Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3521

Search results for: land degradation vulnerability

3521 Land Degradation Vulnerability Modeling: A Study on Selected Micro Watersheds of West Khasi Hills Meghalaya, India

Authors: Amritee Bora, B. S Mipun


Land degradation is often used to describe the land environmental phenomena that reduce land’s original productivity both qualitatively and quantitatively. The study of land degradation vulnerability primarily deals with “Environmentally Sensitive Areas” (ESA) and the amount of topsoil loss due to erosion. In many studies, it is observed that the assessment of the existing status of land degradation is used to represent the vulnerability. Moreover, it is also noticed that in most studies, the primary emphasis of land degradation vulnerability is to assess its sensitivity to soil erosion only. However, the concept of land degradation vulnerability can have different objectives depending upon the perspective of the study. It shows the extent to which changes upon land use land cover can imprint their effect on the land. In other words, it represents the susceptibility of a piece of land to degrade its productive quality permanently or for the long run. It is also important to mention that the vulnerability of land degradation is not a single factor outcome. It is a probability assessment to evaluate the status of land degradation, needs to consider both biophysical and human induce parameters. To avoid the complexity of the previous models in this regard, the present study has emphasized on to generate a simplified model to assess the land degradation vulnerability in terms of its current human population pressure, land use practices, and existing biophysical conditions. It is a “Mixed-Method” termed as land degradation vulnerability index (LDVi). It is originally inspired by the MEDALUS model (Mediterranean Desertification and Land use), 1999, and Farazadeh’s 2007 revised version of it. It has followed the guidelines of Space Application Center, Ahmadabad/Indian Space Research Organization for land degradation vulnerability. The model integrates climatic index (Ci), vegetation covers index (Vi), erosion index (Ei), Land utilization value index (Li), population pressure index (Pi), and cover management index (CMi) by giving equal weightage to each parameter. The final result shows that the very high vulnerable zone primarily indicates three (3) prominent circumstances; land under continuous population pressure, high concentration of human settlement, and high amount of topsoil loss due to surface runoff within the study sites. As all the parameters of the model are amalgamated with equal weightage further with the help of regression analysis, the LDVi model also provides a strong grasp upon each parameter and how far they are competent to trigger the process of land degradation.

Keywords: population pressure, land utilization, land degradation vulnerability, soil erosion

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3520 A GIS Based Composite Land Degradation Assessment and Mapping of Tarkwa Mining Area

Authors: Bernard Kumi-Boateng, Kofi Bonsu


The clearing of vegetation in the Tarkwa Mining Area (TMA) for the purposes of mining, lumbering and development of settlement for the increasing population has caused a large scale denudation of the forest cover and erosion of the top soil thereby degrading the agriculture land. It is, therefore, essential to know the current status of land degradation in TMA so as to facilitate land conservation policy-making. The types of degradation, the extents of the degradations and their various degrees were combined to develop a composite land degradation index to assess the current status of land degradation in TMA using GIS based techniques. The assessment revealed that the most significant types of degradation in TMA were open pit and quarry mining; urbanisation and other construction projects; and surface scraping during land clearing. It was found that 21.62 % of the total area of TMA (353.07 km2) had high degradation index rating. It is recommended that decision makers use this assessment as a reference point for future initiatives that will be taken in order to develop land conservation policy.

Keywords: degradation, GIS, land, mining

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3519 Drivers of Land Degradation in Trays Ecosystem as Modulated under a Changing Climate: Case Study of Cote D’Ivoire

Authors: Kadio Valere R. Angaman, Birahim Bouna Niang


Land degradation is a serious problem in developing countries, including Cote d’Ivoire, which has its economy focused on agriculture. It occurs in all kinds of ecosystems over the world. However, the drivers of land degradation vary from one region to another and from one ecosystem to another. Thus, identifying these drivers is an essential prerequisite to developing and implementing appropriate policies to reverse the trend of land degradation in the country, especially in the trays ecosystem. Using the binary logistic model with primary data obtained through 780 farmers surveyed, we analyze and identify the drivers of land degradation in the trays ecosystem. The descriptive statistics show that 52% of farmers interviewed have stated facing land degradation in their farmland. This high rate shows the extent of land degradation in this ecosystem. Also, the results obtained from the binary logit regression reveal that land degradation is significantly influenced by a set of variables such as sex, education, slope, erosion, pesticide, agricultural activity, deforestation, and temperature. The drivers identified are mostly local; as a result, the government must implement some policies and strategies that facilitate and incentive the adoption of sustainable land management practices by farmers to reverse the negative trend of land degradation.

