Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 56

Search results for: Babalola M. Florence

56 Strategic Workplace Security: The Role of Malware and the Threat of Internal Vulnerability

Authors: Modesta E. Ezema, Christopher C. Ezema, Christian C. Ugwu, Udoka F. Eze, Florence M. Babalola

Abstract:

Some employees knowingly or unknowingly contribute to loss of data and also expose data to threat in the process of getting their jobs done. Many organizations today are faced with the challenges of how to secure their data as cyber criminals constantly devise new ways of attacking the organization’s secret data. However, this paper enlists the latest strategies that must be put in place in order to protect these important data from being attacked in a collaborative work place. It also introduces us to Advanced Persistent Threats (APTs) and how it works. The empirical study was conducted to collect data from the employee in data centers on how data could be protected from malicious codes and cyber criminals and their responses are highly considered to help checkmate the activities of malicious code and cyber criminals in our work places.

Keywords: data, employee, malware, work place

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55 As a Little-Known Side a Passionate Statistician: Florence Nightingale

Authors: Gülcan Taşkıran, Ayla Bayık Temel

Abstract:

Background: Florence Nightingale, the modern founder of the nursing, is most famous for her role as a nurse. But not so much known about her contributions as a mathematician and statistician. Aim: In this conceptual article it is aimed to examine Florence Nightingale's statistics education, how she used her passion for statistics and applied statistical data in nursing care and her scientific contributions to statistical science. Design: Literature review method was used in the study. The databases of Istanbul University Library Search Engine, Turkish Medical Directory, Thesis Scanning Center of Higher Education Council, PubMed, Google Scholar, EBSCO Host, Web of Science were scanned to reach the studies. The keywords 'statistics' and 'Florence Nightingale' have been used in Turkish and English while being screened. As a result of the screening, totally 41 studies were examined from the national and international literature. Results: Florence Nightingale has interested in mathematics and statistics at her early ages and has received various training in these subjects. Lessons learned by Nightingale in a cultured family environment, her talent in mathematics and numbers, and her religious beliefs played a crucial role in the direction of the statistics. She was influenced by Quetelet's ideas in the formation of the statistical philosophy and received support from William Farr in her statistical studies. During the Crimean War, she applied statistical knowledge to nursing care, developed many statistical methods and graphics, so that she made revolutionary reforms in the health field. Conclusions: Nightingale's interest in statistics, her broad vision, the statistical ideas fused with religious beliefs, the innovative graphics she has developed and the extraordinary statistical projects that she carried out has been influential on the basis of her professional achievements. Florence Nightingale has also become a model for women in statistics. Today, using and teaching of statistics and research in nursing care practices and education programs continues with the light she gave.

Keywords: Crimean war, Florence Nightingale, nursing, statistics

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54 Item Response Calibration/Estimation: An Approach to Adaptive E-Learning System Development

Authors: Adeniran Adetunji, Babalola M. Florence, Akande Ademola

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In this paper, we made an overview on the concept of adaptive e-Learning system, enumerates the elements of adaptive learning concepts e.g. A pedagogical framework, multiple learning strategies and pathways, continuous monitoring and feedback on student performance, statistical inference to reach final learning strategy that works for an individual learner by “mass-customization”. Briefly highlights the motivation of this new system proposed for effective learning teaching. E-Review literature on the concept of adaptive e-learning system and emphasises on the Item Response Calibration, which is an important approach to developing an adaptive e-Learning system. This paper write-up is concluded on the justification of item response calibration/estimation towards designing a successful and effective adaptive e-Learning system.

Keywords: adaptive e-learning system, pedagogical framework, item response, computer applications

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53 The Role of Satisfaction on Performance among Afe Babalola University Team Sports

Authors: B. O. Diyaolu

Abstract:

