Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 34

Search results for: Zhen Sun

34 Hair Regrowth Effect of Herbal Formula on Androgenic Alopecia Rat Model

Authors: Jian-You Wang, Feng Yi Hsu, Chieh-Hsi Wu

Abstract:

Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is an androgen-dependent disorder caused by excess testosterone in blood capillaries or excess enzyme activity of 5α- reductase in hair follicles. Plants, alone or in combination, have been widely used for hair growth promotion since ancient times in Asia. In this study, the efficacy of a traditional Chinese herbal formula, Shen-Ying-Yang-Zhen-Dan (SYYZD) with different kinds of extract solvents, facilitating hair regrowth in testosterone-induced hair loss have been determined. The study was performed by treating with either 95 % ethanol aqueous extracts, 50% ethanol aqueous extracts or deionized water extracts orally in four-week-old male S.D. rats that experienced hair regrowth interruption induced by testosterone treatment. The 50% ethanol aqueous extracts group showed better hair regrowth promotion activities than either 95% ethanol aqueous extracts or deionized water extracts groups in 14 days treatment. In conclusion, our results suggest that 50% ethanol aqueous SYYZD extracts have hair growth promoting potential and may be beneficial as an alternative medicine for androgenetic alopecia treatment.

Keywords: Shen-Ying-Yang-Zhen-Dan, androgenic alopecia, hair loss, hair growth promotion, hair regrowth effect

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33 Improvement of Ventilation and Thermal Comfort Using the Atrium Design for Traditional Folk Houses-Fujian Earthen Building

Authors: Ying-Ming Su

Abstract:

Fujian earthen building which was known as a classic for ecological buildings was listed on the world heritage in 2008 (UNESCO) in China. Its design strategy can be applied to modern architecture planning and design. This study chose two different cases (Round Atrium: Er-Yi Building, Double Round Atrium: Zhen-Chen Building) of earthen building in Fu-Jian to compare the ventilation effects of different atrium forms. We adopt field measurements and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of temperature, humidity, and wind environment to identify the relationship between external environment and atrium about comfort and to confirm the relationship about atrium H/W (height/width). Results indicate that, through the atrium convection effect, it makes the natural wind guides to each space surrounded and keeps indoor comfort. It illustrates that the smaller the ratio of the H/W which is the relationship between the height and the width of an atrium is, the greater the wind speed generated within the street valley. Moreover, the wind speed is very close to the reference wind speed. This field measurement verifies that the value of H/W has great influence of solar radiation heat and sunshine shadows. The ventilation efficiency is: Er-Yi Building (H/W =0.2778) > Zhen-Chen Building (H/W=0.3670). Comparing the cases with the same shape but with different H/W, through the different size patios, airflow revolves in the atriums and can be brought into each interior space. The atrium settings meet the need of building ventilation, and can adjust the humidity and temperature within the buildings. It also creates good ventilation effect.

Keywords: traditional folk houses, atrium, tulou, ventilation, building microclimate

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32 The Antitumor Activity of Eu (III) and Er (III) Complexes of 3 - (1H-Benzimidazol-2-Yl) - 6 - Methyl - 2 (1H) - Quinolinone

Authors: Xing Lu, Yi-ming Wu, Yan-hong Zhu, Zhen-feng Chen, Hong Liang, Yan Peng

Abstract:

[Eu(BMQ)2(NO3)3(CH3OH)(H2O)] (1),and [Er(BMQ)2(NO3)3(CH3OH)(H2O)] (2),were synthesized. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibit a certain extent cytotoxicity against Hep G2, Hela 229, MGC80-3 and BEL-7404 cell lines invitro, with IC50 values in the14.51±1.41μM to 52.49±4.01μM range. Compound 1 exhibited significantly enhanced cytotoxicity against MGC80-3 cell line, comparing with free 3-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-6-methyl-2(1H)- quinolinone. The binding abilities of 1 to DNA were stronger than that of 2. Intercalation is the most probable binding mode for both the complexes.

Keywords: quinolinone, Eu(II) complex, Er(III) complex, cytotoxicity.

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31 Rapid Nanoparticle Formulation Development and Screening Using NanoFabTxTM Platform

Authors: Zhen Ye, Maryam Zaroudi, Elizabeth Aisenbrey, Nicolynn E. Davis, Peng Gao

Abstract:

Nanoparticles have been used as drug delivery systems in the treatment of life-threatening diseases for decades, but traditional formulation development methods are time consuming and labor intensive. Millipore Sigma has developed a platform¬¬– NanoFabTxTM¬¬– for rapid and reproducible formulation development and screening to ensure consistentnanoparticle characteristics. Reproducible and precise control of the development process for a range of nanoparticle formulations accelerates the introduction of novel formulations to the clinic.

Keywords: Bio platform, Formulation development, NanoFabTxTM, Drug delivery

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30 Decision Making under Strict Uncertainty: Case Study in Sewer Network Planning

Authors: Zhen Wu, David Lupien St-Pierre, Georges Abdul-Nour

Abstract:

In decision making under strict uncertainty, decision makers have to choose a decision without any information about the states of nature. The classic criteria of Laplace, Wald, Savage, Hurwicz and Starr are introduced and compared in a case study of sewer network planning. Furthermore, results from different criteria are discussed and analyzed. Moreover, this paper discusses the idea that decision making under strict uncertainty (DMUSU) can be viewed as a two-player game and thus be solved by a solution concept in game theory: Nash equilibrium.

