Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 4050

Search results for: hypertensive patients

4050 Evaluation of Salt Content in Bread and the Amount Intake by Hypertensive Patients in the Algiers Region

Authors: S.lanasri, A.Boudjerrane, R.Belgherbi, O.Hadjoudj


Introduction: Bread is the most popular food in Algeria. The aim of this study was to examine the consumption of salt from bread by hypertensive patients. Materials and methods: sixty breads were collected from different artisans Algiers bakeries, each sample was mixed in harm distilled water until homogeneous and filtered. Analysis of the salt content was carried out according to the Mohr method titration. We calculated the amount of salt in bread consumed by 100 hypertensive patients using a questionnaire about the average amount of bread per day. Results: The salt content values from bread were 3.4g ± 0.37 NaCl / 100g.The average amount of salt consumed per day by patients from only bread was 3.82 g ± 3.8 with a maximum of 17 g per day. Only 38.18% of patients consume bread without salt even then 95% knew that excess salt intake can complicate hypertension. Conclusion: This study showed that bread is a major contributor to salt intake by Algerian hypertensive patients.

Keywords: salt, bread, hypertensive patients, Algiers

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4049 The Effects of Health Education Programme on Knowledge and Prevention of Cerebrovascular Disease among Hypertensive Patients in University College Hospital, Ibadan

Authors: T. A. Ajiboye


This study examines the effects of health education programme on knowledge and prevention of cerebrovascular disease among hypertensive patients in University College Hospital, Ibadan. A quasi-experimental design was adopted for the study. 100 hypertensive patients were conveniently selected from general outpatient department in UCH. Data generated were analyzed using ANOVA at 0.05 alpha levels. The findings of the study revealed that health education programme significantly influenced both the knowledge of hypertensive patients (F=22.70; DF=1/99; p < .05) and their attitude (F=10.377; DF=1/99; p < .05) on cerebrovascular disease. Findings also discovered that health education programme significantly reduce the complication of hypertension to cerebrovascular disease (F= 16.41; DF=7/286; p < 0.05) among the hypertensive patients at UCH. Based on the findings, it is recommended that hypertensive patients should relieve themselves from stress, engage themselves on regular exercises, compliance with drug and diet regimes coupled with keeping up of regular appointment. Government should design health information that will center on hypertension and cerebrovascular disease so as to keep health and community development problems to the barest minimum. Finally, there should be provision of social amenities and recreational centers, as this will prevents hypertension problems.

Keywords: cerebrovascular disease, effectiveness, health education, hypertension, knowledge, prevention

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4048 Correlation Between Diastolic Function and Lower GLS in Hypertensive Patients

Authors: A. Kherraf, S. Ouarrak, L. Azzouzi, R. Habbal


Introduction: Preserved LVEF heart failure is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in hypertensive patients. A strong correlation between impaired diastolic function and longitudinal systolic dysfunction. could have several explanations, first, the diastole is an energy dependent process, especially during its first phase, it also includes active systolic components during the phase of iso volumetric relaxation, in addition, the impairment of the intrinsic myocytic function is part of hypertensive pathology as evidenced by recent studies. METHODS AND MATERIALS: This work consists of performing in a series of 333 hypertensive patients (aged 25 to 75 years) a complete echocardiographic study, including LVEF by Simpson biplane method, the calculation of the indexed left ventricular mass, the analysis of the diastolic function, and finally, the study of the longitudinal deformation of the LV by the technique of speckletracking (calculation of the GLS). Patients with secondary hypertension, leaky or stenosing valve disease, arrhythmia, and a history of coronary insufficiency were excluded from this study. RESULTS: Of the 333 hypertensive patients, 225 patients (67.5%) had impaired diastolic function, of which 60 patients (18%) had high filling pressures. 49.39% had echocardigraphic HVG, Almost all of these patients (60 patients) had low GLS. There is a statistically very significant relationship between lower GLS and increased left ventricular filling pressures in hypertensive patients. These results suggest that increased filling pressures are closely associated with atrioventricular interaction in patients with hypertension, with a strong correlation with impairment of longitudinal systolic function and diastolic function CONCLUSION: Overall, a linear relationship is established between increased left ventricular mass, diastolic dysfunction, and longitudinal LV systolic dysfunction

Keywords: hypertension, diastolic function, left ventricle, heart failure

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4047 Classification of Health Information Needs of Hypertensive Patients in the Online Health Community Based on Content Analysis

Authors: Aijing Luo, Zirui Xin, Yifeng Yuan


Background: With the rapid development of the online health community, more and more patients or families are seeking health information on the Internet. Objective: This study aimed to discuss how to fully reveal the health information needs expressed by hypertensive patients in their questions in the online environment. Methods: This study randomly selected 1,000 text records from the question data of hypertensive patients from 2008 to 2018 collected from the website and constructed a classification system through literature research and content analysis. This paper identified the background characteristics and questioning the intention of each hypertensive patient based on the patient’s question and used co-occurrence network analysis to explore the features of the health information needs of hypertensive patients. Results: The classification system for health information needs of patients with hypertension is composed of 9 parts: 355 kinds of drugs, 395 kinds of symptoms and signs, 545 kinds of tests and examinations , 526 kinds of demographic data, 80 kinds of diseases, 37 kinds of risk factors, 43 kinds of emotions, 6 kinds of lifestyles, 49 kinds of questions. The characteristics of the explored online health information needs of the hypertensive patients include: i)more than 49% of patients describe the features such as drugs, symptoms and signs, tests and examinations, demographic data, diseases, etc. ii) these groups are most concerned about treatment (77.8%), followed by diagnosis (32.3%); iii) 65.8% of hypertensive patients will ask doctors online several questions at the same time. 28.3% of the patients are very concerned about how to adjust the medication, and they will ask other treatment-related questions at the same time, including drug side effects, whether to take drugs, how to treat a disease, etc.; secondly, 17.6% of the patients will consult the doctors online about the causes of the clinical findings, including the relationship between the clinical findings and a disease, the treatment of a disease, medication, and examinations. Conclusion: In the online environment, the health information needs expressed by Chinese hypertensive patients to doctors are personalized; that is, patients with different background features express their questioning intentions to doctors. The classification system constructed in this study can guide health information service providers in the construction of online health resources, to help solve the problem of information asymmetry in communication between doctors and patients.

Keywords: online health community, health information needs, hypertensive patients, doctor-patient communication

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4046 Management Practices in Hypertension: Results of Win-Over-A Pan India Registry

Authors: Abhijit Trailokya, Kamlesh Patel


Background: Hypertension is a common disease seen in clinical practice and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Many patients require combination therapy for the management of hypertension. Objective: To evaluate co-morbidities, risk factors and management practices of hypertension in Indian population. Material and methods: A total of 1596 hypertensive adult patients received anti-hypertensive medications were studied in a cross-sectional, multi-centric, non-interventional, observational registry. Statistical analysis: Categories or nominal data was expressed as numbers with percentages. Continuous variables were analyzed by descriptive statistics using mean, SD, and range Chi square test was used for in between group comparison. Results: The study included 73.50% males and 26.50% females. Overweight (50.50%) and obesity (30.01%) was common in the hypertensive patients (n=903). A total of 54.76% patients had history of smoking. Alcohol use (33.08%), sedentary life style (32.96%) and history of tobacco chewing (17.92%) were the other lifestyle habits of hypertensive patients. Diabetes (36.03%) and dyslipidemia (39.79%) history was common in these patients. Family history of hypertension and diabetes was seen in 82.21% and 45.99% patients respectively. Most (89.16%) patients were treated with combination of antihypertensive agents. ARBs were the by far most commonly used agents (91.98%) followed by calcium channel blockers (68.23%) and diuretics (60.21%). ARB was the most (80.35%) preferred agent as monotherapy. ARB was also the most common agent as a component of dual therapy, four drug and five drug combinations. Conclusion: Most of the hypertensive patients need combination treatment with antihypertensive agents. ARBs are the most preferred agents as monotherapy for the management of hypertension. ARBs are also very commonly used as a component of combination therapy during hypertension management.