Viability and competency during competition is the dream of every team sports so as to have a good result. But it seems factors abound which deter the performance of even a good sports team. Different individuals with different state of mind all come together to perform in team sports with different degree of satisfaction. This study investigated the role of satisfaction on performance among Afe Babalola University team sports. Descriptive survey research design was used and the population consists of all male and female athletes in the team sports that participated in the last 2019 Ekiti State Higher Institution games (ESHIGA). Total enumeration technique was used for the three team sports; football (44), basketball (24) and volleyball (24). A total of 92 participants were involved in the research. The instrument used for the study was a modified Athlete Satisfaction Scale (ASS). The questionnaire was divided into two sections. The Cronbach’s Alpha reliability coefficient of 0.71 was obtained. The hypotheses were tested at 0.05 significant levels. The completed questionnaire was collated, coded, and analyzed using descriptive statistics of frequency counts and percentage and inferential statistics of chi-square (X2). Findings of this study revealed that satisfaction significantly influences team sports performance among Athletes of Afe Babalola University. The responsibility of satisfying athlete lies on the coaches, fans, sports administrators as well as organizers of such event, as it is not only financial reward that gives satisfaction. The performance of a team sports is quiet important and its being determined by the degree of satisfaction of each individual that make up the team. All effort must be made to satisfy athlete in order to guarantee optimum performance.

Keywords: athlete satisfaction, optimum achievement, optimum performance, sports performance and team sports

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52 Ecological and Historical Components of the Cultural Code of the City of Florence as Part of the Edutainment Project Velonotte International

Authors: Natalia Zhabo, Sergey Nikitin, Marina Avdonina, Mariya Nikitina

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The analysis of the activities of one of the events of the international educational and entertainment project Velonotte is provided: an evening bicycle tour with children around Florence. The aim of the project is to develop methods and techniques for increasing the sensitivity of the cycling participants and listeners of the radio broadcasts to the treasures of the national heritage, in this case, to the historical layers of the city and the ecology of the Renaissance epoch. The block of educational tasks is considered, and the issues of preserving the identity of the city are discussed. Methods. The Florentine event was prepared during more than a year. First of all the creative team selected such events of the history of the city which seem to be important for revealing the specifics of the city, its spirit - from antiquity to our days – including the forums of Internet with broad public opinion. Then a route (seven kilometers) was developed, which was proposed to the authorities and organizations of the city. The selection of speakers was conducted according to several criteria: they should be authors of books, famous scientists, connoisseurs in a certain sphere (toponymy, history of urban gardens, art history), capable and willing to talk with participants directly at the points of stops, in order to make a dialogue and so that performances could be organized with their participation. The music was chosen for each part of the itinerary to prepare the audience emotionally. Cards for coloring with images of the main content of each stop were created for children. A site was done to inform the participants and to keep photos, videos and the audio files with speakers’ speech afterward. Results: Held in April 2017, the event was dedicated to the 640th Anniversary of the Filippo Brunelleschi, Florentine architect, and to the 190th anniversary of the publication of Florence guide by Stendhal. It was supported by City of Florence and Florence Bike Festival. Florence was explored to transfer traditional elements of culture, sometimes unfairly forgotten from ancient times to Brunelleschi and Michelangelo and Tschaikovsky and David Bowie with lectures by professors of Universities. Memorable art boards were installed in public spaces. Elements of the cultural code are deeply internalized in the minds of the townspeople, the perception of the city in everyday life and human communication is comparable to such fundamental concepts of the self-awareness of the townspeople as mental comfort and the level of happiness. The format of a fun and playful walk with the ICT support gives new opportunities for enriching the city's cultural code of each citizen with new components, associations, connotations.

Keywords: edutainment, cultural code, cycling, sensitization Florence

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51 Energy Efficiency Line Guides for School Buildings in Florence in a Postgraduate Master Course

Authors: Lucia Ceccherini Nelli, Alessandra Donato

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The ABITA Master course of the University of Florence offered by the Department of Architecture covers nearly all the energy-relevant issues that can arise in public and private companies and sectors. The main purpose of the Master course, active since 2003, is to analyse the energy consumption of building technologies, components, and structures at the conceptual design stage, so it could be very helpful, for designers, when making decisions related to the selection of the most suitable design alternatives and for the materials choice that will be used in an energy-efficient building. The training course provides a solid basis for increasing the knowledge and skills of energy managers and is developed with an emphasis on practical experiences related to the knowledge through case studies, measurements, and verification of energy-efficient solutions in buildings, in the industry and in the cities. The main objectives are: i)To raise the professional standards of those engaged in energy auditing, ii) To improve the practice of energy auditors by encouraging energy auditing professionals in a continuing education program of professional development, iii) Implement in the use of instrumentations for the typical measurements, iv) To propose an integrated methodology that links energy analysis tools with green building certification systems. This methodology will be applied at the early design stage of a project’s life. The final output of the practical training is to achieve an elevated professionalism in the study of environmental design and Energy management in buildings. The results are the redaction of line guides instruction for the energy refurbishment of Public schools in Florence. The school heritage of the Municipality of Florence requires interventions for the control of energy performance, as old construction buildings are often made without taking into account the necessary envelope performance. For this reason, every year, the Master's course aims to study groups of public schools to enable the Municipality to carry out energy redevelopment interventions on the existing building heritage. The future challenges of the education and training program are related to follow-up activities, the development of interactive tools and the curriculum's customization to meet the constantly growing needs of energy experts from industry.

