Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 133

Search results for: neoliberal rationality

133 Believing in a Just-World: The Neoliberal Rationality and the Everyday Legitimation of Social Inequality

Authors: Mónica Catarina Soares

Abstract:

Neoliberal rationality is currently changing the ways concepts like freedom or equality are framed. As an omnipresent and context-sensitive paradigm, homo oeconomicus is continuously taking place in realms of life previously insulated from economic and market-driven principles. This presentation is based on the argument that, more than ever, this paradigm is nowadays framing institutional and everyday discourses in regard to social problems. Although neoliberal rationality is based on the putative ideological basis that everyone is equal, equality seems to be reshaped by specific meanings apprehended by this rationality. In this sense, an illusion of equality seems to be relevant to legitimize different social inequalities (e.g., access to health care or to habitation). Political psychology has studied how ideology is relevant to legitimize market and unequal systems, but still the specific relation between markets, (in)equality and neoliberal languages is not widely addressed. The goal is to discuss the smithereens of the neoliberal rationality when it comes to legitimizing social inequalities by contesting the arguments of meritocracy, progressive freedom and minimal guarantees obeying to market-rules and principles. This analysis can be helpful to grasp for instance the continuously dismantlement of the welfare-state in different countries of the global north and how it is turning the regulation/emancipation tension inside out. The ultimate goal is to contribute to the breaking up of a paradigm that is still too big to capture, too depoliticized and chameleonic to fully acknowledge the biopolitics of power that is helping to create it.

Keywords: discourses, legitimacy, neoliberal rationality, social inequality

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
132 Neoliberal Policies and International Organizations: The OECD and Higher Education Policy

Authors: Ellen Holtmaat

Abstract:

With an ever increasing influence of international organizations (IOs) on national policies and with the expectation that IOs are the transmission belts of world ideologies it is interesting to see to what extent IOs express a specific ideology and what determines the dominance of this ideology. This thesis looks at the OECD as IO and higher education as a field of policy. Evidence is found that the OECD promotes neoliberal developments in higher education and that its position is influenced by business, dominant countries and the dominant beliefs that are carried by the people working for the OECD that form an epistemic community. These results can possibly be extrapolated to other IOs.

Keywords: higher education, international organizations, neoliberal, OECD

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
131 The Neoliberal Social-Economic Development and Values in the Baltic States

Authors: Daiva Skuciene

Abstract:

The Baltic States turned to free market and capitalism after independency. The new socioeconomic system, democracy and priorities about the welfare of citizens formed. The researches show that Baltic states choose the neoliberal development. Related to this neoliberal path, a few questions arouse: how do people evaluate the results of such policy and socioeconomic development? What are their priorities? And what are the values of the Baltic societies that support neoliberal policy? The purpose of this research – to analyze the socioeconomic context and the priorities and the values of the Baltics societies related to neoliberal regime. The main objectives are: firstly, to analyze the neoliberal socioeconomic features and results; secondly, to analyze people opinions and priorities about the results of neoliberal development; thirdly, to analyze the values of the Baltic societies related to the neoliberal policy. For the implementation of the purpose and objectives, the comparative analyses among European countries are used. The neoliberal regime was defined through two indicators: the taxes on capital income and expenditures on social protection. The socioeconomic outcomes of neoliberal welfare regime are defined through the Gini inequality and at risk of the poverty rate. For this analysis, the data of 2002-2013 of Eurostat were used. For the analyses of opinion about inequality and preferences on society, people want to live in, the preferences for distribution between capital and wages in enterprise data of Eurobarometer in 2010-2014 and the data of representative survey in the Baltic States in 2016 were used. The justice variable was selected as a variable reflecting the evaluation of socioeconomic context and analyzed using data of Eurobarometer 2006-2015. For the analyses of values were selected: solidarity, equality, and individual responsibility. The solidarity, equality was analyzed using data of Eurobarometer 2006-2015. The value “individual responsibility” was examined by opinions about reasons of inequality and poverty. The survey of population in the Baltic States in 2016 and data of Eurobarometer were used for this aim. The data are ranged in descending order for understanding the position of opinion of people in the Baltic States among European countries. The dynamics of indicators is also provided to examine stability of values. The main findings of the research are that people in the Baltics are dissatisfied with the results of the neoliberal socioeconomic development, they have priorities for equality and justice, but they have internalized the main neoliberal narrative- individual responsibility. The impact of socioeconomic context on values is huge, resulting in a change in quite stable opinions and values during the period of the financial crisis.

Keywords: neoliberal, inequality and poverty, solidarity, individual responsibility

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
130 The Principle of Methodological Rationality and Security of Organisations

Authors: Jan Franciszek Jacko

Abstract:

This investigation presents the principle of methodological rationality of decision making and discusses the impact of an organisation's members' methodologically rational or irrational decisions on its security. This study formulates and partially justifies some research hypotheses regarding the impact. The thinking experiment is used according to Max Weber's ideal types method. Two idealised situations("models") are compared: Model A, whereall decision-makers follow methodologically rational decision-making procedures. Model B, in which these agents follow methodologically irrational decision-making practices. Analysing and comparing the two models will allow the formulation of some research hypotheses regarding the impact of methodologically rational and irrational attitudes of members of an organisation on its security. In addition to the method, phenomenological analyses of rationality and irrationality are applied.