Keywords: decision criteria, decision making, sewer network planning, decision making, strict uncertainty

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29 Study on the Relationship between the Emission Property of Barium-Tungsten Cathode and Micro-Area Activity

Authors: Zhen Qin, Yufei Peng, Jianbei Li, Jidong Long

Abstract:

In order to study the activity of the coated aluminate barium-tungsten cathodes during activation, aging, poisoning and long-term use. Through a set of hot-cathode micro-area emission uniformity study device, we tested the micro-area emission performance of the cathode under different conditions. The change of activity of cathode micro-area was obtained. The influence of micro-area activity on the performance of the cathode was explained by the ageing model of barium-tungsten cathode. This helps to improve the design and process of the cathode and can point the way in finding the factors that affect life in the cathode operation.

Keywords: barium-tungsten cathode, ageing model, micro-area emission, emission uniformity

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28 Bluetooth Piconet System for Child Care Applications

Authors: Ching-Sung Wang, Teng-Wei Wang, Zhen-Ting Zheng

Abstract:

This study mainly concerns a safety device designed for child care. When children are out of sight or the caregivers cannot always pay attention to the situation, through the functions of this device, caregivers can immediately be informed to make sure that the children do not get lost or hurt, and thus, ensure their safety. Starting from this concept, a device is produced based on the relatively low-cost Bluetooth piconet system and a three-axis gyroscope sensor. This device can transmit data to a mobile phone app through Bluetooth, in order that the user can learn the situation at any time. By simply clipping the device in a pocket or on the waist, after switching on/starting the device, it will send data to the phone to detect the child’s fall and distance. Once the child is beyond the angle or distance set by the app, it will issue a warning to inform the phone owner.

Keywords: children care, piconet system, three-axis gyroscope, distance detection, falls detection

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27 The Analysis of the Protection of Historical and Cultural Heritage in the Development of Cities: Taking Quzhou Ancient City as an Example

Authors: Zhen Shu

Abstract:

The historical and cultural heritage demonstrates the wisdom of the entire nation and it has left its own traces in the process of urban construction. It has very important instructional significance for the construction of modern cities and the development of cultural aspects of modern people. The Protection of historical and cultural heritage has become an inevitable choice for the development of modern civilization. This paper discusses the relationship between urban development and historic preservation. And it emphasizes the important value of strengthening the protection of historical and cultural heritage in urban construction, introduces the value of cultural heritage, the process of historic preservation and its problems in Quzhou, Zhejiang Province. In conclusion, we puts forward some Suggestions for strengthening the protection of historical heritage in the process of urban construction.

Keywords: cultural heritage, historic preservation, Quzhou ancient city, urban development

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26 Research of Intrinsic Emittance of Thermal Cathode with Emission Nonuniformity

Authors: Yufei Peng, Zhen Qin, Jianbe Li, Jidong Long

Abstract:

The thermal cathode is widely used in accelerators, FELs and kinds of vacuum electronics. However, emission nonuniformity exists due to surface profile, material distribution, temperature variation, crystal orientation, etc., which will cause intrinsic emittance growth, brightness decline, envelope size augment, device performance deterioration or even failure. To understand how emittance is manipulated by emission nonuniformity, an intrinsic emittance model consisting of contributions from macro and micro surface nonuniformity is developed analytically based on general thermal emission model at temperature limited regime according to a real 3mm cathode. The model shows relative emittance increased about 50% due to temperature variation, and less than 5% from several kinds of micro surface nonuniformity which is much smaller than other research. Otherwise, we also calculated emittance growth combining with Monte Carlo method and PIC simulation, experiments of emission uniformity and emittance measurement are going to be carried out separately.

Keywords: thermal cathode, electron emission fluctuation, intrinsic emittance, surface nonuniformity, cathode lifetime

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25 Collision Detection Algorithm Based on Data Parallelism

Authors: Zhen Peng, Baifeng Wu

Abstract:

Modern computing technology enters the era of parallel computing with the trend of sustainable and scalable parallelism. Single Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) is an important way to go along with the trend. It is able to gather more and more computing ability by increasing the number of processor cores without the need of modifying the program. Meanwhile, in the field of scientific computing and engineering design, many computation intensive applications are facing the challenge of increasingly large amount of data. Data parallel computing will be an important way to further improve the performance of these applications. In this paper, we take the accurate collision detection in building information modeling as an example. We demonstrate a model for constructing a data parallel algorithm. According to the model, a complex object is decomposed into the sets of simple objects; collision detection among complex objects is converted into those among simple objects. The resulting algorithm is a typical SIMD algorithm, and its advantages in parallelism and scalability is unparalleled in respect to the traditional algorithms.

Keywords: data parallelism, collision detection, single instruction multiple data, building information modeling, continuous scalability

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24 Thermal Resistance Analysis of Flexible Composites Based on Al2O3 Aerogels

Authors: Jianzheng Wei, Duo Zhen, Zhihan Yang, Huifeng Tan

Abstract:

The deployable descent technology is a lightweight entry method using an inflatable heat shield. The heatshield consists of a pressurized core which is covered by different layers of thermal insulation and flexible ablative materials in order to protect against the thermal loads. In this paper, both aluminum and silicon-aluminum aerogels were prepared by freeze-drying method. The latter material has bigger specific surface area and nano-scale pores. Mullite fibers are used as the reinforcing fibers to prepare the aerogel matrix to improve composite flexibility. The flexible composite materials were performed as an insulation layer to an underlying aramid fabric by a thermal shock test at a heat flux density of 120 kW/m2 and uniaxial tensile test. These results show that the aramid fabric with untreated mullite fibers as the thermal protective layer is completely carbonized at the heat of about 60 s. The aramid fabric as a thermal resistance layer of the composite material still has good mechanical properties at the same heat condition.