Keywords: antihypertensive, hypertension, management, ARB

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4045 An ANN-Based Predictive Model for Diagnosis and Forecasting of Hypertension

Authors: Obe Olumide Olayinka, Victor Balanica, Eugen Neagoe


The effects of hypertension are often lethal thus its early detection and prevention is very important for everybody. In this paper, a neural network (NN) model was developed and trained based on a dataset of hypertension causative parameters in order to forecast the likelihood of occurrence of hypertension in patients. Our research goal was to analyze the potential of the presented NN to predict, for a period of time, the risk of hypertension or the risk of developing this disease for patients that are or not currently hypertensive. The results of the analysis for a given patient can support doctors in taking pro-active measures for averting the occurrence of hypertension such as recommendations regarding the patient behavior in order to lower his hypertension risk. Moreover, the paper envisages a set of three example scenarios in order to determine the age when the patient becomes hypertensive, i.e. determine the threshold for hypertensive age, to analyze what happens if the threshold hypertensive age is set to a certain age and the weight of the patient if being varied, and, to set the ideal weight for the patient and analyze what happens with the threshold of hypertensive age.

Keywords: neural network, hypertension, data set, training set, supervised learning

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4044 Propranalol is Not Effective in Preventing the Progression to Severe Portal Hypertensive Gastropathy in Cirrhotic Patients who Had Undergone Variceal Eradication: A Randomised Controlled Trial

Authors: Jeffey George, Varghese Thomas


Background and Objectives: PHG is an important source of gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with portal hypertension. Aim: To assess the progression to severe portal hypertensive gastropathy(PHG) in patients with cirrhosis who were treated with maximum tolerated dose of propranalol, after variceal eradication to grade II or below. Methods: Cirrhotic patients(child A and B) presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding with endoscopic findings of mild or no PHG were followed up over 6 months after variceal eradication to assess the progression to severe PHG. Included patients were randomised to either maximum tolerated doses of propranalol (group A) or to no treatment (group B). Primary end point of the study were the development of gastrointestinal bleed, evidence of hepatic decompensation and death. Progression to severe PHG were compared between the two groups. Results: 56 patients (49 males) were enrolled (group A = 28, group B = 28). 8 patients were excluded from final analysis (gi bleed=5, encephalopathy=2,HCC=1 including 4 deaths).3 patients were lost to follow-up, and 1 developed intolerance to propranalol. Mean dose of propranalol used was 60 mg per day. Progression to severe PHG in the fundus over 6 months was 23.8% in group A versus 15.8 % in group B (p = 0.52). Severe PHG was noted in body in 14.3% in group A versus 21.1% in group B (p = 0.57). 23.8 % in group A had progression to severe PHG compared with 15.8 % in group B (p =0.52). There was no statistically significant difference in the progression of PHG between the two groups(p=0.43). Conclusion: In this short term study propranalol was found not to prevent the progression to severe portal hypertensive gastropathy in cirrhotic patients who had undergone endotherapy for esophageal varices.

Keywords: propranalol, portal hypertensive gastropathy, cirrhotic patients, gastroenterology

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4043 Hypertensive Response to Maximal Exercise Test in Young and Middle Age Hypertensive on Blood Pressure Lowering Medication: Monotherapy vs. Combination Therapy

Authors: James Patrick A. Diaz, Raul E. Ramboyong


Background: Hypertensive response during maximal exercise test provides important information on the level of blood pressure control and evaluation of treatment. Method: A single center retrospective descriptive study was conducted among 117 young (aged 20 to 40) and middle age (aged 40 to 65) hypertensive patients, who underwent treadmill stress test. Currently on maintenance frontline medication either monotherapy (Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/Angiotensin receptor blocker [ACEi/ARB], Calcium channel blocker [CCB], Diuretic - Hydrochlorthiazide [HCTZ]) or combination therapy (ARB+CCB, ARB+HCTZ), who attained a maximal exercise on treadmill stress test (TMST) with hypertensive response (systolic blood pressure: male >210 mm Hg, female >190 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure >100 mmHg, or increase of >10 mm Hg at any time during the test), on Bruce and Modified Bruce protocol. Exaggerated blood pressure response during exercise (systolic [SBP] and diastolic [DBP]), peak exercise blood pressure (SBP and DBP), recovery period (SBP and DBP) and test for ischemia and their antihypertensive medication/s were investigated. Analysis of variance and chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Hypertensive responses on maximal exercise test were seen mostly among female population (P < 0.000) and middle age (P < 0.000) patients. Exaggerated diastolic blood pressure responses were significantly lower in patients who were taking CCB (P < 0.004). A longer recovery period that showed a delayed decline in SBP was observed in patients taking ARB+HCTZ (P < 0.036). There were no significant differences in the level of exaggerated systolic blood pressure response and during peak exercise (both systolic and diastolic) in patients using either monotherapy or combination antihypertensives. Conclusion: Calcium channel blockers provided lower exaggerated diastolic BP response during maximal exercise test in hypertensive middle age patients. Patients on combination therapy using ARB+HCTZ exhibited a longer recovery period of systolic blood pressure.

Keywords: antihypertensive, exercise test, hypertension, hyperytensive response

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4042 Study of Hypertension at Sohag City: Upper Egypt Experience

Authors: Aly Kassem, Eman Sapet, Eman Abdelbaset, Hosam Mahmoud


Objective: Hypertension is an important public health challenge being one of the most common worldwide disease-affecting human. Our aim is to study the clinical characteristics, therapeutic regimens, treatment compliance, and risk factors in a sector of of hypertensive patients at Sohag City. Subject and Methods: A cross sectional study; conducted in Sohag city; it involved 520 patients; males (45.7 %) and females (54.3 %). Their ages ranged between 35-85 years. BP measurements, BMI, blood glucose, Serum creatinine, urine analysis, serum Lipids, blood picture and ECG were done all the studied patients. Results: Hypertension presented more between non-smokers (72.55%), females (54.3%), educated patients (50.99%) and patients with low SES (54.9%). CAD presented in (51.63%) of patients, while laboratory investigations showed hyperglycaemia in (28.7%), anemia in (18.3%), high serum creatinine level in (8.49%) and proteinuria in (10.45%) of patient. Adequate BP control was achieved in (49.67%); older patients had lower adequacy of BP control in spite of the extensive use of multiple-drug therapy. Most hypertensive patients had more than one coexistent CV risk factor. Aging, being a female (54.3%), DM (32.3%), family history of hypertension (28.7%), family history of CAD (25.4%), and obesity (10%) were the common contributing risk factors. ACE-inhibitors were prescribed in (58.16%), Beta-blockers in (34.64%) of the patients. Monotherapy was prescribed for (41.17%) of the patients. (75.81%) of patients had regular use of their drug regimens. (49.67%) only of patients had their condition under control, the number of drugs was inversely related to BP control. Conclusion: Hypertensive patients in Sohag city had a profile of high CV risks, and poor blood pressure control particularly in the elderly. A multidisciplinary approach for routine clinical check-up, follow-up, physicians and patients training, prescribing simple once-daily regimens and encouraging life style modifications are recommended. Anti hypertensives, hypertension, elderly patients, risk factors, treatment compliance.

