Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

Search results for: Nsor Eunice

27 Open and Distance Learning (ODL) Education in Nigeria: Challenge of Academic Quality

Authors: Edu Marcelina, Sule Sheidu A., Nsor Eunice

Abstract:

As open and distance education is gradually becoming an acceptable means of solving the problem of access in higher education, quality has now become one of the main concerns among institutions and stakeholders of open and distance learning (ODL) and the education sector in general. This study assessed the challenges of academic quality in the open and distance learning (ODL) education in Nigeria using Distance Learning Institute (DLI), University of Lagos and National Open University of Nigeria as a case. In carrying out the study, a descriptive survey research design was employed. A researcher-designed and validated questionnaire was used to elicit responses that translated to the quantitative data for this study. The sample comprised 665 students of the Distance Learning Institute (DLI), and National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN), carefully selected through the method of simple random sampling. Data collected from the study were analyzed using Chi-Square (X2) at 0.05 Level of significance. The results of the analysis revealed that; the use of ICT tools is a factor in ensuring quality in the Open and Distance Learning (ODL) operations; the quality of the materials made available to ODL students will determine the quality of education that will be received by the students; and the time scheduled for students for self-study, online lecturing/interaction and face to face study and the quality of education in Open and Distance Learning Institutions has a lot of impact on the quality of education the students receive. Based on the findings, a number of recommendations were made.

Keywords: open and distance learning, quality, ICT, face-to-face interaction

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26 Recovery of Damages by General Cargo Interest under Bill of Lading Carriage Contract

Authors: Eunice Chiamaka Allen-Ngbale

Abstract:

Cargo claims are brought by cargo interests against carriers when the goods are not delivered or delivered short or mis-delivered or delivered damaged. The objective of the cargo claimant is to seek recovery for the loss suffered through the award of damages against the carrier by a court of competent jurisdiction. Moreover, whether the vessel on which the goods were carried is or is not under charter, the bill of lading plays a central role in the cargo claim. Since the bill of lading is an important international transport document, this paper examines, by chronicling the progress of a cargo claim as governed by the English law of contract. It finds that other than by contract, there are other modes of recovery available to a consignee or endorsee of a bill of lading to obtain a remedy under the sui generis contract of carriage contained in or evidenced by a bill of lading.

Keywords: bill of lading, cargo interests, carriage contract, transfer of right of suit

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25 Emerging Technologies in Distance Education

Authors: Eunice H. Li

Abstract:

This paper discusses and analyses a small portion of the literature that has been reviewed for research work in Distance Education (DE) pedagogies that I am currently undertaking. It begins by presenting a brief overview of Taylor's (2001) five-generation models of Distance Education. The focus of the discussion will be on the 5th generation, Intelligent Flexible Learning Model. For this generation, educational and other institutions make portal access and interactive multi-media (IMM) an integral part of their operations. The paper then takes a brief look at current trends in technologies – for example smart-watch wearable technology such as Apple Watch. The emergent trends in technologies carry many new features. These are compared to former DE generational features. Also compared is the time span that has elapsed between the generations that are referred to in Taylor's model. This paper is a work in progress. The paper therefore welcome new insights, comparisons and critique of the issues discussed.

Keywords: distance education, e-learning technologies, pedagogy, generational models

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24 Open Educational Resources (OER): Deciding upon Openness

Authors: Eunice H. Li

Abstract:

This e-poster explores some of the issues that are linked to Open Educational Resources (OER). It describes how OER is explained by experts in the field and relates its value in attaining and using knowledge. ‘Open', 'open pedagogy', self-direction, freedom, and autonomy are the main issues identified for the discussion. All of these issues make essential contributions to OER in one way or another. Nevertheless, there are seemingly areas of contentions with regard to applying these concepts in teaching and learning practices. For this e-Poster, it is the teaching-learning aspects of OER that it is primarily concerned with. The basis for the discussion comes from a 2013 critique of OER presented by Jeremy Knox of the University of Edinburgh, tutor of the MSc in Digital Education Programme. This discussion is also supported by the analysis of other research work and papers in this area. The general view on OER is that it is a useful tool for the advancement of learner-centred models of education, but in whatever context, pedagogy cannot be diminished and overlooked. It should take into consideration how to deal with the issues identified above in order to allow learners to gain full benefit from OER.

Keywords: open, pedagogy, e-learning technologies, autonomy, knowledge

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23 Application of Dual-Stage Sugar Substitution Technique in Tommy Atkins Mangoes

Authors: Rafael A. B. De Medeiros, Zilmar M. P. Barros, Carlos B. O. De Carvalho, Eunice G. Fraga Neta, Maria I. S. Maciel, Patricia M. Azoubel

Abstract:

The use of the sugar substitution technique (D3S) in mango was studied. It consisted of two stages and the use of ultrasound in one or both stages was evaluated in terms of water loss and solid gain. Higher water loss results were found subjecting the fruit samples to ultrasound in the first stage followed by immersion of the samples in Stevia-based solution with application of ultrasound in the second stage, while higher solids gain were obtained without application of ultrasound in second stage. Samples were evaluated in terms of total carotenoids content and total color difference. Samples submitted to ultrasound in both D3S stages presented higher carotenoid retention compared to samples sonicated only in the first stage. Color of man goes after the D3S process showed notable changes.