Keywords: aerogel, aramid fabric, flexibility, thermal resistance

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23 Gynocentrism and Self-Orientalization: A Visual Trend in Chinese Fashion Photography

Authors: Zhen Sun

Abstract:

The study adopts the method of visual social semiotics to analyze a sample of fashion photos that were recently published in Chinese fashion magazines that target towards both male and female readers. It identifies a new visual trend in fashion photography, which is characterized by two features. First, the photos represent young, confident, and stylish female models with lower-class sloppy old men. The visual inharmony between the sexually desirable women and the aged men has suggested an impossibly accomplished sexuality and eroticism. Though the women are still under the male gaze, they are depicted as unreachable objects of voyeurism other than sexual objects subordinated to men. Second, the represented people are usually put in the backdrop of tasteless or vulgar Chinese town life, which is congruent with the images of men but makes the modern city girls out of place. The photographers intentionally contrast the images of women with that of men and with the background, which implies an imaginary binary division of modern Orientalism and the photographers’ self-orientalization strategy. Under the theoretical umbrella of neoliberal postfeminism, this study defines a new kind of gynocentric stereotype in Chinese fashion photography, which challenges the previous observations on gender portrayals in fashion magazines.

Keywords: fashion photography, gynocentrism, neoliberal postfeminism, self-orientalization

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22 Design and Thermal Simulation Analysis of the Chinese Accelerator Driven Sub-Critical System Injector-I Cryomodule

Authors: Rui-Xiong Han, Rui Ge, Shao-Peng Li, Lin Bian, Liang-Rui Sun, Min-Jing Sang, Rui Ye, Ya-Ping Liu, Xiang-Zhen Zhang, Jie-Hao Zhang, Zhuo Zhang, Jian-Qing Zhang, Miao-Fu Xu

Abstract:

The Chinese Accelerator Driven Sub-critical system (C-ADS) uses a high-energy proton beam to bombard the metal target and generate neutrons to deal with the nuclear waste. The Chinese ADS proton linear has two 0~10 MeV injectors and one 10~1500 MeV superconducting linac. Injector-I is studied by the Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) under construction in the Beijing, China. The linear accelerator consists of two accelerating cryomodules operating at the temperature of 2 Kelvin. This paper describes the structure and thermal performances analysis of the cryomodule. The analysis takes into account all the main contributors (support posts, multilayer insulation, current leads, power couplers, and cavities) to the static and dynamic heat load at various cryogenic temperature levels. The thermal simulation analysis of the cryomodule is important theory foundation of optimization and commissioning.

Keywords: C-ADS, cryomodule, structure, thermal simulation, static heat load, dynamic heat load

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21 Spectral Response Measurements and Materials Analysis of Ageing Solar Photovoltaic Modules

Authors: Fang-Yi Su, Zhen-Xiong Chen, Chi-Rung Li, Yung-Kuan Tseng

Abstract:

The design and reliability of solar photovoltaic modules are essential for the development of solar energy, and people are still trying to further extend the life of PV modules to increase their efficiency to this day. Spectrum response measurement is one of the testing methods that is often used in the calibration and improvement of PV modules, as the different wavelengths of the spectral response can reflect the characteristics of the solar cell layers. In this study, this technology along with material analysis methods was used to gain a more comprehensive insight into the failure mode of PV modules. Spectrum response measurement and material analysis methods such as scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, and spectrophotometry were used to analyse non-packaged and packaged monocrystalline silicon solar cells before and after the accelerated ageing test. The results were first compared to each other before investigating the properties and material structure of solar cells under different conditions before and after degradation. The study provided a more in depth understanding of the ageing degradation mechanism of solar cells, the different spectral response results due to variations in degradation material, and their corresponding performance.

Keywords: solar photovoltaic module, degradation, failure mode analysis, solar cell, spectrum response measurement

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20 Purple Sweet Potato Anthocyanin Attenuates the Fat-Induced Mortality in Drosophila Melanogaster

Authors: Lijun Wang, Zhen-Yu Chen

Abstract:

A high-fat diet induces the accumulation of lipid hydroperoxides, accelerates the ageing process and causes a greater mortality in Drosophila melanogaster. The purple sweet potato is rich in antioxidant anthocyanin. The present study was to examine if supplementation of purple sweet potato anthocyanin (PSPA) could reduce the mortality of fruit flies fed a high-fat diet. Results showed that the mean lifespan of fruit fly was shortened from 56 to 35 days in a dose-dependent manner when lard in the diet increased from 0% to 20%. PSPA supplementation attenuated partially the lard-induced mortality. The maximum lifespan and 50% survival time were 49 and 27 days for the 10% lard control flies, in contrast, they increased to 57 and 30 days in the PSPA-supplemented fruit flies. PSPA-supplemented diet significantly up-regulated the mRNA of superoxide dismutase, catalase and Rpn11, compared with those in the control lard diet. In addition, PSPA supplementation could restore the climbing ability of fruit flies fed a 10% lard diet. It was concluded that the lifespan-prolonging activity of PSPA was most likely mediated by modulating the genes of SOD, CAT and Rpn11.