Keywords: anti hypertensives, hypertension, elderly patients, risk factors, treatment compliance

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4041 Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) and Angiotensinogen (AGT) Gene Variants in Pakistani Patients of Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetic Nephropathy

Authors: Rozeena Shaikh, Syed M Shahid, Jamil Ahmad, Qaisar Mansoor, Muhammad Ismail, Abid Azhar


Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a prevalent non-communicable disease worldwide. In most high-income countries as well as middle-income and low- income countries. DM is among the top causes of deaths. DM may lead to many vascular complications like hypertension, nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy, and foot. Diabetic nephropathy (DN) characterized by persistent albuminuria is a leading cause of end stage renal failure (ESRF). Pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy is implicated by the polymorphisms in genes encoding the components of reninangiotensin- aldosteron system (RAAS) which include angiotensinogen (AGT), angiotensin-II receptor and particularly angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene. Method: Study subjects include 110 control, 110 patients with DM without hypertension, 110 patients with DM with hypertension and 110 patients with DN. Blood samples were collected for Biochemical analysis and PCR and sequencing for the specific region of both genes. Results: The frequency of DD genotype and D allele of ACE (I/D) was significantly (p<0.05) high in DM normotensive, DM hypertensive and DN patients when compared to control. The ACE G2350A genotypes and allele frequencies were significantly different (p<0.05) in DM hypertensive patients as compared to control and DN, while no difference was observed between DM normotensive and DN when compared to control. The genotypes and alleles of AGT (M268T) polymorphism were significantly different (p<0.05) in DM normotensive, DM hypertensive and DN when compared to control. Conclusion: The DD genotype and D allele of ACE (I/D), GG genotype and G allele of ACE (G2350A) and the TT genotype and T allele of AGT (M268T) polymorphism have shown a significant difference in genotype and allele frequencies between controls and patients.

Keywords: genetic variations, ACE, AGT, diabetes mellitus, diabetic nephropathy, Pakistan

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4040 Study on the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) of Patients with Hypertension in Aseer Hospital, Asir Region, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Ayesha Siddiqua


Background: Hypertension is a silent killer disease and a common risk factor for considerable morbidity and mortality. Its effects can be seen on the organs like Heart; Brain; Kidneys. In Saudi Arabia, hypertension affects a sizeable enough proportion of the population, with a prevalence of 27.9% in urban and 22.4 in rural population. Despite these features, the magnitude and epidemiological characteristics of this disease have been rarely studied in Saudi Arabia. To fill this gap, we conducted a survey in Abha to study the KAP of hypertension. KAP study shows what people know about certain things, their feelings and behavior towards the disease management. An improvement in the Knowledge and Attitudes towards disease management can reform the kinds of practices which are followed. Objectives: To assess the level of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of patients who suffer from Hypertension. To improve the Quality of life of patients. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional survey was conducted on a sample size of 130 Hypertensive patients of both the genders enrolled by simple random sampling technique admitted in the Aseer Central Hospital of Abha during the period from October 2016 to December 2016. Results: Altogether 130 hypertensive patients were enrolled in this study with equal no. of Males and Females. Most of the respondents were aged between 18-40 years (45%). On assessing the KAP of the patients, we found that the Knowledge and Attitude score was good but the Practice scores were moderate in both the genders. Conclusion: Our study concludes that a significant proportion of hypertensive patients show less Practice towards the disease management which can lead to severe complications in time being and also result in damage of other vital organs. So there is a need of intense educational intervention for the patients which can be done by Patient counselling by the clinical pharmacist. Strategies to modify lifestyle which help in control of hypertension can include providing leaflets as well as direct educational programs.

Keywords: Attitude, hypertension, Knowledge, practices

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4039 Study of Dermatoglyphics Pattern in Patient with Hypertension

Authors: Ajeevan Gautam, Gulam Anwer Khan, Pratibha Pokhrel


Introduction: Dermatoglyphics is the science which deals with the study of dermal ridge configuration on the digits, palms and soles. It is grooved by ridges and forms variety of configurations. The aim of the study was to identify dermal ridge patterns on fingertip of hypertensive patients and in normal population and to compare patterns among them. Methods: The subjects of the study were 130 hypertensives and 130 non-hypertensives cases of Kathmandu Valley aged between 40 to 80 years. Case history was recorded after consent finger prints were taken. Different parameters as whorl, loop, arch and composite patterns were studied and analysed. Result: It revealed, increased whorl pattern in hypertensive. It showed 65.69% whorl, 29.23% loop and 5.07% arch patterns in right hand of hypertensive people. In control, it was found to be 34.46% whorl, 58.15% loop and 5.38% arch patterns respectively. Similarly in left hand 63.69% whorl, 32% loop and 4.30% arch in hypertensive group. In control group it was 60.15% as loop, 35.69% as whorl and 15% as arch. Discussion: Based on findings of the result, it was concluded that the whorl, loop and arch patterns observed as 65.69%, 29.23% and 5.07% respectively in hypertensive cases in right hand. Similarly in left hand, it was found to be 4.30% as arch, 32% as loop and 63.69% as whorl patterns, but in normotensive subjects these patterns were recorded as 36.43%, 58.15%, 5.38% in right hand and 35.69%, 60.15%, 4.15% in left hand as whorl, loop and arch respectively.

Keywords: arch, dermatoglyphics, hypertension, loop, whorl

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4038 Use of Beta Blockers in Patients with Reactive Airway Disease and Concomitant Hypertension or Ischemic Heart Disease

Authors: Bharti Chogtu Magazine, Dhanya Soodana Mohan, Shruti Nair, Tanwi Trushna


The study was undertaken to analyse the cardiovascular drugs being prescribed in patients with concomitant reactive airway disease and hypertension or ischemic heart diseases (IHD). Also, the effect of beta-blockers on respiratory symptoms in these patients was recorded. Data was collected from medical records of patients with reactive airway disease and concomitant hypertension and IHD. It included demographic details of the patients, diagnosis, drugs prescribed and the patient outcome regarding the exacerbation of asthma symptoms with intake of beta blockers. Medical records of 250 patients were analysed.13% of patients were prescribed beta-blockers. 12% of hypertensive patients, 16.6% of IHD patients and 20% of patients with concomitant hypertension and IHD were prescribed beta blockers. Of the 33 (13%) patients who were on beta-blockers, only 3 patients had an exacerbation of bronchial asthma symptoms. Cardioselective beta-blockers under supervision appear to be safe in patients with reactive airway disease and concomitant hypertension and IHD.

