Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8339

Search results for: structures & structural stability

8339 Urban Search, Rescue and Rapid Field Assessment of Damaged and Collapsed Building Structures

Authors: Abid I. Abu-Tair, Gavin M. Wilde, John M. Kinuthia


Urban Search and Rescue (USAR) is a functional capability that has been developed to allow the United Kingdom Fire and Rescue Service to deal with ‘major incidents’ primarily involving structural collapse. The nature of the work undertaken by USAR means that staying out of a damaged or collapsed building structure is not usually an option for search and rescue personnel. As a result, there is always a risk that they could become victims. For this paper, a systematic and investigative review using desk research was undertaken to explore the role which structural engineering can play in assisting search and rescue personnel to conduct structural assessments when in the field. The focus is on how search and rescue personnel can assess damaged and collapsed building structures, not just in terms of the structural damage that may be countered, but also in relation to structural stability. Natural disasters, accidental emergencies, acts of terrorism and other extreme events can vary significantly in nature and ferocity, and can cause a wide variety of damage to building structures. It is not possible or, even realistic, to provide search and rescue personnel with definitive guidelines and procedures to assess damaged and collapsed building structures as there are too many variables to consider. However, understanding what implications damage may have upon the structural stability of a building structure will enable search and rescue personnel to judge better and quantify the risk from a life-safety standpoint. It is intended that this will allow search and rescue personnel to make informed decisions and ensure every effort is made to mitigate risk so that they do not become victims.

Keywords: damaged and collapsed building structures, life safety, quantifying risk, search and rescue personnel, structural assessments in the field

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
8338 Effect of Wind Braces to Earthquake Resistance of Steel Structures

Authors: H. Gokdemir


All structures are subject to vertical and lateral loads. Under these loads, structures make deformations and deformation values of structural elements mustn't exceed their capacity for structural stability. Especially, lateral loads cause critical deformations because of their random directions and magnitudes. Wind load is one of the lateral loads which can act in any direction and any magnitude. Although wind has nearly no effect on reinforced concrete structures, it must be considered for steel structures, roof systems and slender structures like minarets. Therefore, every structure must be able to resist wind loads acting parallel and perpendicular to any side. One of the effective methods for resisting lateral loads is assembling cross steel elements between columns which are called as wind bracing. These cross elements increases lateral rigidity of a structure and prevent exceeding of deformation capacity of the structural system. So, this means cross elements are also effective in resisting earthquake loads too. In this paper; Effects of wind bracing to earthquake resistance of structures are studied. Structure models (with and without wind bracing) are generated and these models are solved under both earthquake and wind loads with different seismic zone parameters. It is concluded by the calculations that; in low-seismic risk zones, wind bracing can easily resist earthquake loads and no additional reinforcement for earthquake loads is necessary. Similarly; in high-seismic risk zones, earthquake cross elements resist wind loads too.

Keywords: wind bracings, earthquake, steel structures, vertical and lateral loads

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
8337 Assessing Effectiveness of Outrigger and Belt Truss System for Tall Buildings under Wind Loadings

Authors: Nirand Anunthanakul


This paper is to investigate a 54-story reinforced concrete residential tall building structures—238.8 meters high. Shear walls, core walls, and columns are the primary vertical components. Other special lateral components—core-outrigger and belt trusses—are studied and combined with the structural system in order to increase the structural stability during severe lateral load events, particularly, wind loads. The wind tunnel tests are conducted using the force balance technique. The overall wind loads and dynamics response of the building are also measured for 360 degrees of azimuth—basis for 10-degree intervals. The results from numerical analysis indicate that an outrigger and belt truss system clearly engages perimeter columns to efficiently reduce acceleration index and lateral deformations at the top level so that the building structures achieve lateral stability, and meet standard provision values.