Keywords: drivers, land degradation, trays ecosystem, sustainable land management

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3518 Change Detection and Analysis of Desertification Processes in Semi Arid Land in Algeria Using Landsat Data

Authors: Zegrar Ahmed, Ghabi Mohamed


The degradation of arid and semi-arid ecosystems in Algeria has become a palpable fact that only hinders progress and rural development. In these exceptionally fragile environments, the decline of vegetation is done according to an alarming increase and wind erosion dominates. The ecosystem is subjected to a long hot dry season and low annual average rainfall. The urgency of the fight against desertification is imposed by the very nature of the process that tends to self-accelerate, resulting when human intervention is not forthcoming the irreversibility situations, preventing any possibility of restoration state of these zones. These phenomena have led to different degradation processes, such as the destruction of vegetation, soil erosion, and deterioration of the physical environment. In this study, the work is mainly based on the criteria for classification and identification of physical parameters for spatial analysis and multi-sources to determine the vulnerability of major steppe formations and their impact on desertification. we used Landsat data with two different dates March 2010 and November 2014 in order to determine the changes in land cover, sand moving and land degradation for the diagnosis of the desertification Phenomenon. The application, through specific processes, including the supervised classification was used to characterize the main steppe formations. An analysis of the vulnerability of plant communities was conducted to assign weights and identify areas most susceptible to desertification. Vegetation indices are used to characterize the steppe formations to determine changes in land use.

Keywords: remote sensing, SIG, ecosystem, degradation, desertification

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3517 Landslide Vulnerability Assessment in Context with Indian Himalayan

Authors: Neha Gupta


Landslide vulnerability is considered as the crucial parameter for the assessment of landslide risk. The term vulnerability defined as the damage or degree of elements at risk of different dimensions, i.e., physical, social, economic, and environmental dimensions. Himalaya region is very prone to multi-hazard such as floods, forest fires, earthquakes, and landslides. With the increases in fatalities rates, loss of infrastructure, and economy due to landslide in the Himalaya region, leads to the assessment of vulnerability. In this study, a methodology to measure the combination of vulnerability dimension, i.e., social vulnerability, physical vulnerability, and environmental vulnerability in one framework. A combined result of these vulnerabilities has rarely been carried out. But no such approach was applied in the Indian Scenario. The methodology was applied in an area of east Sikkim Himalaya, India. The physical vulnerability comprises of building footprint layer extracted from remote sensing data and Google Earth imaginary. The social vulnerability was assessed by using population density based on land use. The land use map was derived from a high-resolution satellite image, and for environment vulnerability assessment NDVI, forest, agriculture land, distance from the river were assessed from remote sensing and DEM. The classes of social vulnerability, physical vulnerability, and environment vulnerability were normalized at the scale of 0 (no loss) to 1 (loss) to get the homogenous dataset. Then the Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA) was used to assign individual weights to each dimension and then integrate it into one frame. The final vulnerability was further classified into four classes from very low to very high.

Keywords: landslide, multi-criteria analysis, MCA, physical vulnerability, social vulnerability

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3516 Groundwater Vulnerability of Halabja-Khurmal Sub-Basin

Authors: Lanja F. Rauf, Salahalddin S. Ali, Nadhir Al-Ansari


Evolving groundwater vulnerability from DRASTIC to modified DRASTIC methods helps choose the most accurate areas that are most delicate toward pollution. This study aims to modify DRASTIC with land use and water quality index for groundwater vulnerability assessment in the Halabja-Khurmal sub-basin, NE/Iraq. The Halabja- Khurmal sub-basin groundwater vulnerability index is calculated from nine hydrogeological parameters by the overlay weighting method. As a result, 1.3 % of the total area has a very high vulnerability value and 46.1 % with high vulnerability. The regions with high groundwater vulnerability have a high water table and groundwater recharge. Nitrate concentration was used to validate the result, and the Pearson correlation and recession analysis between the modified DRASTIC index and nitrate concentration depicted a strong relation with 0.76 and 0.7, respectively.

Keywords: groundwater vulnerability, modified DRASTIC, land-use, nitrate pollution, water quality index

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3515 The Climate Change and Soil Degradation in the Czech Republic

Authors: Miroslav Dumbrovsky


The paper deals with impacts of climate change with the main emphasis on land degradation, agriculture and forestry management in the landscape. Land degradation, due to adverse effect of farmers activities, as a result of inappropriate conventional technologies, was a major issue in the Czech Republic during the 20th century and will remain for solving in the 21st century. The importance of land degradation is very high because of its impact on crop productivity and many other adverse effects. Land degradation through soil degradation is causing losses on crop productivity and quality of the environment, through decreasing quality of soil and water (especially water resources). Negative effects of conventional farming practices are increased water erosion, as well as crusting and compaction of the topsoil and subsoil. Soil erosion caused by water destructs the soil’s structure, reduces crop productivity due to deterioration in soil physical and chemical properties such as infiltration rate, water-holding capacity, loss of nutrients needed for crop production, and loss of soil carbon. Water erosion occurs on fields with row crops (maize, sunflower), especially during the rainfall period from April to October. Recently there is a serious problem of greatly expanded production of biofuels and bioenergy from field crops. The result is accelerated soil degradation. The damages (on and off- site) are greater than the benefits. An effective soil conservation requires an appropriate complex system of measures in the landscape. They are also important to continue to develop new sophisticated methods and technologies for decreasing land degradation. The system of soil conservation solving land degradation depend on the ability and the willingness of land users to apply them. When we talk about land degradation, it is not just a technical issue but also an economic and political issue. From a technical point of view, we have already made many positive steps, but for successful solving the problem of land degradation is necessary to develop suitable economic and political tools to increase the willingness and ability of land users to adopt conservation measures.

