Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 878

Search results for: loads

878 Structural Behavior of Incomplete Box Girder Bridges Subjected to Unpredicted Loads

Authors: E. H. N. Gashti, J. Razzaghi, K. Kujala

Abstract:

In general, codes and regulations consider seismic loads only for completed structures of the bridges while, evaluation of incomplete structure of bridges, especially those constructed by free cantilever method, under these loads is also of great importance. Hence, this research tried to study the behavior of incomplete structure of common bridge type (box girder bridge), in construction phase under vertical seismic loads. Subsequently, the paper provided suitable guidelines and solutions to withstand this destructive phenomena. Research results proved that use of preventive methods can significantly reduce the stresses resulted from vertical seismic loads in box cross sections to an acceptable range recommended by design codes.

Keywords: box girder bridges, prestress loads, free cantilever method, seismic loads, construction phase

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
877 Effect of Wind Braces to Earthquake Resistance of Steel Structures

Authors: H. Gokdemir

Abstract:

All structures are subject to vertical and lateral loads. Under these loads, structures make deformations and deformation values of structural elements mustn't exceed their capacity for structural stability. Especially, lateral loads cause critical deformations because of their random directions and magnitudes. Wind load is one of the lateral loads which can act in any direction and any magnitude. Although wind has nearly no effect on reinforced concrete structures, it must be considered for steel structures, roof systems and slender structures like minarets. Therefore, every structure must be able to resist wind loads acting parallel and perpendicular to any side. One of the effective methods for resisting lateral loads is assembling cross steel elements between columns which are called as wind bracing. These cross elements increases lateral rigidity of a structure and prevent exceeding of deformation capacity of the structural system. So, this means cross elements are also effective in resisting earthquake loads too. In this paper; Effects of wind bracing to earthquake resistance of structures are studied. Structure models (with and without wind bracing) are generated and these models are solved under both earthquake and wind loads with different seismic zone parameters. It is concluded by the calculations that; in low-seismic risk zones, wind bracing can easily resist earthquake loads and no additional reinforcement for earthquake loads is necessary. Similarly; in high-seismic risk zones, earthquake cross elements resist wind loads too.

Keywords: wind bracings, earthquake, steel structures, vertical and lateral loads

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
876 Behaviour of Laterally Loaded Pile Groups in Cohesionless Soil

Authors: V. K. Arora, Suraj Prakash

Abstract:

Pile foundations are provided to transfer the vertical and horizontal loads of superstructures like high rise buildings, bridges, offshore structures etc. to the deep strata in the soil. These vertical and horizontal loads are due to the loads coming from the superstructure and wind, water thrust, earthquake, and earth pressure, respectively. In a pile foundation, piles are used in groups. Vertical piles in a group of piles are more efficient to take vertical loads as compared to horizontal loads and when the horizontal load per pile exceeds the bearing capacity of the vertical piles in that case batter piles are used with vertical piles because batter piles can take more lateral loads than vertical piles. In this paper, a model study was conducted on three vertical pile group with single positive and negative battered pile subjected to lateral loads. The batter angle for battered piles was ±35◦ with the vertical axis. Piles were spaced at 2.5d (d=diameter of pile) to each other. The soil used for model test was cohesionless soil. Lateral loads were applied in three stages on all the pile groups individually and it was found that under the repeated action of lateral loading, the deflection of the piles increased under the same loading. After comparing the results, it was found that the pile group with positive batter pile fails at 28 kgf and the pile group with negative batter pile fails at 24 kgf so it shows that positive battered piles are stronger than the negative battered piles.

Keywords: vertical piles, positive battered piles, negative battered piles, cohesionless soil, lateral loads, model test

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
875 Kernel Parallelization Equation for Identifying Structures under Unknown and Periodic Loads

Authors: Seyed Sadegh Naseralavi

Abstract:

This paper presents a Kernel parallelization equation for damage identification in structures under unknown periodic excitations. Herein, the dynamic differential equation of the motion of structure is viewed as a mapping from displacements to external forces. Utilizing this viewpoint, a new method for damage detection in structures under periodic loads is presented. The developed method requires only two periods of load. The method detects the damages without finding the input loads. The method is based on the fact that structural displacements under free and forced vibrations are associated with two parallel subspaces in the displacement space. Considering the concept, kernel parallelization equation (KPE) is derived for damage detection under unknown periodic loads. The method is verified for a case study under periodic loads.