Keywords: purple sweet potato, anthocyanin, high-fat diet, oxidative stress

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19 Meta-Analysis Comparing the Femoral Tunnel Length, Femoral Tunnel Position and Graft Bending Angle of Transtibial, Anteromedial and Outside-In Techniques for Single-Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

Authors: Andrew Tan Hwee Chye, Yeo Zhen Ning

Abstract:

This study aims to meta-analyse clinical studies comparing femoral tunnel position (FTP), femoral tunnel length (FTL) and graft bending angle (GBA) of single-bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) reconstruction using Transtibial (TT), Anteromedial (AM) and Outside-in (OI) techniques. A meta-analysis comparing the FTP, FTL and GBA of single-bundle ACL reconstruction utilising the TT, AM and OI was performed. Prospective Comparative Studies (PCS) and Retrospective Comparative Studies (RCS) from PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Embase were included. A total of 17 studies were included in this study. TT had the longest FTL, when compared to AM (Mean difference = 7.38, 95% CI: 3.76 to 11.00, P < 0.001) and OI (Mean difference = 9.47, 95% CI: 4.89 to 14.05, P < 0.001). In the deep-to-shallow direction, the OI resulted in a significantly deeper femoral tunnel as compared to the TT (Mean difference = 4.36, 95% CI: 1.39 to 7.33, P = 0.004) (Figure 6B). The AM technique also contributed to a significantly lower tunnel position as compared to the OI technique (Mean difference = 2.34, 95% CI: 0.76 to 3.92, P = 0.004). There were no significant differences in the graft bending angle between TT, AM and OI techniques. AM and OI techniques provide a more anatomical position as compared to the TT. Although FTL in the TT is longer than the AM and OI, all three techniques exceed the critical length of 25mm. There are no differences in the GBA between the three techniques.

Keywords: femoral tunnel position, femoral tunnel length, anterior cruciate ligament, transtibial, graft bending angle, anteromedial, outside-in

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18 The Development of a Residual Stress Measurement Method for Roll Formed Products

Authors: Yong Sun, Vladimir Luzin, Zhen Qian, William J. T. Daniel, Mingxing Zhang, Shichao Ding

Abstract:

The residual stresses in roll formed products are generally very high and un-predictable. This is due to the occurrence of redundant plastic deformation in roll forming process and it can cause various product defects. Although the residual stresses of a roll formed product consist of longitudinal and transverse residual stresses components, but the longitudinal residual stresses plays a key role to the product defects of a roll formed product and therefore, only the longitudinal residual stresses concerned by the roll forming scholars and engineers. However, how to inspect the residual stresses of a product quickly and economically as a routine operation is still a challenge. This paper introduces a residual stresses measurement method called slope cutting method to study the longitudinal residual stresses through layers geometrically to a roll formed products or a product with similar process such as a rolled sheet. The detailed measuring procedure is given and discussed. The residual stresses variation through the layer can be derived based on the variation of curvature in different layers and steps. The slope cutting method has been explored and validated by experimental study on a roll-formed square tube. The neutron diffraction method is applied to validate the accuracy of the newly proposed layering removal materials results. The two set results agree with each other very well and therefore, the method is expected to be a routine testing method to monitor the quality of a product been formed and that is a great impact to roll forming industry.

Keywords: roll forming, residual stress, measurement method, neutron diffraction

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17 Variability of the Snowline Altitude at Different Region in the Eastern Tibetan Plateau in Recent 20 Years

Authors: Zhen Li, Chang Liu, Ping Zhang

Abstract:

These Glaciers are thought of as natural water reservoirs and are of vital importance to hydrological models and industrial production, and glacial changes act as significant indicators of climate change. The glacier snowline can be used as an indicator of the equilibrium line, which may be a key parameter to study the effect of climate change on glaciers. Using Google Earth Engine, we select optical satellite imageries and implement the Otsu thresholding method on a near-infrared band to detect snowline altitudes (SLAs) of 26 glaciers in three regions of the eastern Tibetan Plateau. Three different study regions in the eastern Tibetan Plateau have different climate regimes, which are Sepu Kangri (SK, maritime glacier), Bu’Gyai Kangri (BK, continental glacier) and west of Qiajajima (WQ, continental glacier), along a latitudinal transect from south to north. We analyzed the effects of climatic factors on the SLA changes from 1995 to 2016. SLAs are fluctuating upward, and the rising values are 100 m, 60 m, and 34 m from south to north during the 22 years. We also observed that the climatic factor that affects the variability of SLA gradually changes from precipitation to temperature from south to north. The northern continental glaciers are mainly affected by temperature, and the southern maritime glaciers affected by precipitation. Owing to the influence of primary climatic factors, continental glaciers are found to have higher SLAs on the south slope, while maritime glaciers have higher SLAs on the north slope.

Keywords: climate change, glacier, snowline altitude, tibetan plateau

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16 The Survey Research and Evaluation of Green Residential Building Based on the Improved Group Analytical Hierarchy Process Method in Yinchuan

Authors: Yun-na Wu, Zhen Wang

Abstract:

Due to the economic downturn and the deterioration of the living environment, the development of residential buildings as high energy consuming building is gradually changing from “extensive” to green building in China. So, the evaluation system of green building is continuously improved, but the current evaluation work has the following problems: (1) There are differences in the cost of the actual investment and the purchasing power of residents, also construction target of green residential building is single and lacks multi-objective performance development. (2) Green building evaluation lacks regional characteristics and cannot reflect the different regional residents demand. (3) In the process of determining the criteria weight, the experts’ judgment matrix is difficult to meet the requirement of consistency. Therefore, to solve those problems, questionnaires which are about the green residential building for Ningxia area are distributed, and the results of questionnaires can feedback the purchasing power of residents and the acceptance of the green building cost. Secondly, combined with the geographical features of Ningxia minority areas, the evaluation criteria system of green residential building is constructed. Finally, using the improved group AHP method and the grey clustering method, the criteria weight is determined, and a real case is evaluated, which is located in Xing Qing district, Ningxia. A conclusion can be obtained that the professional evaluation for this project and good social recognition is basically the same.