Keywords: outrigger, belt truss, tall buildings, wind loadings

Procedia PDF Downloads 499
8336 Evaluation of Postural Stability in Female Patients with Structural Scoliosis

Authors: Ghada M. R. Koura, Ahmed M. F. El Shiwi


Background: structural scoliosis is a twisting deformity in the curve of vertebral column to the lateral side with simultaneous rotation of the vertebrae, which occurs during the growing years from 10 years to the puberty. Purpose: Studies investigating balance problems specific to scoliotic patients showed that those patients reveal variable balance abnormalities. In this study we evaluated the difference in postural stability responses between female patients (students, office worker and shish weapon players) with structural scoliosis and normal subjects. Methods: sixty subjects participated in this study. Thirty female patients with structural scoliosis with a mean age of (19.5 ± 3.26) years, with Cobb's angle ranged from 20º to 40° in the major curves, and thirty healthy female subjects with a mean age of (19.36 ± 2.41) years. Postural stability of both groups were evaluated by the Biodex Stability System. Results: There was no significant difference between both groups in dynamic balance test. Interpretation/Conclusion: As there was no significant difference between both groups in balance response, it is not recommended to add balance training as an extra physical therapy program for AIS female patients.

Keywords: structural scoliosis, postural stability, female patients, evaluation

Procedia PDF Downloads 386
8335 Architectural Strategies for Designing Durable Steel Structural Systems

Authors: Alireza Taghdiri, Sara Ghanbarzade Ghomi


Nowadays, steel structures are used for not only common buildings but also high-rise construction and wide span covering. The advanced methods of construction as well as the advanced structural connections have a great effect on architecture. However a better use of steel structural systems will be achieved with the deep understanding of steel structures specifications and their substantial advantages. On the other hand, the steel structures face to the different environmental factors such as air flow which cause erosion and corrosion. With the time passing, the amount of these steel mass damages and also the imposed stress will be increased. In other words, the position of erosion in steel structures related to existing stresses indicates that effective environmental conditions will gradually decrease the structural resistance of steel components and result in decreasing the durability of steel components. In this paper, the durability of different steel structural components is evaluated and on the basis of these stress, architectural strategies for designing the system and the components of steel structures is recognized in order to achieve an optimum life cycle.

Keywords: durability, bending stress, erosion in steel structure, life cycle

Procedia PDF Downloads 455
8334 Structural Optimization of Shell and Arched Structures

Authors: Mitchell Gohnert, Ryan Bradley


This paper reviews some fundamental concepts of structural optimization of shell structures, which is based on the type of materials used in construction and the shape of the structure. The first step of structural optimization is to break down all internal forces into fundamental principal stresses. The stress patterns direct our selection of structural shapes and the most appropriate type of construction material. In our selection of materials, it is essential to understand that all construction materials have flaws, or micro-cracks, which reduce the capacity of the material. Because of material defects, many construction materials perform significantly better when subjected to compressive forces. Structures are also more efficient if bending moments are eliminated; thus, it is essential to select natural structures, or structures where the natural flow of stress follows the axis of the shell. The shape of the structure, therefore, has a profound effect on stress levels. Stress may be reduced dramatically by simply changing the shape. Catenary, triangular and linear shapes are the fundamental structural forms to achieve optimal stress flow. If the natural flow of stress matches the shape of the structures, the most optimal shape is determined.

Keywords: arches, economy of stresses, material strength, optimization, shells

Procedia PDF Downloads 16
8333 Health Monitoring of Concrete Assets in Refinery

Authors: Girish M. Bhatia


Most of the important structures in refinery complex are RCC Structures for which in-depth structural monitoring and inspection is required for incessant service. Reinforced concrete structures can be under threat from a combination of insidious challenges due to environmental conditions, including temperature and humidity that lead to accelerated deterioration mechanisms like carbonation, as well as marine exposure, above and below ground structures can experience ingress from aggressive ground waters carrying chlorides and sulphates leading to unexpected deterioration that threaten the integrity of a vital structural asset. By application of health monitoring techniques like corrosion monitoring with help of sensor probes, visual inspection of high rise structures with help of drones, it is possible to establish an early warning at the onset of these destructive processes.

Keywords: concrete structures, corrosion sensors, drones, health monitoring

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
8332 Structural Rehabilitation, Retrofitting and Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Structures

Authors: Manish Kumar


Reinforced cement concrete is getting extensively used for construction of different type of structures for the last one century. During this period, we have constructed many structures like buildings, bridges, industrial structures, pavement, water tanks etc. using this construction material. These structures have been created with huge investment of resources. It is essential to maintain those structures in functional condition. Since deterioration in RCC Structures is a common and natural phenomenon it is required to have a detailed plan, methodology for structural repair and rehabilitation shall be in place for dealing such issues. It is important to know exact reason of distress, type of distress and correct method of repair concrete structures. The different methods of repair are described in paper according to distress category which can be refereed for repair. Major finding of the study is that to protect our structure we need to have maintenance frequency and correct material to be chosen for repair. Also workmanship during repair needs to be taken utmost care for quality repair.