Keywords: methodological rationality, rational decisions, security of organisations, philosophy of economics

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
129 The Capabilities Approach as a Future Alternative to Neoliberal Higher Education in the MENA Region

Authors: Ranya Elkhayat

Abstract:

This paper aims at offering a futures study for higher education in the Middle East. Paying special attention to the negative impacts of neoliberalism, the paper will demonstrate how higher education is now commodified, corporatized and how arts and humanities are eschewed in favor of science and technology. This conceptual paper argues against the neoliberal agenda and aims at providing an alternative exemplified in the Capabilities Approach with special reference to Martha Nussbaum’s theory. The paper is divided into four main parts: the current state of higher education under neoliberal values, a prediction of the conditions of higher education in the near future, the future of higher education using the theoretical framework of the Capabilities Approach, and finally, some areas of concern regarding the approach. The implications of the study demonstrate that Nussbaum’s Capabilities Approach will ensure that the values of education are preserved while avoiding the pitfalls of neoliberalism.

Keywords: capabilities approach, education future, higher education, MENA

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
128 Rationality and Evidence of Pre-Prepared Treatment Plan in Oesophageal HDR Brachytherapy

Authors: Jim S. Meng, Mammo H. Yewondwossen

Abstract:

As a part of routine oesophageal HDR brachytherapy procedure, treatment planning takes about 45 minutes while patients are under light sedation. Some patients may suffer gagging and/or spasms, and the treatment may need to be aborted. A pre-prepared plan generated before the patient’s sedation may reduce the brachytherapy procedure time by forty minutes. This paper reports the rationality and evidence of pre-prepared treatment plans. A retrospective study of 28 patients confirm that all of the pre-prepared plans would be acceptable. The rationality of pre-prepared HDR brachytherapy plans is further confirmed by a systemic study with a wide range of applicator curvature and treatment volume. Detailed comparison between CT based treatment plans and pre-prepared plans are discussed. This argument holds also for endobronchial HDR brachytherapy. With the above evidence, pre-prepared plans have been used for all oesophagus and bronchus HDR brachytherapy cases in our clinic.

Keywords: HDR brachytherapy, treatment planning, oesophageal carcinoma, pre-planning

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
127 Economic Neoliberalism: Property Right and Redistribution Policy

Authors: Aleksandar Savanović

Abstract:

In this paper we will analyze the relationship between the neo-liberal concept of property rights and redistribution policy. This issue is back in the focus of interest due to the crisis 2008. The crisis has reaffirmed the influence of the state on the free-market processes. The interference of the state with property relations re-opened a classical question: is it legitimate to redistribute resources of a man in favor of another man with taxes? The dominant view is that the neoliberal philosophy of natural rights is incompatible with redistributive measures. In principle, this view can be accepted. However, when we look into the details of the theory of natural rights proposed by some coryphaei of neoliberal philosophy, such as Hayek, Nozick, Buchanan and Rothbard, we can see that it is not such an unequivocal view.

Keywords: economic neoliberalism, natural law, property, redistribution

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
126 Administrative Reform and the Changing Nature of Higher Education: A Lesson from Indonesian Higher Education Reforms

Authors: Nurdiana Gaus, Mahmud Tang

Abstract:

This paper analyses changes being experienced by academics in Indonesian state university systems as a result of government-driven policy and the impacts of these changes on academics work and organisations. This analysis is located in the main concept of neoliberal agenda with its associated discourse of New Public Management. The purpose of this analysis is to show how public administrative reforms adopting neoliberal agenda have been disseminated in Indonesian higher education reform via policies and programmes of the government. This essay is expected to clarify the concept of neoliberalism in the administrative reforms within higher education institutions by examining and understanding its implementation in Indonesian context and how this impacted on the structural changes in universities and academics work.

Keywords: neoliberalism, higher education, Indonesia, new public management

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
125 Embodied Neoliberalism and the Mind as Tool to Manage the Body: A Descriptive Study Applied to Young Australian Amateur Athletes

Authors: Alicia Ettlin

Abstract:

Amid the rise of neoliberalism to the leading economic policy model in Western societies in the 1980s, people have started to internalise a neoliberal way of thinking, whereby the human body has become an entity that can and needs to be precisely managed through free yet rational decision-making processes. The neoliberal citizen has consequently become an entrepreneur of the self who is free, independent, rational, productive and responsible for themselves, their health and wellbeing as well as their appearance. The focus on individuals as entrepreneurs who manage their bodies through the rationally thinking mind has, however, become increasingly criticised for viewing the social actor as ‘disembodied’, as a detached, social actor whose powerful mind governs over the passive body. On the other hand, the discourse around embodiment seeks to connect rational decision-making processes to the dominant neoliberal discourse which creates an embodied understanding that the body, just as other areas of people’s lives, can and should be shaped, monitored and managed through cognitive and rational thinking. This perspective offers an understanding of the body regarding its connections with the social environment that reaches beyond the debates around mind-body binary thinking. Hence, following this argument, body management should not be thought of as either solely guided by embodied discourses nor as merely falling into a mind-body dualism, but rather, simultaneously and inseparably as both at once. The descriptive, qualitative analysis of semi-structured in-depth interviews conducted with young Australian amateur athletes between the age of 18 and 24 has shown that most participants are interested in measuring and managing their body to create self-knowledge and self-improvement. The participants thereby connected self-improvement to weight loss, muscle gain or simply staying fit and healthy. Self-knowledge refers to body measurements including weight, BMI or body fat percentage. Self-management and self-knowledge that are reliant on one another to take rational and well-thought-out decisions, are both characteristic values of the neoliberal doctrine. A neoliberal way of thinking and looking after the body has also by many been connected to rewarding themselves for their discipline, hard work or achievement of specific body management goals (e.g. eating chocolate for reaching the daily step count goal). A few participants, however, have shown resistance against these neoliberal values, and in particular, against the precise monitoring and management of the body with the help of self-tracking devices. Ultimately, however, it seems that most participants have internalised the dominant discourses around self-responsibility, and by association, a sense of duty to discipline their body in normative ways. Even those who have indicated their resistance against body work and body management practices that follow neoliberal thinking and measurement systems, are aware and have internalised the concept of the rational operating mind that needs or should decide how to look after the body in terms of health but also appearance ideals. The discussion around the collected data thereby shows that embodiment and the mind/body dualism constitute two connected, rather than two separate or opposing concepts.

