Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 4562

Search results for: item response

4562 Item Response Calibration/Estimation: An Approach to Adaptive E-Learning System Development

Authors: Adeniran Adetunji, Babalola M. Florence, Akande Ademola

Abstract:

In this paper, we made an overview on the concept of adaptive e-Learning system, enumerates the elements of adaptive learning concepts e.g. A pedagogical framework, multiple learning strategies and pathways, continuous monitoring and feedback on student performance, statistical inference to reach final learning strategy that works for an individual learner by “mass-customization”. Briefly highlights the motivation of this new system proposed for effective learning teaching. E-Review literature on the concept of adaptive e-learning system and emphasises on the Item Response Calibration, which is an important approach to developing an adaptive e-Learning system. This paper write-up is concluded on the justification of item response calibration/estimation towards designing a successful and effective adaptive e-Learning system.

Keywords: adaptive e-learning system, pedagogical framework, item response, computer applications

Procedia PDF Downloads 490
4561 Personalized Learning: An Analysis Using Item Response Theory

Authors: A. Yacob, N. Hj. Ali, M. H. Yusoff, M. Y. MohdSaman, W. M. A. F. W. Hamzah

Abstract:

Personalized learning becomes increasingly popular which not is restricted by time, place or any other barriers. This study proposes an analysis of Personalized Learning using Item Response Theory which considers course material difficulty and learner ability. The study investigates twenty undergraduate students at TATI University College, who are taking programming subject. By using the IRT, it was found that, finding the most appropriate problem levels to each student include high and low level test items together is not a problem. Thus, the student abilities can be asses more accurately and fairly. Learners who experience more anxiety will affect a heavier cognitive load and receive lower test scores. Instructors are encouraged to provide a supportive learning environment to enhance learning effectiveness because Cognitive Load Theory concerns the limited capacity of the brain to absorb new information.

Keywords: assessment, item response theory, cognitive load theory, learning, motivation, performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
4560 Item-Trait Pattern Recognition of Replenished Items in Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Testing

Authors: Jianan Sun, Ziwen Ye

Abstract:

Multidimensional computerized adaptive testing (MCAT) is a popular research topic in psychometrics. It is important for practitioners to clearly know the item-trait patterns of administered items when a test like MCAT is operated. Item-trait pattern recognition refers to detecting which latent traits in a psychological test are measured by each of the specified items. If the item-trait patterns of the replenished items in MCAT item pool are well detected, the interpretability of the items can be improved, which can further promote the abilities of the examinees who attending the MCAT to be accurately estimated. This research explores to solve the item-trait pattern recognition problem of the replenished items in MCAT item pool from the perspective of statistical variable selection. The popular multidimensional item response theory model, multidimensional two-parameter logistic model, is assumed to fit the response data of MCAT. The proposed method uses the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) to detect item-trait patterns of replenished items based on the essential information of item responses and ability estimates of examinees collected from a designed MCAT procedure. Several advantages of the proposed method are outlined. First, the proposed method does not strictly depend on the relative order between the replenished items and the selected operational items, so it allows the replenished items to be mixed into the operational items in reasonable order such as considering content constraints or other test requirements. Second, the LASSO used in this research improves the interpretability of the multidimensional replenished items in MCAT. Third, the proposed method can exert the advantage of shrinkage method idea for variable selection, so it can help to check item quality and key dimension features of replenished items and saves more costs of time and labors in response data collection than traditional factor analysis method. Moreover, the proposed method makes sure the dimensions of replenished items are recognized to be consistent with the dimensions of operational items in MCAT item pool. Simulation studies are conducted to investigate the performance of the proposed method under different conditions for varying dimensionality of item pool, latent trait correlation, item discrimination, test lengths and item selection criteria in MCAT. Results show that the proposed method can accurately detect the item-trait patterns of the replenished items in the two-dimensional and the three-dimensional item pool. Selecting enough operational items from the item pool consisting of high discriminating items by Bayesian A-optimality in MCAT can improve the recognition accuracy of item-trait patterns of replenished items for the proposed method. The pattern recognition accuracy for the conditions with correlated traits is better than those with independent traits especially for the item pool consisting of comparatively low discriminating items. To sum up, the proposed data-driven method based on the LASSO can accurately and efficiently detect the item-trait patterns of replenished items in MCAT.

Keywords: item-trait pattern recognition, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator, multidimensional computerized adaptive testing, variable selection

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4559 Solving Dimensionality Problem and Finding Statistical Constructs on Latent Regression Models: A Novel Methodology with Real Data Application

Authors: Sergio Paez Moncaleano, Alvaro Mauricio Montenegro

Abstract:

This paper presents a novel statistical methodology for measuring and founding constructs in Latent Regression Analysis. This approach uses the qualities of Factor Analysis in binary data with interpretations on Item Response Theory (IRT). In addition, based on the fundamentals of submodel theory and with a convergence of many ideas of IRT, we propose an algorithm not just to solve the dimensionality problem (nowadays an open discussion) but a new research field that promises more fear and realistic qualifications for examiners and a revolution on IRT and educational research. In the end, the methodology is applied to a set of real data set presenting impressive results for the coherence, speed and precision. Acknowledgments: This research was financed by Colciencias through the project: 'Multidimensional Item Response Theory Models for Practical Application in Large Test Designed to Measure Multiple Constructs' and both authors belong to SICS Research Group from Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