Keywords: expert in energy, energy auditing, public buildings, thermal analysis

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50 Influence of Sports Participation on Academic Performance among Afe Babalola University Student-Athletes

Authors: B. O. Diyaolu

Abstract:

The web created by sport in academics has made it difficult for it to be separated from adolescent educational development. The enthusiasm expressed towards sport by students in higher institutions is quite enormous. Primarily, academic performance should be the pride of all students but whether sports affect the academic performance of student-athletes remain an unknown fact. This study investigated the influence of sports participation on academic performance among Afe Babalola University student-athletes. Ex post facto research design was used. Two groups of students were used for the study; Student-athlete (SA) and Regular Students (RS). Purposive sampling technique was used to select 224 student-athletes, only those that are regular in the university sports team training were considered and their records (i.e. name, department, level, matriculation number, and phone number) were collected through the assistance of their coaches. For the regular students, purposive sampling technique was used to select 224 participants, only those that have no interest in sports were considered and their records were retrieved from the college registration officer. The first and second semester examination results of the two groups were compared in 10 general study courses without their knowledge, using descriptive statistics of frequency counts, mean, and standard deviation. Out of the 10 compared courses, 7 courses result showed no significant difference between students-athlete and regular students while student-athletes perform better in 3 practically oriented courses. Sports role in academics is quite significant. Exposure to sports can help build the confidence that athletes need especially when it comes to practical courses. Student-athletes can perform better in academics if the environment is friendly and not intimidating. Lecturers and coaches need to work together in order to build a well cultured and intelligent graduate.

Keywords: academic performance, regular students, sports participation, student-athlete, university sports team

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49 Citation Analysis on the Articles published in Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences (BAJOPAS), from 2008-2020: An International Journal in Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria

Authors: G. A. Babalola, Yusuf Muhammad

Abstract:

An analysis was carried out on 19,759 citations appended to the References Section of 881 research articles published in Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences. It was found that journals publications were the most cited source of information among pure and applied sciences scientists with 12,090 (61.2%). The study also revealed that researchers in the field of pure and applied sciences used very current and up to date information sources in writing theirs articles with 10,091 (51.1%) citations and an average mean 11.1 per article in the journal.

Keywords: citation analysis, BAJOPAS, journal article, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria

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48 A Protocol for Usability of Teaching to Students with Learning Difficulties at University: An Italian Research

Authors: Tamara Zappaterra

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The Learning Difficulties have an evolutionary nature. The international research has focused its analysis on the characteristics of Learning Difficulties in childhood, but we are still far from a thorough understanding of the nature of such disorders in adolescence and adulthood. Such issues become even more urgent in the university context. Spelling, meaning, and appropriate use of the specific vocabulary of the various disciplines represent an additional challenge for the dyslexic student. This paper explores the characteristics of Learning Difficulties in adulthood and the impact with the university teaching. It presents the results of an interdisciplinary project (educational, medical and engineering area) at University of Florence. The purpose of project is to design of a protocol for usability of teaching and individual study at university level. The project, after a first reconnaissance of user needs that have been reached with the participation of the very same protagonists, is at the stage of guidelines drafting for inclusion and education, to be used by teachers, students and administrative staff. The methodologies used are a questionnaire built on purpose and a series of focus groups with users. For collecting data during the focus groups it was decided to use a method typical of the Quality Function Deployment, a tool originally used for quality management, whose versatility makes it easy to use in a number of different context. The paper presents furthermore the findings of the project, the most significant elements of the guidelines for teaching, i.e. the section for teachers, whose aim is to implement a Learning Difficulties-friendly teaching, even at the university level, in compliance with italian Law 170/2010. The Guidelines for the didactic and inclusion of Learning Difficulties students of the University of Florence are articulated around a global and systemic plan of action, meant to accompany and protect the students during their study career, even before enrolling at the University, with different declination: the logistical, relational, educational, and didactic levels have been considered. These guidelines in Italy received the endorsement of the CNUDD. It is a systemic intervention plan for Learning Difficulties students, which roused and keeps rousing the interest of all the university system, with a radical consideration on academic teaching. Since while we try to provide the best Learning Difficulties-friendly didactic in compliance with the rules, no one can be exempted from a wider consideration on the nature and the quality of university teaching offered to all students.