Keywords: deterioration, functional condition, reinforced cement concrete, resources

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
8331 Parallel Particle Swarm Optimization Optimized LDI Controller with Lyapunov Stability Criterion for Nonlinear Structural Systems

Authors: P. W. Tsai, W. L. Hong, C. W. Chen, C. Y. Chen


In this paper, we present a neural network (NN) based approach represent a nonlinear Tagagi-Sugeno (T-S) system. A linear differential inclusion (LDI) state-space representation is utilized to deal with the NN models. Taking advantage of the LDI representation, the stability conditions and controller design are derived for a class of nonlinear structural systems. Moreover, the concept of utilizing the Parallel Particle Swarm Optimization (PPSO) algorithm to solve the common P matrix under the stability criteria is given in this paper.

Keywords: Lyapunov stability, parallel particle swarm optimization, linear differential inclusion, artificial intelligence

Procedia PDF Downloads 449
8330 Sustainable Design in the Use of Deployable Structures

Authors: Umweni Osahon Joshua, Anton Ianakiev


Deployable structures have been used in various scenarios from moving roofs in stadia, space antennae or booms. There has been a lot of literature relating deployable structures but with main focus on space applications. The complexities in the design of deployable structures may be the reason only few have been constructed for earth based solutions. This paper intends to explore the possibilities of integrating sustainable design concepts in deployable structures. Key aspects of sustainable design of structures as applicable to deployable structures have not been explored. Sustainable design of structures have mainly been concerned with static structures in the built environment. However, very little literature, concepts or framework has been drafted as it relates to deployable structures or their integration to static structures as a model for sustainable design. This article seeks to address this flaw in sustainable design for structural engineering and to provide a framework for designing structures in a sustainable manner. This framework will apply to deployable structures for earth-based environments as a form of disaster relief measures and also as part of static structures in the built environment.

Keywords: deployable structures, sustainable design, framework, earth-based environments

Procedia PDF Downloads 390
8329 Geomechanical Technologies for Assessing Three-Dimensional Stability of Underground Excavations Utilizing Remote-Sensing, Finite Element Analysis, and Scientific Visualization

Authors: Kwang Chun, John Kemeny


Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) has been a prevalent remote-sensing technology applied in the geological fields due to its high precision and ease of use. One of the major applications is to use the detailed geometrical information of underground structures as a basis for the generation of a three-dimensional numerical model that can be used in a geotechnical stability analysis such as FEM or DEM. To date, however, straightforward techniques in reconstructing the numerical model from the scanned data of the underground structures have not been well established or tested. In this paper, we propose a comprehensive approach integrating all the various processes, from LiDAR scanning to finite element numerical analysis. The study focuses on converting LiDAR 3D point clouds of geologic structures containing complex surface geometries into a finite element model. This methodology has been applied to Kartchner Caverns in Arizona, where detailed underground and surface point clouds can be used for the analysis of underground stability. Numerical simulations were performed using the finite element code Abaqus and presented by 3D computing visualization solution, ParaView. The results are useful in studying the stability of all types of underground excavations including underground mining and tunneling.

Keywords: finite element analysis, LiDAR, remote-sensing, scientific visualization, underground stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
8328 A Review of Current Knowledge on Assessment of Precast Structures Using Fragility Curves

Authors: E. Akpinar, A. Erol, M.F. Cakir


Precast reinforced concrete (RC) structures are excellent alternatives for construction world all over the globe, thanks to their rapid erection phase, ease mounting process, better quality and reasonable prices. Such structures are rather popular for industrial buildings. For the sake of economic importance of such industrial buildings as well as significance of safety, like every other type of structures, performance assessment and structural risk analysis are important. Fragility curves are powerful tools for damage projection and assessment for any sort of building as well as precast structures. In this study, a comparative review of current knowledge on fragility analysis of industrial precast RC structures were presented and findings in previous studies were compiled. Effects of different structural variables, parameters and building geometries as well as soil conditions on fragility analysis of precast structures are reviewed. It was aimed to briefly present the information in the literature about the procedure of damage probability prediction including fragility curves for such industrial facilities. It is found that determination of the aforementioned structural parameters as well as selecting analysis procedure are critically important for damage prediction of industrial precast RC structures using fragility curves.