Keywords: item response theory, dimensionality, submodel theory, factorial analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
4558 Frequent Item Set Mining for Big Data Using MapReduce Framework

Authors: Tamanna Jethava, Rahul Joshi

Abstract:

Frequent Item sets play an essential role in many data Mining tasks that try to find interesting patterns from the database. Typically it refers to a set of items that frequently appear together in transaction dataset. There are several mining algorithm being used for frequent item set mining, yet most do not scale to the type of data we presented with today, so called “BIG DATA”. Big Data is a collection of large data sets. Our approach is to work on the frequent item set mining over the large dataset with scalable and speedy way. Big Data basically works with Map Reduce along with HDFS is used to find out frequent item sets from Big Data on large cluster. This paper focuses on using pre-processing & mining algorithm as hybrid approach for big data over Hadoop platform.

Keywords: frequent item set mining, big data, Hadoop, MapReduce

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4557 Multidimensional Item Response Theory Models for Practical Application in Large Tests Designed to Measure Multiple Constructs

Authors: Maria Fernanda Ordoñez Martinez, Alvaro Mauricio Montenegro

Abstract:

This work presents a statistical methodology for measuring and founding constructs in Latent Semantic Analysis. This approach uses the qualities of Factor Analysis in binary data with interpretations present on Item Response Theory. More precisely, we propose initially reducing dimensionality with specific use of Principal Component Analysis for the linguistic data and then, producing axes of groups made from a clustering analysis of the semantic data. This approach allows the user to give meaning to previous clusters and found the real latent structure presented by data. The methodology is applied in a set of real semantic data presenting impressive results for the coherence, speed and precision.

Keywords: semantic analysis, factorial analysis, dimension reduction, penalized logistic regression

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
4556 Exploring Gender Bias in Self-Report Measures of Psychopathy

Authors: Katie Strong, Brian P. O'Connor, Jacqueline M. Kanippayoor

Abstract:

To date, self-report measures of psychopathy have largely been conceptualized with a male-focused understanding of the disorder, with the presumption that psychopathy expression is uniform across genders. However, generalizing this understanding to the female population may be misleading. The objective of this research was to explore gender differences in the expression of psychopathy and to assess current self-report psychopathy measures for gender bias. It was hypothesized that some items in commonly used measures of psychopathy may show gender bias and that existing measures may not contain enough items that are relevant to the manifestation of psychopathy in women. An exploratory investigation was conducted on statistical bias in common measures of psychopathy, and novel, relevant, but previously neglected items and measures were included in a new data collection. The participant pool included a sample of 403 university students and 354 participants recruited using Amazon Mechanical Turk. Item Response Theory methods - including Differential Item Functioning - were used to assess for the item- and test- level bias across several common self-report measures of psychopathy. Analyses indicated occasional and modest levels of item-level bias, and that some additional female-relevant items merit consideration for inclusion in measures of psychopathy. These findings suggest that current self-report measures of psychopathy may be demonstrating gender-bias and warrant further examination.

Keywords: gender, measurement bias, personality, psychopathy

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
4555 The Effectiveness of Video Modeling Procedures on Request an Item Behavior Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Authors: Melih Cattik

Abstract:

The present study investigate effectiveness of video modeling procedures on request an item behavior of children with ASD. Two male and a female children with ASD participated in the study. A multiple baseline across participant single-subject design was used to evaluate the effects of the video modeling procedures on request an item behavior. During baseline, no prompts were presented to participants. In the intervention phase, the teacher gave video model to the participant and than created opportunity for request an item to him/her. When the first participant reached to criterion, the second participant began intervention. This procedure continued till all participants completed intervention. Finally, all three participants learned to request an item behavior. Based upon findings of this study, it will make suggestions to future researches.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorders, video modeling procedures, request an item behavior, single subject design

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4554 Barriers and Enablers to Public Innovation in the Central Region of Colombia: A Characterization from Measurement through the Item Response Methodology and Comparative Analysis

Authors: Yessenia Parrado, Ana Barbosa, Daniela Mahe, Sebastian Toro, Jhon Garcia

Abstract:

The purpose of this work is to present the identification and characterization of the barriers and enablers to public innovation in the Central Region of Colombia from a mixed methodology in a research carried out in 2020 by the Laboratory of Innovation, Creativity and New Technologies of the National University of Colombia in alliance with the National Planning Department. Based on the research, the index of barriers to regional and departmental public innovation was built, which reflects the level of difficulty of the territorial entities to overcome the barriers present around three dimensions: organizational structure of the entity, generation of public value, and governance processes. The index was built from the item response methodology and the multiple correspondence analysis from the application of an institutional information form for public entities and a perception form for public servants. This investigation had the participation of 36 entities and 1038 servers and servants from the departments of Huila, Meta, Boyacá, Cundinamarca, Tolima, and the Capital District. In this exercise, it was identified that the departmental indices range between 13 and 44 and that the regional index was 30 out of 100. From the analysis of the information, it was possible to establish that the main barriers are the lack of specialized agencies for public innovation exercises, lack of qualified personnel and work methodologies for public innovation, inadequate information management, lack of feedback between the learning from governmental and non-governmental entities, the inability of the initiatives to generate binding participation mechanisms and the lack of qualification of citizens to participate in these processes.