Keywords: beta blockers, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, asthma

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4037 Role of von Willebrand Factor Antigen as Non-Invasive Biomarker for the Prediction of Portal Hypertensive Gastropathy in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis

Authors: Mohamed El Horri, Amine Mouden, Reda Messaoudi, Mohamed Chekkal, Driss Benlaldj, Malika Baghdadi, Lahcene Benmahdi, Fatima Seghier


Background/aim: Recently, the Von Willebrand factor antigen (vWF-Ag)has been identified as a new marker of portal hypertension (PH) and its complications. Few studies talked about its role in the prediction of esophageal varices. VWF-Ag is considered a non-invasive approach, In order to avoid the endoscopic burden, cost, drawbacks, unpleasant and repeated examinations to the patients. In our study, we aimed to evaluate the ability of this marker in the prediction of another complication of portal hypertension, which is portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG), the one that is diagnosed also by endoscopic tools. Patients and methods: It is about a prospective study, which include 124 cirrhotic patients with no history of bleeding who underwent screening endoscopy for PH-related complications like esophageal varices (EVs) and PHG. Routine biological tests were performed as well as the VWF-Ag testing by both ELFA and Immunoturbidimetric techniques. The diagnostic performance of our marker was assessed using sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, accuracy, and receiver operating characteristic curves. Results: 124 patients were enrolled in this study, with a mean age of 58 years [CI: 55 – 60 years] and a sex ratio of 1.17. Viral etiologies were found in 50% of patients. Screening endoscopy revealed the presence of PHG in 20.2% of cases, while for EVsthey were found in 83.1% of cases. VWF-Ag levels, were significantly increased in patients with PHG compared to those who have not: 441% [CI: 375 – 506], versus 279% [CI: 253 – 304], respectively (p <0.0001). Using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), vWF-Ag was a good predictor for the presence of PHG. With a value higher than 320% and an AUC of 0.824, VWF-Ag had an 84% sensitivity, 74% specificity, 44.7% positive predictive value, 94.8% negative predictive value, and 75.8% diagnostic accuracy. Conclusion: VWF-Ag is a good non-invasive low coast marker for excluding the presence of PHG in patients with liver cirrhosis. Using this marker as part of a selective screening strategy might reduce the need for endoscopic screening and the coast of the management of these kinds of patients.

Keywords: von willebrand factor, portal hypertensive gastropathy, prediction, liver cirrhosis

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4036 Dietary Habit and Anthropometric Status in Hypertensive Patients Compared to Normotensive Participants in the North of Iran

Authors: Marjan Mahdavi-Roshan, Arsalan Salari, Mahbobeh Gholipour


Hypertension is one of the important reasons of morbidity and mortality in countries, including Iran. It has been shown that hypertension is a consequence of the interaction of genetics and environment. Nutrients have important roles in the controlling of blood pressure. We assessed dietary habit and anthropometric status in patients with hypertension in the north of Iran, and that have special dietary habit and according to their culture. This study was conducted on 127 patients with newly recognized hypertension and the 120 normotensive participants. Anthropometric status was measured and demographic characteristics, and medical condition were collected by valid questionnaires and dietary habit assessment was assessed with 3-day food recall (two weekdays and one weekend). The mean age of participants was 58 ± 6.7 years. The mean level of energy intake, saturated fat, vitamin D, potassium, zinc, dietary fiber, vitamin C, calcium, phosphorus, copper and magnesium was significantly lower in the hypertensive group compared to the control (p < 0.05). After adjusting for energy intake, positive association was observe between hypertension and some dietary nutrients including; Cholesterol [OR: 1.1, P: 0.001, B: 0.06], fiber [OR: 1.6, P: 0.001, B: 1.8], vitamin D [OR: 2.6, P: 0.006, B: 0.9] and zinc [OR: 1.4, P: 0.006, B: 0.3] intake. Logistic regression analysis showed that there was not significant association between hypertension, weight and waist circumference. In our study, the mean intake of some nutrients was lower in the hypertensive individuals compared to the normotensive individual. Health training about suitable dietary habits and easier access to vitamin D supplementation in patients with hypertension are cost-effective tools to improve outcomes in Iran.

Keywords: hypertension, north of Iran, dietary intake, weight

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4035 Exercise Training for Management Hypertensive Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Noor F. Ilias, Mazlifah Omar, Hashbullah Ismail


Exercise training has been shown to improve functional capacity and is recommended as a therapy for management of blood pressure. Our purpose was to establish whether different exercise capacity produces different effect size for Cardiorespiratory Fitness (CRF), systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure in patients with hypertension. Exercise characteristic is required in order to have optimal benefit from the training, but optimal exercise capacity is still unwarranted. A MEDLINE search (1985 to 2015) was conducted for exercise based rehabilitation trials in hypertensive patients. Thirty-seven studies met the selection criteria. Of these, 31 (83.7%) were aerobic exercise and 6 (16.3%) aerobic with additional resistance exercise, providing a total of 1318 exercise subjects and 819 control, the total of subjects was 2137. We calculated exercise volume and energy expenditure through the description of exercise characteristics. 4 studies (18.2%) were 451kcal - 900 kcal, 12 (54.5%) were 900 kcal – 1350 kcal and 6 (27.3%) >1351kcal per week. Peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2) increased by mean difference of 1.44 ml/kg/min (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08 to 1.79 ml/kg/min; p = 0.00001) with weighted mean 21.2% for aerobic exercise compare to aerobic with additional resistance exercise 4.50 ml/kg/min (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.57 to 5.42 ml/kg/min; p = 0.00001) with weighted mean 14.5%. SBP was clinically reduce for both aerobic and aerobic with resistance training by mean difference of -4.66 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI]: -5.68 to -3.63 mmHg; p = 0.00001) weighted mean 6% reduction and -5.06 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI]: -7.32 to -2.8 mmHg; p = 0.0001) weighted mean 5% reduction respectively. Result for DBP was clinically reduce for aerobic by mean difference of -1.62 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI]: -2.09 to -1.15 mmHg; p = 0.00001) weighted mean 4% reduction and aerobic with resistance training reduce by mean difference of -3.26 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI]: -4.87 to -1.65 mmHg; p = 0.0001) weighted mean 6% reduction. Optimum exercise capacity for 451 kcal – 900 kcal showed greater improvement in peak VO2 and SBP by 2.76 ml/kg/min (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.47 to 4.05 ml/kg/min; p = 0.0001) with weighted mean 40.6% and -16.66 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI]: -21.72 to -11.60 mmHg; p = 0.00001) weighted mean 9.8% respectively. Our data demonstrated that aerobic exercise with total volume of 451 kcal – 900 kcal/ week energy expenditure may elicit greater changes in cardiorespiratory fitness and blood pressure in hypertensive patients. Higher exercise capacity weekly does not seem better result in management hypertensive patients.