Keywords: damage prediction, fragility curve, industrial buildings, precast reinforced concrete structures

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
8327 Structural Health Monitoring of Buildings and Infrastructure

Authors: Mojtaba Valinejadshoubi, Ashutosh Bagchi, Osama Moselhi


Structures such as buildings, bridges, dams, wind turbines etc. need to be maintained against various factors such as deterioration, excessive loads, environment, temperature, etc. Choosing an appropriate monitoring system is important for determining any critical damage to a structure and address that to avoid any adverse consequence. Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) has emerged as an effective technique to monitor the health of the structures. SHM refers to an ongoing structural performance assessment using different kinds of sensors attached to or embedded in the structures to evaluate their integrity and safety to help engineers decide on rehabilitation measures. Ability of SHM in identifying the location and severity of structural damages by considering any changes in characteristics of the structures such as their frequency, stiffness and mode shapes helps engineers to monitor the structures and take the most effective corrective actions to maintain their safety and extend their service life. The main objective of this study is to review the overall SHM process specifically determining the natural frequency of an instrumented simply-supported concrete beam using modal testing and finite element model updating.

Keywords: structural health monitoring, natural frequency, modal analysis, finite element model updating

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
8326 On the Seismic Response of Collided Structures

Authors: George D. Hatzigeorgiou, Nikos G. Pnevmatikos


This study examines the inelastic behavior of adjacent planar reinforced concrete (R.C.) frames subjected to strong ground motions. The investigation focuses on the effects of vertical ground motion on the seismic pounding. The examined structures are modeled and analyzed by RUAUMOKO dynamic nonlinear analysis program using reliable hysteretic models for both structural members and contact elements. It is found that the vertical ground motion mildly affects the seismic response of adjacent buildings subjected to structural pounding and, for this reason, it can be ignored from the displacement and interstorey drifts assessment. However, the structural damage is moderately affected by the vertical component of earthquakes.

Keywords: nonlinear seismic behavior, reinforced concrete structures, structural pounding, vertical ground motions

Procedia PDF Downloads 376
8325 Theoretical, Numerical and Experimental Assessment of Elastomeric Bearing Stability

Authors: Manuel A. Guzman, Davide Forcellini, Ricardo Moreno, Diego H. Giraldo


Elastomeric bearings (EB) are used in many applications, such as base isolation of bridges, seismic protection and vibration control of other structures and machinery. Their versatility is due to their particular behavior since they have different stiffness in the vertical and horizontal directions, allowing to sustain vertical loads and at the same time horizontal displacements. Therefore, vertical, horizontal and bending stiffnesses are important parameters to take into account in the design of EB. In order to acquire a proper design methodology of EB all three, theoretical, finite element analysis and experimental, approaches should be taken into account to assess stability due to different loading states, predict their behavior and consequently their effects on the dynamic response of structures, and understand complex behavior and properties of rubber-like materials respectively. In particular, the recent large-displacement theory on the stability of EB formulated by Forcellini and Kelly is validated with both numerical simulations using the finite element method, and experimental results set at the University of Antioquia in Medellin, Colombia. In this regard, this study reproduces the behavior of EB under compression loads and investigates the stability behavior with the three mentioned points of view.

Keywords: elastomeric bearings, experimental tests, numerical simulations, stability, large-displacement theory

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
8324 Structural Identification for Layered Composite Structures through a Wave and Finite Element Methodology

Authors: Rilwan Kayode Apalowo, Dimitrios Chronopoulos


An approach for identifying the geometric and material characteristics of layered composite structures through an inverse wave and finite element methodology is proposed. These characteristics are obtained through multi-frequency single shot measurements. However, it is established that the frequency regime of the measurements does not matter, meaning that both ultrasonic and structural dynamics frequency spectra can be employed. Taking advantage of a full FE (finite elements) description of the periodic composite, the scheme is able to account for arbitrarily complex structures. In order to demonstrate the robustness of the presented scheme, it is applied to a sandwich composite panel and results are compared with that of experimental characterization techniques. Excellent agreement is obtained with the experimental measurements.