Keywords: item response, public innovation, quantitative analysis, compared analysis

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4553 Computerized Adaptive Testing for Ipsative Tests with Multidimensional Pairwise-Comparison Items

Authors: Wen-Chung Wang, Xue-Lan Qiu

Abstract:

Ipsative tests have been widely used in vocational and career counseling (e.g., the Jackson Vocational Interest Survey). Pairwise-comparison items are a typical item format of ipsative tests. When the two statements in a pairwise-comparison item measure two different constructs, the item is referred to as a multidimensional pairwise-comparison (MPC) item. A typical MPC item would be: Which activity do you prefer? (A) playing with young children, or (B) working with tools and machines. These two statements aim at the constructs of social interest and investigative interest, respectively. Recently, new item response theory (IRT) models for ipsative tests with MPC items have been developed. Among them, the Rasch ipsative model (RIM) deserves special attention because it has good measurement properties, in which the log-odds of preferring statement A to statement B are defined as a competition between two parts: the sum of a person’s latent trait to which statement A is measuring and statement A’s utility, and the sum of a person’s latent trait to which statement B is measuring and statement B’s utility. The RIM has been extended to polytomous responses, such as preferring statement A strongly, preferring statement A, preferring statement B, and preferring statement B strongly. To promote the new initiatives, in this study we developed computerized adaptive testing algorithms for MFC items and evaluated their performance using simulations and two real tests. Both the RIM and its polytomous extension are multidimensional, which calls for multidimensional computerized adaptive testing (MCAT). A particular issue in MCAT for MPC items is the within-person statement exposure (WPSE); that is, a respondent may keep seeing the same statement (e.g., my life is empty) for many times, which is certainly annoying. In this study, we implemented two methods to control the WPSE rate. In the first control method, items would be frozen when their statements had been administered more than a prespecified times. In the second control method, a random component was added to control the contribution of the information at different stages of MCAT. The second control method was found to outperform the first control method in our simulation studies. In addition, we investigated four item selection methods: (a) random selection (as a baseline), (b) maximum Fisher information method without WPSE control, (c) maximum Fisher information method with the first control method, and (d) maximum Fisher information method with the second control method. These four methods were applied to two real tests: one was a work survey with dichotomous MPC items and the other is a career interests survey with polytomous MPC items. There were three dependent variables: the bias and root mean square error across person measures, and measurement efficiency which was defined as the number of items needed to achieve the same degree of test reliability. Both applications indicated that the proposed MCAT algorithms were successful and there was no loss in measurement proficiency when the control methods were implemented, and among the four methods, the last method performed the best.

Keywords: computerized adaptive testing, ipsative tests, item response theory, pairwise comparison

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4552 The Moderation Effect of Critical Item on the Strategic Purchasing: Quality Performance Relationship

Authors: Kwong Yeung

Abstract:

Theories about strategic purchasing and quality performance are underdeveloped. Understanding the evolving role of purchasing from reactive to proactive is a pressing strategic issue. Using survey responses from 176 manufacturing and electronics industry professionals, we study the relationships between strategic purchasing and supply chain partners’ quality performance to answer the following questions: Can transaction cost economics be used to elucidate the strategic purchasing-quality performance relationship? Is this strategic purchasing-quality performance relationship moderated by critical item analysis? The findings indicate that critical item analysis positively and significantly moderates the strategic purchasing-quality performance relationship.

Keywords: critical item analysis, moderation, quality performance, strategic purchasing, transaction cost economics

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4551 Differential Item Functioning in the Vocabulary Test of Grade 7 Students in Public and Private Schools

Authors: Dave Kenneth Tayao Cayado, Carlo P. Magno

Abstract:

The most common source of bias detected are those of gender and socioeconomic status. The present study investigated the Differential Item Functioning (DIF) or item bias between public and private school students in a vocabulary test. Studies on DIF were expanded by using the type of school as a source of bias. There were 200 participants in this study. 100 came from a public secondary school and 100 came from a private secondary school. The vocabulary skills of students were measured using a standardized vocabulary test for grade 7 students. Using DIF, specifically the Rasch-Welch approach, it was found that out of 24 items, 12 were biased for a specific group. The vocabulary skills on the use of slang, idiomatic expression, personification, collocations, and partitive relations were biased for private schools while the use of slang and homonymous words were biased for public school students. The analysis debunked the trend that private school students are outperforming public school students in terms of academic achievement. It was revealed that there are some competencies that private school students are having difficulty and vice versa.

Keywords: differential item functioning, item bias, public school students, private school students, vocabulary

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4550 Exploring the Applications of Neural Networks in the Adaptive Learning Environment

Authors: Baladitya Swaika, Rahul Khatry

Abstract:

Computer Adaptive Tests (CATs) is one of the most efficient ways for testing the cognitive abilities of students. CATs are based on Item Response Theory (IRT) which is based on item selection and ability estimation using statistical methods of maximum information selection/selection from posterior and maximum-likelihood (ML)/maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimators respectively. This study aims at combining both classical and Bayesian approaches to IRT to create a dataset which is then fed to a neural network which automates the process of ability estimation and then comparing it to traditional CAT models designed using IRT. This study uses python as the base coding language, pymc for statistical modelling of the IRT and scikit-learn for neural network implementations. On creation of the model and on comparison, it is found that the Neural Network based model performs 7-10% worse than the IRT model for score estimations. Although performing poorly, compared to the IRT model, the neural network model can be beneficially used in back-ends for reducing time complexity as the IRT model would have to re-calculate the ability every-time it gets a request whereas the prediction from a neural network could be done in a single step for an existing trained Regressor. This study also proposes a new kind of framework whereby the neural network model could be used to incorporate feature sets, other than the normal IRT feature set and use a neural network’s capacity of learning unknown functions to give rise to better CAT models. Categorical features like test type, etc. could be learnt and incorporated in IRT functions with the help of techniques like logistic regression and can be used to learn functions and expressed as models which may not be trivial to be expressed via equations. This kind of a framework, when implemented would be highly advantageous in psychometrics and cognitive assessments. This study gives a brief overview as to how neural networks can be used in adaptive testing, not only by reducing time-complexity but also by being able to incorporate newer and better datasets which would eventually lead to higher quality testing.