Keywords: land degradation, soil erosion, soil conservation, climate change

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3514 Remote Sensing and GIS for Land Use Change Assessment: Case Study of Oued Bou Hamed Watershed, Southern Tunisia

Authors: Ouerchefani Dalel, Mahdhaoui Basma


Land use change is one of the important factors needed to evaluate later on the impact of human actions on land degradation. This work present the application of a methodology based on remote sensing for evaluation land use change in an arid region of Tunisia. This methodology uses Landsat TM and ETM+ images to produce land use maps by supervised classification based on ground truth region of interests. This study showed that it was possible to rely on radiometric values of the pixels to define each land use class in the field. It was also possible to generate 3 land use classes of the same study area between 1988 and 2011.

Keywords: land use, change, remote sensing, GIS

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3513 Landcover Mapping Using Lidar Data and Aerial Image and Soil Fertility Degradation Assessment for Rice Production Area in Quezon, Nueva Ecija, Philippines

Authors: Eliza. E. Camaso, Guiller. B. Damian, Miguelito. F. Isip, Ronaldo T. Alberto


Land-cover maps were important for many scientific, ecological and land management purposes and during the last decades, rapid decrease of soil fertility was observed to be due to land use practices such as rice cultivation. High-precision land-cover maps are not yet available in the area which is important in an economy management. To assure   accurate mapping of land cover to provide information, remote sensing is a very suitable tool to carry out this task and automatic land use and cover detection. The study did not only provide high precision land cover maps but it also provides estimates of rice production area that had undergone chemical degradation due to fertility decline. Land-cover were delineated and classified into pre-defined classes to achieve proper detection features. After generation of Land-cover map, of high intensity of rice cultivation, soil fertility degradation assessment in rice production area due to fertility decline was created to assess the impact of soils used in agricultural production. Using Simple spatial analysis functions and ArcGIS, the Land-cover map of Municipality of Quezon in Nueva Ecija, Philippines was overlaid to the fertility decline maps from Land Degradation Assessment Philippines- Bureau of Soils and Water Management (LADA-Philippines-BSWM) to determine the area of rice crops that were most likely where nitrogen, phosphorus, zinc and sulfur deficiencies were induced by high dosage of urea and imbalance N:P fertilization. The result found out that 80.00 % of fallow and 99.81% of rice production area has high soil fertility decline.

Keywords: aerial image, landcover, LiDAR, soil fertility degradation

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3512 The Influence of Conservation Measures, Limiting Soil Degradation, on the Quality of Surface Water Resources

Authors: V. Sobotková, B. Šarapatka, M. Dumbrovský, J. Uhrová, M. Bednář


The paper deals with the influence of implemented conservation measures on the quality of surface water resources. Recently, a new process of complex land consolidation in the Czech Republic has provided a unique opportunity to improve the quality of the environment and sustainability of crop production by means of better soil and water conservation. The most important degradation factor in our study area in the Hubenov drinking water reservoir catchment basin was water erosion together with loss of organic matter. Hubenov Reservoir water resources were monitored for twenty years (1990–2010) to collect water quality data for nitrate nitrogen (N-NO3-), total P, and undissolved substances. Results obtained from measurements taken before and after land consolidation indicated a decrease in the linear trend of N-NO3- and total P concentrations, this was achieved through implementation of conservation measures limiting soil degradation in the Hubenov reservoir catchment area.

Keywords: complex land consolidation, degradation, land use, soil and water conservation, surface water resources

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3511 Land Degradation Assessment through Spatial Data Integration in Eastern Chotanagpur Plateau, India

Authors: Avijit Mahala


Present study is primarily concerned with the physical processes and status of land degradation in a tropical plateau fringe. Chotanagpur plateau is one of the most water erosion related degraded areas of India. The granite gneiss geological formation, low to medium developed soil cover, undulating lateritic uplands, high drainage density, low to medium rainfall (100-140cm), dry tropical deciduous forest cover makes the Silabati River basin a truly representative of the tropical environment. The different physical factors have been taken for land degradation study includes- physiographic formations, hydrologic characteristics, and vegetation cover. Water erosion, vegetal degradation, soil quality decline are the major processes of land degradation in study area. Granite-gneiss geological formation is responsible for developing undulating landforms. Less developed soil profile, low organic matter, poor structure of soil causes high soil erosion. High relief and sloppy areas cause unstable environment. The dissected highland causes topographic hindrance in productivity. High drainage density and frequency in rugged upland and intense erosion in sloppy areas causes high soil erosion of the basin. Decreasing rainfall and increasing aridity (low P/PET) threats water stress condition. Green biomass cover area is also continuously declining. Through overlaying the different physical factors (geological formation, soil characteristics, geomorphological characteristics, etc.) of considerable importance in GIS environment the varying intensities of land degradation areas has been identified. Middle reaches of Silabati basin with highly eroded laterite soil cover areas are more prone to land degradation.