Keywords: structural identification, non-destructive evaluation, finite elements, wave propagation, layered structures, ultrasound

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
8323 Structural Health Monitoring and Damage Structural Identification Using Dynamic Response

Authors: Reza Behboodian


Monitoring the structural health and diagnosing their damage in the early stages has always been one of the topics of concern. Nowadays, research on structural damage detection methods based on vibration analysis is very extensive. Moreover, these methods can be used as methods of permanent and timely inspection of structures and prevent further damage to structures. Non-destructive methods are the low-cost and economical methods for determining the damage of structures. In this research, a non-destructive method for detecting and identifying the failure location in structures based on dynamic responses resulting from time history analysis is proposed. When the structure is damaged due to the reduction of stiffness, and due to the applied loads, the displacements in different parts of the structure were increased. In the proposed method, the damage position is determined based on the calculation of the strain energy difference in each member of the damaged structure and the healthy structure at any time. Defective members of the structure are indicated by the amount of strain energy relative to the healthy state. The results indicated that the proper accuracy and performance of the proposed method for identifying failure in structures.

Keywords: failure, time history analysis, dynamic response, strain energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
8322 Structural Reliability of Existing Structures: A Case Study

Authors: Z. Sakka, I. Assakkaf, T. Al-Yaqoub, J. Parol


A reliability-based methodology for the analysis assessment and evaluation of reinforced concrete structural elements of concrete structures is presented herein. The results of the reliability analysis and assessment for structural elements are verified by the results obtained from the deterministic methods. The analysis outcomes of reliability-based analysis are compared against the safety limits of the required reliability index β according to international standards and codes. The methodology is based on probabilistic analysis using reliability concepts and statistics of the main random variables that are relevant to the subject matter, and for which they are to be used in the performance-function equation(s) related to the structural elements under study. These methodology techniques can result in reliability index β, which is commonly known as the reliability index or reliability measure value that can be utilized to assess and evaluate the safety, human risk, and functionality of the structural component. Also, these methods can result in revised partial safety factor values for certain target reliability indices that can be used for the purpose of redesigning the reinforced concrete elements of the building and in which they could assist in considering some other remedial actions to improve the safety and functionality of the member.

Keywords: structural reliability, concrete structures, FORM, Monte Carlo simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 440
8321 Specialization in Biomimicry: A Rationale for a Proposed Curriculum for Structural Engineering Students

Authors: Austin Dada, Frederick Rutz, Wil Srubar


This proposed curriculum details the general concept of biomimicry in structural engineering. The interdisciplinary study of biology and structural engineering is also discussed, along with methods for effective research and study of biomimicry-related topics. Also known as synthetic biology, biomimetics, and the study of bioinspired structures, biomimicry in structural engineering is an emerging field with a wide berth of possibilities. The purpose of this proposed curriculum is to determine a suitable curriculum of study in the pursuit of a research topic regarding biomimicry within the field of structural engineering. Four main manifestations of bioinspired structures are covered in this curriculum; the creation of new biomaterials for use in construction, the use or mimicking of biological processes to determine the properties of construction materials, the use or mimicking of biological processes or biomaterials to augment the properties of construction material, and the imitation of biology through the use of conventional construction materials. Microbiology, biochemistry, cell biology, molecular biology, and ecology are among the biology topics that are compared and integrated into the proposed structural engineering curriculum to produce a suitable specialization.

Keywords: bioinspired structures, biomimetics, biomimicry, materials science, structural engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
8320 Vibration Propagation in Structures Through Structural Intensity Analysis

Authors: Takhchi Jamal, Ouisse Morvan, Sadoulet-Reboul Emeline, Bouhaddi Noureddine, Gagliardini Laurent, Bornet Frederic, Lakrad Faouzi


Structural intensity is a technique that can be used to indicate both the magnitude and direction of power flow through a structure from the excitation source to the dissipation sink. However, current analysis is limited to the low frequency range. At medium and high frequencies, a rotational component appear in the field, masking the energy flow and make its understanding difficult or impossible. The objective of this work is to implement a methodology to filter out the rotational components of the structural intensity field in order to fully understand the energy flow in complex structures. The approach is based on the Helmholtz decomposition. It allows to decompose the structural intensity field into rotational, irrotational, and harmonic components. Only the irrotational component is needed to describe the net power flow from a source to a dissipative zone in the structure. The methodology has been applied on academic structures, and it allows a good analysis of the energy transfer paths.