Keywords: dualism, embodiment, mind, neoliberalism

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
124 The Russian-Ukrainian Conflict: An Imperial, Neoliberal Limbo

Authors: Anna Savchenko

Abstract:

The dissolution of the Soviet Union brought about a wave of decolonisation throughout the Soviet space in the 1990s. While this emancipation ushered in an era of reform in the newly independent states, it also opened up the opportunity for countries such as Ukraine to be (re)colonised by a different ruling power: the European Union. Ukraine’s relationship with the EU has been further complicated by the fact that the country’s political leadership has aligned itself with a Western agenda of democratisation. This article challenges the neoliberal belief that the global market can spurn democratisation by analysing the way in which market privatisation in Ukraine has allowed for mass corruption to flourish. I submit that neoliberalism, or the sheer force of the global market, is just as colonising as modern-day imperialism has proven to be by providing an analytical synthesis of Russia and Ukraine’s century-old conflict. The EU’s demonstrated inability to mediate cross-border conflict in the region foreshadows that Ukraine may have been economically colonised by another failing state.

Keywords: neoliberalism, imperealism, Russian-Ukrainian conflict, democratisation, colonisation

Procedia PDF Downloads 108
123 Disaster Capitalism, Charter Schools, and the Reproduction of Inequality in Poor, Disabled Students: An Ethnographic Case Study

Authors: Sylvia Mac

Abstract:

This ethnographic case study examines disaster capitalism, neoliberal market-based school reforms, and disability through the lens of Disability Studies in Education. More specifically, it explores neoliberalism and special education at a small, urban charter school in a large city in California and the (re)production of social inequality. The study uses Sociology of Special Education to examine the ways in which special education is used to sort and stratify disabled students. At a time when rhetoric surrounding public schools is framed in catastrophic and dismal language in order to justify the privatization of public education, small urban charter schools must be examined to learn if they are living up to their promise or acting as another way to maintain economic and racial segregation. The study concludes that neoliberal contexts threaten successful inclusive education and normalize poor, disabled students’ continued low achievement and poor post-secondary outcomes. This ethnographic case study took place at a small urban charter school in a large city in California. Participants included three special education students, the special education teacher, the special education assistant, a regular education teacher, and the two founders and charter writers. The school claimed to have a push-in model of special education where all special education students were fully included in the general education classroom. Although presented as fully inclusive, some special education students also attended a pull-out class called Study Skills. The study found that inclusion and neoliberalism are differing ideologies that cannot co-exist. Successful inclusive environments cannot thrive while under the influences of neoliberal education policies such as efficiency and cost-cutting. Additionally, the push for students to join the global knowledge economy means that more and more low attainers are further marginalized and kept in poverty. At this school, neoliberal ideology eclipsed the promise of inclusive education for special education students. This case study has shown the need for inclusive education to be interrogated through lenses that consider macro factors, such as neoliberal ideology in public education, as well as the emerging global knowledge economy and increasing income inequality. Barriers to inclusion inside the school, such as teachers’ attitudes, teacher preparedness, and school infrastructure paint only part of the picture. Inclusive education is also threatened by neoliberal ideology that shifts the responsibility from the state to the individual. This ideology is dangerous because it reifies the stereotypes of disabled students as lazy, needs drains on already dwindling budgets. If these stereotypes persist, inclusive education will have a difficult time succeeding. In order to more fully examine the ways in which inclusive education can become truly emancipatory, we need more analysis on the relationship between neoliberalism, disability, and special education.

Keywords: case study, disaster capitalism, inclusive education, neoliberalism

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
122 U.S. Supreme Court Decision-Making and Bounded Rationality

Authors: Joseph Ignagni, Rebecca Deen

Abstract:

In this study, the decision making of the Justices of the United States Supreme Court will be considered in terms of constrained maximization and cognitive-cybernetic theory. This paper will integrate research in such fields as law, psychology, political science, economics and decision-making theory. It will be argued that due to its heavy workload, the Supreme Court may be forced to make decisions in a boundedly rational manner. The ideas and theory put forward here will be considered in the area of the Court’s decisions involving religion. Therefore, the cases involving the U.S. Constitution’s Free Exercise Clause and Establishment Clause will be analyzed.

Keywords: bounded rationality, cognitive-cybernetic, US supreme court, religion

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
121 The Eathquake Discourse as a Strategy of an Urban Renewal: A Case Study into the Karapınar Valley Regeneration Project in Eskişehir, Turkey

Authors: Cansu Civelek

Abstract:

The flexible and uneven character of neoliberalism has provided adaptation of urban strategies into the constantly changing circumstances in order to renew and reproduce the neoliberal accumulation model. Instrumentalization of catastrophic events to this end has been one of those global urban strategies. Regarding Turkey, exploitation of natural disasters has been the latest tactic of the Justice and Development Party (JDP) government to achieve radical economic goals. ‘Unhealthy’ and ‘risky’ structures of squatter settlements have often been articulated while the regenerations, expropriations, and exclusions have been sugarcoated through the discourses of ‘reintegrating the shanty zones into the cities’, ‘supplying healthy housing’, and ‘win-win’ character of the projects. Being the first regeneration project of Eskişehir, the Karapınar Regeneration Project has been initiated in 2011 by the partnership of the Odunpazarı Municipality of the JDP and the Mass Housing Organization. Discourses around the forthcoming disasters, ‘risky structures’ of the squatters, and the importance of the ‘security of life and property’ have been utilized, even though the zone is situated on a geotechnically stable area. Yet, many of the locals are worried about the payments while some have already decided to move elsewhere at the outskirts of the city.