Keywords: land degradation, tropical environment, lateritic upland, undulating landform, aridity, GIS environment

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3510 Analysis of the Aquifer Vulnerability of a Miopliocene Arid Area Using Drastic and SI Models

Authors: H. Majour, L. Djabri


Many methods in the groundwater vulnerability have been developed in the world (methods like PRAST, DRIST, APRON/ARAA, PRASTCHIM, GOD). In this study, our choice dealt with two recent complementary methods using category mapping of index with weighting criteria (Point County Systems Model MSCP) namely the standard DRASTIC method and SI (Susceptibility Index). At present, these two methods are the most used for the mapping of the intrinsic vulnerability of groundwater. Two classes of groundwater vulnerability in the Biskra sandy aquifer were identified by the DRASTIC method (average and high) and the SI method (very high and high). Integrated analysis has revealed that the high class is predominant for the DRASTIC method whereas for that of SI the preponderance is for the very high class. Furthermore, we notice that the method SI estimates better the vulnerability for the pollution in nitrates, with a rate of 85 % between the concentrations in nitrates of groundwater and the various established classes of vulnerability, against 75 % for the DRASTIC method. By including the land use parameter, the SI method produced more realistic results.

Keywords: DRASTIC, SI, GIS, Biskra sandy aquifer, Algeria

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3509 Environmental Impact of Trade Sector Growth: Evidence from Tanzania

Authors: Mosses E. Lufuke


This paper attempted to investigate whether there is Granger-causality running from trade to environment as evidenced in the changing climatic condition and land degradation. Using Tanzania as the reference, VAR-Granger-causality test was employed to rationalize the conundrum of causal-effect relationship between trade and environment. The changing climatic condition, as the proxy of both nitrous oxide emissions (in thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent) and land degradation measured by the size of arable land were tested against trade using both exports and imports variables. The result indicated that neither of the trade variables Granger-cause the variability on gas emissions and arable land size. This suggests the possibility that all trade concerns in relation to environment to have been internalized in domestic policies to offset any likely negative consequence.

Keywords: environment, growth, impact, trade

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3508 Mapping the Intrinsic Vulnerability of the Quaternary Aquifer of the Eastern Mitidja (Northern Algeria)

Authors: Abida Haddouche, Ahmed Chrif Toubal


The Neogene basin of the Eastern Mitidja, object of the study area, represents potential water resources and especially groundwater reserves. This water is an important economic; this resource is highly sensitive which need protection and preservation. Unfortunately, these waters are exposed to various forms of pollution, whether from urban, agricultural, industrial or merely accidental. This pollution is a permanent risk of limiting resource. In this context, the work aims to evaluate the intrinsic vulnerability of the aquifer to protect and preserve the quality of this resource. It will focus on the disposal of water and land managers a cartographic document accessible to locate the areas where the water has a high vulnerability. Vulnerability mapping of the Easter Mitidja quaternary aquifer is performed by applying three methods (DRASTIC, DRIST, and GOD). Comparison and validation results show that the DRASTIC method is the most suitable method for aquifer vulnerability of the study area.

Keywords: Aquifer of Mitidja, DRASTIC method, geographic information system (GIS), vulnerability mapping

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3507 The Role of Land Consolidation to Reduce Soil Degradation in the Czech Republic

Authors: Miroslav Dumbrovsky


The paper deals with positive impacts of land consolidation on decreasing soil degradation with the main emphasis on soil and water conservation in the landscape. The importance of land degradation is very high because of its impact on crop productivity and many other adverse effects. Soil degradation through soil erosion is causing losses in crop productivity and quality of the environment, through decreasing quality of soil and water (especially water resources). Negative effects of conventional farming practices are increased water erosion, as well as crusting and compaction of the topsoil and subsoil. Soil erosion caused by water destructs the soil’s structure, reduces crop productivity due to deterioration in soil physical and chemical properties such as infiltration rate, water holding capacity, loss of nutrients needed for crop production, and loss of soil carbon. Recently, a new process of complex land consolidation in the Czech Republic has provided a unique opportunity for improving the quality of the environment and sustainability of the crop production by means a better soil and water conservation. The present process of the complex land consolidation is not only a reallocation of plots, but this system consists of a new layout of plots within a certain territory, aimed at establishing the integrated land-use economic units, based on the needs of individual landowners and land users. On the other hand, the interests of the general public and the environmental protection have to be solved, too. From the general point of view, a large part of the Czech landscape shall be reconstructed in the course of complex land consolidation projects. These projects will be based on new integrated soil-economic units, spatially arranged in a designed multifunctional system of soil and water conservation measures, such as path network and a territorial system of ecological stability, according to structural changes in agriculture. This new approach will be the basis of a rational economic utilization of the region which will comply with the present ecological and aesthetic demands at present.

Keywords: soil degradation, land consolidation, soil erosion, soil conservation

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3506 Evaluating the Effects of Rainfall and Agricultural Practices on Soil Erosion (Palapye Case Study)

Authors: Mpaphi Major


Soil erosion is becoming an important aspect of land degradation. Therefore it is of great consideration to note any factor that may escalate the rate of soil erosion in our arable land. There exist 3 main driving forces in soil erosion which are rainfall, wind and land use of which in this project only rainfall and land use will be looked at. With the increase in world population at an alarming rate, the demand for food production is expected to increase which will in turn lead to more land being converted from forests to agricultural use of which very few of it are now fertile. In our country Botswana, the rate of crop production is decreasing due to the wearing away of the fertile top soil and poor arable land management. As a result, some studies on the rate of soil loss and farm management practices should be conducted so that best soil and water conservation practices should be employed and hence reduce the risk of soil loss and increase the rate of crop production and yield. The Soil loss estimation model for Southern Africa (SLEMSA) will be used to estimate the rate of soil loss in some selected arable farms within the Palapye watershed and some field observations will be made to determine the management practices used and their impact on the arable land. Upon observations it have been found that many arable fields have been exposed to soil erosion, of which the affected parts are no longer suitable for any crop production unless the land areas are modified. Improper land practices such as ploughing along the slope and land cultivation practices were observed. As a result farmers need to be educated on best conservation practices that can be used to manage their arable land hence reduced risk of soil erosion and improved crop production.