Keywords: structural intensity, power flow, helmholt decomposition, irrotational intensity

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
8319 Investigating Elastica and Post Buckling Behavior Columns Using the Modified Newmark Method

Authors: Seyed Amin Vakili, Sahar Sadat Vakili, Seyed Ehsan Vakili, Nader Abdoli Yazdi


The purpose of this article is to analyze the finite displacement of Columns by applying the Modified Newmark Method. This research will be performed on Columns subjected to compressive axial load, therefore the non-linearity of the geometry is also considered. If the considered strut is perfect, the governing differential equation contains a branching point in the solution path. Investigation into the Elastica is a part of generalizing the developed method. It presents the ability of the Modified Newmark Method in treating non-linear differential equations Derived from elastic strut stability problems. These include not only an approximate polynomial solution for the Elastica problems, but can also recognize the branching point and the stable solution. However, this investigation deals with the post-buckling response of elastic and pin ended columns subjected to central or equally eccentric axial loads.

Keywords: columns, structural modeling, structures & structural stability, loads

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8318 Dissipation Capacity of Steel Building with Fiction Pendulum Base-Isolation System

Authors: A. Ras, I. Nait Zerrad, N. Benmouna, N. Boumechra


Use of base isolators in the seismic design of structures has attracted considerable attention in recent years. The major concern in the design of these structures is to have enough lateral stability to resist wind and seismic forces. There are different systems providing such isolation, among them there are friction- pendulum base isolation systems (FPS) which are rather widely applied nowadays involving to both affordable cost and high fundamental periods. These devices are characterised by a stiff resistance against wind loads and to be flexible to the seismic tremors, which make them suitable for different situations. In this paper, a 3D numerical investigation is done considering the seismic response of a twelve-storey steel building retrofitted with a FPS. Fast nonlinear time history analysis (FNA) of Boumerdes earthquake (Algeria, May 2003) is considered for analysis and carried out using SAP2000 software. Comparisons between fixed base, bearing base isolated and braced structures are shown in a tabulated and graphical format. The results of the various alternatives studies to compare the structural response without and with this device of dissipation energy thus obtained were discussed and the conclusions showed the interesting potential of the FPS isolator. This system may to improve the dissipative capacities of the structure without increasing its rigidity in a significant way which contributes to optimize the quantity of steel necessary for its general stability.

Keywords: energy dissipation, friction-pendulum system, nonlinear analysis, steel structure

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8317 Dwindling the Stability of DNA Sequence by Base Substitution at Intersection of COMT and MIR4761 Gene

Authors: Srishty Gulati, Anju Singh, Shrikant Kukreti


The manifestation of structural polymorphism in DNA depends on the sequence and surrounding environment. Ample of folded DNA structures have been found in the cellular system out of which DNA hairpins are very common, however, are indispensable due to their role in the replication initiation sites, recombination, transcription regulation, and protein recognition. We enumerate this approach in our study, where the two base substitutions and change in temperature embark destabilization of DNA structure and misbalance the equilibrium between two structures of a sequence present at the overlapping region of the human COMT gene and MIR4761 gene. COMT and MIR4761 gene encodes for catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzyme and microRNAs (miRNAs), respectively. Environmental changes and errors during cell division lead to genetic abnormalities. The COMT gene entailed in dopamine regulation fosters neurological diseases like Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, velocardiofacial syndrome, etc. A 19-mer deoxyoligonucleotide sequence 5'-AGGACAAGGTGTGCATGCC-3' (COMT19) is located at exon-4 on chromosome 22 and band q11.2 at the intersection of COMT and MIR4761 gene. Bioinformatics studies suggest that this sequence is conserved in humans and few other organisms and is involved in recognition of transcription factors in the vicinity of 3'-end. Non-denaturating gel electrophoresis and CD spectroscopy of COMT sequences indicate the formation of hairpin type DNA structures. Temperature-dependent CD studies revealed an unusual shift in the slipped DNA-Hairpin DNA equilibrium with the change in temperature. Also, UV-thermal melting techniques suggest that the two base substitutions on the complementary strand of COMT19 did not affect the structure but reduces the stability of duplex. This study gives insight about the possibility of existing structurally polymorphic transient states within DNA segments present at the intersection of COMT and MIR4761 gene.