Keywords: neoliberal urbanism, urban regeneration, illegal settlements, discourses

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
120 The Factors Constitute the Interaction between Teachers and Students: An Empirical Study at the Notion of Framing

Authors: Tien-Hui Chiang

Abstract:

The code theory, proposed by Basil Bernstein, indicates that framing can be viewed as the core element in constituting the phenomenon of cultural reproduction because it is able to regulate the transmission of pedagogical information. Strong framing increases the social relation boundary between a teacher and pupils, which obstructs information transmission, so that in order to improve underachieving students’ academic performances, teachers need to reduce to strength of framing. Weak framing enables them to transform academic knowledge into commonsense knowledge in daily life language. This study posits that most teachers would deliver strong framing due to their belief mainly confined within the aspect of instrumental rationality that deprives their critical minds. This situation could make them view the normal distribution bell curve of students’ academic performances as a natural outcome. In order to examine the interplay between framing, instrumental rationality and pedagogical action, questionnaires were completed by over 5,000 primary school teachers in Henan province, China, who were stratified sample. The statistical results show that most teachers employed psychological concepts to measure students’ academic performances and, in turn, educational inequity was legitimatized as a natural outcome in the efficiency-led approach. Such efficiency-led minds made them perform as the agent practicing the mechanism of social control and in turn sustaining the phenomenon of cultural reproduction.

Keywords: code, cultural reproduction, framing, instrumental rationality, social relation and interaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
119 Gynocentrism and Self-Orientalization: A Visual Trend in Chinese Fashion Photography

Authors: Zhen Sun

Abstract:

The study adopts the method of visual social semiotics to analyze a sample of fashion photos that were recently published in Chinese fashion magazines that target towards both male and female readers. It identifies a new visual trend in fashion photography, which is characterized by two features. First, the photos represent young, confident, and stylish female models with lower-class sloppy old men. The visual inharmony between the sexually desirable women and the aged men has suggested an impossibly accomplished sexuality and eroticism. Though the women are still under the male gaze, they are depicted as unreachable objects of voyeurism other than sexual objects subordinated to men. Second, the represented people are usually put in the backdrop of tasteless or vulgar Chinese town life, which is congruent with the images of men but makes the modern city girls out of place. The photographers intentionally contrast the images of women with that of men and with the background, which implies an imaginary binary division of modern Orientalism and the photographers’ self-orientalization strategy. Under the theoretical umbrella of neoliberal postfeminism, this study defines a new kind of gynocentric stereotype in Chinese fashion photography, which challenges the previous observations on gender portrayals in fashion magazines.

Keywords: fashion photography, gynocentrism, neoliberal postfeminism, self-orientalization

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
118 The Role of Artificial Intelligence Algorithms in Decision-Making Policies

Authors: Marisa Almeida AraúJo

Abstract:

Artificial intelligence (AI) tools are being used (including in the criminal justice system) and becomingincreasingly popular. The many questions that these (future) super-beings pose the neuralgic center is rooted in the (old) problematic between rationality and morality. For instance, if we follow a Kantian perspective in which morality derives from AI, rationality will also surpass man in ethical and moral standards, questioning the nature of mind, the conscience of self and others, and moral. The recognition of superior intelligence in a non-human being puts us in the contingency of having to recognize a pair in a form of new coexistence and social relationship. Just think of the humanoid robot Sophia, capable of reasoning and conversation (and who has been recognized for Saudi citizenship; a fact that symbolically demonstrates our empathy with the being). Machines having a more intelligent mind, and even, eventually, with higher ethical standards to which, in the alluded categorical imperative, we would have to subject ourselves under penalty of contradiction with the universal Kantian law. Recognizing the complex ethical and legal issues and the significant impact on human rights and democratic functioning itself is the goal of our work.

Keywords: ethics, artificial intelligence, legal rules, principles, philosophy

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
117 Neoliberal Settler City: Socio-Spatial Segregation, Livelihood of Artists/Craftsmen in Delhi

Authors: Sophy Joseph

Abstract:

The study uses the concept of ‘Settler city’ to understand the nature of peripheralization that a neoliberal city initiates. The settler city designs powerless communities without inherent rights, title and sovereignty. Kathputli Colony, home to generations of artists/craftsmen, who have kept heritage of arts/crafts alive, has undergone eviction of its population from urban space. The proposed study, ‘Neoliberal Settler City: Socio-spatial segregation and livelihood of artists/craftsmen in Delhi’ would problematize the settler city as a colonial technology. The colonial regime has ‘erased’ the ‘unwanted’ as primitive and swept them to peripheries in the city. This study would also highlight how structural change in political economy has undermined their crafts/arts by depriving them from practicing/performing it with dignity in urban space. The interconnections between citizenship and In-Situ Private Public Partnership in Kathputli rehabilitation has become part of academic exercise. However, a comprehensive study connecting inherent characteristics of neoliberal settler city, trajectory of political economy of unorganized workers - artists/craftsmen and legal containment and exclusion leading to dispossession and marginalization of communities from the city site, is relevant to contextualize the trauma of spatial segregation. This study would deal with political, cultural, social and economic dominant behavior of the structure in the state formation, accumulation of property and design of urban space, fueled by segregation of marginalized/unorganized communities and disowning the ‘footloose proletariat’, the migrant workforce. The methodology of study involves qualitative research amongst communities and the field work-oral testimonies and personal accounts- becomes the primary material to theorize the realities. The secondary materials in the forms of archival materials about historical evolution of Delhi as a planned city from various archives, would be used. As the study also adopt ‘narrative approach’ in qualitative study, the life experiences of craftsmen/artists as performers and emotional trauma of losing their livelihood and space forms an important record to understand the instability and insecurity that marginalization and development attributes on urban poor. The study attempts to prove that though there was a change in political tradition from colonialism to constitutional democracy, new state still follows the policy of segregation and dispossession of the communities. It is this dispossession from the space, deprivation of livelihood and non-consultative process in rehabilitation that reflects the neoliberal approach of the state and also critical findings in the study. This study would entail critical spatial lens analyzing ethnographic and sociological data, representational practices and development debates to understand ‘urban otherization’ against craftsmen/artists. This seeks to develop a conceptual framework for understanding the resistance of communities against primitivity attached with them and to decolonize the city. This would help to contextualize the demand for declaring Kathputli Colony as ‘heritage artists village’. The conceptualization and contextualization would help to argue for right to city of the communities, collective rights to property, services and self-determination. The aspirations of the communities also help to draw normative orientation towards decolonization. It is important to study this site as part of the framework, ‘inclusive cities’ because cities are rarely noted as important sites of ‘community struggles’.

Keywords: neoliberal settler city, socio-spatial segregation, the livelihood of artists/craftsmen, dispossession of indigenous communities, urban planning and cultural uprooting

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
116 Valuing Academic Excellence in Higher Education: The Case of Establishing a Human Development Unit in a European Start-up University

Authors: Eleftheria Atta, Yianna Vovides, Marios Katsioloudes

Abstract:

In the fusion of neoliberalism and globalization, Higher Education (HE) is becoming increasingly complex. The changing patterns of the economy worldwide caused the development of high value-added economy HE has been viewed as a social investment, significant for the development of knowledge-based societies and economies. In order to contribute to economic competitiveness universities are required to produce local and employable workers in order to fit into the neoliberal economic environment. The emergence of neoliberal performativity, which measures outcomes, is a key aspect in a neoliberal era. It facilitates the redesign of institutions making organizations and individuals to think about themselves in relation to their performance. Performativity and performance management systems lead academics to become more effective, professionally advance, improve and become better than others and therefore act competitively. Besides the aforementioned complexities, universities also encounter the challenge of maintaining a set of values to guide an institution’s actions and which have always been highly respected in developing a HE institution. The formulation of a clear set of values also determines the institutional culture which will be maintained. It is evident that values create a significant framework for the workplace and may determine positive institutional results. Universities are required to engage in activities for capacity building which will improve their students’ competence as well as offer opportunities to administrative and academic staff to professionally develop in light of neoliberal performativity. Additionally, the University is now considered as an innovation ecosystem playing a significant role in providing education, research and innovation to help create solutions to meet social, environmental and economic challenges. Thus, Universities become central in orchestrating multi-actor innovation networks. This presentation will discuss the establishment of an institutional unit entitled ‘Human Development Unit’ (HDU) in a European start-up university. The activities of the HDU are envisioned as drivers for innovation that would enable the university as a whole to maintain its position in a fast-changing world and be ready to face adaptive challenges. In addition, the HDU provides its students, staff, and faculty with opportunities to advance their academic and professional development through engagement in programs that align with institutional values. It also serves as a connector with the broader community. The presentation will highlight the functions of three centers which the unit will coordinate namely, the Student Development Center (SDC), the Faculty & Staff Development Center (FSDC) and the Continuing Education Center (CEC). The presentation aligns with the aim of the conference as it welcomes presentations to discuss innovations and challenges encountered in HE. Particularly, this presentation seeks to discuss the establishment of an innovative unit at a start-up university which will contribute to creating an institutional culture shaped by the value of academic excellence for students as well as for staff, shaping and defining the functions and activities of the unit. The establishment of the proposed unit is crucial in a start-up university both to differentiate from other competitors but also to sustain its presence given the pressures in a neoliberal HE context.

Keywords: academic excellence, globalization, human development unit, neoliberalism

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
115 The Relevance of Psychology in South Africa: A Content Analysis of Psychology Masters Theses from 1998 to 2017

Authors: Elron Fouten

Abstract:

Recently, debates surrounding the social relevance of psychology in South Africa have focussed on how the growing neoliberal rationality within academia has again resulted in the discipline catering to the needs of powerful social groupings to protect its own economic interests, rather than producing socially relevant knowledge. Consequently, this study aimed to conduct a content analysis of the recent research output of psychology masters students, to establish whether it has produced research that addresses local and national psychosocial issues and as such deemed socially relevant knowledge. The study sampled clinical, counselling, and research psychology masters theses from 16 South African universities submitted between 1998 and 2017. Overall, 2001 theses were sampled, which were analysed using qualitative content analysis predominantly based on the descriptive categories identified in similar studies using published journal articles. Results indicated that empirical qualitative theses, using systems-oriented theory and post-modern frameworks were most prevalent. Further, traditional topics within psychology had relatively more weighting compared to more social topics. Although a significant number of theses recruited participants from working-class or poor backgrounds, there was an overreliance on participants from urban areas located in some of the country’s wealthiest provinces. Despite a strong adult-centric focus, trends regarding participants’ race and gender roughly resembled current population demographics. Overall, the results indicate that psychology in South Africa, at least at university-level, is to some extent trying to engage with national psychosocial concerns. However, there are still several key areas which need to be addressed to ensure the continued social relevance of the discipline.

