of ZnS QDs. Thus the addition of graphene QDs in ZnS QDs enhances the mobility of the charge carriers in the composite material. Thus, the graphene QDs, with high specific area for a large interface, high mobility and tunable band gap, show a great potential as an electron-acceptors in photovoltaic devices.

Keywords: graphene, heterojunction, quantum confinement effect, quantum dots(QDs), zinc sulphide(ZnS)

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2 Water Vapor Oxidization of NiO for a Hole Transport Layer in All Inorganic QD-LED

Authors: Jaeun Park, Daekyoung Kim, Ho Kyoon Chung, Heeyeop Chae


Quantum dots light-emitting diodes (QD-LEDs) have been considered as the next generation display and lighting devices due to their excellent color purity, photo-stability solution process possibility and good device stability. Currently typical quantum dot light emitting diodes contain organic layers such as PEDOT:PSS and PVK for charge transport layers. To make quantum dot light emitting diodes (QD-LED) more stable, it is required to replace those acidic and relatively unstable organic charge transport layers with inorganic materials. Therefore all inorganic and solution processed quantum dot light emitting diodes can potentially be a solution to stable and cost-effective display devices. We studied solution processed NiO films to replace organic charge transport layers that are required for stable all-inorganic based light emitting diodes. The transition metal oxides can be made by various vacuum and solution processes, but the solution processes are considered more cost-effective than vacuum processes. In this work we investigated solution processed NiOx for a hole transport layer (HTL). NiOx, has valence band energy levels of 5.3eV and they are easy to make sol-gel solutions. Water vapor oxidation process was developed and applied to solution processed all-inorganic QD-LED. Turn-on voltage, luminance and current efficiency of QD in this work were 5V, 1800Cd/m2 and 0.5Cd/A, respectively.

Keywords: QD-LED, metal oxide solution, NiO, all-inorganic QD-LED device

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1 Lead-Free Inorganic Cesium Tin-Germanium Triiodide Perovskites for Photovoltaic Application

Authors: Seyedeh Mozhgan Seyed-Talebi, Javad Beheshtian


The toxicity of lead associated with the lifecycle of perovskite solar cells (PSCs( is a serious concern which may prove to be a major hurdle in the path toward their commercialization. The current proposed lead-free PSCs including Ag(I), Bi(III), Sb(III), Ti(IV), Ge(II), and Sn(II) low-toxicity cations are still plagued with the critical issues of poor stability and low efficiency. This is mainly because of their chemical stability. In the present research, utilization of all inorganic CsSnGeI3 based materials offers the advantages to enhance resistance of device to degradation, reduce the cost of cells, and minimize the carrier recombination. The presence of inorganic halide perovskite improves the photovoltaic parameters of PCSs via improved surface coverage and stability. The inverted structure of simulated devices using a 1D simulator like solar cell capacitance simulator (SCAPS) version 3308 involves TCOHTL/Perovskite/ETL/Au contact layer. PEDOT:PSS, PCBM, and CsSnGeI3 used as hole transporting layer (HTL), electron transporting layer (ETL), and perovskite absorber layer in the inverted structure for the first time. The holes are injected from highly stable and air tolerant Sn0.5Ge0.5I3 perovskite composition to HTM and electrons from the perovskite to ETL. Simulation results revealed a great dependence of power conversion efficiency (PCE) on the thickness and defect density of perovskite layer. Here the effect of an increase in operating temperature from 300 K to 400 K on the performance of CsSnGeI3 based perovskite devices is investigated. Comparison between simulated CsSnGeI3 based PCSs and similar real testified devices with spiro-OMeTAD as HTL showed that the extraction of carriers at the interfaces of perovskite absorber depends on the energy level mismatches between perovskite and HTL/ETL. We believe that optimization results reported here represent a critical avenue for fabricating the stable, low-cost, efficient, and eco-friendly all-inorganic Cs-Sn-Ge based lead-free perovskite devices.

Keywords: hole transporting layer, lead-free, perovskite solar cell, SCAPS-1D, Sn-Ge based

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