Keywords: Mangifera indica L., quality, Stevia rebaudiana, ultrasound

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22 Internally Displaced Persons: Implication to National Development in Nigeria

Authors: Olasunkanmi G. Jeje, John G. Laah, Eunice S. A. Jeje

Abstract:

In recent times Nigeria has been bedeviled with political, religious and ethnic crises such as indigene/settler phenomena, Boko Haram etc. resulting in the emergence of internally displaced persons(IDPs), this has been a hunch on national development. Most states of the federation have had their share of one crisis or the other such as Jos, Yobe, Borno etc thereby affecting the economy of the country. These persons are uprooted from their residential locations of which they are active contributors to the national GDP. In addition, the attempt to rehabilitate them has gulped billions of naira for feeding, shelter and medicals etc., which is not adequate for such. However, the financing could have been used for projects such as capacity building and infrastructural development. Similarly, traumatic experience by this group of people is overwhelming as most of them are mainly the aged, women and children. Importantly, the active roles of youths that constitute the productive sector of the economy have also been truncated. Therefore, it is the prerogative of this research to examine the effect of IDP's on National Development and also to recommend solutions.

Keywords: development, implication, internally displaced persons, Nigeria

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21 Teaching Children With Differential Learning Needs By Understanding Their Talents And Interests

Authors: Eunice Tan

Abstract:

The purpose of this presentation is to look at an alternative to the approach and methodologies of working with special needs. The strength-based approach to education embodies a paradigm shift. It is a strategy to move away from a deficit-based methodology which inadvertently may lead to an extensive list of things that the child cannot do or is unable to do. Today, many parents of individuals with special needs are focused on the child’s deficits rather than on his or her strengths. Even when parents Recognise and identify their child’s strengths to be valuable and wish to develop their abilities, they face the challenge that there are insufficient programs committed to supporting the development and improvement of such abilities. What is a strength-based approach in education? A strength-based approach in education focuses on students' positive qualities and contributions to class instead of the skills and abilities they may not have. Many schools are focused on the child’s special educational needs rather than the whole child. Parents interviewed have said that they have to engage external tutors to help hone in on their child’s interests and strengths.

Keywords: differential learning needs, special needs, instructional style, talents

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20 Barriers to Sports Participation as a Means of Achieving Sustainable Development in Michael Otedola College of Primary Education

Authors: Osifeko Olalekan Remigious, Osifeko Christiana Osikorede, Folarin Bolanle Eunice, Olugbenga Adebola Shodiya

Abstract:

In this period of economic problem, nations are looking for avenues to improve their economy, preserve their environment and socio-political environment, educational institutions are not left out as there is the need for them to increase their economy and preserve their socio political environment. Sports is one of the ways through which sustainable development can be achieved. The purpose of this study was to examine the barriers to sports participation. A total of 1025 students were purposively selected from all the five schools in the College. A questionnaire which has a reliability coefficient of 0.71 was used for data collection. Data collected were subjected to the descriptive survey research design. Findings showed that facilities, funds and lectures schedule were significant barriers to sports participation. It was recommended that sports facilities should be provided by the Lagos State government.

Keywords: MOCPED sports, sustainable development, sports participation, state government

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19 Information and Communication Technology and Business Education in Nigeria

Authors: Oloniyo Kemisola Eunice, Odere Oladunni Oluwafeyikemi

Abstract:

Technological change and globalization have created a new global economy with Information and Communication Technology (ICT) occupying a complex position in relation to globalization. The emergence of this new global economy has serious implications on the nature and purpose of educational institutions. The paper is basically a theoretical discourse. Data for analysis were obtained from secondary sources. The paper found that significant challenges confront the integration of ICTs in education in the areas of educational policy and planning, infrastructure, language and content, capacity building and financing in Nigeria. The paper concluded that business education needs to be well equipped to anticipate and respond to opportunities created by ICTs in order to participate productively and equitably in an increasingly technology-rich and knowledge-driven world. The paper recommended, among others, that the investments in ICTs should be used to promote the development of basic skills, problem-solving and communication skills and the professional development of teachers.

Keywords: information, communication, technology, business, education

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
18 Using a Strength Based Approach to Teaching Children with Special Needs

Authors: Eunice Tan

Abstract:

The purpose of this presentation is to look at an alternative to the approach and methodologies of working with a child with special needs. The strength-based approach to education embodies a paradigm shift. It is a strategy to move away from a deficit-based methodology which inadvertently may lead to an extensive list of things that the child cannot do or is unable to do. Today, many parents of individuals with special needs are focused on the individual’s deficits rather than on his or her strengths. Even when parents recognise and identify their child’s savant strengths to be valuable and wish to develop their abilities, they face the challenge that there are insufficient programs committed to supporting the development and improvement of such abilities. What is a strength-based approach in education? A strength-based approach in education focuses on students' positive qualities and contributions to class instead of the skills and abilities they may not have. Many schools are focused on the child’s special educational needs rather than the whole child. Parents interviewed have said that they have to engage external tutors to help hone in on their child’s interests and strengths. The strength-based approach to writing statements encourages educators to find out: • What a child can do • What a child can do when he or she is given educational support • Learning more about children with special needs and their strengths and talents will broaden our understanding of how we can help them with language acquisition, social skills, as well as self-help and independence skills.