Keywords: blood Pressure, exercise, hypertension, peak VO2

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4034 Study of Contrast Induced Nephropathy in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Catheterization: Upper Egypt Experience

Authors: Ali Kassem, Sharf Eldeen-Shazly, Alshemaa Lotfy


Introduction: Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) has been the third leading cause of hospital-acquired renal failure. Patients with cardiac diseases are particularly at risk especially with repeated injections of contrast media. CIN is generally defined as an increase in serum creatinine concentration of > 0.5 mg/dL or 25% above baseline within 48 hours after contrast administration. Aim of work: To examine the frequency of CIN for patients undergoing cardiac catheterization at Sohag University Hospital (Upper Egypt) and to identify possible risk factors for CIN in these patients. Material and methods: The study included 104 patients with mean age 56.11 ±10.03, 64(61.5%) are males while 40(38.5%) are females. 44(42.3%) patients are diabetics, 43(41%) patients are hypertensive, 6(5.7%) patients have congestive heart failure, 69(66.3%) patients on statins, 74 (71.2 %) are on ACEIs or ARBs, 19(15.4%) are on metformin, 6 (5.8%) are on NSAIDs, 30(28.8%) are on diuretics. RESULTS: Patients were classified at the end of the study into two groups: Group A: Included 91 patients who did not develop CIN. Group B: Included 13 patients who developed CIN, of which serum creatinine raised > 0.5mg/dl in 6 patients and raised > 25% from the baseline after the procedure in 13 patients. The overall incidence of CIN was 12.5%. CIN increased with older age. There was an increase in the incidence of CIN in diabetic versus non-diabetic patients (20.5% and 6.7%) respectively. (p< 0.03). There was a highly significant increase in the incidence of CIN in patients with CHF versus those without CHF (100% and 71%) respectively, (P<0001). Patients on diuretics showed a significant increase in the incidence of CIN representing 61.5% of all patients who developed CIN. Conclusion: Older patients, diabetic patients, patients with CHF and patients on diuretics have higher risk of developing CIN during coronary catheterization and should receive reno-protective measures before contrast exposure.

Keywords: cardiac diseases, contrast-induced nephropathy, coronary catheterization, CIN

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4033 Separation of Urinary Proteins with Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis in Patients with Secondary Nephropathies

Authors: Irena Kostovska, Katerina Tosheska Trajkovska, Svetlana Cekovska, Julijana Brezovska Kavrakova, Hristina Ampova, Sonja Topuzovska, Ognen Kostovski, Goce Spasovski, Danica Labudovic


Background: Proteinuria is an important feature of secondary nephropathies. The quantitative and qualitative analysis of proteinuria plays an important role in determining the types of proteinuria (glomerular, tubular and mixed), in the diagnosis and prognosis of secondary nephropathies. The damage of the glomerular basement membrane is responsible for a proteinuria characterized by the presence of large amounts of protein with high molecular weights such as albumin (69 kilo Daltons-kD), transferrin (78 kD) and immunoglobulin G (150 kD). An insufficiency of proximal tubular function is the cause of a proteinuria characterized by the presence of proteins with low molecular weight (LMW), such as retinol binding protein (21 kD) and α1-microglobulin (31 kD). In some renal diseases, a mixed glomerular and tubular proteinuria is frequently seen. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) is the most widely used method of analyzing urine proteins for clinical purposes. The main aim of the study is to determine the type of proteinuria in the most common secondary nephropathies such as diabetic, hypertensive nephropathy and preeclampsia. Material and methods: In this study were included 90 subjects: subjects with diabetic nephropathy (n=30), subjects with hypertensive nephropahty (n=30) and pregnant women with preeclampsia (n=30). We divided all subjects according to UM/CR into three subgroups: macroalbuminuric (UM/CR >300 mg/g), microalbuminuric (UM/CR 30-300 mg/g) and normolabuminuric (UM/CR<30 mg/g). In all subjects, we measured microalbumin and creatinine in urine with standard biochemical methods. Separation of urinary proteins was performed by SDS-PAGE, in several stages: linear gel preparation (4-22%), treatment of urinary samples before their application on the gel, electrophoresis, gel fixation, coloring with Coomassie blue, and identification of the separated protein fractions based on standards with exactly known molecular weight. Results: According to urinary microalbumin/creatinin ratio in group of subject with diabetic nephropathy, nine patients were macroalbuminuric, while 21 subject were microalbuminuric. In group of subjects with hypertensive nephropathy, we found macroalbuminuria (n=4), microalbuminuria (n=20) and normoalbuminuria (n=6). All pregnant women with preeclampsia were macroalbuminuric. Electrophoretic separation of urinary proteins showed that in macroalbuminric patients with diabetic nephropathy 56% have mixed proteinuria, 22% have glomerular proteinuria and 22% have tubular proteinuria. In subgroup of subjects with diabetic nephropathy and microalbuminuria, 52% have glomerular proteinuria, 8% have tubular proteinuria, and 40% of subjects have normal electrophoretic findings. All patients with maroalbuminuria and hypertensive nephropathy have mixed proteinuria. In subgroup of patients with microalbuminuria and hypertensive nephropathy, we found: 32% with mixed proteinuria, 27% with normal findings, 23% with tubular, and 18% with glomerular proteinuria. In all normoalbuminruic patiens with hypertensive nephropathy, we detected normal electrophoretic findings. In group of subjects pregnant women with preeclampsia, we found: 81% with mixed proteinuria, 13% with glomerular, and 8% with tubular proteinuria. Conclusion: By SDS PAGE method, we detected that in patients with secondary nephropathies the most common type of proteinuria is mixed proteinuria, indicating both loss of glomerular permeability and tubular function. We can conclude that SDS PAGE is high sensitive method for detection of renal impairment in patients with secondary nephropathies.

Keywords: diabetic nephropathy, preeclampsia, hypertensive nephropathy, SDS PAGE

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4032 Effects of Handgrip Isometric Training in Blood Pressure of Patients with Peripheral Artery Disease

Authors: Raphael M. Ritti-Dias, Marilia A. Correia, Wagner J. R. Domingues, Aline C. Palmeira, Paulo Longano, Nelson Wolosker, Lauro C. Vianna, Gabriel G. Cucato


Patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) have a high prevalence of hypertension, which contributes to a high risk of acute cardiovascular events and cardiovascular mortality. Strategies to reduce cardiovascular risk of these patients are needed. Meta-analysis studies have shown that isometric handgrip training promotes reductions in clinical blood pressure in normotensive, pre-hypertensive and hypertensive individuals. However, the effect of this exercise training on other cardiovascular function indicators in PAD patients remains unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the effects of isometric handgrip training on blood pressure in patients with PAD. In this clinical trial, 28 patients were randomly allocated into two groups: isometric handgrip training (HG) and control (CG). The HG conducted the unilateral handgrip training three days per week (four sets of two minutes, with 30% of maximum voluntary contraction with an interval of four minutes between sets). CG was encouraged to increase their physical activity levels. At baseline and after eight weeks blood pressure and heart rate were obtained. ANOVA two-way for repeated measures with the group (GH and GC) and time (pre- and post-intervention) as factors was performed. After 8 weeks of training there were no significant changes in systolic blood pressure (HG pre 141 ± 24.0 mmHg vs. HG post 142 ± 22.0 mmHg; CG pre 140 ± 22.1 mmHg vs. CG post 146 ± 16.2 mmHg; P=0.18), diastolic blood pressure (HG pre 74 ± 10.4 mmHg vs. HG post 74 ± 11.9 mmHg; CG pre 72 ± 6.9 mmHg vs. CG post 74 ± 8.0 mmHg; P=0.22) and heart rate (HG pre 61 ± 10.5 bpm vs. HG post 62 ± 8.0 bpm; CG pre 64 ± 11.8 bpm vs. CG post 65 ± 13.6 bpm; P=0.81). In conclusion, our preliminary data indicate that isometric handgrip training did not modify blood pressure and heart rate in patients with PAD.