Keywords: base-substitution, catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT), hairpin-DNA, structural polymorphism

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
8316 Experimental Investigation on the Fire Performance of Corrugated Sandwich Panels made from Renewable Material

Authors: Avishek Chanda, Nam Kyeun Kim, Debes Bhattacharyya


The use of renewable substitutes in various semi-structural and structural applications has experienced an increase since the last few decades. Sandwich panels have been used for many decades, although research on understanding the effects of the core structures on the panels’ fire-reaction properties is limited. The current work investigates the fire-performance of a corrugated sandwich panel made from renewable, biodegradable, and sustainable material, plywood. The bench-scale fire testing apparatus, cone-calorimeter, was employed to evaluate the required fire-reaction properties of the sandwich core in a panel configuration, with three corrugated layers glued together with face-sheets under a heat irradiance of 50 kW/m2. The study helped in documenting a unique heat release trend associated with the fire performance of the 3-layered corrugated sandwich panels and in understanding the structural stability of the samples in the event of a fire. Furthermore, the total peak heat release rate was observed to be around 421 kW/m2, which is significantly low compared to many polymeric materials in the literature. The total smoke production was also perceived to be very limited compared to other structural materials, and the total heat release was also nominal. The time to ignition of 21.7 s further outlined the advantages of using the plywood component since polymeric composites, even with flame-retardant additives, tend to ignite faster. Overall, the corrugated plywood sandwich panels had significant fire-reaction properties and could have important structural applications. The possible use of structural panels made from bio-degradable material opens a new avenue for the use of similar structures in sandwich panel preparation.

Keywords: corrugated sandwich panel, fire-reaction properties, plywood, renewable material

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
8315 Self-Weight Reduction of Tall Structures by Taper Cladding System

Authors: Divya Dharshini Omprakash, Anjali Subramani


Most of the tall structures are constructed using shear walls and tube systems in the recent decades. This makes the structure heavy and less resistant to lateral effects as the height of the structure goes up. This paper aims in the reduction of self-weight in tall structures by the use of Taper Cladding System (TCS) and also enumerates the construction techniques used in TCS. TCS has a tapering clad either fixed at the top or bottom of the structural core at the tapered end. This system eliminates the use of RC structural elements on the exterior of the structure and uses fewer columns only on the interior part to take up the gravity loads in order to reduce the self-weight of the structure. The self-weight reduction by TCS is 50% more compared to the present structural systems. The lateral loads on the hull will be taken care of by the tapered steel frame. Analysis were done to study the structural behaviour of taper cladded buildings subjected to lateral loads. TCS has a great impact in the construction of tall structures in seismic and dense urban areas. An effective construction management can be done by the use of Taper Cladding System. In this paper, sustainability, design considerations and implications of the system has also been discussed.

Keywords: Lateral Loads Resistance, reduction of self-weight, sustainable, taper clads

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
8314 Seismic Vulnerability Mitigation of Non-Engineered Buildings

Authors: Muhammad Tariq A. Chaudhary


The tremendous loss of life that resulted in the aftermath of recent earthquakes in developing countries is mostly due to the collapse of non-engineered and semi-engineered building structures. Such structures are used as houses, schools, primary healthcare centres and government offices. These building are classified structurally into two categories viz. non-engineered and semi-engineered. Non-engineered structures include: adobe, Unreinforced Masonry (URM) and wood buildings. Semi-engineered buildings are mostly low-rise (up to 3 story) light concrete frame structures or masonry bearing walls with reinforced concrete slab. This paper presents an overview of the typical damage observed in non-engineered structures and their most likely causes in the past earthquakes with specific emphasis on the performance of such structures in the 2005 Kashmir earthquake. It is demonstrated that seismic performance of these structures can be improved from life-safety viewpoint by adopting simple low-cost modifications to the existing construction practices. Incorporation of some of these practices in the reconstruction efforts after the 2005 Kashmir earthquake are examined in the last section for mitigating seismic risk hazard.

Keywords: Kashmir earthquake, non-engineered buildings, seismic hazard, structural details, structural strengthening

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
8313 Formex Algebra Adaptation into Parametric Design Tools: Dome Structures

Authors: Réka Sárközi, Péter Iványi, Attila B. Széll


The aim of this paper is to present the adaptation of the dome construction tool for formex algebra to the parametric design software Grasshopper. Formex algebra is a mathematical system, primarily used for planning structural systems such like truss-grid domes and vaults, together with the programming language Formian. The goal of the research is to allow architects to plan truss-grid structures easily with parametric design tools based on the versatile formex algebra mathematical system. To produce regular structures, coordinate system transformations are used and the dome structures are defined in spherical coordinate system. Owing to the abilities of the parametric design software, it is possible to apply further modifications on the structures and gain special forms. The paper covers the basic dome types, and also additional dome-based structures using special coordinate-system solutions based on spherical coordinate systems. It also contains additional structural possibilities like making double layer grids in all geometry forms. The adaptation of formex algebra and the parametric workflow of Grasshopper together give the possibility of quick and easy design and optimization of special truss-grid domes.