Keywords: special needs, strengths, and talents, alternative educational approach, strength based approach

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17 Understanding Barriers to Sports Participation as a Means of Achieving Sustainable Development in Michael Otedola College of Primary Education

Authors: Osifeko Olalekan Remigious, Osifeko Christiana Osikorede, Folarin Bolanle Eunice, Olugbenga Adebola Shodiya

Abstract:

During these difficult economic times, nations are looking for ways to improve their finances, preserve the environment as well as the socio-political climate and educational institutions, which are needed to increase their economy and preserve their sustainable development. Sport is one of the ways through which sustainable development can be achieved. The purpose of this study was to examine and understanding barriers to participation in sport. A total of 1,025 students were purposively selected from five schools (School of Arts and Social Sciences, School of Languages, School of Education, School of Sciences and School of Vocational and Technical Education) in Michael Otedola College of Primary Education (MOCPED). A questionnaire, with a tested reliability coefficient of 0.71, was used for data collection. The collected data were subjected to the descriptive survey research design. The findings showed that sports facilities, funding and lecture schedules were significant barriers to sports participation. It was recommended that sports facilities be provided by the Lagos State government.

Keywords: sports, sustainable development, Participation, State government, barriers

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16 Relationship Between Body Composition and Physical Fitness of Primary School Learners From a Pre-Dominantly Rural Province in South Africa

Authors: Howard Gomwe, Eunice Seekoe

Abstract:

There is arguably dearth of literature regarding body physical fitness and body composition amongst primary schools in South Africa. For this reason, the study is aimed at investigating and accessing how body composition relates to physical fitness amongst learners between 9 – 14 years of age in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. In order to achieve this, a school-based cross-sectional survey was carried out among 876 primary school learners aged 9 to14 years. Body composition indicators were measured and/or calculated, whilst physical fitness was evaluated by a 20 m shuttle run, push-ups, sit and reach as well as sit-ups, according to the EUROFIT fitness standards. Out of 876 participants, a total of 870 were retained. Of these, 351 (40.34%) were boys and 519 (59.66%) were girls. The average age of learners was 11.04 ± 1.50 years, with boys having a importantly (p = 0.002) higher average age (M = 11.24; SD = 1.51 years) as compared to that of girls (M = 10.91; SD = 1.48 years). The non-parametric Spearman Rho correlation coefficients revealed several significant and negative relationships between body composition measurements with physical fitness characteristics, which were stronger in girls than in boys. The findings advocate for policy makers and responsible authorities to initiate the development of policies and interventions targeted at encouraging physical activity and healthy promotion among primary school learners in South Africa, especially in girls.

Keywords: BMI, body composition, physical fitness, children

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15 Introducing the Digital Backpack: Looking at Ivory Coast

Authors: Eunice H. Li

Abstract:

This e-Poster presents how the ‘digital backpack’ was introduced to primary school children in Ivory Coast. The idea of a ‘digital backpack’ was initiated by Mr. Thierry N’Doufou in 2012, who later designed and presented to the rest of the world in September 2014. The motivation behind the backpack was to relieve children of the heavy-weight they carry in their school backpacks. Another motivation was to promote Ivory Coast as a country where all children are brought into the digital era. Thierry N’Doufou regards education as the means by which his nation and the entire African Continent can be developed as a prosperous territory. The ‘digital backpack’ contains the entire curriculum for each class and favours a constructivist approach to learning. The children’s notes and exercises are also included in the pack. Additionally, teachers and parents are able to monitor remotely children’s activities while they are working with the ‘backpack’. Teachers are also able to issue homework, assess student’s progress and manage the student’s coursework. This means that teachers should always think the most appropriate pedagogies that can be used to help children to learn. Furthermore, teachers, parents and fellow students are able to have conversations and discussions by using web portals. It is also possible to access more apps if children would like to have additional learning activities. From the presentation in the e-Poster, it seems reasonable to conclude that the ‘digital backpack’ has potential to reach other-level of education. In this way, all will be able to benefit from this new invention.

Keywords: pedagogy, curriculum, constructivism, social constructivism, distance learning environment, ubiquitous learning environment

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14 The Relationship between Body Composition and Physical Fitness of Primary School Learners from a Pre-Dominantly Rural Province in South Africa

Authors: Howard Gomwe, Eunice Seekoe, Philemon Lyoka, Chioneso Show Marange, Dennyford Mafa

Abstract:

There is arguably a lack of literature regarding body physical fitness and body composition amongst primary school learners in South Africa. For this reason, the study is aimed at investigating and accessing how body composition relates to physical fitness amongst primary school learners in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. In order to achieve this, a school-based cross-sectional survey was carried out among 876 primary school learners aged 9 to 14 years. Body composition indicators were measured and/or calculated, whilst physical fitness was evaluated according to the EUROFIT fitness standards by a 20 m shuttle run, push-ups, sit and reach as well as sit-ups. Out of 876 participants, a total of 870 were retained. Of these, 351 (40.34%) were boys, and 519 (59.66%) were girls. The average age of learners was 11.04 ± 1.50 years, with boys having a significantly (p = 0.002) higher mean age (M = 11.24; SD = 1.51 years) as compared to that of girls (M = 10.91; SD = 1.48 years). The non-parametric Spearman Rho correlation coefficients revealed several significant and negative relationships between body composition measurements with physical fitness characteristics, which were stronger in girls than in boys. The findings advocate for policymakers and responsible authorities to initiate the development of policies and interventions targeted at encouraging physical activity and health promotion among primary school learners in South Africa, especially in girls.