Keywords: blood pressure, exercise, isometric, peripheral artery disease

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4031 Adherence of Hypertensive Patients to Lifestyle Modification Factors: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Fadwa Alhalaiqa, Ahmad Al-Nawafleh, Abdul-Monim Batiha, Rami Masadeh, Aida Abd Alrazek


Healthy lifestyle recommendations (e.g. physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, increased cholesterol levels, obesity, and poor stress management) play an important role in controlling BP. This study aimed to assess lifestyle modification factors among patient diagnosed with hypertension. Methods and materials: A cross section-survey design was used. Data was collected by four questionnaires one was the beliefs about medication (BMQ) and rest were developed to collect data about demographics and clinical characteristics and lifestyle modification factors. Results: Total 312 questionnaires had been completed. The participants had a mean age of 57.6 years (SD =11.8). The results revealed that our participants did not follow healthy lifestyle recommendations; for example the means BS level, BMI, and cholesterol levels were 155 mg/dl (SD= 71.9), 29 kg/2m (SD= 5.4) and 197 mg/dl (SD= 86.6) respectively. A significant correlation was shown between age and BP (P= 0.000). Increase in DBP correlates with a significant increase in cholesterol level (P= .002) and BMI (P= .006). Conclusion: Hypertensive patients did not adhere to healthy lifestyle modification factors. Therefore, an urgent action by addressing behavioral risk factors has a positive impact on preventing and controlling hypertension.

Keywords: adherence, healthy lifestyle, hypertension, patients

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4030 Microalbuminuria in Patients with Hypertension Visiting Tertiary Care Centre, Western Nepal

Authors: Binaya Tamang, Buddhi R. Pokharel, Narayan Gautam, Puspa R. Dhakal, Yuresh Twayana


Background and Objective: Microalbuminuria is often regarded as a sign of end-organ damage due to hypertension, with an increased risk for renal diseases. The present study was designed to find the prevalence of microalbuminuria in hypertensive patients by determining albumin creatinine ratio (ACR) and the association of ACR and microalbuminuria status with different stages and duration of hypertension (HTN). Also, to establish the correlation of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) with various parameters viz; ACR, urinary microalbumin (UMA), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), urinary creatinine (Ucreat), serum creatinine (Screat), and find out their significance among HTN and ACR status. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Biochemistry in collaboration with the Department of Internal Medicine, UCMS, Bhairahawa, Nepal from April 2019 to September 2019 after obtaining ethical approval from institutional review committee (IRC), UCMS. A total of 120 hypertensive patients were enrolled whose blood, and spot urine samples were taken. eGFR was calculated by using Cockcroft-Gault formula after determining Screat while ACR was calculated after measuring Ucreat and UMA from the spot urine sample. Creatinine was estimated from modified jaffes’ reaction, whereas urinary micro albumin was done by Mispa i3 analyzer. Data were analyzed by using SPSS. 20 using p-value ≤ 0.05 as statistically significant. Results: In our study, the highest enrolled were grade II HTN (36.7%) followed by normal (33.3%), grade I (20.8%) and grade III (9.2%). Evaluating the ACR status, 19.2% were microalbuminuria, and the rest were normal. Though the ACR status (normal and microalbuminuria) was not statistically significant with HTN status (P=0.860) and the duration of HTN status (P=0.165), 5 (45.5%) out of 11 grade III HTN were microalbuminuria and the prevalence was also higher for longer duration .i.e., more than 10 years. In microalbuminuria, both the SBP (p=0.023, r=0.471) and DBP (P=0.034, r= 0.444) were strongly and positively correlated with Screat, in contrast to eGFR, which was negatively but weakly correlated. With the significant difference between the HTN group, the mean ACR (P=0.047) and UMA (P=0.02) were found to be highest among grade III patients, i.e., 84.3 ± 113.3 mg/gm. and 88.4 ± 83.9 mg/l respectively. The mean eGFR (64.2 ± 24.8 vs 77.2 ± 18.1 ml/min) was considerably lower in microalbuminuria ( p=0.026) than the normal in contrast to the SBP (160 ± 33.7 vs. 146.6 ± 19.5 mm of Hg) which was significantly higher (P=0.008). Among the different BMI category, the mean ACR was found to be significantly different (P= 0.01) with the highest value in underweight (115.2 ± 51.5 mg/gm.) and lowest in overweight (31.8 ± 4.3 mg/gm.). Conclusion: The study recommends that the microalbuminuria can be a very useful and imperative predictor of deranged kidney functions in hypertensive patients. The high value of ACR and UMA in hypertensive patients along with significant increased Screat, SBP whereas decreased eGFR in microalbuminuria patients explicitly supports the above statement.

Keywords: albumin creatinine ratio, hypertension, microalbuminuria, renal disease

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4029 Gut Microbiota and Their Modulating Role in Pregnant and Non-pregnant Hypertensive Rats Fed with Selected Local Wild Beans

Authors: Bankole Do, Omodara T. R., Awyinka O. A.


Probiotic supplementation has been known to be associated with a lower prevalence of hypertension. Against these backdrop, activities of the gut microbiota from hypertensive induced pregnant and non-pregnant rats as mediated by the soluble and indigestible fraction of carbohydrates derived from Otiliand fermentedIru were studied in this present work. Microbiota from hypertensive induced non- pregnant rats fed with Otili and Iruhad Proteus vulgaris + Staphylococcus aureus. However, hypertensive induced pregnant rats fed with Otilipredominantly contained Proteus vulgaris + Bacillus lichniformiswhile the group fed with Iruhad Staphylococcus aureus + Bacillus lichniformis. Thus, showingdysbiosis in hypertensive induced rats is influenced by pregnancy. Further In-vitro study showed Proteus vulgaris playing a key role in the fermentative process of the indigestible fraction of carbohydrates while Esherichia coli played the key role in the fermentative process of the soluble fraction of carbohydrates in all the bean samples. This dysbiosis of the gut microbiota, as seen in hypertension in rats in this present study, might be part of the strategies for the prevention and treatment of this Non-Communicable Disease.