Keywords: adult-centric, content analysis, relevance, psychosocial

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
114 Counter-Hegemonic Movements and Their Consequences at the International Level: Transposing Gramsci to the 21st Century

Authors: Hanna Corsini

Abstract:

This article provides an analysis of counter-hegemonic movements and their consequences for the neoliberal world order at the international level. Even if calls for change are becoming louder, current research on populist forces at the domestic level in comparative politics is lacking an investigation of the international dimensions of the rise of such movements. At the same time, in the International Relations field, the focus still remains on the surge of challengers at the global level, while the national one stays neglected. This paper argues that to fill this gap as identified in the academic literature, the concept of hegemony, and more precisely, as deployed by Antonio Gramsci, can bear some interesting insights. An adaptation to the 21st century of Gramsci’s concept is proposed, highlighting the explanatory power that key concepts of his theoretical framework have. Transposing it to contemporary politics provides precious elements for an in-depth understanding of counter-hegemonic movements and the consequences of their rise for the neoliberal world order. In an era of disruption and turmoil in national politics, International Relations theory cannot avoid to engage with this dimension. However, populism as a theoretical concept lacks the capacity to go beyond the domestic border. It is therefore essential to create a dialogue between these two fields. Ultimately, the paper claims that (counter-)hegemony is crucial to build a bridge between the international and the domestic level.

Keywords: counter-hegemonic movements, Gramsci, hegemony, international relations

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
113 Patterns of Gear Substitution in Norwegian Trawl Fishery

Authors: Tannaz Alizadeh Ashrafi

Abstract:

Seasonal variability in biological and ecological factors together with relevant socio-economic determinants affect the choice of fishing gear, frequency of its usage and decision about gear conversion under multi-species situation. In order to deal with the complex dynamics of fisheries, fishers, constantly, have to make decisions about how long to fish, when to go fishing, what species to target, and which gear to deploy. In this regard, the purpose of this study is to examine the dynamics of gear/ species combination in Norwegian fishery. A comprehensive vessel-level set of data for the main economically important species including: cod, haddock, saithe, shrimp and mixed catch have been obtained from the Norwegian Directorate of Fisheries covering the daily data in 2010. The present study further analyzes the level of flexibility and rationality of the fishers operating in the trawl fishery. The results show the disproportion between intention of the trawl fishers to maximize profitability of each fishing trip and their harvesting behavior in reality. Discussion is based on so-called maximizing behavior.

Keywords: trawl fishery, gear substitution, rationality, profit maximizing behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
112 Study on Flexible Diaphragm In-Plane Model of Irregular Multi-Storey Industrial Plant

Authors: Cheng-Hao Jiang, Mu-Xuan Tao

Abstract:

The rigid diaphragm model may cause errors in the calculation of internal forces due to neglecting the in-plane deformation of the diaphragm. This paper thus studies the effects of different diaphragm in-plane models (including in-plane rigid model and in-plane flexible model) on the seismic performance of structures. Taking an actual industrial plant as an example, the seismic performance of the structure is predicted using different floor diaphragm models, and the analysis errors caused by different diaphragm in-plane models including deformation error and internal force error are calculated. Furthermore, the influence of the aspect ratio on the analysis errors is investigated. Finally, the code rationality is evaluated by assessing the analysis errors of the structure models whose floors were determined as rigid according to the code’s criterion. It is found that different floor models may cause great differences in the distribution of structural internal forces, and the current code may underestimate the influence of the floor in-plane effect.

Keywords: industrial plant, diaphragm, calculating error, code rationality

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
111 The Political Biographies of Social Workers: A Qualitative Study of the Political Lives of Social Workers

Authors: Hefin Gwilym

Abstract:

This paper will explore the political biographies of social workers in a neoliberal era. The findings are based on a research project for a successfully completed professional doctorate in social work. The methodology deployed for the research is a combination of constructivist grounded theory and biographical inquiry. The paper will present findings from 14 biographical interviews and will focus on one case study of a participant whose life story is richly informed by political social work. The 14 participants reflect different genders, ethnic identities, cultural and linguistic identities, age and length of social work careers. The participants also reflect different forms of political engagement, such as, as political activists and members of political parties, including parliamentarians. The findings demonstrate how deeply ingrained the social work identity is amongst the participants and how their political identity has remained strongly social democratic in nature despite the many changes in the social work profession since the rise of neoliberalism as a thought collective and policy package. The individual case study will explore the early roots of political identity in the childhood and nurturing years and the interface with subsequent social work and political careers. It will also explore the evolution of the participant’s political identity in the social work career. The case study will also present findings on how the participant has contributed to the political field with policy involvement and initiatives. The presentation will conclude with a discussion on how this particular group of social workers can best contribute to the future direction of the social work profession.