Keywords: BMI, body composition, body fat, children, physical fitness, primary school

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
13 Drying Kinetics of Okara (Soy Pulp) Using the Multi-Commodity Heat Pump Dryer (MCHPD)

Authors: Lorcelie B. Taclan, Jolly S. Balila, Maribel Balagtas, Eunice M. Aclan, Myrtle C. Orbon, Emson Y. Taclan, Irenea A. Centeno

Abstract:

Okara (soy pulp), a by-product and waste from the production of soymilk, tufo and tokwa and soybean-based vegan food products is readily available in the university thrice a week. The Food Factory owned and managed by AUP produces these food products weekly. Generally the study was conducted to determine the drying kinetics of soya pulp using the MCHPD. Specifically, it aimed to establish the time of drying; moisture loss per hour and percent moisture content of soya pulp and to establish the dried okara as an ingredient to other foods. The MCHPD is drying equipment that has an ideal drying condition of 50.00C and 10.0% relative humidity. Fresh and wet soya pulp were weighed at 1.0 kg per tray (21 drying trays), laid on the trays lined with cheese cloth. The MCHPD was set to desired drying conditions. Weight loss was monitored every hour and calculated using standard formulas. Research results indicated that the drying time for soya pulp was 19.0 hours; the % moisture content was reduced from 87.6.0% to 9.7.0% at an average moisture loss of 3.0 g/hr. The nutritional values of okara were favorably maintained with enhanced color. The dried okara was added as an ingredient to other healthy bakery products produced by the AUP Food Factory. Making use of okara would add nutritional values to other food products and would also help waste management concerns inside the university.

Keywords: okara, MCHPD, drying kinetics, nutritional values, waste management

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12 The Patterns and Levels of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior of Primary School Learners in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

Authors: Howard Gomwe, Eunice Seekoe, Philemon Lyoka, Chioneso Show Marange, Dennyford Mafa

Abstract:

Background: This study was designed to assess PA levels and sedentary behavior among primary school learners in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. Methods: A cross-sectional study was adopted to assess the patterns and levels of PA and sedentary behavior using the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C). Results: Using complete case analysis, 870 randomly selected participants (boys = 351 and girls = 519) aged 9 to 14 years were retained. The sample comprised of primary school learners, both boys and girls; aged 9-14 years old, who were randomly selected from rural, urban and peri-urban areas in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Overly, the sample had a mean PAQ-C score of 2.33 ± 0.43. The mean of PA in boys was significantly higher (p = 0.003) in comparison with the girls. The 13 to 14 age group had a significantly higher PA level (p = 0.014). Learners from urban areas (n = 136; 77.3%) engaged more in sedentary behaviour as compared to those from rural areas (n = 252; 54.9%). Conclusion: The findings demonstrated low levels of PA and high engagement of sedentary behavior, which have negative implications on the health, growth and development of children. The study, therefore, recommends relevant stakeholders to implement interventions aimed to promote the increase in PA and reduction in sedentary behaviors for primary school learners in the Eastern Cape province in South Africa.

Keywords: learners, physical activity, sedentary behavior, south Africa

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11 History and Development of the Printing Industry in Nigeria: The Case of Zaria

Authors: Eunice S. A. Jeje

Abstract:

The world over no society is homogeneous therefore, there is the presence of migrants from different places who resides in different places due to certain factors that either attracts them to these places or forced them out of their initial environment. The bottom line is that they moved out of their initial environment to other places for survival, therefore, engage in social cum economic activities to sustain a living which at the same time has enhanced the development and growth of such communities. In the case of Zaria, the Yoruba people are one of the major migrant groups who had moved into Zaria over time. Out of the numerous roles they played in the development of Zaria, the establishment and sustenance of the printing industry are one. Selected Yoruba migrants from the South-west of the country who were skilled in the profession due to stiff competition in their region and the desire to eke out a living had to move into Northern Nigeria to establish printing outlets which have consequently developed to what it is today. The printing industry is one of the avenues to which information and knowledge are disseminated. This is achieved through the publishing of texts, books, Newspapers, Magazines, pamphlets, etc. to convey information to the wider public, in this bid, it leads to the spread of knowledge, ideas, and information. The introduction of printing industry to Nigeria was in the 19th century during the incursion of the missionaries to the West Coast of Africa, but it was not until the colonial period (20th Century) that its presence could be felt in the interior of Nigeria especially in Northern Nigeria and to be specific in Zaria. In essence, the influence of the Yoruba people in the growth and expansion of printing industry in Zaria cannot be over emphasized. It is the thrust of this research to bring to the fore through the use of primary and secondary sources the role and contributions of the Yoruba people in the development of the print industry in Zaria and also showcase the importance of migrants in the development of societies.

Keywords: development, printing industry, Yoruba, Zaria

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10 Investigating Introvert and Extrovert University Students’ Perception of the Use of Interactive Digital Tools in a Face-To-Face ESP Class

Authors: Eunice Tang

Abstract:

The main focus of this study is investigating introvert and extrovert university students’ perception of the use of interactive digital tools (such as Padlet and Mentimeter) in a face-to-face English for Specific Purposes (ESP) class after all classes in the university had been switched to online mode for three semesters. The subjects of the study were business students from three ESP classes at The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology. The basic tool for data collection was an anonymous online survey, which included 3 required multiple-choice questions and 3 open questions (2 required; 1 optional) about the effects of interactive digital tools on their amount of contribution to the class discussions, their perception of the role of interactive digital tools to the sharing of ideas and whether the students considered themselves introvert or extrovert. The online survey will be emailed to all 54 students in the three ESP classes and subjected to a three-week data collection period. The survey results will then be analyzed qualitatively, particularly on the effect the use of interactive digital tools had on the amount of contribution to the class among introvert and extrovert students, their perception of a language class with and without digital tools and most importantly, the implication to educators about how interactive digital tools can be used (or not) to cater for the needs of the introvert and extrovert students. The pandemic has given educators various opportunities to use interactive digital tools in class, especially in an online environment. It is interesting for educators to explore the potential of such tools when classes are back face-to-face. This research thus offers the students’ perspective on using interactive digital tools in a face-to-face classroom. While a lot has been said about introverted students responding positively to digital learning online, the student's perception of their own personality collected in the survey and the digital impact tools have on their contribution to class may shed some light on the potential of interactive digital tools in a post-pandemic era.

Keywords: psychology for language learning, interactive digital tools, personality-based investigation, ESP

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9 Transfer of Contractual Right of Suit Evidenced in Carriage Contract of Bill of Lading in Nigeria

Authors: Eunice Chiamaka Allen-Ngbale

Abstract:

Prior to bill of lading (BOL), merchants travelled along with their goods; then recorded the goods in the ship’s mates’ register; and finally started selling the goods while in transit by way of BOL, indicative that BOL is negotiable. Common law doctrine of privity of contract did not allow the transfer of right to sue to a non-party to the contract. This created hardship to cargo owners, which made many jurisdictions enact laws in this regard. Bill of Lading Act 1855 (BLA) was enacted in the United Kingdom, which applied as statute of general application under section 375 Merchant Shipping Act 1990 (MSA) in Nigeria; and conferred contractual rights of the suit on consignees and endorsees, but on the passing of ownership upon or by reason of such consignment or endorsement on the shipment of the goods simultaneously. The repeal of section 375 MSA by section 439 MSA 2007 created a lacuna, and the doctrine of privity of contract is the extant law in Nigeria. The aim of this study is to evaluate laws governing the transfer of the contractual right of suit to a third party under the bill of lading in Nigeria. The specific objectives of this study are to ascertain: (i) whether the extant law of common law doctrine of privity of the contract covers the transfer of the right of suit to the third party under the bill of lading in Nigeria; (ii) impediment(s) of the common law to transfer such right in Nigeria in the absence of any legislation; (iii) the level of applicability of the doctrine of privity of contract as it relates to transfer of the contractual right of suit to third party under the bill of lading in Nigeria; and (iv) whether to proffer possible suggestion on how to fill the lacuna left by the repeal of Merchant Shipping Act 1990. This work adopted a doctrinal approach with reliance on primary and secondary source materials. It finds that the common law doctrine of privity of contract in Nigeria is retrogressive. This work recommends for amendment of the relevant statute to cure this defect/lacuna like other commonwealth nations for best international practices.

Keywords: contract of carriage by sea, doctrine of privity of contract, lawful holder of bill of lading, third party right of suit

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8 Response of Grower Turkeys to Diets Containing Moringa oleifera Leaf Meal in a Tropical Environment

Authors: Augustine O. Ani, Ifeyinwa E. Ezemagu, Eunice A. Akuru

Abstract:

A seven-week study was conducted to evaluate the response of grower turkeys to varying dietary levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) in a humid tropical environment. A total of 90 twelve weeks old male and female grower turkeys were randomly divided into five groups of 18 birds each in a completely randomized design (CRD) and assigned to five caloric (2.57-2.60 Mcal/kg ME) and isonitrogenous (19.95% crude protein) diets containing five levels (0, 15, 20, 25 and 30%) of MOLM, respectively. Each treatment was replicated three times with 6 birds per replicate housed in a deep litter pen of fresh wood shavings measuring 1.50m x 1.50m. Feed and water were provided to the birds' ad libitum. Parameters measured were: final live weight (FLW) daily weight gain (DWG), daily feed intake (DFI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin concentration (Hb), red blood cell (RBC) count, white blood cell (WBC) count, mean cell volume (MCV), mean cell haemoglobin (MCH) and mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), feed cost / kg weight gain and apparent nutrient retention. Results showed that grower turkeys fed 20% MOLM diet had significantly (p < 0.05) higher FLW and DWG values (4410.30 g and 34.49 g, respectively) and higher DM and NFE retention values (67.28 and 58.12%, respectively) than turkeys fed other MOLM diets. Feed cost per kg gain decreased significantly (p < 0.05) with increasing levels of MOLM in the diets. The PCV, Hb, WBC, MCV, MCH and MCHC values of grower turkeys fed 20% MOLM diet were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those of grower turkeys fed other diets. It was concluded that a diet containing 20% MOLM is adequate for the normal growth of grower turkeys in the tropics.