Keywords: evaluation, green residential building, grey clustering method, group AHP

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15 InSAR Times-Series Phase Unwrapping for Urban Areas

Authors: Hui Luo, Zhenhong Li, Zhen Dong

Abstract:

The analysis of multi-temporal InSAR (MTInSAR) such as persistent scatterer (PS) and small baseline subset (SBAS) techniques usually relies on temporal/spatial phase unwrapping (PU). Unfortunately, it always fails to unwrap the phase for two reasons: 1) spatial phase jump between adjacent pixels larger than π, such as layover and high discontinuous terrain; 2) temporal phase discontinuities such as time varied atmospheric delay. To overcome these limitations, a least-square based PU method is introduced in this paper, which incorporates baseline-combination interferograms and adjacent phase gradient network. Firstly, permanent scatterers (PS) are selected for study. Starting with the linear baseline-combination method, we obtain equivalent 'small baseline inteferograms' to limit the spatial phase difference. Then, phase different has been conducted between connected PSs (connected by a specific networking rule) to suppress the spatial correlated phase errors such as atmospheric artifact. After that, interval phase difference along arcs can be computed by least square method and followed by an outlier detector to remove the arcs with phase ambiguities. Then, the unwrapped phase can be obtained by spatial integration. The proposed method is tested on real data of TerraSAR-X, and the results are also compared with the ones obtained by StaMPS(a software package with 3D PU capabilities). By comparison, it shows that the proposed method can successfully unwrap the interferograms in urban areas even when high discontinuities exist, while StaMPS fails. At last, precise DEM errors can be got according to the unwrapped interferograms.

Keywords: phase unwrapping, time series, InSAR, urban areas

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14 A Case Study Approach on Co-Constructing the Idea of 'Safety' with Children

Authors: Beng Zhen Yeow

Abstract:

In most work that involves children, the voice of the children is often not heard. This is ironic since a lot of discussions might involve their welfare and safety. It might seem natural that the professionals should hear from them about what they wish for instead of deciding what is best for them. However, this, unfortunately, might be more the exception than the norm in most case and hence in many instances, children are merely 'subjects' in conversations about safety instead of active participants in the construction or creation of safety in the family. There might be many reasons why it does not happen in our work. Firstly, professionals have learnt how to 'socialise' into their professional roles and hence in the process become 'un-childlike'. Secondly, there is also a lack of professional training with regards to how to talk with children. Finally, there might be also a lack of concrete tools and techniques that are developed to facilitate the process. In this paper, the case study method is used to show how the idea of safety could be concretised and discussed with children and their family members, and hence making them active participants and co-creators of their own safety. Specific skills and techniques are highlighted through the case study. In this case, there was improvement in outcomes like no repeated offence or abuse. In addition, children were also able to advocate for their own safety after six months of intervention and how the family members were able to explicitly say what they can do to improve safety. The professionals in the safety network reported significant improvements. On top of that, the abused child who was removed due to child protection concerns, had verbalized observations of change in mother’s parenting abilities, and has requested for home leave to begin due to ownership of safety planning and having confidence to co-create safety for her siblings and herself together with the professionals in the safety network. Children becoming active participants in the co-creation of safety not only serve the purpose in allowing them to own a 'voice' but at the same time, give them greater confidence to protect themselves at home and in other contexts outside of home.

Keywords: partnering for safety, collaborative social work, family and systemic psychotherapy, child protection

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13 Quantification of Soft Tissue Artefacts Using Motion Capture Data and Ultrasound Depth Measurements

Authors: Azadeh Rouhandeh, Chris Joslin, Zhen Qu, Yuu Ono

Abstract:

The centre of rotation of the hip joint is needed for an accurate simulation of the joint performance in many applications such as pre-operative planning simulation, human gait analysis, and hip joint disorders. In human movement analysis, the hip joint center can be estimated using a functional method based on the relative motion of the femur to pelvis measured using reflective markers attached to the skin surface. The principal source of errors in estimation of hip joint centre location using functional methods is soft tissue artefacts due to the relative motion between the markers and bone. One of the main objectives in human movement analysis is the assessment of soft tissue artefact as the accuracy of functional methods depends upon it. Various studies have described the movement of soft tissue artefact invasively, such as intra-cortical pins, external fixators, percutaneous skeletal trackers, and Roentgen photogrammetry. The goal of this study is to present a non-invasive method to assess the displacements of the markers relative to the underlying bone using optical motion capture data and tissue thickness from ultrasound measurements during flexion, extension, and abduction (all with knee extended) of the hip joint. Results show that the artefact skin marker displacements are non-linear and larger in areas closer to the hip joint. Also marker displacements are dependent on the movement type and relatively larger in abduction movement. The quantification of soft tissue artefacts can be used as a basis for a correction procedure for hip joint kinematics.