Keywords: computer adaptive tests, item response theory, machine learning, neural networks

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4549 A Demonstration of How to Employ and Interpret Binary IRT Models Using the New IRT Procedure in SAS 9.4

Authors: Ryan A. Black, Stacey A. McCaffrey

Abstract:

Over the past few decades, great strides have been made towards improving the science in the measurement of psychological constructs. Item Response Theory (IRT) has been the foundation upon which statistical models have been derived to increase both precision and accuracy in psychological measurement. These models are now being used widely to develop and refine tests intended to measure an individual's level of academic achievement, aptitude, and intelligence. Recently, the field of clinical psychology has adopted IRT models to measure psychopathological phenomena such as depression, anxiety, and addiction. Because advances in IRT measurement models are being made so rapidly across various fields, it has become quite challenging for psychologists and other behavioral scientists to keep abreast of the most recent developments, much less learn how to employ and decide which models are the most appropriate to use in their line of work. In the same vein, IRT measurement models vary greatly in complexity in several interrelated ways including but not limited to the number of item-specific parameters estimated in a given model, the function which links the expected response and the predictor, response option formats, as well as dimensionality. As a result, inferior methods (a.k.a. Classical Test Theory methods) continue to be employed in efforts to measure psychological constructs, despite evidence showing that IRT methods yield more precise and accurate measurement. To increase the use of IRT methods, this study endeavors to provide a comprehensive overview of binary IRT models; that is, measurement models employed on test data consisting of binary response options (e.g., correct/incorrect, true/false, agree/disagree). Specifically, this study will cover the most basic binary IRT model, known as the 1-parameter logistic (1-PL) model dating back to over 50 years ago, up until the most recent complex, 4-parameter logistic (4-PL) model. Binary IRT models will be defined mathematically and the interpretation of each parameter will be provided. Next, all four binary IRT models will be employed on two sets of data: 1. Simulated data of N=500,000 subjects who responded to four dichotomous items and 2. A pilot analysis of real-world data collected from a sample of approximately 770 subjects who responded to four self-report dichotomous items pertaining to emotional consequences to alcohol use. Real-world data were based on responses collected on items administered to subjects as part of a scale-development study (NIDA Grant No. R44 DA023322). IRT analyses conducted on both the simulated data and analyses of real-world pilot will provide a clear demonstration of how to construct, evaluate, and compare binary IRT measurement models. All analyses will be performed using the new IRT procedure in SAS 9.4. SAS code to generate simulated data and analyses will be available upon request to allow for replication of results.

Keywords: instrument development, item response theory, latent trait theory, psychometrics

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4548 Efficient Recommendation System for Frequent and High Utility Itemsets over Incremental Datasets

Authors: J. K. Kavitha, D. Manjula, U. Kanimozhi

Abstract:

Mining frequent and high utility item sets have gained much significance in the recent years. When the data arrives sporadically, incremental and interactive rule mining and utility mining approaches can be adopted to handle user’s dynamic environmental needs and avoid redundancies, using previous data structures, and mining results. The dependence on recommendation systems has exponentially risen since the advent of search engines. This paper proposes a model for building a recommendation system that suggests frequent and high utility item sets over dynamic datasets for a cluster based location prediction strategy to predict user’s trajectories using the Efficient Incremental Rule Mining (EIRM) algorithm and the Fast Update Utility Pattern Tree (FUUP) algorithm. Through comprehensive evaluations by experiments, this scheme has shown to deliver excellent performance.

Keywords: data sets, recommendation system, utility item sets, frequent item sets mining

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4547 Validity and Reliability of Competency Assessment Implementation (CAI) Instrument Using Rasch Model

Authors: Nurfirdawati Muhamad Hanafi, Azmanirah Ab Rahman, Marina Ibrahim Mukhtar, Jamil Ahmad, Sarebah Warman

Abstract:

This study was conducted to generate empirical evidence on validity and reliability of the item of Competency Assessment Implementation (CAI) Instrument using Rasch Model for polythomous data aided by Winstep software version 3.68. The construct validity was examined by analyzing the point-measure correlation index (PTMEA), in fit and outfit MNSQ values; meanwhile the reliability was examined by analyzing item reliability index. A survey technique was used as the major method with the CAI instrument on 156 teachers from vocational schools. The results have shown that the reliability of CAI Instrument items were between 0.80 and 0.98. PTMEA Correlation is in positive values, in which the item is able to distinguish between the ability of the respondent. Statistical data obtained shows that out of 154 items, 12 items from the instrument suggested to be omitted. This study is hoped could bring a new direction to the process of data analysis in educational research.