Keywords: Diets, grower turkeys, Moringa oleifera leaf meal, response, tropical environment

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7 Design and Development of a Safety Equipment and Accessory for Bicycle Users

Authors: Francine Eunice C. Siy, Stephen Querico A. Buñi

Abstract:

Safety plays a significant role in everyone’s life on a day-to-day basis. We wish ourselves and our loved ones their safety as we all venture out on our daily commute. The road is undeniably dangerous and unpredictable, with abundant traffic collisions and pedestrians experiencing various injuries. For bicycle users, the risk of accidents is even more exacerbated, and injuries may be severe. Even when cyclists try their best to be safe and protected, the possibility of encountering danger is always there. Despite being equipped with protective gear, safety is never guaranteed. Cyclists often settle for helmets and standard reflector vests to establish a presence on the road. There are different types of vests available, depending on the profession. However, traditional reflector vests, mostly seen on construction workers and traffic enforcers, were not designed for riders and their protection from injuries. With insufficient protection for riders, they need access to ergonomically designed equipment and accessories that suit the riders and cater to their needs. This research aimed to offer a protective vest with safety features for riders that is comfortable, effective, durable, and intuitive. This sheds light and addresses the safety of the biker population, which continuously grows through the years. The product was designed and developed by gathering data and using the cognitive mapping method to ensure that all qualitative and quantitative data were considered in this study to improve other existing products that do not have the proper design considerations. It is known that available equipment for cyclists is often sold separately or lacks the safety features for cyclists traversing open roads. Each safety feature like the headlights, reflectors, signal or rear lights, zipper pouch, body camera attachment, and wireless remote control all play a particular role in helping cyclists embark on their daily commute. These features aid in illumination, visibility, easy maneuvering, convenience, and security, allowing cyclists to go for a safer ride that is of use throughout the day. The product is designed and produced effectively and inexpensively without sacrificing the quality and purpose of its usage.

Keywords: bicycle accessory, protective gear, safety, transport, visibility

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6 Factors That Determine International Competitiveness of Agricultural Products in Latin America 1990-2020

Authors: Oluwasefunmi Eunice Irewole, Enrique Armas Arévalos

Abstract:

Agriculture has played a crucial role in the economy and the development of many countries. Moreover, the basic needs for human survival are; food, shelter, and cloth are link on agricultural production. Most developed countries see that agriculture provides them with food and raw materials for different goods such as (shelter, medicine, fuel and clothing) which has led to an increase in incomes, livelihoods and standard of living. This study aimed at analysing the relationship between International competitiveness of agricultural products, with the area, fertilizer, labour force, economic growth, foreign direct investment, exchange rate and inflation rate in Latin America during the period of 1991-to 2019. In this study, panel data econometric methods were used, as well as cross-section dependence (Pesaran test), unit root (cross-section Augumented Dickey Fuller and Cross-sectional Im, Pesaran, and Shin tests), cointergration (Pedroni and Fisher-Johansen tests), and heterogeneous causality (Pedroni and Fisher-Johansen tests) (Hurlin and Dumitrescu test). The results reveal that the model has cross-sectional dependency and that they are integrated at one I. (1). The "fully modified OLS and dynamic OLS estimators" were used to examine the existence of a long-term relationship, and it was found that a long-term relationship existed between the selected variables. The study revealed a positive significant relationship between International Competitiveness of the agricultural raw material and area, fertilizer, labour force, economic growth, and foreign direct investment, while international competitiveness has a negative relationship with the advantages of the exchange rate and inflation. The economy policy recommendations deducted from this investigation is that Foreign Direct Investment and the labour force have a positive contribution to the increase of International Competitiveness of agricultural products.

Keywords: revealed comparative advantage, agricultural products, area, fertilizer, economic growth, granger causality, panel unit root

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5 Quantifying the Aspect of ‘Imagining’ in the Map of Dialogical inquiry

Authors: Chua Si Wen Alicia, Marcus Goh Tian Xi, Eunice Gan Ghee Wu, Helen Bound, Lee Liang Ying, Albert Lee

Abstract:

In a world full of rapid changes, people often need a set of skills to help them navigate an ever-changing workscape. These skills, often known as “future-oriented skills,” include learning to learn, critical thinking, understanding multiple perspectives, and knowledge creation. Future-oriented skills are typically assumed to be domain-general, applicable to multiple domains, and can be cultivated through a learning approach called Dialogical Inquiry. Dialogical Inquiry is known for its benefits of making sense of multiple perspectives, encouraging critical thinking, and developing learner’s capability to learn. However, it currently exists as a quantitative tool, which makes it hard to track and compare learning processes over time. With these concerns, the present research aimed to develop and validate a quantitative tool for the Map of Dialogical Inquiry, focusing Imagining aspect of learning. The Imagining aspect four dimensions: 1) speculative/ look for alternatives, 2) risk taking/ break rules, 3) create/ design, and 4) vision/ imagine. To do so, an exploratory literature review was conducted to better understand the dimensions of Imagining. This included deep-diving into the history of the creation of the Map of Dialogical Inquiry and a review on how “Imagining” has been conceptually defined in the field of social psychology, education, and beyond. Then, we synthesised and validated scales. These scales measured the dimension of Imagination and related concepts like creativity, divergent thinking regulatory focus, and instrumental risk. Thereafter, items were adapted from the aforementioned procured scales to form items that would contribute to the preliminary version of the Imagining Scale. For scale validation, 250 participants were recruited. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) sought to establish dimensionality of the Imagining Scale with an iterative procedure in item removal. Reliability and validity of the scale’s dimensions were sought through measurements of Cronbach’s alpha, convergent validity, and discriminant validity. While CFA found that the distinction of Imagining’s four dimensions could not be validated, the scale was able to establish high reliability with a Cronbach alpha of .96. In addition, the convergent validity of the Imagining scale was established. A lack of strong discriminant validity may point to overlaps with other components of the Dialogical Map as a measure of learning. Thus, a holistic approach to forming the tool – encompassing all eight different components may be preferable.