Keywords: hip joint center, motion capture, soft tissue artefact, ultrasound depth measurement

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12 The Application of Participatory Social Media in Collaborative Planning: A Systematic Review

Authors: Yujie Chen , Zhen Li

Abstract:

In the context of planning transformation, how to promote public participation in the formulation and implementation of collaborative planning has been the focused issue of discussion. However, existing studies have often been case-specific or focused on a specific design field, leaving the role of participatory social media (PSM) in urban collaborative planning generally questioned. A systematic database search was conducted in December 2019. Articles and projects were eligible if they reported a quantitative empirical study applying participatory social media in the collaborative planning process (a prospective, retrospective, experimental, longitudinal research, or collective actions in planning practices). Twenty studies and seven projects were included in the review. Findings showed that social media are generally applied in public spatial behavior, transportation behavior, and community planning fields, with new technologies and new datasets. PSM has provided a new platform for participatory design, decision analysis, and collaborative negotiation most widely used in participatory design. Findings extracted several existing forms of PSM. PSM mainly act as three roles: the language of decision-making for communication, study mode for spatial evaluation, and decision agenda for interactive decision support. Three optimization content of PSM were recognized, including improving participatory scale, improvement of the grass-root organization, and promotion of politics. However, basically, participants only could provide information and comment through PSM in the future collaborative planning process, therefore the issues of low data response rate, poor spatial data quality, and participation sustainability issues worth more attention and solutions.

Keywords: participatory social media, collaborative planning, planning workshop, application mode

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11 One-Dimensional Numerical Simulation of the Nonlinear Instability Behavior of an Electrified Viscoelastic Liquid Jet

Authors: Fang Li, Xie-Yuan Yin, Xie-Zhen Yin

Abstract:

Instability and breakup of electrified viscoelastic liquid jets are involved in various applications such as inkjet printing, fuel atomization, the pharmaceutical industry, electrospraying, and electrospinning. Studying on the instability of electrified viscoelastic liquid jets is of theoretical and practical significance. We built a one-dimensional electrified viscoelastic model to study the nonlinear instability behavior of a perfecting conducting, slightly viscoelastic liquid jet under a radial electric field. The model is solved numerically by using an implicit finite difference scheme together with a boundary element method. It is found that under a radial electric field a viscoelastic liquid jet still evolves into a beads-on-string structure with a thin filament connecting two adjacent droplets as in the absence of an electric field. A radial electric field exhibits limited influence on the decay of the filament thickness in the nonlinear evolution process of a viscoelastic jet, in contrast to its great enhancing effect on the linear instability of the jet. On the other hand, a radial electric field can induce axial non-uniformity of the first normal stress difference within the filament. Particularly, the magnitude of the first normal stress difference near the midpoint of the filament can be greatly decreased by a radial electric field. Decreasing the extensional stress by a radial electric field may found applications in spraying, spinning, liquid bridges and others. In addition, the effect of a radial electric field on the formation of satellite droplets is investigated on the parametric plane of the dimensionless wave number and the electrical Bond number. It is found that satellite droplets may be formed for a larger axial wave number at a larger radial electric field. The present study helps us gain insight into the nonlinear instability characteristics of electrified viscoelastic liquid jets.

Keywords: non linear instability, one-dimensional models, radial electric fields, viscoelastic liquid jets

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10 Variational Explanation Generator: Generating Explanation for Natural Language Inference Using Variational Auto-Encoder

Authors: Zhen Cheng, Xinyu Dai, Shujian Huang, Jiajun Chen

Abstract:

Recently, explanatory natural language inference has attracted much attention for the interpretability of logic relationship prediction, which is also known as explanation generation for Natural Language Inference (NLI). Existing explanation generators based on discriminative Encoder-Decoder architecture have achieved noticeable results. However, we find that these discriminative generators usually generate explanations with correct evidence but incorrect logic semantic. It is due to that logic information is implicitly encoded in the premise-hypothesis pairs and difficult to model. Actually, logic information identically exists between premise-hypothesis pair and explanation. And it is easy to extract logic information that is explicitly contained in the target explanation. Hence we assume that there exists a latent space of logic information while generating explanations. Specifically, we propose a generative model called Variational Explanation Generator (VariationalEG) with a latent variable to model this space. Training with the guide of explicit logic information in target explanations, latent variable in VariationalEG could capture the implicit logic information in premise-hypothesis pairs effectively. Additionally, to tackle the problem of posterior collapse while training VariaztionalEG, we propose a simple yet effective approach called Logic Supervision on the latent variable to force it to encode logic information. Experiments on explanation generation benchmark—explanation-Stanford Natural Language Inference (e-SNLI) demonstrate that the proposed VariationalEG achieves significant improvement compared to previous studies and yields a state-of-the-art result. Furthermore, we perform the analysis of generated explanations to demonstrate the effect of the latent variable.