Keywords: competency assessment, reliability, validity, item analysis

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4546 The Analysis of Differential Item and Test Functioning between Sexes by Studying on the Scholastic Aptitude Test 2013

Authors: Panwasn Mahalawalert

Abstract:

The purposes of this research were analyzed differential item functioning and differential test functioning of SWUSAT aptitude test classification by sex variable. The data used in this research is the secondary data from Srinakharinwirot University Scholastic Aptitude Test 2013 (SWUSAT). SWUSAT test consists of four subjects. There are verbal ability test, number ability test, reasoning ability test and spatial ability test. The data analysis was analyzed in 2 steps. The first step was analyzing descriptive statistics. In the second step were analyzed differential item functioning (DIF) and differential test functioning (DTF) by using the DIFAS program. The research results were as follows: The results of DIF and DTF analysis for all 10 tests in year 2013. Gender was the characteristic that found DIF all 10 tests. The percentage of item number that found DIF is between 6.67% - 60%. There are 5 tests that most of items favors female group and 2 tests that most of items favors male group. There are 3 tests that the number of items favors female group equal favors male group. For Differential test functioning (DTF), there are 8 tests that have small level.

Keywords: aptitude test, differential item functioning, differential test functioning, educational measurement

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4545 An Investigation of Differential Item and Test Functioning of Scholastic Aptitude Test 2011 (SWUSAT 2011)

Authors: Ruangdech Sirikit

Abstract:

The purposes of this study were analyzed differential item functioning and differential test functioning of SWUSAT aptitude test classification by sex variable. The data used in this research is the secondary data from Srinakharinwirot University Scholastic Aptitude Test 2011 (SWUSAT 2011) SWUSAT test consists of four subjects. There are verbal ability test, number ability test, reasoning ability test and spatial ability test. The data analysis was carried out in 2 steps. The first step was analyzing descriptive statistics. In the second step were analyzed differential item functioning (DIF) and differential test functioning (DTF) by using the DIFAS program. The research results were as follows: The results of data analysis for all 10 tests in year 2011. Sex was the characteristic that found DIF all 10 tests. The percentage of item number that found DIF was between 10% - 46.67%. There are 4 tests that most of items favors female group. There are 3 tests that most of items favors male group and there are 3 tests that the number of items favors female group equal favors male group. For Differential test functioning (DTF), there are 8 tests that have small DIF effect variance.

Keywords: differential item functioning, differential test functioning, SWUSAT, aptitude test

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4544 Developing and Testing a Questionnaire of Music Memorization and Practice

Authors: Diana Santiago, Tania Lisboa, Sophie Lee, Alexander P. Demos, Monica C. S. Vasconcelos

Abstract:

Memorization has long been recognized as an arduous and anxiety-evoking task for musicians, and yet, it is an essential aspect of performance. Research shows that musicians are often not taught how to memorize. While memorization and practice strategies of professionals have been studied, little research has been done to examine how student musicians learn to practice and memorize music in different cultural settings. We present the process of developing and testing a questionnaire of music memorization and musical practice for student musicians in the UK and Brazil. A survey was developed for a cross-cultural research project aiming at examining how young orchestral musicians (aged 7–18 years) in different learning environments and cultures engage in instrumental practice and memorization. The questionnaire development included members of a UK/US/Brazil research team of music educators and performance science researchers. A pool of items was developed for each aspect of practice and memorization identified, based on literature, personal experiences, and adapted from existing questionnaires. Item development took the varying levels of cognitive and social development of the target populations into consideration. It also considered the diverse target learning environments. Items were initially grouped in accordance with a single underlying construct/behavior. The questionnaire comprised three sections: a demographics section, a section on practice (containing 29 items), and a section on memorization (containing 40 items). Next, the response process was considered and a 5-point Likert scale ranging from ‘always’ to ‘never’ with a verbal label and an image assigned to each response option was selected, following effective questionnaire design for children and youths. Finally, a pilot study was conducted with young orchestral musicians from diverse learning environments in Brazil and the United Kingdom. Data collection took place in either one-to-one or group settings to facilitate the participants. Cognitive interviews were utilized to establish response process validity by confirming the readability and accurate comprehension of the questionnaire items or highlighting the need for item revision. Internal reliability was investigated by measuring the consistency of the item groups using the statistical test Cronbach’s alpha. The pilot study successfully relied on the questionnaire to generate data about the engagement of young musicians of different levels and instruments, across different learning and cultural environments, in instrumental practice and memorization. Interaction analysis of the cognitive interviews undertaken with these participants, however, exposed the fact that certain items, and the response scale, could be interpreted in multiple ways. The questionnaire text was, therefore, revised accordingly. The low Cronbach’s Alpha scores of many item groups indicated another issue with the original questionnaire: its low level of internal reliability. Several reasons for each poor reliability can be suggested, including the issues with item interpretation revealed through interaction analysis of the cognitive interviews, the small number of participants (34), and the elusive nature of the construct in question. The revised questionnaire measures 78 specific behaviors or opinions. It can be seen to provide an efficient means of gathering information about the engagement of young musicians in practice and memorization on a large scale.