Keywords: didactic tools, learning difficulties, special and inclusive education, university teaching

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47 Climate Change and Poverty Nexus

Authors: O. Babalola Oladapo, A. Igbatayo Samuel

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Climate change and poverty are global issues which cannot be waved aside in welfare of the ever increasing population. The causes / consequences are far more elaborate in developing countries, including Nigeria, which poses threats to the existence of man and his environment. The dominant role of agriculture makes it obvious that even minor climate deteriorations can cause devastating socio-economic consequences. Policies to curb the climate change by reducing the consumption of fossil fuels like oil, gas or carbon compounds have significant economical impacts on the producers/suppliers of these fuels. Thus a unified political narrative that advances both agendas is needed, because their components of an environmental coin that needs to be addressed. The developed world should maintain a low-carbon growth & real commitment of 0.7% of gross national income, as aid to developing countries & renewable energy approach should be emphasized, hence global poverty combated.

Keywords: climate change, greenhouse gases, Nigeria, poverty

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46 The Roles of Pay Satisfaction and Intent to Leave on Counterproductive Work Behavior among Non-Academic University Employees

Authors: Abiodun Musbau Lawal, Sunday Samson Babalola, Uzor Friday Ordu

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Issue of employees counterproductive work behavior in government owned organization in emerging economies has continued to be a major concern. This study investigated the factors of pay satisfaction, intent to leave and age as predictors of counterproductive work behavior among non-academic employee in a Nigerian federal government owned university. A sample of 200 non-academic employees completed questionnaires. Hierarchical multiple regression was conducted to determine the contribution of each of the predictor variables on the criterion variable on counterproductive work behavior. Results indicate that age of participants (β = -.18; p < .05) significantly independently predicted CWB by accounting for 3% of the explained variance. Addition of pay satisfaction (β = -.14; p < .05) significantly accounted for 5% of the explained variance, while intent to leave (β = -.17; p < .05) further resulted in 8% of the explained variance in counterproductive work behavior. The importance of these findings with regards to reduction in counterproductive work behavior is highlighted.

Keywords: counterproductive, work behaviour, pay satisfaction, intent to leave

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45 The Effect of Peer Pressure and Leisure Boredom on Substance Use Among Adolescents in Low-Income Communities in Capetown

Authors: Gaironeesa Hendricks, Shazly Savahl, Maria Florence

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The aim of the study is to determine whether peer pressure and leisure boredom influence substance use among adolescents in low-income communities in Cape Town. Non-probability sampling was used to select 296 adolescents between the ages of 16–18 from schools located in two low-income communities. The measurement tools included the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test, the Resistance to Peer Influence and Leisure Boredom Scales. Multiple regression revealed that the combined influence of peer pressure and leisure boredom predicted substance use, while peer pressure emerged as a stronger predictor than leisure boredom on substance use among adolescents.

Keywords: substance use, peer pressure, leisure boredom, adolescents, multiple regression

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44 Effect of Community Education and Early Intervention and Rehabilitation in Minimising the Impact on Mental Illness

Authors: Akanle Florence Foluso, Richard Oni, Ola Tolulo, Lani Ofie

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Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. Society’s attitude to mental health and primary prevention is the key instrument in a better understanding of the mental illness. This paper attempted to investigate the effect of community education and early intervention and rehabilitation in minimizing the impact of mental illness. The study involved 50 adolescents who were randomly selected and assigned to two groups, the control and the experimental. Subjects in the experimental group were exposed to treatment, while those in the control group were not. The subject exposed to treatment had an increased understanding of what mental illness is. Those with mental illness were better understood, less feared, less discriminated against, and tertiary prevention strategies were reported to minimize the impact of mental illness when it occurs

Keywords: community, health, improve, status

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43 Development of Adhesive from Prosopis african Seed Endosperm (OKPEYI)

Authors: Florence Chinyere Nwangwu, Rosemary Ene

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An experimental study was carried out to develop an adhesive from Prosopis africana seed endosperm. The Prosopis seeds for this work were obtained from Enugu State in the South East part of Nigeria. The Prosopis seeds were prepared by separating the Prosopis endosperm from the seed coat and cotyledon. The dry adhesive gotten from the endosperm was later dissolved to get the adhesive solution. Confirmatory tests like viscosity, density, pH, and binding strength were carried out. The effect of time, temperature, concentration on the yield and properties of the adhesive were investigated. The results obtained showed that increase in concentration, time, temperature decreases the viscosity of the Prosopis adhesive and yield of Prosopis endosperm. It was also deduced that increase in viscosity increases the binding strength of the Prosopis adhesive. The percentage of the adhesive yield from Prosopis endosperm showed that the commercialization of the seed in Nigeria will be possible and profitable.