Keywords: soil and water conservation, soil erosion, SLEMSA, land degradation

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3505 Impacts of Present and Future Climate Variability on Forest Ecosystem in Mediterranean Region

Authors: Orkan Ozcan, Nebiye Musaoglu, Murat Turkes


Climate change is largely recognized as one of the real, pressing and significant global problems. The concept of ‘climate change vulnerability’ helps us to better comprehend the cause/effect relationships behind climate change and its impact on human societies, socioeconomic sectors, physiographical and ecological systems. In this study, multifactorial spatial modeling was applied to evaluate the vulnerability of a Mediterranean forest ecosystem to climate change. As a result, the geographical distribution of the final Environmental Vulnerability Areas (EVAs) of the forest ecosystem is based on the estimated final Environmental Vulnerability Index (EVI) values. This revealed that at current levels of environmental degradation, physical, geographical, policy enforcement and socioeconomic conditions, the area with a ‘very low’ vulnerability degree covered mainly the town, its surrounding settlements and the agricultural lands found mainly over the low and flat travertine plateau and the plains at the east and southeast of the district. The spatial magnitude of the EVAs over the forest ecosystem under the current environmental degradation was also determined. This revealed that the EVAs classed as ‘very low’ account for 21% of the total area of the forest ecosystem, those classed as ‘low’ account for 36%, those classed as ‘medium’ account for 20%, and those classed as ‘high’ account for 24%. Based on regionally averaged future climate assessments and projected future climate indicators, both the study site and the western Mediterranean sub-region of Turkey will probably become associated with a drier, hotter, more continental and more water-deficient climate. This analysis holds true for all future scenarios, with the exception of RCP4.5 for the period from 2015 to 2030. However, the present dry-sub humid climate dominating this sub-region and the study area shows a potential for change towards more dry climatology and for it to become a semiarid climate in the period between 2031 and 2050 according to the RCP8.5 high emission scenario. All the observed and estimated results and assessments summarized in the study show clearly that the densest forest ecosystem in the southern part of the study site, which is characterized by mainly Mediterranean coniferous and some mixed forest and the maquis vegetation, will very likely be influenced by medium and high degrees of vulnerability to future environmental degradation, climate change and variability.

Keywords: forest ecosystem, Mediterranean climate, RCP scenarios, vulnerability analysis

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3504 Deforestation, Vulnerability and Adaptation Strategies of Rural Farmers: The Case of Central Rift Valley Region of Ethiopia

Authors: Dembel Bonta Gebeyehu


In the study area, the impacts of deforestation for environmental degradation and livelihood of farmers manifest in different faces. They are more vulnerable as they depend on rain-fed agriculture and immediate natural forests. On the other hand, after planting seedling, waste disposal and management system of the plastic cover is poorly practiced and administered in the country in general and in the study area in particular. If this situation continues, the plastic waste would also accentuate land degradation. Besides, there is the absence of empirical studies conducted comprehensively on the research under study the case. The results of the study could suffice to inform any intervention schemes or to contribute to the existing knowledge on these issues. The study employed a qualitative approach based on intensive fieldwork data collected via various tools namely open-ended interviews, focus group discussion, key-informant interview and non-participant observation. The collected data was duly transcribed and latter categorized into different labels based on pre-determined themes to make further analysis. The major causes of deforestation were the expansion of agricultural land, poor administration, population growth, and the absence of conservation methods. The farmers are vulnerable to soil erosion and soil infertility culminating in low agricultural production; loss of grazing land and decline of livestock production; climate change; and deterioration of social capital. Their adaptation and coping strategies include natural conservation measures, diversification of income sources, safety-net program, and migration. Due to participatory natural resource conservation measures, soil erosion has been decreased and protected, indigenous woodlands started to regenerate. These brought farmers’ attitudinal change. The existing forestation program has many flaws. Especially, after planting seedlings, there is no mechanism for the plastic waste disposal and management. It was also found out organizational challenges among the mandated offices In the studied area, deforestation is aggravated by a number of factors, which made the farmers vulnerable. The current forestation programs are not well-planned, implemented, and coordinated. Sustainable and efficient seedling plastic cover collection and reuse methods should be devised. This is possible through creating awareness, organizing micro and small enterprises to reuse, and generate income from the collected plastic etc.