Keywords: probiotic, microbiota, dysbiosis, hypertension

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4028 Epidemiological Correlates of Adherence to Anti-Hypertensive Treatment in Primary Health Care Setting of Ludhiana, Punjab

Authors: Sangeeta Girdhar, Amanat Grewal, Nahush Bansal


Introduction: There is an increasing burden of hypertension in India. The morbidity and mortality arising from complications are mainly due to non-adherence to medication, unhealthy dietary habits, and lack of physical activity. Non-adherence is a well-recognised factor contributing to inadequate control of high blood pressure. Adherence to pharmacotherapy for hypertension varies from 43% to 88%. Non-adherence is influenced by various socio-demographic factors. Understanding these factors is useful in managing non-adherence. Therefore, the study was planned to determine adherence among hypertensives and factors associated with non-adherence to treatment. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Urban Health Training Centre of Dayanand Medical College and Hospital Ludhiana. Patients attending the OPD over a period of 3 months were included in the study. Prior ethical approval was obtained, and informed consent was taken from subjects. A predesigned semi-structured questionnaire was applied, which included socio-demographic profile, treatment-seeking behaviour, adherence to the antihypertensive medication, lifestyle factors (intake of alcohol, smoking, consumption of junk food, high salt intake) contributing to the development of the disease. Reasons for non-adherence to the therapy were also explored. Data was entered into excel, and SPSS 26 version was used for analysis. Results: A total of 186 individuals were interviewed. Out of these, 113 females (60.8%) and 73 males (39.2%) participated in the study. Mean age of participants was 60.9 ± 10.7 years. Adherence to anti-hypertensive treatment was found in 68.3% of the participants. It was observed that adherence was more in literate individuals as compared to illiterate (p value- 0.78). Adherence was lower among smokers (33.3%) and alcohol consumers (53.8%) as compared to non-users (69.4% and 70.6%, respectively). The predominant reasons for skipping medications were discontinuing medication when feeling well, forgetfulness and unawareness. Conclusion: There is a need to generate awareness regarding the importance of adherence to therapy among patients. Intensive health education and counselling of the patients is the need of the hour.

Keywords: hypertension, anti-hypertensive, adherence, counselling

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4027 Association between Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy and the Development of Offspring Mental and Behavioural Problems: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Berihun Dachew, Abdullah Mamun, Joemer Maravilla, Rosa Alati


Background: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are a major cause of maternal and childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, its effect on offspring mental and behavioural disorders is unclear. Aims:The aim of this study was to provide the best scientific evidence regarding the association between hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and offspring mental and behavioural problems. Methods: We systematically searched Scopus, PubMed, Cochrane, EMBASE, CINAH and PsycINFO databases. A total of 23 studies (11 included in meta-analysis) were identified. A qualitative analysis was conducted by summarizing, comparing, and contrasting the abstracted data for all included studies. For quantitative analysis, relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was used as pooled effect size. Heterogeneity was assessed by measuring Cochran’s Q and I2 test statistics. Results: Of the 23 studies included in this review, 15 studies found that hypertensive disorders of pregnancy had a negative impact for at least one mental or behavioural problem. The pooled effect of 11 studies included in the meta-analysis showed that preeclampsia was associated with increased risk of offspring schizophrenia (RR=1.37; 95% CI, 1.08-1.72). Conclusions: Intrauterine exposure to pre-eclampsia increased the risk of schizophrenia among offspring. However, we found inconclusive finding on the effect of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and other mental and behavioural problems. Further high quality, large sample, mother child cohort studies are needed to further progress this area of research.

Keywords: behavioural disorders, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, mental disorders, offspring

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4026 Uncovering Anti-Hypertensive Obesity Targets and Mechanisms of Metformin, an Anti-Diabetic Medication

Authors: Lu Yang, Keng Po Lai


Metformin, a well-known clinical drug against diabetes, is found with potential anti-diabetic and anti-obese benefits, as reported in increasing evidences. However, the current clinical and experimental investigations are not to reveal the detailed mechanisms of metformin-anti-obesity/hypertension. We have used the bioinformatics strategy, including network pharmacology and molecular docking methodology, to uncover the key targets and pathways of bioactive compounds against clinical disorders, such as cancers, coronavirus disease. Thus, in this report, the in-silico approach was utilized to identify the hug targets, pharmacological function, and mechanism of metformin against obesity and hypertension. The networking analysis identified 154 differentially expressed genes of obesity and hypertension, 21 interaction genes, and 6 hug genes of metformin treating hypertensive obesity. As a result, the molecular docking findings indicated the potent binding capability of metformin with the key proteins, including interleukin 6 (IL-6) and chemokine (C-C motif) Ligand 2 (CCL2), in hypertensive obesity. The metformin-exerted anti-hypertensive obesity action involved in metabolic regulation, inflammatory reaction. And the anti-hypertensive obesity mechanisms of metformin were revealed, including regulation of inflammatory and immunological signaling pathways for metabolic homeostasis in tissue and microenvironmental melioration in blood pressure. In conclusion, our identified findings with bioinformatics analysis have demonstrated the detailed hug and pharmacological targets, biological functions, and signaling pathways of metformin treating hypertensive obesity.

Keywords: metformin, obesity, hypertension, bioinformatics findings

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4025 Angiographic Evaluation of ETT (Treadmill) Positive Patients in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Bangladesh

Authors: Syed Dawood Md. Taimur, Saidur Rahman Khan, Farzana Islam


Objective: To evaluate the factors which predetermine the coronary artery disease in patients having positive Exercise Tolerance Test (ETT) that is treadmill results and coronary artery findings. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted at Department of Cardiology, Ibrahim Cardiac Hospital & Research Institute,Dhaka,Bangladesh from 1st January, 2014 to 31st August, 2014. All patients who had done ETT (treadmill) for chest pain diagnosis were studied. One hundred and four patients underwent coronary angiogram after positive treadmill result. Patients were divided into two groups depending upon the angiographic findings, i.e. true positive and false positive. Positive treadmill test patients who have coronary artery involvement these are called true positive and who have no involvement they are called false positive group. Both groups were compared with each other. Results: Out of 104 patients, 81 (77.9%) patients had true positive ETT and 23 (22.1%) patients had false positive ETT. The mean age of patients in positive ETT was 53.46± 8.06 years and male mean age was 53.63±8.36 years and female was 52.87 ± 7.0 years. Sixty nine (85.19%) male patients and twelve (14.81%) female patients had true positive ETT, whereas 15 (65.21%) males and 8 (34.79%) females had false positive ETT, this was statistically significant (p<0.032)difference in the two groups(sex) in comparison of true and false positive ETT. The risk factors of these patients like diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, family history and smoking were seen among these patients. Hypertensive patients having true positive which were statically significant (p<0.004) and diabetic, dyslipidaemic patients having true positive which were statically significant (p < 0.032 & 0.030).True positive patients had family history were 68 (83.95%) and smoking were 52 (64.20%), where family history patients had statistically significant(p<0.017) between two groups of patients and smokers were significant (p<0.012). 46 true positive patients achieved THR which was not statistically significant (P<0.138)and 79 true patients had abnormal resting ECG whether it was significant (p<0.036). Amongst the vessels involvement the most common was LAD 55 (67.90%), followed by LCX 42 (51.85%), RCA 36 (44.44%) and the LMCA was 9 (11.11%), .40 patients (49.38%) had SVD, 26 (30.10%) had DVD, 15(18.52%) had TVD and 23 had normal coronary arteries. Conclusion: It can be concluded that among the female patients who have positive ETT with normal resting ECG, who had achieved target heart rate are likely to have a false positive test result. Conversely male patients,resting abnormal ECG who had not achieved THR, symptom limited ETT, have a hypertension, diabetis, dyslipidaemic, family history and smoking are likely to have a true positive treadmill test result.