Keywords: political social work, political biographies, neoliberal, grounded theory

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
110 Northern Istanbul Urban Infrastructure Projects: A Critical Account on the Environmental, Spatial, Social and Economical Impacts

Authors: Evren Aysev Denec

Abstract:

As an urban settlement dating as early as 8000 years and the capital for Byzantine and Ottoman empires; İstanbul has been a significant global city throughout history. The most drastic changes in the macro form of Istanbul have taken place in the last seven decades; starting from 1950’s with rapid industrialization and population growth; pacing up after the 1980’s with the efforts of integration to the global capitalist system; reaching to a climax in the 2000’s with the adaptation of a neoliberal urban regime. Today, the rate of urbanization together with land speculation and real estate investment has been growing enormously. Every inch of urban land is conceptualized as a commodity to be capitalized. This neoliberal mindset has many controversial implementations, from the privatization of public land to the urban transformation of historic neighbourhoods and consumption of natural resources. The planning decisions concerning the city have been mainly top down initiations; conceptualising historical, cultural and natural heritage as commodities to be capitalised and consumed in favour of creating rent value. One of the most crucial implementations of this neoliberal urban regime is the project of establishing a ‘new city’ around northern Istanbul; together with a number of large-scale infrastructural projects such as the Third Bosporus Bridge; a new highway system, a Third Airport Project and a secondary Bosporus project called the ‘Canal Istanbul’. Urbanizing northern Istanbul is highly controversial as this area consists of major natural resources of the city; being the northern forests, water supplies and wildlife; which are bound to be destroyed to a great extent following the implementations. The construction of the third bridge and the third airport has begun in 2013, despite environmental objections and protests. Over five hundred thousand trees are planned be cut for solely the construction of the bridge and the Northern Marmara Motorway. Yet the real damage will be the urbanization of the forest area; irreversibly corrupting the natural resources and attracting millions of additional population towards Istanbul. Furthermore, these projects lack an integrated planning scope as the plans prepared for Istanbul are constantly subjected to alterations forced by the central government. Urban interventions mentioned above are executed despite the rulings of Istanbul Environmental plan, due to top down planning decisions. Instead of an integrated action plan that prepares for the future of the city, Istanbul is governed by partial plans and projects that are issued by a profit based agenda; supported by legal alterations and laws issued by the central government. This paper aims to discuss the ongoing implementations with regards to northern Istanbul; claiming that they are not merely infrastructural interventions but parts of a greater neoliberal urbanization strategy. In the course of the study, firstly a brief account on the northern forests of Istanbul will be presented. Then, the projects will be discussed in detail, addressing how the current planning schemes deal with the natural heritage of the city. Lastly, concluding remarks on how the implementations could affect the future of Istanbul will be presented.

Keywords: Istanbul, urban design, urban planning, natural resources

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
109 Plethora of Drivers Transforming Colonial Cities: The Case of Allahabad

Authors: Akanksha Gupta, Vishal Dubey

Abstract:

In the Neoliberal era, there has been a much-talked discourse about urban issues that arise from a narrow approach of the single rationality of market-driven planning in Indian cities. More to this, India's urban planning is already jeopardized by the captious shortage of infrastructure, a cluster of incoherent governing bodies and implementation mechanism, leading cities to lie in the plethora of urban challenges. In this context, Allahabad (now known as Prayagraj) a city in North India is not an exception. Once known as the most planned splendid Colonial city of the British regime in India collapsed phenomenally because of the incompetent approach of planning machinery, straightforward market-driven accession and lack of attention on urban equity and sustainability. Particularly Civil Lines a Colonial neighbourhood, reached to the zenith of the glorified legacy of the Colonial era, transformed into filthy and congested urban form. Contextually this study contemplates and assesses the chronological episodes of major changes in land management reforms and policies under the ad hoc approach of political economy and land use planning which radically degraded the living environment in the present context. This study would empirically showcase the selected sample area detailing some of the major consequences in terms of gradual change in urban morphology, land use, and function. Here the method of study is primarily a qualitative study implying oral history and other historical methods to exhibit the idiom of planning conundrum. This subsequently reflects the repercussions translated into major issues like unclear land titles, encroachment, and unauthorized development and mushrooming of informal and squatter settlements. In nutshell, the study seeks to distinct out the limitations of the land reform and land management policies, which impacted the general degradation to the beautiful setting of Colonial neighbourhood. The Colonial legacy of Civil Lines now exists in the traces of history- memories of people, who once took pride in its serenity have now witnessed the transformation bit by bit till neo-liberal market forces completely swallow it.

Keywords: civil lines, land reforms, policies, urban challenges

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
108 A Comparison between Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process and Fuzzy Analytic Network Process for Rationality Evaluation of Land Use Planning Locations in Vietnam

Authors: X. L. Nguyen, T. Y. Chou, F. Y. Min, F. C. Lin, T. V. Hoang, Y. M. Huang

Abstract:

In Vietnam, land use planning is utilized as an efficient tool for the local government to adjust land use. However, planned locations are facing disapproval from people who live near these planned sites because of environmental problems. The selection of these locations is normally based on the subjective opinion of decision-makers and is not supported by any scientific methods. Many researchers have applied Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA) methods in which Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is the most popular techniques in combination with Fuzzy set theory for the subject of rationality assessment of land use planning locations. In this research, the Fuzzy set theory and Analytic Network Process (ANP) multi-criteria-based technique were used for the assessment process. The Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process was also utilized, and the output results from two methods were compared to extract the differences. The 20 planned landfills in Hung Ha district, Thai Binh province, Vietnam was selected as a case study. The comparison results indicate that there are different between weights computed by AHP and ANP methods and the assessment outputs produced from these two methods also slight differences. After evaluation of existing planned sites, some potential locations were suggested to the local government for possibility of land use planning adjusts.