Keywords: land-cover and land-dynamics, vulnerability, adaptation strategy, mitigation strategies, sustainable plastic waste management

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3503 Earthquake Vulnerability and Repair Cost Estimation of Masonry Buildings in the Old City Center of Annaba, Algeria

Authors: Allaeddine Athmani, Abdelhacine Gouasmia, Tiago Ferreira, Romeu Vicente


The seismic risk mitigation from the perspective of the old buildings stock is truly essential in Algerian urban areas, particularly those located in seismic prone regions, such as Annaba city, and which the old buildings present high levels of degradation associated with no seismic strengthening and/or rehabilitation concerns. In this sense, the present paper approaches the issue of the seismic vulnerability assessment of old masonry building stocks through the adaptation of a simplified methodology developed for a European context area similar to that of Annaba city, Algeria. Therefore, this method is used for the first level of seismic vulnerability assessment of the masonry buildings stock of the old city center of Annaba. This methodology is based on a vulnerability index that is suitable for the evaluation of damage and for the creation of large-scale loss scenarios. Over 380 buildings were evaluated in accordance with the referred methodology and the results obtained were then integrated into a Geographical Information System (GIS) tool. Such results can be used by the Annaba city council for supporting management decisions, based on a global view of the site under analysis, which led to more accurate and faster decisions for the risk mitigation strategies and rehabilitation plans.

Keywords: Damage scenarios, masonry buildings, old city center, seismic vulnerability, vulnerability index

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3502 Application of Data Mining for Aquifer Environmental Assessment

Authors: Saman Javadi, Mehdi Hashemy, Mohahammad Mahmoodi


Vulnerability maps are employed as an important solution in order to handle entrance of pollution into the aquifers. The common way to provide vulnerability map is DRASTIC. Meanwhile, application of the method is not easy to apply for any aquifer due to choosing appropriate constant values of weights and ranks. In this study, a new approach using k-means clustering is applied to make vulnerability maps. Four features of depth to groundwater, hydraulic conductivity, recharge value and vadose zone were considered at the same time as features of clustering. Five regions are recognized out of the case study represent zones with different level of vulnerability. The finding results show that clustering provides a realistic vulnerability map so that, Pearson’s correlation coefficients between nitrate concentrations and clustering vulnerability is obtained 61%.

Keywords: clustering, data mining, groundwater, vulnerability assessment

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3501 Challenges of Peri-Urban Agriculture in Cities of Developing Countries: A Case Study of Nairobi City Peri-Urban Area

Authors: Aggrey Daniel Maina Thuo


Rapid urban population growth means an increasing demand for urban land, particularly for housing, and also for various other urban uses. This land is not available within cities but in peri-urban areas. The expansion of the cities into the peri-urban areas is creating direct and indirect impacts with those living there facing new challenges and opportunities in meeting their life needs and accommodating the by-products of urbanization. Although urbanization of these areas provides opportunities for employment, better housing, education, knowledge and technology transfer, and ready markets for the agricultural products, increase in population places enormous stress on natural resources and existing social services and infrastructure, therefore causing environmental degradation. This environmental degradation is affecting agriculture for those still holding onto their farms for agricultural purposes. This paper, using a multiple theoretical framework and qualitative research approach, attempts to describe the positive and adverse effects of urbanization on peri-urban agriculture, using the Town Council of Karuri within Nairobi peri-urban areas as a case study.

Keywords: peri-urban agriculture, urbanization, land use, environmental degradation, planning

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3500 Analysis of Erosion Quantity on Application of Conservation Techniques in Ci Liwung Hulu Watershed

Authors: Zaenal Mutaqin


The level of erosion that occurs in the upsteam watersheed will lead to limited infiltrattion, land degradation and river trivialisation and estuaries in the body. One of the watesheed that has been degraded caused by using land is the DA Ci Liwung Upstream. The high degradation that occurs in the DA Ci Liwung upstream is indicated by the hugher rate of erosion on the region, especially in the area of agriculture. In this case, agriculture cultivation intent to the agricultural land that has been applied conservation techniques. This study is applied to determine the quantity of erosion by reviewing Hidrologic Response Unit (HRU) in agricuktural cultivation land which is contained in DA Ci Liwung upstream by using the Soil and Water Assessmen Tool (SWAT). Conservation techniques applied are terracing, agroforestry and gulud terrace. It was concluded that agroforestry conservation techniques show the best value of erosion (lowest) compared with other conservation techniques with the contribution of erosion of 25.22 tonnes/ha/year. The results of the calibration between the discharge flow models with the observation that R²=0.9014 and NS=0.79 indicates that this model is acceptable and feasible applied to the Ci Liwung Hulu watershed.

Keywords: conservation, erosion, SWAT analysis, watersheed

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3499 The Effects of Land Use Types to Determine the Status of Sustainable River

Authors: Michael Louis Sunaris, Robby Yussac Tallar


The concept of sustainable river is evolving in Indonesia today. Many rivers condition in Indonesia have decreased by quality and quantity. The degradation of this condition is caused by rapid land use change as a result of increased population growth and human activity. It brings the degradation of the existing watersheds including some types of land use that an important factor in determining the status of river sustainability. Therefore, an evaluation method is required to determine the sustainability status of waterbody within watershed. The purpose of this study is to analyze various types of land use in determining the status of river sustainability. This study takes the watersheds of Citarum Upstream as a study area. The results of the analysis prove the index of sustainability status of the river that changes from good to bad or average in the rivers in the study area. The rapid and uncontrolled changes of land use especially in the upper watersheds area are the main causes that happened over time. It was indicated that the cumulative runoff coefficients were increased significantly. These situations indicated that the damage of watersheds has an impact on the water surplus or deficit problem yearly. Therefore, the rivers in Indonesia should be protected and conserved. The sustainability index of the rivers is an index to indicate the condition of watersheds by defining status of rivers in order to achieve sustainable water resource management.