Keywords: Kernel, unknown periodic load, damage detection, Kernel parallelization equation

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
874 Modeling of Wind Loads on Heliostats Installed in South Algeria of Various Pylon Height

Authors: Hakim Merarda, Mounir Aksas, Toufik Arrif, Abd Elfateh Belaid, Amor Gama, Reski Khelifi

Abstract:

Knowledge of wind loads is important to develop a heliostat with good performance. These loads can be calculated by mathematical equations based on several parameters: the density, wind velocity, the aspect ratio of the mirror (height/width) and the coefficient of the height of the tower. Measurement data of the wind velocity and the density of the air are used in a numerical simulation of wind profile that was performed on heliostats with different pylon heights, with 1m^2 mirror areas and with aspect ratio of mirror equal to 1. These measurement data are taken from the meteorological station installed in Ghardaia, Algeria. The main aim of this work is to find a mathematical correlation between the wind loads and the height of the tower.

Keywords: heliostat, solar tower power, wind loads simulation, South Algeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 459
873 Stress Analysis of Laminated Cylinders Subject to the Thermomechanical Loads

Authors: Şafak Aksoy, Ali Kurşun, Erhan Çetin, Mustafa Reşit Haboğlu

Abstract:

In this study, thermo elastic stress analysis is performed on a cylinder made of laminated isotropic materials under thermomechanical loads. Laminated cylinders have many applications such as aerospace, automotive and nuclear plant in the industry. These cylinders generally performed under thermomechanical loads. Stress and displacement distribution of the laminated cylinders are determined using by analytical method both thermal and mechanical loads. Based on the results, materials combination plays an important role on the stresses distribution along the radius. Variation of the stresses and displacements along the radius are presented as graphs. Calculations program are prepared using MATLAB® by authors.

Keywords: isotropic materials, laminated cylinders, thermoelastic stress, thermomechanical load

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
872 Topping Failure Analysis of Anti-Dip Bedding Rock Slopes Subjected to Crest Loads

Authors: Chaoyi Sun, Congxin Chen, Yun Zheng, Kaizong Xia, Wei Zhang

Abstract:

Crest loads are often encountered in hydropower, highway, open-pit and other engineering rock slopes. Toppling failure is one of the most common deformation failure types of anti-dip bedding rock slopes. Analysis on such failure of anti-dip bedding rock slopes subjected to crest loads has an important influence on engineering practice. Based on the step-by-step analysis approach proposed by Goodman and Bray, a geo-mechanical model was developed, and the related analysis approach was proposed for the toppling failure of anti-dip bedding rock slopes subjected to crest loads. Using the transfer coefficient method, a formulation was derived for calculating the residual thrust of slope toe and the support force required to meet the requirements of the slope stability under crest loads, which provided a scientific reference to design and support for such slopes. Through slope examples, the influence of crest loads on the residual thrust and sliding ratio coefficient was investigated for cases of different block widths and slope cut angles. The results show that there exists a critical block width for such slope. The influence of crest loads on the residual thrust is non-negligible when the block thickness is smaller than the critical value. Moreover, the influence of crest loads on the slope stability increases with the slope cut angle and the sliding ratio coefficient of anti-dip bedding rock slopes increases with the crest loads. Finally, the theoretical solutions and numerical simulations using Universal Distinct Element Code (UDEC) were compared, in which the consistent results show the applicability of both approaches.

Keywords: anti-dip bedding rock slope, crest loads, stability analysis, toppling failure

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
871 Alternative Method of Determining Seismic Loads on Buildings Without Response Spectrum Application

Authors: Razmik Atabekyan, V. Atabekyan

Abstract:

This article discusses a new alternative method for determination of seismic loads on buildings, based on resistance of structures to deformations of vibrations. The basic principles for determining seismic loads by spectral method were developed in 40… 50ies of the last century and further have been improved to pursuit true assessments of seismic effects. The base of the existing methods to determine seismic loads is response spectrum or dynamicity coefficient β (norms of RF), which are not definitively established. To this day there is no single, universal method for the determination of seismic loads and when trying to apply the norms of different countries, significant discrepancies between the results are obtained. On the other hand there is a contradiction of the results of macro seismic surveys of strong earthquakes with the principle of the calculation based on accelerations. It is well-known, on soft soils there is an increase of destructions (mainly due to large displacements), even though the accelerations decreases. Obviously, the seismic impacts are transmitted to the building through foundation, but paradoxically, the existing methods do not even include foundation data. Meanwhile acceleration of foundation of the building can differ several times from the acceleration of the ground. During earthquakes each building has its own peculiarities of behavior, depending on the interaction between the soil and the foundations, their dynamic characteristics and many other factors. In this paper we consider a new, alternative method of determining the seismic loads on buildings, without the use of response spectrum. The following main conclusions: 1) Seismic loads are revealed at the foundation level, which leads to redistribution and reduction of seismic loads on structures. 2) The proposed method is universal and allows determine the seismic loads without the use of response spectrum and any implicit coefficients. 3) The possibility of taking into account important factors such as the strength characteristics of the soils, the size of the foundation, the angle of incidence of the seismic ray and others. 4) Existing methods can adequately determine the seismic loads on buildings only for first form of vibrations, at an average soil conditions.

Keywords: seismic loads, response spectrum, dynamic characteristics of buildings, momentum

Procedia PDF Downloads 429
870 Effect of Blast Loads on the Seismically Designed Reinforced Concrete Buildings

Authors: Jhuma Debnath, Hrishikesh Sharma

Abstract:

The work done here in this paper is dedicated to studying the effect of high blast explosives over the seismically designed buildings. Buildings are seismically designed in SAP 2000 software to simulate seismic designs of buildings using response spectrum method. Later these buildings have been studied applying blast loads with the same amount of the blast explosives. This involved varying the standoff distances of the buildings from the blast explosion. The study found out that, for a seismically designed building, the minimum standoff distance is to be at least 120m from the place of explosion for an average blast explosive weight of 20kg TNT. This has shown that the building does not fail due to this huge explosive weight of TNT but resists immediate collapse of the building. The results also show that the adverse effect of the column failure due to blasting is reduced to 73.75% from 22.5% due to the increase of the standoff distance from the blast loads. The maximum affected locations due to the blast loads are also detected in this study.

Keywords: blast loads, seismically designed buildings, standoff distance, reinforced concrete buildings

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
869 Elastic Stress Analysis of Annular Bi-Material Discs with Variable Thickness under Mechanical and Thermomechanical Loads

Authors: Erhan Çetin, Ali Kurşun, Şafak Aksoy, Merve Tunay Çetin

Abstract:

The closed form study deal with elastic stress analysis of annular bi-material discs with variable thickness subjected to the mechanical and termomechanical loads. Those discs have many applications in the aerospace industry, such as gas turbines and gears. Those discs normally work under thermal and mechanical loads. Their life cycle can increase when stress components are minimized. Each material property is assumed to be isotropic. The results show that material combinations and thickness profiles play an important role in determining the responses of bi-material discs and an optimal design of those structures. Stress distribution is investigated and results are shown as graphs.

Keywords: bi-material discs, elastic stress analysis, mechanical loads, rotating discs

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
868 Wear Behavior of Commercial Aluminium Engine Block and Piston under Dry Sliding Condition

Authors: Md. Salim Kaiser

Abstract:

In the present work, the effect of load and sliding distance on the performance tribology of commercially used aluminium-silicon engine block and piston was evaluated at ambient conditions with humidity of 80% under dry sliding conditions using a pin-on-disc with two different loads of 5N and 20N yielding applied pressure of 0.30MPa and 1.4MPa, respectively, at sliding velocity of 0.29ms-1 and with varying sliding distance ranging from 260m-4200m. Factors and conditions that had significant effect were identified. The results showed that the load and the sliding distance affect the wear rate of the alloys and the wear rate increased with increasing load for both the alloys. Wear rate also increases almost linearly at low loads and increase to a maximum then attain a plateau with increasing sliding distance. For both applied loads, the piston alloy showed the better performance due to higher Ni and Mg content. The worn surface and wear debris was characterized by optical microscope, SEM and EDX analyzer. The worn surface was characterized by surface with shallow grooves at loads while the groove width and depth increased as the loads increases. Oxidative wear was found to be the predominant mechanisms in the dry sliding of Al-Si alloys at low loads

Keywords: wear, friction, gravimetric analysis, aluminium-silicon alloys, SEM, EDX

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
867 Investigating Re-Use a Historical Masonry Arch Bridge

Authors: H. A. Erdogan

Abstract:

Historical masonry arch bridges built centuries ago have fulfilled their function until recent decades. However, from the beginning of 20th century, these bridges have remained inadequate as a result of increasing speed, size and capacity of the means of transport. Although new bridges have been built in many places, masonry bridges located within the city limits still need to be used. When the size and transportation loads of modern vehicles are taken into account, it is apparent that historical masonry arch bridges would be exposed to greater loads than their initial design loads. Because of that, many precautions taken either remain insufficient or damage these bridges. In this study, the history of Debbaglar Bridge, one of the historic bridges located in the city center of Aksaray/Turkey is presented and its existing condition is evaluated. Structural analysis of the bridge under present conditions and loads is explained. Moreover, the retrofit and restoration application prepared considering the analysis data is described.

Keywords: adaptive re-use, Aksaray debbaglar bridge, masonry bridge, reconstruction

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
866 Structural Assessment of Low-Rise Reinforced Concrete Frames under Tsunami Loads

Authors: Hussain Jiffry, Kypros Pilakoutas, Reyes Garcia Lopez

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This study examines the effect of tsunami loads on reinforced concrete (RC) frame buildings analytically. The impact of tsunami wave loads and waterborne objects are analyzed using a typical substandard full-scale two-story RC frame building tested as part of the EU-funded Ecoleader project. The building was subjected to shake table tests in bare condition and subsequently strengthened using Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) composites and retested. Numerical models of the building in both bare and CFRP-strengthened conditions are calibrated in DRAIN-3DX software to match the test results. To investigate the response of wave loads and impact forces, the numerical models are subjected to nonlinear dynamic analyses using force-time history input records. The analytical results are compared in terms of displacements at the floors and the 'impact point' of a boat. The results show that the roof displacement of the CFRP-strengthened building reduced by 63% when compared to the bare building. The results also indicate that strengthening only the mid-height of the impact column using CFRP is more efficient at reducing damage when compared to strengthening other parts of the column. Alternative solutions to mitigate damage due to tsunami loads are suggested.

Keywords: tsunami loads, hydrodynamic load, impact load, waterborne objects, RC buildings

Procedia PDF Downloads 395
865 Effects of Axial Loads and Soil Density on Pile Group Subjected to Triangular Soil Movement

Authors: Ihsan Al-Abboodi, Tahsin Toma-Sabbagh

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Laboratory tests have been carried out to investigate the response of 2x2 pile group subjected to triangular soil movement. The pile group was instrumented with displacement and tilting devices at the pile cap and strain gauges on two piles of the group. In this paper, results from four model tests were presented to study the effects of axial loads and soil density on the lateral behavior of piles. The responses in terms of bending moment, shear force, soil pressure, deflection, and rotation of piles were compared. Test results indicate that increasing the soil strength could increase the measured moment, shear, soil pressure, and pile deformations. Most importantly, adding loads to the pile cap induces additional moment to the head of front-pile row unlike the back-pile row which was influenced insignificantly.

Keywords: pile group, passive piles, lateral soil movement, soil density, axial loads

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
864 Enhanced Flight Dynamics Model to Simulate the Aircraft Response to Gust Encounters

Authors: Castells Pau, Poetsch Christophe

Abstract:

The effect of gust and turbulence encounters on aircraft is a wide field of study which allows different approaches, from high-fidelity multidisciplinary simulations to more simplified models adapted to industrial applications. The typical main goal is to predict the gust loads on the aircraft in order to ensure a safe design and achieve certification. Another topic widely studied is the gust loads reduction through an active control law. The impact of gusts on aircraft handling qualities is of interest as well in the analysis of in-service events so as to evaluate the aircraft response and the performance of the flight control laws. Traditionally, gust loads and handling qualities are addressed separately with different models adapted to the specific needs of each discipline. In this paper, an assessment of the differences between both models is presented and a strategy to better account for the physics of gust encounters in a typical flight dynamics model is proposed based on the model used for gust loads analysis. The applied corrections aim to capture the gust unsteady aerodynamics and propagation as well as the effect of dynamic flexibility at low frequencies. Results from the gust loads model at different flight conditions and measures from real events are used for validation. An assessment of a possible extension of steady aerodynamic nonlinearities to low frequency range is also addressed. The proposed corrections provide meaningful means to evaluate the performance and possible adjustments of the flight control laws.