Keywords: cross-cultural, memorization, practice, questionnaire, young musicians

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4543 Using Eye-Tracking to Investigate TEM Validity and Design

Authors: Cao Xi

Abstract:

This paper reports a study which used eye-tracking to examine the cognitive validity of TEM 8(Test for English Majors, Band 8). The study investigated test takers' reading patterns on four -item types using eye-tracking, and interviews. Thirty participants completed 22 items on a computer, with the Tobii X2 Eye Tracker recording their eye movements on screen. Eleven students further participated in a recall interview while viewing video footage of their gaze patterns on the test. The findings will indicate that first, different reading item types will employ different cognitive processes; then different reading patterns for stronger and weaker test takers’on each item types. The implication of this study is to provide recommendations for the use of eye tracking technology in language research.

Keywords: eye tracking, reading patterns, test for english majors, cognitive validity

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4542 Analysis of Computer Science Papers Conducted by Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education at Secondary Level

Authors: Ameema Mahroof, Muhammad Saeed

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to analyze the papers of computer science conducted by Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education with reference to Bloom’s taxonomy. The present study has two parts. First, the analysis is done on the papers conducted by Board of Intermediate of Secondary Education on the basis of basic rules of item construction especially Bloom’s (1956). And the item analysis is done to improve the psychometric properties of a test. The sample included the question papers of computer science of higher secondary classes (XI-XII) for the years 2011 and 2012. For item analysis, the data was collected from 60 students through convenient sampling. Findings of the study revealed that in the papers by Board of intermediate and secondary education the maximum focus was on knowledge and understanding level and very less focus was on the application, analysis, and synthesis. Furthermore, the item analysis on the question paper reveals that item difficulty of most of the questions did not show a balanced paper, the items were either very difficult while most of the items were too easy (measuring knowledge and understanding abilities). Likewise, most of the items were not truly discriminating the high and low achievers; four items were even negatively discriminating. The researchers also analyzed the items of the paper through software Conquest. These results show that the papers conducted by Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education were not well constructed. It was recommended that paper setters should be trained in developing the question papers that can measure various cognitive abilities of students so that a good paper in computer science should assess all cognitive abilities of students.

Keywords: Bloom’s taxonomy, question paper, item analysis, cognitive domain, computer science

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4541 Factor Structure of the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Loneliness Scale: Gender, Age, and Marital Status Differences

Authors: Hamzeh Dodeen

Abstract:

This study aims at examining the effects of item wording effects on the factor structure of the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Loneliness Scale: gender, age, and marital status differences. A total of 2374 persons from the UAE participated, representing six different populations (teenagers/elderly, males/females, and married/unmarried). The results of the exploratory factor analysis using principal axis factoring with (oblique) rotation revealed that two factors were extracted from the 20 items of the scale. The nine positively worded items were highly loaded on the first factor, while 10 out of the 11 negatively worded items were highly loaded on the second factor. The two-factor solution was confirmed on the six different populations based on age, gender, and marital status. It has been concluded that the rating of the UCLA scale is affected by a response style related to the item wording.

Keywords: UCLA Loneliness Scale, loneliness, positively worded items, factor structure, negatively worded items

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4540 Forecasting Unusual Infection of Patient Used by Irregular Weighted Point Set

Authors: Seema Vaidya

Abstract:

Mining association rule is a key issue in data mining. In any case, the standard models ignore the distinction among the exchanges, and the weighted association rule mining does not transform on databases with just binary attributes. This paper proposes a novel continuous example and executes a tree (FP-tree) structure, which is an increased prefix-tree structure for securing compacted, discriminating data about examples, and makes a fit FP-tree-based mining system, FP enhanced capacity algorithm is used, for mining the complete game plan of examples by illustration incessant development. Here, this paper handles the motivation behind making remarkable and weighted item sets, i.e. rare weighted item set mining issue. The two novel brightness measures are proposed for figuring the infrequent weighted item set mining issue. Also, the algorithm are handled which perform IWI which is more insignificant IWI mining. Moreover we utilized the rare item set for choice based structure. The general issue of the start of reliable definite rules is troublesome for the grounds that hypothetically no inciting technique with no other person can promise the rightness of influenced theories. In this way, this framework expects the disorder with the uncommon signs. Usage study demonstrates that proposed algorithm upgrades the structure which is successful and versatile for mining both long and short diagnostics rules. Structure upgrades aftereffects of foreseeing rare diseases of patient.

Keywords: association rule, data mining, IWI mining, infrequent item set, frequent pattern growth

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
4539 French Managers and Their Subordinates’ Well-Being

Authors: B. Gangloff, N. Malleh

Abstract:

Well-being at work has many positive aspects. Our general hypothesis is that employees who feel well-being at work will be positively valued by their superiors, and that this positive value, which evokes the concept of social norms, allows us to assign to well-being at work a normative status. Three populations (line managers, students destined to become human resource managers, and employees) responded to a well-being questionnaire. Managers had to indicate, for each item, if they appreciated (or not) an employee feeling the well-being presented in the item; students had to indicate which items an employee should check if s/he wants to be positively (versus negatively) appreciated by his/her superior; and employees had to indicate to what degree each item corresponded to the well-being they used to feel. Three hypotheses are developed and confirmed: Managers positively value employees feeling some sense of well-being; students are aware of this positivity; spontaneously employees show a state of well-being, which means, knowing that spontaneous self-presentation is often produced by social desirability, that employees are aware of the well-being positivity. These data are discussed under a conceptual and applied angle.