Keywords: parametric design, structural morphology, space structures, spherical coordinate system

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
8312 Analytical Formulae for Parameters Involved in Side Slopes of Embankments Stability

Authors: Abdulrahman Abdulrahman, Abir Abdulrahman


The stability of slopes of earthen embankments is usually examined by Swedish slip circle method or the slices method. The factor of safety against sliding using Fellenius procedure depends upon the angle formed by the arc of sliding at the center ψ and the radius of the slip circle r. The values of both mentioned parameters ψ and r aren't precisely predicted because they are measured from the drawing. In this paper, analytical formulae were derived for finding the exact values of both ψ and r. Also this paper presents the different conditions of intersections the slip circle with the body of an earthen dam and the coordinate of intersection points. Numerical examples are chosen for demonstration the proposed solution

Keywords: earthen dams stability, , earthen embankments stability, , Fellenius method, hydraulic structures, , side slopes stability, , slices method, Swedish slip circle

Procedia PDF Downloads 99
8311 Investigation of Flexural – Torsion Instability of Struts Using Modified Newmark Method

Authors: Seyed Amin Vakili, Sahar Sadat Vakili, Seyed Ehsan Vakili, Nader Abdoli Yazdi


Differential equations are of fundamental importance in engineering and applied mathematics, since many physical laws and relations appear mathematically in the form of such equations. The equilibrium state of structures consisting of one-dimensional elements can be described by an ordinary differential equation. The response of these kinds of structures under the loading, namely relationship between the displacement field and loading field, can be predicted by the solution of these differential equations and on satisfying the given boundary conditions. When the effect of change of geometry under loading is taken into account in modeling of equilibrium state, then these differential equations are partially integrable in quartered. They also exhibit instability characteristics when the structures are loaded compressively. The purpose of this paper is to represent the ability of the Modified Newmark Method in analyzing flexural-torsional instability of struts for both bifurcation and non-bifurcation structural systems. The results are shown to be very accurate with only a small number of iterations. The method is easily programmed, and has the advantages of simplicity and speeds of convergence and easily is extended to treat material and geometric nonlinearity including no prismatic members and linear and nonlinear spring restraints that would be encountered in frames. In this paper, these abilities of the method will be extended to the system of linear differential equations that govern strut flexural torsional stability.

Keywords: instability, torsion, flexural, buckling, modified newmark method stability

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8310 Dynamic Stability of a Wings for Drone Aircraft Subjected to Parametric Excitation

Authors: Iyd Eqqab Maree, Habil Jurgen Bast


Vibration control of machines and structures incorporating viscoelastic materials in suitable arrangement is an important aspect of investigation. The use of viscoelastic layers constrained between elastic layers is known to be effective for damping of flexural vibrations of structures over a wide range of frequencies. The energy dissipated in these arrangements is due to shear deformation in the viscoelastic layers, which occurs due to flexural vibration of the structures. Multilayered cantilever sandwich beam like structures can be used in aircrafts and other applications such as robot arms for effective vibration control. These members may experience parametric instability when subjected to time dependant forces. The theory of dynamic stability of elastic systems deals with the study of vibrations induced by pulsating loads that are parametric with respect to certain forms of deformation. The purpose of the present work is to investigate the dynamic stability of a three layered symmetric sandwich beam (Drone Aircraft wings ) subjected to an end periodic axial force . Equations of motion are derived using finite element method (MATLAB software). It is observed that with increase in core thickness parameter fundamental buckling load increases. The fundamental resonant frequency and second mode frequency parameter also increase with increase in core thickness parameter. Fundamental loss factor and second mode loss factor also increase with increase in core thickness parameter. Increase in core thickness parameter enhances the stability of the beam. With increase in core loss factor also the stability of the beam enhances. There is a very good agreement of the experimental results with the theoretical findings.

Keywords: steel cantilever beam, viscoelastic material core, loss factor, transition region, MATLAB R2011a

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