Keywords: flight dynamics, gust loads, handling qualities, unsteady aerodynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
863 Review Paper on Structural Behaviour of Industrial Pallet Rack with Braced and Unbraced Frames

Authors: Sourabh R. Dinde, Rajshekar S. Talikoti

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According to the structural point of view Industrial Pallet rack structure can be considered typical steel framed structure. This work presents a general analysis of an industrial pallet rack structure, evaluating the influence of each of the components on the global stability. An analytical study for the sensitivity of pallet rack configuration in linear static equivalent lateral loads. The aim is to braced/unbraced frames were design and their analytical models are to be built in software. The finite element analysis is used to determine axial forces in beam and column, maximum storey displacement and buckling loads on braced/unbraced pallet rack structure. Bracing systems are mostly provided to enhance the stiffness factor of the structures with the seismic loads. Unbraced systems have mostly translational modes of failure and are very flexible due to excessive loads.

Keywords: buckling capacity, cold formed steel, finite element analysis, pallets Rrack, seismic design

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
862 Evaluation of Soil Modulus Variation by IS 2911 and Broms Method

Authors: Mandeep Kamboj, Anand R. Katti

Abstract:

The pile of 2.4 m diameter is subjected to lateral loads and moments. These lateral loads are caused due to wind/wave forces when used in foundations of various structures such as bridge piers and high rise towers exhibiting deflections with depth. The research scientist and developer has studied and developed various procedures to evaluate the coefficient of soil modulus variation (nh), using various methods. These are verified for slender piles in sand with various diameters up to 2.4 m. The subject explains about simplified approach of the theoretical values using IS procedure and Broms method and compared with actual field soil pressure/displacement distributions measured in mono-pile along its length and across the diameter.

Keywords: bridge pier, lateral loads, mono-pile, slender piles

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
861 Structural Analysis and Detail Design of APV Module Structure Using Topology Optimization Design

Authors: Hyun Kyu Cho, Jun Soo Kim, Young Hoon Lee, Sang Hoon Kang, Young Chul Park

Abstract:

In the study, structure for one of offshore drilling system APV(Air Pressure Vessle) modules was designed by using topology optimum design and performed structural safety evaluation according to DNV rules. 3D model created base on design area and non-design area separated by using topology optimization for the environmental loads. This model separated 17 types for wind loads and dynamic loads and performed structural analysis evaluation for each model. As a result, the maximum stress occurred 181.25MPa.

Keywords: APV, topology optimum design, DNV, structural analysis, stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
860 Effects of Blast Load on Historic Stone Masonry Buildings in Canada: A Review and Analytical Study

Authors: Abass Braimah, Maha Hussein Abdallah

Abstract:

The global ascendancy of terrorist attacks on building infrastructure with economic and heritage significance has increased awareness of the possibility of terrorism in Canada. Many structures in Canada that are at risk of terrorist attacks include government buildings, built many years ago of historic stone masonry construction. Although many researchers are investigating ways to retrofit masonry stone buildings to mitigate the effect of blast loadings, lack of knowledge on the dynamic behavior of historic stone masonry structures under blast loads makes it difficult to ascertain the effectiveness of the retrofitting techniques. This paper presents a review of open-source literature for the experimental and numerical stone masonry structures under blast loads. This review yielded very little information of the response of the historic stone masonry structures under blast loads. Thus, a comprehensive study is needed to understand the blast load effects on historic stone masonry buildings. The out-of-plane response of historic masonry structures to blast loads is investigated by using single-degree-of-freedom analysis. This approach presents equations that can be used effectively in the analysis of historic masonry walls to out-of-plane blast loading.

Keywords: blast loads, historical buildings, masonry structure, single-degree-of-freedom analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
859 Pullout Capacity of Hybrid Anchor Piles

Authors: P. Hari Krishna, V. Ramana Murty

Abstract:

Different types of foundations are subjected to pullout or tensile loads depending on the soil in which they are embedded or due to the structural loads coming on them. In those circumstances, anchors were generally used to resist these loads. This paper presents the field pullout studies on hybrid anchor piles embedded in different types of soils. The pullout capacity and resistance of the hybrid granular anchor piles installed in the native expansive soil which is available in the campus are compared with similar hybrid concrete anchor piles which were installed in similar field conditions.