Keywords: normativity, well-being at work, organization, evaluation

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
4538 Third Super-Harmonic Resonance in Vortex-Induced Vibration of a Pipeline Close to the Seabed

Authors: Yiming Jin, Ping Dong

Abstract:

The third super-harmonic resonance of a pipeline close to the seabed is investigated in this paper. To analyse the vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of the pipeline close to the seabed, the classic Van der Pol equation is extended with a nonlinear item. Then, on the base of the multi-scale method, the frequency-response curves of the pipeline with regard to the third super-harmonic resonance are studied with a series of parameters, such as the mass ratio, frequency, damp ratio and gap ratio. On the whole, the numerical results show that the characters of third super-harmonic resonance are quite from that of primary resonance, though with the same trend that the larger is the mass ratio, the smaller impact the gap ratio has on the frequency-response curves of the third super-harmonic resonance.

Keywords: the third super-harmonic resonance, gap ratio, vortex-induced vibration, multi-scale method

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
4537 The Study of Customer Satisfaction towards the Services of Baan Bueng Resort in Nongprue Subdistrict, Baanlamung District, Chonburi Province

Authors: Witthaya Mekhum, Jinjutha Srihera

Abstract:

This research aims to study customer satisfaction towards the services of Baan Bueng Resort in Nongprue Subdistrict, Baanlamung District, Chonburi Province. 108 sample were drawn by random sampling from Thai and foreign tourists at Baan Bueng Resort. Questionnaires were distributed. Data were analyzed using frequency, percentage, mean (X) and standard deviation (S.D.). The tool used in this research was questionnaire on satisfaction towards the services of Baan Bueng Resort in Nongprue Subdistrict, Baanlamung District, Chonburi Province. The questionnaire can be divided into 3 parts; i.e. Part 1: General information i.e. gender, age, educational level, occupation, income, and nationality, Part 2: Customer satisfaction towards the services of Baan Bueng Resort; and Part 3: Suggestions of respondents. It can be concluded that most of the respondents are male, aged between 25 – 35 years old with bachelor degree. Most of them are private company employees with income 10,000–20,000 Baht per month. The majority of customers are satisfied with the services at Baan Beung Resort. Overall satisfaction is at good level. Considering each item, the item with the highest satisfaction level is personality and manner of employees and promptness and accuracy of cashier staff. Overall satisfaction towards the cleanliness of the rooms is at very good level. When considering each item, the item with the highest satisfaction level is that the guest room is cleaned everyday, while the satisfaction towards the quality of food and beverages at Baan Bueng Resort in Nongprue Subdistrict, Baanlamung District, Chonburi Province is at very good level. The item with the highest satisfaction is hotel facilities.

Keywords: satisfaction study, service, hotel, customer

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
4536 Compliance of Systematic Reviews in Plastic Surgery with the PRISMA Statement: A Systematic Review

Authors: Seon-Young Lee, Harkiran Sagoo, Katherine Whitehurst, Georgina Wellstead, Alexander Fowler, Riaz Agha, Dennis Orgill

Abstract:

Introduction: Systematic reviews attempt to answer research questions by synthesising the data within primary papers. They are an increasingly important tool within evidence-based medicine, guiding clinical practice, future research and healthcare policy. We sought to determine the reporting quality of recent systematic reviews in plastic surgery. Methods: This systematic review was conducted in line with the Cochrane handbook, reported in line with the PRISMA statement and registered at the ResearchRegistry (UIN: reviewregistry18). MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched in 2013 and 2014 for systematic reviews by five major plastic surgery journals. Screening, identification and data extraction was performed independently by two teams. Results: From an initial set of 163 articles, 79 met the inclusion criteria. The median PRISMA score was 16 out of 27 items (59.3%; range 6-26, 95% CI 14-17). Compliance between individual PRISMA items showed high variability. It was poorest for items related to the use of review protocol (item 5; 5%) and presentation of data on risk of bias of each study (item 19; 18%), while being the highest for description of rationale (item 3; 99%) and sources of funding and other support (item 27; 95%), and for structured summary in the abstract (item 2; 95%). Conclusion: The reporting quality of systematic reviews in plastic surgery requires improvement. ‘Hard-wiring’ of compliance through journal submission systems, as well as improved education, awareness and a cohesive strategy among all stakeholders is called for.

Keywords: PRISMA, reporting quality, plastic surgery, systematic review, meta-analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
4535 Comparing Test Equating by Item Response Theory and Raw Score Methods with Small Sample Sizes on a Study of the ARTé: Mecenas Learning Game

Authors: Steven W. Carruthers

Abstract:

The purpose of the present research is to equate two test forms as part of a study to evaluate the educational effectiveness of the ARTé: Mecenas art history learning game. The researcher applied Item Response Theory (IRT) procedures to calculate item, test, and mean-sigma equating parameters. With the sample size n=134, test parameters indicated “good” model fit but low Test Information Functions and more acute than expected equating parameters. Therefore, the researcher applied equipercentile equating and linear equating to raw scores and compared the equated form parameters and effect sizes from each method. Item scaling in IRT enables the researcher to select a subset of well-discriminating items. The mean-sigma step produces a mean-slope adjustment from the anchor items, which was used to scale the score on the new form (Form R) to the reference form (Form Q) scale. In equipercentile equating, scores are adjusted to align the proportion of scores in each quintile segment. Linear equating produces a mean-slope adjustment, which was applied to all core items on the new form. The study followed a quasi-experimental design with purposeful sampling of students enrolled in a college level art history course (n=134) and counterbalancing design to distribute both forms on the pre- and posttests. The Experimental Group (n=82) was asked to play ARTé: Mecenas online and complete Level 4 of the game within a two-week period; 37 participants completed Level 4. Over the same period, the Control Group (n=52) did not play the game. The researcher examined between group differences from post-test scores on test Form Q and Form R by full-factorial Two-Way ANOVA. The raw score analysis indicated a 1.29% direct effect of form, which was statistically non-significant but may be practically significant. The researcher repeated the between group differences analysis with all three equating methods. For the IRT mean-sigma adjusted scores, form had a direct effect of 8.39%. Mean-sigma equating with a small sample may have resulted in inaccurate equating parameters. Equipercentile equating aligned test means and standard deviations, but resultant skewness and kurtosis worsened compared to raw score parameters. Form had a 3.18% direct effect. Linear equating produced the lowest Form effect, approaching 0%. Using linearly equated scores, the researcher conducted an ANCOVA to examine the effect size in terms of prior knowledge. The between group effect size for the Control Group versus Experimental Group participants who completed the game was 14.39% with a 4.77% effect size attributed to pre-test score. Playing and completing the game increased art history knowledge, and individuals with low prior knowledge tended to gain more from pre- to post test. Ultimately, researchers should approach test equating based on their theoretical stance on Classical Test Theory and IRT and the respective  assumptions. Regardless of the approach or method, test equating requires a representative sample of sufficient size. With small sample sizes, the application of a range of equating approaches can expose item and test features for review, inform interpretation, and identify paths for improving instruments for future study.

Keywords: effectiveness, equipercentile equating, IRT, learning games, linear equating, mean-sigma equating

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
4534 A Randomised Controlled Trial on the Nurse-Led Smartphone-Based Self-Management Programme for Type 2 Diabetes Patients with Poor Glycemic Control

Authors: Wenru Wang

Abstract:

Over the past decades, Asia has emerged as the ‘diabetes epicentre’ in the world due to rapid economic development, urbanization and nutrition transition. There is an urgent need to develop more effective and cost-effective care management strategies in response to this rising diabetes epidemic. This study aims to develop and compare a nurse-led smartphone-based self-management programme with an existing nurse-led diabetes service on health-related outcomes among type 2 diabetes patients with poor glycemic control in Singapore. We proposed a randomized controlled trial with pre- and repeated post-tests control group design. A total of 128 type 2 diabetes patients with poor glycemic control will be recruited from the diabetes clinic of an acute public hospital in Singapore through convenience sampling. Study participants will be either randomly allocated to the experimental group or control group. Outcome measures used will include the 10-item General Self-Efficacy Scale, 11-item Revised Summary of Diabetes Self-care Activities, and 19-item Diabetes-Dependent Quality of Life. Data will be collected at 3-time points: baseline, three months and six months from the baseline, respectively. It is expected that this programme will be an alternative offered to diabetes patients to master their self-care management skills, in addition to the existing diabetes service provided in diabetes clinics in Singapore hospitals. Also, the self-supporting and less resource-intensive nature of this programme, through the use of smartphone app as a mode of intervention delivery, will greatly reduce nurses’ direct contact time with patients and allow more time to be allocated to those who require more attention. The study has been registered with clinicaltrials.gov. The trial registration number is NCT03088475.

Keywords: type 2 diabetes, poor glycaemic control, nurse-led, smartphone-based, self-management, health-relevant outcomes

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
4533 Compliance of Systematic Reviews in Ophthalmology with the PRISMA Statement

Authors: Seon-Young Lee, Harkiran Sagoo, Reem Farwana, Katharine Whitehurst, Alex Fowler, Riaz Agha

Abstract:

Background/Aims: Systematic reviews and meta-analysis are becoming increasingly important way of summarizing research evidence. Researches in ophthalmology may represent further challenges, due to their potential complexity in study design. The aim of our study was to determine the reporting quality of systematic reviews and meta-analysis in ophthalmology with the PRISMA statement, by assessing the articles published between 2010 and 2015 from five major journals with the highest impact factor. Methods: MEDLINE and EMBASE were used to search systematic reviews published between January 2010 and December 2015, in 5 major ophthalmology journals: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Ophthalmology, Archives of Ophthalmology, American Journal of Ophthalmology, Journal of the American Optometric Association. Screening, identification, and scoring of articles were performed independently by two teams, followed by statistical analysis including the median, range, and 95% CIs. Results: 115 articles were involved. The median PRISMA score was 15 of 27 items (56%), with a range of 5-26 (19-96%) and 95% CI 13.9-16.1 (51-60%). Compliance was highest in items related to the description of rationale (item 3,100%) and inclusion of a structured summary in the abstract (item 2, 90%), while poorest in indication of review protocol and registration (item 5, 9%), specification of risk of bias affecting the cumulative evidence (item 15, 24%) and description of clear objectives in introduction (item 4, 26%). Conclusion: The reporting quality of systematic reviews and meta-analysis in ophthalmology need significant improvement. While the use of PRISMA criteria as a guideline before journal submission is recommended, additional research identifying potential barriers may be required to improve the compliance to the PRISMA guidelines.

Keywords: systematic reviews, meta-analysis, research methodology, reporting quality, PRISMA, ophthalmology

Procedia PDF Downloads 191