Keywords: adhesive, Prosopis, viscosity, endosperm

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42 Production of Biodiesel from Melon Seed Oil Using Sodium Hydroxide as a Catalyst

Authors: Ene Rosemary Ndidiamaka, Nwangwu Florence Chinyere

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The physiochemical properties of the melon seed oil was studied to determine its potentials as viable feed stock for biodisel production. The melon seed was extracted by solvent extraction using n-hexane as the extracting solvent. In this research, methanol was the alcohol used in the production of biodiesel, although alcohols like ethanol, propanol may also be used. Sodium hydroxide was employed for the catalysis. The melon seed oil was characterized for specific gravity, pH, ash content, iodine value, acid value, saponification value, peroxide value, free fatty acid value, flash point, viscosity, and refractive index using standard methods. The melon seed oil had very high oil content. Specific gravity and flash point of the oil is satisfactory. However, moisture content of the oil exceeded the stipulated ASRTM standard for biodiesel production. The overall results indicates that the melon seed oil is suitable for single-stage transesterification process to biodiesel production.

Keywords: biodiesel, catalyst, melon seed, transesterification

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41 Survey of Potential Adverse Health Effects of Mobile Phones, and Wireless Base Stations in Nigeria

Authors: Nureni A. Yekini, Isaac T. Babalola, Edwin E. Aighokhan, Agnes K. Akinwole, N. Stephen Igwe

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Survey was conducted to gather information on potential adverse health effects of Mobile Phones, and Telecommunication Tower Base Stations in Nigeria. Data was sourced from two sampled populations. Firstly from the people living in close proximity to base stations, and secondly from cell phone users. Questionnaire was used to gathered information from 574 people on thirteen non-specific health symptoms. Data obtained was presented and analyzed. The analysis shows that people living close to the based stations over a long period of time with or without cell phone, and also the heavy phone users with close proximity to the base stations are liable to have some potential health hazards, such as fatigue, sleep disturbances, headaches, feeling of discomfort, difficulty in concentrating, depression, memory loss, visual disruptions, irritability, hearing disruptions, skin problems, cardiovascular disorders, and dizziness.

Keywords: health hazards, wireless base stations, phone users, mobile phones, Nigeria

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40 The Imperative of Adult Education in the Knowledge Society

Authors: Najim Akorede Babalola

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Adult Education is a multi and interdisciplinary in nature that cut across different fields of study which includes education, social sciences, engineering even information technologies that dominate the contemporary world among others. In the past, Adult Education has been used as an instrument of civilization by teaching people how to read and write as well as earning a better living. The present world has witnessed a transition from industrial age to information age which is also known as knowledge society needs Adult Education for knowledge acquisition and update of existing knowledge. An individual needs Adult Education in either of its various forms (on-the-job-training, in-service training, extramural classes, vocational education, continuing education among others) in order to develop towards the information society trends; this is because Adult Education is a process of transforming an individual through acquisition of relevant skills and knowledge for personal as well as societal development. Evidence abounds in the literature that Adult Education has not only assisted people in the medieval period but still assisting people in this modern society in changing and transforming their lives for a better living. This study, therefore, raised a salient question that with different ideas and innovations brought by the contemporary world, is Adult Education relevant? It is on this basis that this study intends to examine the relevance of Adult Education in the past and present in order to determine its future relevance.