Keywords: expansive soil, hybrid concrete anchor piles, hybrid granular anchor piles, pullout tests

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
858 Earthquakes and Buildings: Lesson Learnt from Past Earthquakes in Turkey

Authors: Yavuz Yardım

Abstract:

The most important criteria for structural engineering is the structure’s ability to carry intended loads safely. The key element of this ability is mathematical modeling of really loadings situation into a simple loads input to use in structure analysis and design. Amongst many different types of loads, the most challenging load is earthquake load. It is possible magnitude is unclear and timing is unknown. Therefore the concept of intended loads and safety have been built on experience of previous earthquake impact on the structures. Understanding and developing these concepts is achieved by investigating performance of the structures after real earthquakes. Damage after an earthquake provide results of thousands of full-scale structure test under a real seismic load. Thus, Earthquakes reveille all the weakness, mistakes and deficiencies of analysis, design rules and practice. This study deals with lesson learnt from earthquake recoded last two decades in Turkey. Results of investigation after several earthquakes exposes many deficiencies in structural detailing, inappropriate design, wrong architecture layout, and mainly mistake in construction practice.

Keywords: earthquake, seismic assessment, RC buildings, building performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
857 Self-Weight Reduction of Tall Structures by Taper Cladding System

Authors: Divya Dharshini Omprakash, Anjali Subramani

Abstract:

Most of the tall structures are constructed using shear walls and tube systems in the recent decades. This makes the structure heavy and less resistant to lateral effects as the height of the structure goes up. This paper aims in the reduction of self-weight in tall structures by the use of Taper Cladding System (TCS) and also enumerates the construction techniques used in TCS. TCS has a tapering clad either fixed at the top or bottom of the structural core at the tapered end. This system eliminates the use of RC structural elements on the exterior of the structure and uses fewer columns only on the interior part to take up the gravity loads in order to reduce the self-weight of the structure. The self-weight reduction by TCS is 50% more compared to the present structural systems. The lateral loads on the hull will be taken care of by the tapered steel frame. Analysis were done to study the structural behaviour of taper cladded buildings subjected to lateral loads. TCS has a great impact in the construction of tall structures in seismic and dense urban areas. An effective construction management can be done by the use of Taper Cladding System. In this paper, sustainability, design considerations and implications of the system has also been discussed.

Keywords: Lateral Loads Resistance, reduction of self-weight, sustainable, taper clads

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
856 Frictional Behavior of Glass Epoxy and Aluminium Particulate Glass Epoxy Composites Sliding against Smooth Stainless Steel Counterface

Authors: Pujan Sarkar

Abstract:

Frictional behavior of glass epoxy and Al particulate glass-epoxy composites sliding against mild steel are investigated experimentally at normal atmospheric condition. Glass epoxy (0 wt% Al) and 5, 10 and 15 wt% Al particulate filled glass-epoxy composites are fabricated in conventional hand lay-up technique followed by light compression moulding process. A pin on disc type friction apparatus is used under dry sliding conditions. Experiments are carried out at a normal load of 5-50 N, and sliding speeds of 0.5-5.0 m/s for a fixed duration. Variations of friction coefficient with sliding time at different loads and speeds for all the samples are considered. Results show that the friction coefficient is influenced by sliding time, normal loads, sliding speeds, and wt% of Al content. In general, with respect to time, friction coefficient increases initially with a lot of fluctuations for a certain duration. After that, it becomes stable for the rest of the experimental time. With the increase of normal load, friction coefficient decreases at all speed levels and for all the samples whereas, friction coefficient increases with the increase of sliding speed at all normal loads for glass epoxy and 5 wt% Al content glass-epoxy composites. But for 10 and 15 wt%, Al content composites at all loads, reverse trend of friction coefficient has been recorded. Under different tribological conditions, the suitability of composites in respect of wt% of Al content is noted, and 5 wt% Al content glass-epoxy composite reports as the lowest frictional material at all loads compared to other samples.

Keywords: Al powder, composite, epoxy, friction, glass fiber

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
855 Modeling and Simulation of Ship Structures Using Finite Element Method

Authors: Javid Iqbal, Zhu Shifan

Abstract:

The development in the construction of unconventional ships and the implementation of lightweight materials have shown a large impulse towards finite element (FE) method, making it a general tool for ship design. This paper briefly presents the modeling and analysis techniques of ship structures using FE method for complex boundary conditions which are difficult to analyze by existing Ship Classification Societies rules. During operation, all ships experience complex loading conditions. These loads are general categories into thermal loads, linear static, dynamic and non-linear loads. General strength of the ship structure is analyzed using static FE analysis. FE method is also suitable to consider the local loads generated by ballast tanks and cargo in addition to hydrostatic and hydrodynamic loads. Vibration analysis of a ship structure and its components can be performed using FE method which helps in obtaining the dynamic stability of the ship. FE method has developed better techniques for calculation of natural frequencies and different mode shapes of ship structure to avoid resonance both globally and locally. There is a lot of development towards the ideal design in ship industry over the past few years for solving complex engineering problems by employing the data stored in the FE model. This paper provides an overview of ship modeling methodology for FE analysis and its general application. Historical background, the basic concept of FE, advantages, and disadvantages of FE analysis are also reported along with examples related to hull strength and structural components.

Keywords: dynamic analysis, finite element methods, ship structure, vibration analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
854 Structural Performance of Prefabricated Concrete and Reinforced Concrete Structural Walls under Blast Loads

Authors: S. Kamil Akin, Turgut Acikara

Abstract:

In recent years the world and our country has experienced several explosion events occurred due to terrorist attacks and accidents. In these explosion events many people have lost their lives and many buildings have been damaged. If structures were designed taking the blast loads into account, these results may not have happened or the casualties would have been less. In this thesis analysis of the protection walls have been conducted to prevent the building damage from blast loads. These analyzes was carried out for two different types of wall, concrete and reinforced concrete. Analyses were carried out on four different thicknesses of each wall element. In each wall element the stresses and displacements of the exposed surface due to the detonation charge has been calculated. The limit shear stress and displacement of the wall element according to their material properties has been taken into account. As the result of the analyses the standoff distances and TNT equivalent amount has been determined. According to equivalent TNT amounts and standoff distances the structural response of the protective wall elements has been observed. These structural responses have been observed by ABAQUS finite element package. Explosion loads were brought into effect to the protective wall element models by using the ABAQUS / CONWEP.

Keywords: blast loading, blast wave, TNT equivalent method, CONWEP, finite element analysis, detonation

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
853 Strengthening of Concrete Slabs with Steel Beams

Authors: Mizam Doğan

Abstract:

In service life; structures can be damaged if they are subjected to dead and live loads which are greater than design values. For preventing this case; possible loads must be correctly calculated, structure must be designed according to determined loads, and structure must not be used out of its function. If loading case of the structure changes when its function changes; it must be reinforced for continuing it is new function. Reinforcement is a process that is made by increasing the existing strengths of structural system elements of the structure as reinforced concrete walls, beams, and slabs. Reinforcement can be done by casting reinforced concrete, placing steel and fiber structural elements. In this paper, reinforcing of columns and slabs of a structure of which function is changed is studied step by step. This reinforcement is made for increasing vertical and lateral load carrying capacity of the building. Not for repairing damaged structural system.

Keywords: strengthening, RC slabs, seismic load, steel beam, structural irregularity

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
852 Investigate and Solving Analytically at Vibrational structures (In Arched Beam to Bridges) by New Method “AGM”

Authors: M. R. Akbari, P. Soleimani, R. Khalili, Sara Akbari

Abstract:

Analyzing and modeling the vibrational behavior of arched bridges during the earthquake in order to decrease the exerted damages to the structure is a very hard task to do. This item has been done analytically in the present paper for the first time. Due to the importance of building arched bridges as a great structure in the human being civilization and its specifications such as transferring vertical loads to its arcs and the lack of bending moments and shearing forces, this case study is devoted to this special issue. Here, the nonlinear vibration of arched bridges has been modeled and simulated by an arched beam with harmonic vertical loads and its behavior has been investigated by analyzing a nonlinear partial differential equation governing the system. It is notable that the procedure has been done analytically by AGM (Akbari, Ganji Method). Furthermore, comparisons have been made between the obtained results by numerical Method (rkf-45) and AGM in order to assess the scientific validity.