Keywords: natural language inference, explanation generation, variational auto-encoder, generative model

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9 The Noun-Phrase Elements on the Usage of the Zero Article

Authors: Wen Zhen

Abstract:

Compared to content words, function words have been relatively overlooked by English learners especially articles. The article system, to a certain extent, becomes a resistance to know English better, driven by different elements. Three principal factors can be summarized in term of the nature of the articles when referring to the difficulty of the English article system. However, making the article system more complex are difficulties in the second acquisition process, for [-ART] learners have to create another category, causing even most non-native speakers at proficiency level to make errors. According to the sequences of acquisition of the English article, it is showed that the zero article is first acquired and in high inaccuracy. The zero article is often overused in the early stages of L2 acquisition. Although learners at the intermediate level move to underuse the zero article for they realize that the zero article does not cover any case, overproduction of the zero article even occurs among advanced L2 learners. The aim of the study is to investigate noun-phrase factors which give rise to incorrect usage or overuse of the zero article, thus providing suggestions for L2 English acquisition. Moreover, it enables teachers to carry out effective instruction that activate conscious learning of students. The research question will be answered through a corpus-based, data- driven approach to analyze the noun-phrase elements from the semantic context and countability of noun-phrases. Based on the analysis of the International Thurber Thesis corpus, the results show that: (1) Although context of [-definite,-specific] favored the zero article, both[-definite,+specific] and [+definite,-specific] showed less influence. When we reflect on the frequency order of the zero article , prototypicality plays a vital role in it .(2)EFL learners in this study have trouble classifying abstract nouns as countable. We can find that it will bring about overuse of the zero article when learners can not make clear judgements on countability altered from (+definite ) to (-definite).Once a noun is perceived as uncountable by learners, the choice would fall back on the zero article. These findings suggest that learners should be engaged in recognition of the countability of new vocabulary by explaining nouns in lexical phrases and explore more complex aspects such as analysis dependent on discourse.

Keywords: noun phrase, zero article, corpus, second language acquisition

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8 Single and Sequential Extraction for Potassium Fractionation and Nano-Clay Flocculation Structure

Authors: Chakkrit Poonpakdee, Jing-Hua Tzen, Ya-Zhen Huang, Yao-Tung Lin

Abstract:

Potassium (K) is a known macro nutrient and essential element for plant growth. Single leaching and modified sequential extraction schemes have been developed to estimate the relative phase associations of soil samples. The sequential extraction process is a step in analyzing the partitioning of metals affected by environmental conditions, but it is not a tool for estimation of K bioavailability. While, traditional single leaching method has been used to classify K speciation for a long time, it depend on its availability to the plants and use for potash fertilizer recommendation rate. Clay mineral in soil is a factor for controlling soil fertility. The change of the micro-structure of clay minerals during various environment (i.e. swelling or shrinking) is characterized using Transmission X-Ray Microscopy (TXM). The objective of this study are to 1) compare the distribution of K speciation between single leaching and sequential extraction process 2) determined clay particle flocculation structure before/after suspension with K+ using TXM. Four tropical soil samples: farming without K fertilizer (10 years), long term applied K fertilizer (10 years; 168-240 kg K2O ha-1 year-1), red soil (450-500 kg K2O ha-1 year-1) and forest soil were selected. The results showed that the amount of K speciation by single leaching method were high in mineral K, HNO3 K, Non-exchangeable K, NH4OAc K, exchangeable K and water soluble K respectively. Sequential extraction process indicated that most K speciations in soil were associated with residual, organic matter, Fe or Mn oxide and exchangeable fractions and K associate fraction with carbonate was not detected in tropical soil samples. In farming long term applied K fertilizer and red soil were higher exchangeable K than farming long term without K fertilizer and forest soil. The results indicated that one way to increase the available K (water soluble K and exchangeable K) should apply K fertilizer and organic fertilizer for providing available K. The two-dimension of TXM image of clay particles suspension with K+ shows that the aggregation structure of clay mineral closed-void cellular networks. The porous cellular structure of soil aggregates in 1 M KCl solution had large and very larger empty voids than in 0.025 M KCl and deionized water respectively. TXM nanotomography is a new technique can be useful in the field as a tool for better understanding of clay mineral micro-structure.

Keywords: potassium, sequential extraction process, clay mineral, TXM

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7 The Comparison Study of Methanol and Water Extract of Chuanxiong Rhizoma: A Fingerprint Analysis

Authors: Li Chun Zhao, Zhi Chao Hu, Xi Qiang Liu, Man Lai Lee, Chak Shing Yeung, Man Fei Xu, Yuen Yee Kwan, Alan H. M. Ho, Nickie W. K. Chan, Bin Deng, Zhong Zhen Zhao, Min Xu

Abstract:

Background: Chuangxiong Rhizoma (Chuangxion, CX) is one of the most frequently used herbs in Chinese medicine because of its wide therapeutic effects such as vasorelaxation and anti-inflammation. Aim: The purposes of this study are (1) to perform non-targeted / targeted analyses of CX methanol extract and water extract, and compare the present data with previously LC-MS or GC-MS fingerprints; (2) to examine the difference between CX methanol extract and water extract for preliminarily evaluating whether current compound markers of methanol extract from crude CX materials could be suitable for quality control of CX water extract. Method: CX methanol extract was prepared according to the Hong Kong Chinese Materia Medica Standards. DG water extract was prepared by boiling with pure water for three times (one hour each). UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS fingerprint analysis was performed by C18 column (1.7 µm, 2.1 × 100 mm) with Agilent 1290 Infinity system. Experimental data were analyzed by Agilent MassHunter Software. A database was established based on 13 published LC-MS and GC-MS CX fingerprint analyses. Total 18 targeted compounds in database were selected as markers to compare present data with previous data, and these markers also used to compare CX methanol extract and water extract. Result: (1) Non-targeted analysis indicated that there were 133 compounds identified in CX methanol extract, while 325 compounds in CX water extract that was more than double of CX methanol extract. (2) Targeted analysis further indicated that 9 in 18 targeted compounds were identified in CX methanol extract, while 12 in 18 targeted compounds in CX water extract that showed a lower lose-rate of water extract when compared with methanol extract. (3) By comparing CX methanol extract and water extract, Senkyunolide A (+1578%), Ferulic acid (+529%) and Senkyunolide H (+169%) were significantly higher in water extract when compared with methanol extract. (4) Other bioactive compounds such as Tetramethylpyrazine were only found in CX water extract. Conclusion: Many new compounds in both CX methanol and water extracts were found by using UHPLC Q-TOF MS/MS analysis when compared with previous published reports. A new standard reference including non-targeted compound profiling and targeted markers functioned especially for quality control of CX water extract (herbal decoction) should be established in future. (This project was supported by Hong Kong Baptist University (FRG2/14-15/109) & Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province (2014A030313414)).