Keywords: land use change, runoff coefficient, a simple index, sustainable river

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3498 Use of Data of the Remote Sensing for Spatiotemporal Analysis Land Use Changes in the Eastern Aurès (Algeria)

Authors: A. Bouzekri, H. Benmassaud


Aurès region is one of the arid and semi-arid areas that have suffered climate crises and overexploitation of natural resources they have led to significant land degradation. The use of remote sensing data allowed us to analyze the land and its spatiotemporal changes in the Aurès between 1987 and 2013, for this work, we adopted a method of analysis based on the exploitation of the images satellite Landsat TM 1987 and Landsat OLI 2013, from the supervised classification likelihood coupled with field surveys of the mission of May and September of 2013. Using ENVI EX software by the superposition of the ground cover maps from 1987 and 2013, one can extract a spatial map change of different land cover units. The results show that between 1987 and 2013 vegetation has suffered negative changes are the significant degradation of forests and steppe rangelands, and sandy soils and bare land recorded a considerable increase. The spatial change map land cover units between 1987 and 2013 allows us to understand the extensive or regressive orientation of vegetation and soil, this map shows that dense forests give his place to clear forests and steppe vegetation develops from a degraded forest vegetation and bare, sandy soils earn big steppe surfaces that explain its remarkable extension. The analysis of remote sensing data highlights the profound changes in our environment over time and quantitative monitoring of the risk of desertification.

Keywords: remote sensing, spatiotemporal, land use, Aurès

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3497 Spatial Analysis of the Impact of City Developments Degradation of Green Space in Urban Fringe Eastern City of Yogyakarta Year 2005-2010

Authors: Pebri Nurhayati, Rozanah Ahlam Fadiyah


In the development of the city often use rural areas that can not be separated from the change in land use that lead to the degradation of urban green space in the city fringe. In the long run, the degradation of green open space this can impact on the decline of ecological, psychological and public health. Therefore, this research aims to (1) determine the relationship between the parameters of the degradation rate of urban development with green space, (2) develop a spatial model of the impact of urban development on the degradation of green open space with remote sensing techniques and Geographical Information Systems in an integrated manner. This research is a descriptive research with data collection techniques of observation and secondary data . In the data analysis, to interpret the direction of urban development and degradation of green open space is required in 2005-2010 ASTER image with NDVI. Of interpretation will generate two maps, namely maps and map development built land degradation green open space. Secondary data related to the rate of population growth, the level of accessibility, and the main activities of each city map is processed into a population growth rate, the level of accessibility maps, and map the main activities of the town. Each map is used as a parameter to map the degradation of green space and analyzed by non-parametric statistical analysis using Crosstab thus obtained value of C (coefficient contingency). C values were then compared with the Cmaximum to determine the relationship. From this research will be obtained in the form of modeling spatial map of the City Development Impact Degradation Green Space in Urban Fringe eastern city of Yogyakarta 2005-2010. In addition, this research also generate statistical analysis of the test results of each parameter to the degradation of green open space in the Urban Fringe eastern city of Yogyakarta 2005-2010.

Keywords: spatial analysis, urban development, degradation of green space, urban fringe

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3496 Prioritizing Biodiversity Conservation Areas based on the Vulnerability and the Irreplaceability Framework in Mexico

Authors: Alma Mendoza-Ponce, Rogelio Corona-Núñez, Florian Kraxner


Mexico is a megadiverse country and it has nearly halved its natural vegetation in the last century due to agricultural and livestock expansion. Impacts of land use cover change and climate change are unevenly distributed and spatial prioritization to minimize the affectations on biodiversity is crucial. Global and national efforts for prioritizing biodiversity conservation show that ~33% to 45% of Mexico should be protected. The width of these targets makes difficult to lead resources. We use a framework based on vulnerability and irreplaceability to prioritize conservation efforts in Mexico. Vulnerability considered exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity under two scenarios (business as usual, BAU based, on the SSP2 and RCP 4.5 and a Green scenario, based on the SSP1 and the RCP 2.6). Exposure to land use is the magnitude of change from natural vegetation to anthropogenic covers while exposure to climate change is the difference between current and future values for both scenarios. Sensitivity was considered as the number of endemic species of terrestrial vertebrates which are critically endangered and endangered. Adaptive capacity is used as the ration between the percentage of converted area (natural to anthropogenic) and the percentage of protected area at municipality level. The results suggest that by 2050, between 11.6 and 13.9% of Mexico show vulnerability ≥ 50%, and by 2070, between 12.0 and 14.8%, in the Green and BAU scenario, respectively. From an ecosystem perspective cloud forests, followed by tropical dry forests, natural grasslands and temperate forests will be the most vulnerable (≥ 50%). Amphibians are the most threatened vertebrates; 62% of the endemic amphibians are critically endangered or endangered while 39%, 12% and 9% of the mammals, birds, and reptiles, respectively. However, the distribution of these amphibians counts for only 3.3% of the country, while mammals, birds, and reptiles in these categories represent 10%, 16% and 29% of Mexico. There are 5 municipalities out of the 2,457 that Mexico has that represent 31% of the most vulnerable areas (70%).These municipalities account for 0.05% of Mexico. This multiscale approach can be used to address resources to conservation targets as ecosystems, municipalities or species considering land use cover change, climate change and biodiversity uniqueness.