Keywords: learning, education, imagining, pedagogy, dialogical teaching

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4 Quantifying Processes of Relating Skills in Learning: The Map of Dialogical Inquiry

Authors: Eunice Gan Ghee Wu, Marcus Goh Tian Xi, Alicia Chua Si Wen, Helen Bound, Lee Liang Ying, Albert Lee

Abstract:

The Map of Dialogical Inquiry provides a conceptual basis of learning processes. According to the Map, dialogical inquiry motivates complex thinking, dialogue, reflection, and learner agency. For instance, classrooms that incorporated dialogical inquiry enabled learners to construct more meaning in their learning, to engage in self-reflection, and to challenge their ideas with different perspectives. While the Map contributes to the psychology of learning, its qualitative approach makes it hard to track and compare learning processes over time for both teachers and learners. Qualitative approach typically relies on open-ended responses, which can be time-consuming and resource-intensive. With these concerns, the present research aimed to develop and validate a quantifiable measure for the Map. Specifically, the Map of Dialogical Inquiry reflects the eight different learning processes and perspectives employed during a learner’s experience. With a focus on interpersonal and emotional learning processes, the purpose of the present study is to construct and validate a scale to measure the “Relating” aspect of learning. According to the Map, the Relating aspect of learning contains four conceptual components: using intuition and empathy, seeking personal meaning, building relationships and meaning with others, and likes stories and metaphors. All components have been shown to benefit learning in past research. This research began with a literature review with the goal of identifying relevant scales in the literature. These scales were used as a basis for item development, guided by the four conceptual dimensions in the “Relating” aspect of learning, resulting in a pool of 47 preliminary items. Then, all items were administered to 200 American participants via an online survey along with other scales of learning. Dimensionality, reliability, and validity of the “Relating” scale was assessed. Data were submitted to a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), revealing four distinct components and items. Items with lower factor loadings were removed in an iterative manner, resulting in 34 items in the final scale. CFA also revealed that the “Relating” scale was a four-factor model, following its four distinct components as described in the Map of Dialogical Inquiry. In sum, this research was able to develop a quantitative scale for the “Relating” aspect of the Map of Dialogical Inquiry. By representing learning as numbers, users, such as educators and learners, can better track, evaluate, and compare learning processes over time in an efficient manner. More broadly, this scale may also be used as a learning tool in lifelong learning.

Keywords: lifelong learning, scale development, dialogical inquiry, relating, social and emotional learning, socio-affective intuition, empathy, narrative identity, perspective taking, self-disclosure

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3 Development and Validation of a Quantitative Measure of Engagement in the Analysing Aspect of Dialogical Inquiry

Authors: Marcus Goh Tian Xi, Alicia Chua Si Wen, Eunice Gan Ghee Wu, Helen Bound, Lee Liang Ying, Albert Lee

Abstract:

The Map of Dialogical Inquiry provides a conceptual look at the underlying nature of future-oriented skills. According to the Map, learning is learner-oriented, with conversational time shifted from teachers to learners, who play a strong role in deciding what and how they learn. For example, in courses operating on the principles of Dialogical Inquiry, learners were able to leave the classroom with a deeper understanding of the topic, broader exposure to differing perspectives, and stronger critical thinking capabilities, compared to traditional approaches to teaching. Despite its contributions to learning, the Map is grounded in a qualitative approach both in its development and its application for providing feedback to learners and educators. Studies hinge on openended responses by Map users, which can be time consuming and resource intensive. The present research is motivated by this gap in practicality by aiming to develop and validate a quantitative measure of the Map. In addition, a quantifiable measure may also strengthen applicability by making learning experiences trackable and comparable. The Map outlines eight learning aspects that learners should holistically engage. This research focuses on the Analysing aspect of learning. According to the Map, Analysing has four key components: liking or engaging in logic, using interpretative lenses, seeking patterns, and critiquing and deconstructing. Existing scales of constructs (e.g., critical thinking, rationality) related to these components were identified so that the current scale could adapt items from. Specifically, items were phrased beginning with an “I”, followed by an action phrase, to fulfil the purpose of assessing learners' engagement with Analysing either in general or in classroom contexts. Paralleling standard scale development procedure, the 26-item Analysing scale was administered to 330 participants alongside existing scales with varying levels of association to Analysing, to establish construct validity. Subsequently, the scale was refined and its dimensionality, reliability, and validity were determined. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) revealed if scale items loaded onto the four factors corresponding to the components of Analysing. To refine the scale, items were systematically removed via an iterative procedure, according to their factor loadings and results of likelihood ratio tests at each step. Eight items were removed this way. The Analysing scale is better conceptualised as unidimensional, rather than comprising the four components identified by the Map, for three reasons: 1) the covariance matrix of the model specified for the CFA was not positive definite, 2) correlations among the four factors were high, and 3) exploratory factor analyses did not yield an easily interpretable factor structure of Analysing. Regarding validity, since the Analysing scale had higher correlations with conceptually similar scales than conceptually distinct scales, with minor exceptions, construct validity was largely established. Overall, satisfactory reliability and validity of the scale suggest that the current procedure can result in a valid and easy-touse measure for each aspect of the Map.