Keywords: adult education, multi and inter-disciplinary, knowledge society, skill acquisition

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39 Evaluation of the Impact of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) on the Accuracy of Preliminary Cost Estimates of Building Projects in Nigeria

Authors: Nofiu A. Musa, Olubola Babalola

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The study explored the effect of ICT on the accuracy of Preliminary Cost Estimates (PCEs) prepared by quantity surveying consulting firms in Nigeria for building projects, with a view to determining the desirability of the adoption and use of the technological innovation for preliminary estimating. Thus, data pertinent to the study were obtained through questionnaire survey conducted on a sample of one hundred and eight (108) quantity surveying firms selected from the list of registered firms compiled by the Nigerian Institute of Quantity Surveyors (NIQS), Lagos State Chapter through systematic random sampling. The data obtained were analyzed with SPSS version 17 using student’s t-tests at 5% significance level. The results obtained revealed that the mean bias and co-efficient of variation of the PCEs of the firms are significantly less at post ICT adoption period than the pre ICT adoption period, F < 0.05 in each case. The paper concluded that the adoption and use of the Technological Innovation (ICT) has significantly improved the accuracy of the Preliminary Cost Estimates (PCEs) of building projects, hence, it is desirable.

Keywords: accepted tender price, accuracy, bias, building projects, consistency, information and communications technology, preliminary cost estimates

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38 Challenges and Implications for Choice of Caesarian Section and Natural Birth in Pregnant Women with Pre-Eclampsia in Western Nigeria

Authors: F. O. Adeosun, I. O. Orubuloye, O. O. Babalola

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Although caesarean section has greatly improved obstetric care throughout the world, in developing countries there is a great aversion to caesarean section. This study was carried out to examine the rate at which pregnant women with pre-eclampsia choose caesarean section over natural birth. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 500 pre-eclampsia antenatal clients seen at the States University Teaching Hospitals in the last one year. The sample selection was purposive. Information on their educational background, beliefs and attitudes were collected. Data analysis was presented using simple percentages. Out of 500 women studied, 38% favored caesarean section while 62% were against it. About 89% of them understood what caesarean section is, 57.3% of those who understood what caesarean section is will still not choose it as an option. Over 85% of the women believed caesarean section is done for medical reasons. If caesarean section is given as an option for childbirth, 38% would go for it, 29% would try religious intervention, 5.5% would not choose it because of fear, while 27.5% would reject it because they believe it is culturally wrong. Majority of respondents (85%) who favored caesarean delivery are aware of the risk attached to choosing virginal birth but go an extra mile in sourcing funds for a caesarean session while over 64% cannot afford the cost of caesarean delivery. It is therefore pertinent to encourage research in prediction methods and prevention of occurrence, since this would assist patients to plan on how to finance treatment.

Keywords: caesarean section, choice, cost, pre eclampsia, prediction methods

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37 Towards Women Empowerment: An Examination of Gender Equity and Access to Tertiary Education in Nigeria

Authors: Funmilayo Florence Adegoke

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The study looks into the issue of gender equity among the staff and students of tertiary institutions in Osun State, Nigeria, specifically the study examined the opinion of the staff and students concerning equity of gender and also examined access to tertiary Education and related courses vis-à-vis gender. A total of 800 subjects consisting of six hundred and forty students, eighty lecturers and eighty non-teaching staff were drawn from four tertiary institutions namely a University, a Polytechnic and two Colleges of Education in the State. The main research instruments used for the study are two sets of questionnaires (one for the students and one for the staff) and records of students’ analyzed for the purpose of testing the research questions that were raised. The result showed among others that the staff and the students opined that there are generally inequalities in the attributes of the two genders. It was also found that significantly more boys enrolled in science and related courses than girls. Based on the findings, useful recommendations that would enhance the contribution of both male and female to science education and the nation as a whole were made.

Keywords: gender, access, tertiary, education, Nigeria

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36 Road Traffic Psychology: A Survey of Seat Belt Usage among Drivers in Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria

Authors: I. T. Adebayo, J. R. Aworemi, V. A. Ogundele, O. J. Babalola, J. O. Ajayi

Abstract:

The behavior of road users is a critical element in road safety. However, despite the proven effectiveness of the seat belt in reducing injury severity, some drivers still do not use the seat belt. The study, therefore, examined seat belt usage among drivers in Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria. Face-to-face surveys were conducted to elicit data on seat belt usage and road behaviors on 54,038 drivers plying the General-Lautech Road in Ogbomoso over a period of six months. Data collected were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Findings revealed that seat belt usage was moderate among private car drivers in the morning (52.75 percent) and much lower in the evening (37.67 percent), while less than 30 percent of the commercial bus/taxi drivers used the seat during both periods. The paired T-test revealed a significant difference in seat belt usage by all the drivers in the morning and in the evening, as indicated with a T value of 113.977 and the level of significance p < 0.05. The study concluded that there is a significant difference in the usage of the seat belt by both private car and commercial bus/taxi drivers in Ogbomoso as most drivers made use of the seat belt, especially in the morning, to avoid being delayed when flagged down and fined for non-compliance with seat belt usage by the road traffic law enforcement agents. However, most of the drivers cited inadequate/lack of enforcement of compulsory use of seat belts by the relevant agencies and discomfort as the major reasons for not using the seat belt while driving.