Keywords: exercise tolerance test, coronary artery disease, coronary angiography, true positive, false positive

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4024 Prevalence of Microalbuminuria and Its Relation with Various Risk Factors in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Singh Baljinder, Sharma Navneet


Microalbuminuria is the earliest detectable marker of diabetic nephropathy. We planned to evaluate the prevalence of microalbuminuria in type 1 diabetics and correlate with various risk factor. We randomly selected 100 type 1 diabetic patients after inclusion and exclusion criteria from DCRC, S. P. Medical College, Bikaner. Clinical examinations for anthropometeric parameters, hypertension, retinopathy, glycaemic status, lipid profile were done and microalbuminuria was estimated by micral test. Microalbuminuria was seen in 38% patients. The mean urinary albumin concentration was 96.61 mg/l in microalbuminuria positive cases, 134 mg/L in hypertensive patients while 74.5 mg/L in normal patients. Mean diabetic duration was 6.43 years in microalbuminurics. Albumin excretion increased significantly with age at onset of 10-18 years and declined thereafter. Microalbuminuria cases exhibited mean cholesterol 181.63 mg%, TG 130.94 mg%, LDL 109.87 mg%, HDL 57.5 mg% and VLDL 30.64 mg%. Mean urinary albumin concentration in patients with retinopathy was 160.52 mg/L while 78.66 mg/L without retinopathy. In multiple stepwise logistic regression analysis, a strong positive association was seen between microalbuminuria and hypertension (OR=5.087, CI=2.1319-12.101), fasting blood sugar (OR=3. 491, CI=1.138-10.70), duration of diabetes (OR=3.41, CI=1.360-8.55) and HbA1c (OR=2.381, CI-=1.1-5.64). The present study indicates that microalbuminuria is a common complication of type 1 diabetes mellitus and can be prevented by careful management of risk factors.

Keywords: type 1 diabetes, microalbuminuria, diabetic nephropathy, retinopathy, hypertension

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4023 Perception of Predictive Confounders for the Prevalence of Hypertension among Iraqi Population: A Pilot Study

Authors: Zahraa Albasry, Hadeel D. Najim, Anmar Al-Taie


Background: Hypertension is considered as one of the most important causes of cardiovascular complications and one of the leading causes of worldwide mortality. Identifying the potential risk factors associated with this medical health problem plays an important role in minimizing its incidence and related complications. The objective of this study is to explore the prevalence of receptor sensitivity regarding assess and understand the perception of specific predictive confounding factors on the prevalence of hypertension (HT) among a sample of Iraqi population in Baghdad, Iraq. Materials and Methods: A randomized cross sectional study was carried out on 100 adult subjects during their visit to the outpatient clinic at a certain sector of Baghdad Province, Iraq. Demographic, clinical and health records alongside specific screening and laboratory tests of the participants were collected and analyzed to detect the potential of confounding factors on the prevalence of HT. Results: 63% of the study participants suffered from HT, most of them were female patients (P < 0.005). Patients aged between 41-50 years old significantly suffered from HT than other age groups (63.5%, P < 0.001). 88.9% of the participants were obese (P < 0.001) and 47.6% had diabetes with HT. Positive family history and sedentary lifestyle were significantly higher among all hypertensive groups (P < 0.05). High salt and fatty food intake was significantly found among patients suffered from isolated systolic hypertension (ISHT) (P < 0.05). A significant positive correlation between packed cell volume (PCV) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) (r = 0.353, P = 0.048) found among normotensive participants. Among hypertensive patients, a positive significant correlation found between triglycerides (TG) and both SBP (r = 0.484, P = 0.031) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (r = 0.463, P = 0.040), while low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) showed a positive significant correlation with DBP (r = 0.443, P = 0.021). Conclusion: The prevalence of HT among Iraqi populations is of major concern. Further consideration is required to detect the impact of potential risk factors and to minimize blood pressure (BP) elevation and reduce the risk of other cardiovascular complications later in life.

Keywords: Correlation, Hypertension, Iraq, Risk factors

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4022 Survival Analysis after a First Ischaemic Stroke Event: A Case-Control Study in the Adult Population of England.

Authors: Padma Chutoo, Elena Kulinskaya, Ilyas Bakbergenuly, Nicholas Steel, Dmitri Pchejetski


Stroke is associated with a significant risk of morbidity and mortality. There is scarcity of research on the long-term survival after first-ever ischaemic stroke (IS) events in England with regards to effects of different medical therapies and comorbidities. The objective of this study was to model the all-cause mortality after an IS diagnosis in the adult population of England. Using a retrospective case-control design, we extracted the electronic medical records of patients born prior to or in year 1960 in England with a first-ever ischaemic stroke diagnosis from January 1986 to January 2017 within the Health and Improvement Network (THIN) database. Participants with a history of ischaemic stroke were matched to 3 controls by sex and age at diagnosis and general practice. The primary outcome was the all-cause mortality. The hazards of the all-cause mortality were estimated using a Weibull-Cox survival model which included both scale and shape effects and a shared random effect of general practice. The model included sex, birth cohort, socio-economic status, comorbidities and medical therapies. 20,250 patients with a history of IS (cases) and 55,519 controls were followed up to 30 years. From 2008 to 2015, the one-year all-cause mortality for the IS patients declined with an absolute change of -0.5%. Preventive treatments to cases increased considerably over time. These included prescriptions of statins and antihypertensives. However, prescriptions for antiplatelet drugs decreased in the routine general practice since 2010. The survival model revealed a survival benefit of antiplatelet treatment to stroke survivors with hazard ratio (HR) of 0.92 (0.90 – 0.94). IS diagnosis had significant interactions with gender and age at entry and hypertension diagnosis. IS diagnosis was associated with high risk of all-cause mortality with HR= 3.39 (3.05-3.72) for cases compared to controls. Hypertension was associated with poor survival with HR = 4.79 (4.49 - 5.09) for hypertensive cases relative to non-hypertensive controls, though the detrimental effect of hypertension has not reached significance for hypertensive controls, HR = 1.19(0.82-1.56). This study of English primary care data showed that between 2008 and 2015, the rates of prescriptions of stroke preventive treatments increased, and a short-term all-cause mortality after IS stroke declined. However, stroke resulted in poor long-term survival. Hypertension, a modifiable risk factor, was found to be associated with poor survival outcomes in IS patients. Antiplatelet drugs were found to be protective to survival. Better efforts are required to reduce the burden of stroke through health service development and primary prevention.

Keywords: general practice, hazard ratio, health improvement network (THIN), ischaemic stroke, multiple imputation, Weibull-Cox model.

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4021 Dietary Magnesium, Lipids, and Hypertension: New Insights and Unsolved Mysteries

Authors: Elena Pello, Martin Bobak, Yuri Nikitin


In current issue we evaluated integration of magnesium with lipids; the attractive findings were obtained in men and women; the crucial ties of magnesium with total cholesterol in hypertensive men, with total cholesterol in concordance with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in hypertensive women were disclosed; unanswered questions were trapped, difficulties were surmounted, and magnesium deficiency perseverance in pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease development was expressed; nutrients as well as risk factors may contribute to cardiovascular complications.

Keywords: dietary, magnesium, hypertension, lipids

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