Keywords: Analytic Hierarchy Process, Analytic Network Process, Fuzzy set theory, land use planning

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
107 Identity and Economics: The Economic Welfare and Behavior of Romani People in Turkey

Authors: Sinem Bagce, Ensar Yilmaz

Abstract:

As a well-known fact, neoclassical economics excludes 'what is humanized' out of the literature for a long time. Rationality is defined in a very narrow context in the mainstream economics. Identity economics is one of the challenges raised against this tradition. The concept of 'identity' has been introduced to economics by Akerlof and Kranton (2000). The identity-based analysis mainly searches the links between economic welfare and decision of the actors in question related to ethnic, racial, gender and immigrant issues. This is more about discrimination and its repercussions on economic decisions of the relevant actors in a social sphere. In this article, we, in the context of identity economics, search the economic welfare and decisions of Romani people in Turkey. It is plainly observed that identity is clearly the major determinant for Romani people in economic and social life. They have their own distinctive rationality in making economic decisions. For a more scrutinized and academic analysis, we aim to trace their economic identity in their real social environment. This study is an extension of surveys conducted on Romani people in Turkey. Using data similar to SILC (Statistics for Income and Living Conditions) conducted on Romani people across the whole Turkey, we look for some questions about the income/welfare distribution among them, consumer preferences/habits, living conditions, occupations, education and as such. For this, by employing econometric and statistical analytical tools, we aim to obtain the answers for these questions. We think these analytic results will provide us to evaluate the links between their economic state and their identity more thoroughly. JEL Codes: D1, J 15, R23.

Keywords: identity economics, Romani people, discrimination, social identity and preferences

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
106 ‘Social Health’, ‘Physical Health’ and Wellbeing: Analyzing the Interplay between the Practices of Heavy Drinking and Exercise among Young People with Bourdieusian Concepts

Authors: Jukka Törrönen

Abstract:

In the article, we examine the interplay between the practices of heavy drinking and exercise among young people as patterned around the ‘social’ and ‘physical health’ approaches. The comparison helps us to clarify why young people are currently drinking less than earlier and how the neoliberal healthism discourse, as well as the feminine tradition of taking care of one’s body, are modifying young people’s heavy drinking practices. The data is based on interviews (n = 56) in Sweden among 15-16-year-olds and 18˗19-year-olds. By drawing on Pierre Bourdieu’s concepts of habitus, field, and capital, we examine what kinds of resources of wellbeing young people accumulate in the fields of heavy drinking and exercise, how these resources carry symbolic value for distinction, and what kind of health-related habitus they imply. The analysis suggests that as heavy drinking is no longer able to stand as a practice through which one may acquire capital that is more valuable than the capital acquired in other fields, this lessens peer pressure to drink among young people. Our analysis further shows that the healthism discourse modifies young people’s heavy drinking practices both from inside and from outside. The interviewees translate the symbolic value of healthism discourse to social vulnerability and deploy it for the purposes of increasing one’s social status among peers. Moreover, our analysis demonstrates that the social spaces and positions in intoxication and exercise are shaped by gendered dualisms of masculine dominance. However, while the interviewees naturalize the gender binaries in intoxication as based on biological drives, they understand gender binaries in exercise as normative social constructions of neoliberal society. As these binaries emphasize the struggle for recognition of the symbolic value of bodily look, they may shift young men’s attention from risk-taking to issues that traditionally have been female concerns.

Keywords: young people, decline in drinking , health, intoxication, exercise, Bourdieu

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
105 Developing a Spatial Decision Support System for Rationality Assessment of Land Use Planning Locations in Thai Binh Province, Vietnam

Authors: Xuan Linh Nguyen, Tien Yin Chou, Yao Min Fang, Feng Cheng Lin, Thanh Van Hoang, Yin Min Huang

Abstract:

In Vietnam, land use planning is the most important and powerful tool of the government for sustainable land use and land management. Nevertheless, many of land use planning locations are facing protests from surrounding households due to environmental impacts. In addition, locations are planned completely based on the subjective decisions of planners who are unsupported by tools or scientific methods. Hence, this research aims to assist the decision-makers in evaluating the rationality of planning locations by developing a Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) using approaches of Geographic Information System (GIS)-based technology, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) multi-criteria-based technique and Fuzzy set theory. An ArcGIS Desktop add-ins named SDSS-LUPA was developed to support users analyzing data and presenting results in friendly format. The Fuzzy-AHP method has been utilized as analytic model for this SDSS. There are 18 planned locations in Hung Ha district (Thai Binh province, Vietnam) as a case study. The experimental results indicated that the assessment threshold higher than 0.65 while the 18 planned locations were irrational because of close to residential areas or close to water sources. Some potential sites were also proposed to the authorities for consideration of land use planning changes.

Keywords: analytic hierarchy process, fuzzy set theory, land use planning, spatial decision support system

Procedia PDF Downloads 301
104 Multi-objective Rationality Optimisation for Robotic-fabrication-oriented Free-form Timber Structure Morphology Design

Authors: Yiping Meng, Yiming Sun

Abstract:

The traditional construction industry is unable to meet the requirements for novel fabrication and construction. Automated construction and digital design have emerged as industry development trends that compensate for this shortcoming under the backdrop of Industrial Revolution 4.0. Benefitting from more flexible working space and more various end-effector tools compared to CNC methods, robot fabrication and construction techniques have been used in irregular architectural design. However, there is a lack of a systematic and comprehensive design and optimisation workflow considering geometric form, material, and fabrication methods. This paper aims to propose a design optimisation workflow for improving the rationality of a free-form timber structure fabricated by the robotic arm. Firstly, the free-form surface is described by NURBS, while its structure is calculated using the finite element analysis method. Then, by considering the characteristics and limiting factors of robotic timber fabrication, strain energy and robustness are set as optimisation objectives to optimise structural morphology by gradient descent method. As a result, an optimised structure with axial force as the main force and uniform stress distribution is generated after the structure morphology optimisation process. With the decreased strain energy and the improved robustness, the generated structure's bearing capacity and mechanical properties have been enhanced. The results prove the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed optimisation workflow for free-form timber structure morphology design.

Keywords: robotic fabrication, free-form timber structure, Multi-objective optimisation, Structural morphology, rational design

Procedia PDF Downloads 99