Keywords: new method (AGM), arched beam bridges, angular frequency, harmonic loads

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
851 Modeling and Numerical Simulation of Heat Transfer and Internal Loads at Insulating Glass Units

Authors: Nina Penkova, Kalin Krumov, Liliana Zashcova, Ivan Kassabov

Abstract:

The insulating glass units (IGU) are widely used in the advanced and renovated buildings in order to reduce the energy for heating and cooling. Rules for the choice of IGU to ensure energy efficiency and thermal comfort in the indoor space are well known. The existing of internal loads - gage or vacuum pressure in the hermetized gas space, requires additional attention at the design of the facades. The internal loads appear at variations of the altitude, meteorological pressure and gas temperature according to the same at the process of sealing. The gas temperature depends on the presence of coatings, coating position in the transparent multi-layer system, IGU geometry and space orientation, its fixing on the facades and varies with the climate conditions. An algorithm for modeling and numerical simulation of thermal fields and internal pressure in the gas cavity at insulating glass units as function of the meteorological conditions is developed. It includes models of the radiation heat transfer in solar and infrared wave length, indoor and outdoor convection heat transfer and free convection in the hermetized gas space, assuming the gas as compressible. The algorithm allows prediction of temperature and pressure stratification in the gas domain of the IGU at different fixing system. The models are validated by comparison of the numerical results with experimental data obtained by Hot-box testing. Numerical calculations and estimation of 3D temperature, fluid flow fields, thermal performances and internal loads at IGU in window system are implemented.

Keywords: insulating glass units, thermal loads, internal pressure, CFD analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
850 Assessment and Optimisation of Building Services Electrical Loads for Off-Grid or Hybrid Operation

Authors: Desmond Young

Abstract:

In building services electrical design, a key element of any project will be assessing the electrical load requirements. This needs to be done early in the design process to allow the selection of infrastructure that would be required to meet the electrical needs of the type of building. The type of building will define the type of assessment made, and the values applied in defining the maximum demand for the building, and ultimately the size of supply or infrastructure required, and the application that needs to be made to the distribution network operator, or alternatively to an independent network operator. The fact that this assessment needs to be undertaken early in the design process provides limits on the type of assessment that can be used, as different methods require different types of information, and sometimes this information is not available until the latter stages of a project. A common method applied in the earlier design stages of a project, typically during stages 1,2 & 3, is the use of benchmarks. It is a possibility that some of the benchmarks applied are excessive in relation to the current loads that exist in a modern installation. This lack of accuracy is based on information which does not correspond to the actual equipment loads that are used. This includes lighting and small power loads, where the use of more efficient equipment and lighting has reduced the maximum demand required. The electrical load can be used as part of the process to assess the heat generated from the equipment, with the heat gains from other sources, this feeds into the sizing of the infrastructure required to cool the building. Any overestimation of the loads would contribute to the increase in the design load for the heating and ventilation systems. Finally, with the new policies driving the industry to decarbonise buildings, a prime example being the recently introduced London Plan, loads are potentially going to increase. In addition, with the advent of the pandemic and changes to working practices, and the adoption of electric heating and vehicles, a better understanding of the loads that should be applied will aid in ensuring that infrastructure is not oversized, as a cost to the client, or undersized to the detriment of the building. In addition, more accurate benchmarks and methods will allow assessments to be made for the incorporation of energy storage and renewable technologies as these technologies become more common in buildings new or refurbished.

Keywords: energy, ADMD, electrical load assessment, energy benchmarks

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849 The Role of the Elastic Foundation Having Nonlinear Stiffness Properties in the Vibration of Structures

Authors: E. Feulefack Songong, A. Zingoni

Abstract:

A vibration is a mechanical phenomenon whereby oscillations occur about an equilibrium point. Although vibrations can be linear or nonlinear depending on the basic components of the system, the interest is mostly pointed towards nonlinear vibrations. This is because most structures around us are to some extent nonlinear and also because we need more accurate values in an analysis. The goal of this research is the integration of nonlinearities in the development and validation of structural models and to ameliorate the resistance of structures when subjected to loads. Although there exist many types of nonlinearities, this thesis will mostly focus on the vibration of free and undamped systems incorporating nonlinearity due to stiffness. Nonlinear stiffness has been a concern to many engineers in general and Civil engineers in particular because it is an important factor that can bring a good modification and amelioration to the response of structures when subjected to loads. The analysis of systems will be done analytically and then numerically to validate the analytical results. We will first show the benefit and importance of stiffness nonlinearity when it is implemented in the structure. Secondly, We will show how its integration in the structure can improve not only the structure’s performance but also its response when subjected to loads. The results of this study will be valuable to practicing engineers as well as industry practitioners in developing better designs and tools for their structures and mechanical devices. They will also serve to engineers to design lighter and stronger structures and to give good predictions as for the behavior of structures when subjected to external loads.

Keywords: elastic foundation, nonlinear, plates, stiffness, structures, vibration

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