Keywords: biodiversity, climate change, land use change, Mexico, vulnerability

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3495 Software Vulnerability Markets: Discoverers and Buyers

Authors: Abdullah M. Algarni, Yashwant K. Malaiya


Some of the key aspects of vulnerability-discovery, dissemination, and disclosure-have received some attention recently. However, the role of interaction among the vulnerability discoverers and vulnerability acquirers has not yet been adequately addressed. Our study suggests that a major percentage of discoverers, a majority in some cases, are unaffiliated with the software developers and thus are free to disseminate the vulnerabilities they discover in any way they like. As a result, multiple vulnerability markets have emerged. In some of these markets, the exchange is regulated, but in others, there is little or no regulation. In recent vulnerability discovery literature, the vulnerability discoverers have remained anonymous individuals. Although there has been an attempt to model the level of their efforts, information regarding their identities, modes of operation, and what they are doing with the discovered vulnerabilities has not been explored. Reports of buying and selling of the vulnerabilities are now appearing in the press; however, the existence of such markets requires validation, and the natures of the markets need to be analysed. To address this need, we have attempted to collect detailed information. We have identified the most prolific vulnerability discoverers throughout the past decade and examined their motivation and methods. A large percentage of these discoverers are located in Eastern and Western Europe and in the Far East. We have contacted several of them in order to collect first-hand information regarding their techniques, motivations, and involvement in the vulnerability markets. We examine why many of the discoverers appear to retire after a highly successful vulnerability-finding career. The paper identifies the actual vulnerability markets, rather than the hypothetical ideal markets that are often examined. The emergence of worldwide government agencies as vulnerability buyers has significant implications. We discuss potential factors that can impact the risk to society and the need for detailed exploration.

Keywords: risk management, software security, vulnerability discoverers, vulnerability markets

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3494 Land Use Change Detection Using Remote Sensing and GIS

Authors: Naser Ahmadi Sani, Karim Solaimani, Lida Razaghnia, Jalal Zandi


In recent decades, rapid and incorrect changes in land-use have been associated with consequences such as natural resources degradation and environmental pollution. Detecting changes in land-use is one of the tools for natural resource management and assessment of changes in ecosystems. The target of this research is studying the land-use changes in Haraz basin with an area of 677000 hectares in a 15 years period (1996 to 2011) using LANDSAT data. Therefore, the quality of the images was first evaluated. Various enhancement methods for creating synthetic bonds were used in the analysis. Separate training sites were selected for each image. Then the images of each period were classified in 9 classes using supervised classification method and the maximum likelihood algorithm. Finally, the changes were extracted in GIS environment. The results showed that these changes are an alarm for the HARAZ basin status in future. The reason is that 27% of the area has been changed, which is related to changing the range lands to bare land and dry farming and also changing the dense forest to sparse forest, horticulture, farming land and residential area.

Keywords: Haraz basin, change detection, land-use, satellite data

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3493 The Impact of Karst Structures on the Urban Environment in Semi-Arid Area

Authors: Benhammadi Hocine, Chaffai Hicham


Urban development is often dependent on adequate land for expansion, except that sometimes these areas have vulnerability. This is the case of karst regions characterized by carbonate geological formations marked by the presence of cavities and cracks. The impact of climate variability in Cheria area marked by a growing shortage of rainfall, the impact resulted in the development of the vulnerability of these structures. This vulnerability has led to the appearance of collapse phenomena as well in both agricultural and urban areas. Two phenomena have emerged to explain the collapses, the first is assigned a filling process in the cavities, and the second is due to a weakening of the resistance that collapses limestone slab shear phenomenon. In urban areas, the weight of the buildings has increased the load on the limestone slab and accelerated the collapse. The analysis of the environmental process is in the context of our modest work, after which we indicate the appropriate methods for management policy of urban expansion. This management more preventive (upstream), much less expensive than remedial solutions (downstream) needed after the event and sometimes ineffective.

Keywords: Cheria, urban, climate variability, vulnerability karst collapse, extension, management

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3492 SVID: Structured Vulnerability Intelligence for Building Deliberated Vulnerable Environment

Authors: Wenqing Fan, Yixuan Cheng, Wei Huang


The diversity and complexity of modern IT systems make it almost impossible for internal teams to find vulnerabilities in all software before the software is officially released. The emergence of threat intelligence and vulnerability reporting policy has greatly reduced the burden on software vendors and organizations to find vulnerabilities. However, to prove the existence of the reported vulnerability, it is necessary but difficult for security incident response team to build a deliberated vulnerable environment from the vulnerability report with limited and incomplete information. This paper presents a structured, standardized, machine-oriented vulnerability intelligence format, that can be used to automate the orchestration of Deliberated Vulnerable Environment (DVE). This paper highlights the important role of software configuration and proof of vulnerable specifications in vulnerability intelligence, and proposes a triad model, which is called DIR (Dependency Configuration, Installation Configuration, Runtime Configuration), to define software configuration. Finally, this paper has also implemented a prototype system to demonstrate that the orchestration of DVE can be automated with the intelligence.

Keywords: DIR triad model, DVE, vulnerability intelligence, vulnerability recurrence

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