Keywords: Chuanxiong rhizoma, fingerprint analysis, targeted analysis, quality control

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6 Calcitriol Improves Plasma Lipoprotein Profile by Decreasing Plasma Total Cholesterol and Triglyceride in Hypercholesterolemic Golden Syrian Hamsters

Authors: Xiaobo Wang, Zhen-Yu Chen

Abstract:

Higher plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) are independent risk factors of cardiovascular disease while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is protective. Vitamin D is well-known for its regulatory role in calcium homeostasis. Its potential important role in cardiovascular disease has recently attracted much attention. This study was conducted to investigate effects of different dosage of calcitriol on plasma lipoprotein profile and the underlying mechanism. Sixty male Syrian Golden hamsters were randomly divided into 6 groups: no-cholesterol control (NCD), high-cholesterol control (HCD), groups with calcitriol supplementation at 10/20/40/80ng/kg body weight (CA, CB, CC, CD), respectively. Calcitriol in medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT) oil was delivered to four experimental groups via oral gavage every other day, while NCD and HCD received MCT oil in the equivalent amount. NCD hamsters were fed with non-cholesterol diet while other five groups were maintained on diet containing 0.2% cholesterol to induce a hypercholesterolemic condition. The treatment lasts for 6 weeks followed by sample collection after hamsters sacrificed. Four experimental groups experienced a reduction in average food intake around 11% compared to HCD with slight decrease in body weight (not exceeding 10%). This reduction reflects on the deceased relative weights of testis, epididymal and perirenal adipose tissue in a dose-dependent manner. Plasma calcitriol levels were measured and was corresponding to oral gavage. At the end of week 6, lipoprotein profiles were improved with calcitriol supplementation with TC, non-HDL-C and plasma triglyceride (TG) decreased in a dose-dependent manner (TC: r=0.373, p=0.009, non-HDL-C: r=0.479, p=0.001, TG: r=0.405, p=0.004). Since HDL-C of four experiment groups showed no significant difference compared to HCD, the ratio of nHDL-C to HDL-C and HDL-C to TC had been restored in a dose-dependent manner. For hamsters receiving the highest level of calcitriol (80ng/kg) showed a reduction of TC by 11.5%, nHDL-C by 24.1% and TG by 31.25%. Little difference was found among six groups on the acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation or contraction of thoracic aorta. To summarize, calcitriol supplementation in hamster at maximum 80ng/kg body weight for 6 weeks lead to an overall improvement in plasma lipoprotein profile with decreased TC and TG level. The molecular mechanism of its effects is under investigation.

Keywords: cholesterol, vitamin D, calcitriol, hamster

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5 Nanorods Based Dielectrophoresis for Protein Concentration and Immunoassay

Authors: Zhen Cao, Yu Zhu, Junxue Fu

Abstract:

Immunoassay, i.e., antigen-antibody reaction, is crucial for disease diagnostics. To achieve the adequate signal of the antigen protein detection, a large amount of sample and long incubation time is needed. However, the amount of protein is usually small at the early stage, which makes it difficult to detect. Unlike cells and DNAs, no valid chemical method exists for protein amplification. Thus, an alternative way to improve the signal is through particle manipulation techniques to concentrate proteins, among which dielectrophoresis (DEP) is an effective one. DEP is a technique that concentrates particles to the designated region through a force created by the gradient in a non-uniform electric field. Since DEP force is proportional to the cube of particle size and square of electric field gradient, it is relatively easy to capture larger particles such as cells. For smaller ones like proteins, a super high gradient is then required. In this work, three-dimensional Ag/SiO2 nanorods arrays, fabricated by an easy physical vapor deposition technique called as oblique angle deposition, have been integrated with a DEP device and created the field gradient as high as of 2.6×10²⁴ V²/m³. The nanorods based DEP device is able to enrich bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein by 1800-fold and the rate has reached 180-fold/s when only applying 5 V electric potential. Based on the above nanorods integrated DEP platform, an immunoassay of mouse immunoglobulin G (IgG) proteins has been performed. Briefly, specific antibodies are immobilized onto nanorods, then IgG proteins are concentrated and captured, and finally, the signal from fluorescence-labelled antibodies are detected. The limit of detection (LoD) is measured as 275.3 fg/mL (~1.8 fM), which is a 20,000-fold enhancement compared with identical assays performed on blank glass plates. Further, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), which is a cancer biomarker for diagnosis of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy, is also quantified with a LoD as low as 2.6 pg/mL. The time to signal saturation has been significantly reduced to one minute. In summary, together with an easy nanorod fabrication and integration method, this nanorods based DEP platform has demonstrated highly sensitive immunoassay performance and thus poses great potentials in applications for early point-of-care diagnostics.

Keywords: dielectrophoresis, immunoassay, oblique angle deposition, protein concentration

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