Keywords: analytical thinking, dialogical inquiry, education, lifelong learning, pedagogy, scale development

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2 The Evaluation of Child Maltreatment Severity and the Decision-Making Processes in the Child Protection System

Authors: Maria M. Calheiros, Carla Silva, Eunice Magalhães

Abstract:

Professionals working in child protection services (CPS) need to have common and clear criteria to identify cases of maltreatment and to differentiate levels of severity in order to determine when CPS intervention is required, its nature and urgency, and, in most countries, the service that will be in charge of the case (community or specialized CPS). Actually, decision-making process is complex in CPS, and, for that reason, such criteria are particularly important for who significantly contribute to that decision-making in child maltreatment cases. The main objective of this presentation is to describe the Maltreatment Severity Assessment Questionnaire (MSQ), specifically designed to be used by professionals in the CPS, which adopts a multidimensional approach and uses a scale of severity within subtypes. Specifically, we aim to provide evidence of validity and reliability of this tool, in order to improve the quality and validity of assessment processes and, consequently, the decision making in CPS. The total sample was composed of 1000 children and/or adolescents (51.1% boys), aged between 0 and 18 years old (M = 9.47; DP = 4.51). All the participants were referred to official institutions of the children and youth protective system. Children and adolescents maltreatment (abuse, neglect experiences and sexual abuse) were assessed with 21 items of the Maltreatment Severity Questionnaire (MSQ), by professionals of CPS. Each item (sub-type) was composed of four descriptors of increasing severity. Professionals rated the level of severity, using a 4-point scale (1= minimally severe; 2= moderately severe; 3= highly severe; 4= extremely severe). The construct validity of the Maltreatment Severity Questionnaire was assessed with a holdout method, performing an Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) followed by a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). The final solution comprised 18 items organized in three factors 47.3% of variance explained. ‘Physical neglect’ (eight items) was defined by parental omissions concerning the insurance and monitoring of the child’s physical well-being and health, namely in terms of clothing, hygiene, housing conditions and contextual environmental security. ‘Physical and Psychological Abuse’ (four items) described abusive physical and psychological actions, namely, coercive/punitive disciplinary methods, physically violent methods or verbal interactions that offend and denigrate the child, with the potential to disrupt psychological attributes (e.g., self-esteem). ‘Psychological neglect’ (six items) involved omissions related to children emotional development, mental health monitoring, school attendance, development needs, as well as inappropriate relationship patterns with attachment figures. Results indicated a good reliability of all the factors. The assessment of child maltreatment cases with MSQ could have a set of practical and research implications: a) It is a valid and reliable multidimensional instrument to measure child maltreatment, b) It is an instrument integrating the co-occurrence of various types of maltreatment and a within-subtypes scale of severity; c) Specifically designed for professionals, it may assist them in decision-making processes; d) More than using case file reports to evaluate maltreatment experiences, researchers could guide more appropriately their research about determinants and consequences of maltreatment.

Keywords: assessment, maltreatment, children and youth, decision-making

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1 Measuring Entrepreneurship Intentions among Nigerian University Graduates: A Structural Equation Modeling Technique

Authors: Eunice Oluwakemi Chukwuma-Nwuba

Abstract:

Nigeria is a developing country with an increasing rate of graduate unemployment. This has triggered successive government administrations to promote the variety of programmes to address the situation. However, none of these efforts yielded the desired outcome. Accordingly, in 2006 the government included entrepreneurship module in the curriculum of universities as a compulsory general programme for all undergraduate courses. This is in the hope that the programme will help to promote entrepreneurial mind-set and new venture creation among graduates and as a result reduce the rate of graduate unemployment. The study explores the effectiveness of entrepreneurship education in promoting entrepreneurship. This study is significant in view of the endemic graduate unemployment in Nigeria and the social consequences such as youth restiveness and militancy. It is guided by the theory of planned behaviour. It employed the two-stage structural equation modelling (AMOS) to model entrepreneurial intentions as a function of innovative teaching methods, traditional teaching methods and culture Personal attitude and subjective norm are proposed to mediate the relationships between the exogenous and the endogenous variables. The first stage was tested using multi-group confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA) framework to confirm that the two groups assign the same meaning to the scale items and to obtain goodness-of-fit indices. The multi-group confirmatory factor analysis included the tests of configural, metric and scalar invariance. With the attainment of full configural invariance and partial metric and scalar invariance, the second stage – the structural model was applied hypothesising that, the entrepreneurial intentions of graduates (respondents who have participated in the compulsory entrepreneurship programme) will be higher than those of undergraduates (respondents who are yet to participate in the programme). The study uses the quasi-experimental design. The samples comprised 409 graduates (experimental group) and 402 undergraduates (control group) from six federal universities in Nigeria. Our findings suggest that personal attitude is positively related with entrepreneurial intentions, largely confirming prior literature. However, unlike previous studies, our results indicate that subjective norm has significant direct and indirect impact on entrepreneurial intentions indicating that reference people of the participants have important roles to play in their decision to be entrepreneurial. Furthermore, unlike the assertions in prior studies, the result suggests that traditional teaching methods have indirect effect on entrepreneurial intentions supporting that since personal characteristics can change in an educational situation, an education purposively directed at entrepreneurship might achieve similar results if not better. This study has implication for practice and theory. The research extends to the theoretical understanding of the formation of entrepreneurial intentions and explains the role of the reference others in relation to how graduates perceive entrepreneurship. Further, the study adds to the body of knowledge on entrepreneurship education in Nigeria universities and provides a developing country perspective. It proposes further research in the exploration of entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurial intentions of graduates from across the country’s universities as necessary and imperative.

Keywords: entrepreneurship education, entrepreneurial intention, structural equation modeling, theory of planned behaviour

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