Keywords: drivers, road , seat belt, traffic psychology

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35 Production of Linamarase from Lactobacillus delbrueckii NRRL B-763

Authors: Ogbonnaya Nwokoro, Florence O. Anya

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Nutritional factors relating to the production of linamarase from Lactobacillus delbrueckii NRRL B–763 were investigated. The microorganism was cultivated in a medium containing 1% linamarin. Enzyme was produced using a variety of carbon substrates but the highest enzyme activity was detected in the presence of salicin (522 U/ml) after 48 h while the lowest yield was observed with CM cellulose (38 U/ml) after 72 h. Enzyme was not produced in the presence of cellobiose. Among a variety of nitrogen substrates tested, peptone supported maximum enzyme production (412 U/ml) after 48 h. Lowest enzyme production was observed with urea (40 U/ml). Organic nitrogen substrates generally supported higher enzyme productivity than inorganic nitrogen substrates. Enzyme activity was observed in the presence of Mn2+ (% relative activity = 216) while Hg2+ was inhibitory (% relative activity = 28). Locally-formulated media were comparable to MRS broth in supporting linamarase production by the bacterium. Higher enzyme activity was produced in media with surfactant than in media without surfactant. The enzyme may be useful in enhanced degradation of cassava cyanide.

Keywords: linamarase, locally formulated media, carbon substrates, nitrogen substrates, metal ions

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34 Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in West African Semi-Arid Lands Facing Climate Change

Authors: Mamadou Diop, Florence Crick, Momadou Sow, Kate Elizabeth Gannon

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Understanding SME leaders’ responses to climate is essential to cope with ongoing changes in temperature and rainfall. This study analyzes the response of SME leaders to the adverse effects of climate change in semi-arid lands (SAL) in Senegal. Based on surveys administrated to 161 SME leaders, this research shows that 91% of economic units are affected by climatic conditions, although 70% do not have a plan to deal with climate risks. Economic actors have striven to take measures to adapt. However, their efforts are limited by various obstacles accentuated by a lack of support from public authorities. In doing so, substantial political, institutional and financial efforts at national and local levels are needed to promote an enabling environment for economic actors to adapt. This will focus on information and training about the threats and opportunities related to global warming, the creation of an adaptation support fund to support local initiatives and the improvement of the institutional, regulatory and political framework.

Keywords: small and medium-sized enterprises, climate change, adaptation, semi-arid lands

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33 Fermented Unripe Plantain (Musa paradisiacal) Peel Meal as a Replacement for Maize in the Diet of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Fingerlings

Authors: N. A. Bamidele, S. O. Obasa, I. O. Taiwo, I. Abdulraheem, O. C. Odebiyi, A. A. Adeoye, O. E. Babalola, O. V. Uzamere

Abstract:

A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effect of fermented unripe plantain peel meal (FUP) on growth performance, nutrients digestibility and economic indices of production of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings. Fingerlings (150) of Nile tilapia (1.70±0.1g) were stocked at 10 per plastic tank. Five iso-nitrogenous diets containing 40% crude protein in which maize meal was replaced by fermented unripe plantain peel meal at 0% (FUP0), 25% (FUP25), 50% (FUP50), 75% (FUP75) and 100% (FUP100) were formulated and prepared. The fingerlings were fed at 5% body weight per day for 56 days. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in all the growth parameters among the treatments. Feed conversion ratio of 1.35 in fish fed diet FUP25 was not significantly different (P > 0.05) from 1.42 of fish fed diet FUP0. Apparent protein digestibility of 86.94% in fish fed diet FUP100 was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than 70.37% in fish fed diet FUP0 while apparent carbohydrate of 88.34% in fish fed diet FUP0 was significantly different (p < 0.05) from 70.29% of FUP100. Red blood cell (4.30 ml/mm3) of fish fed diet FUP100 was not significantly different from 4.13 ml/mm3 of fish fed diet FUP50. The highest percentage profit of 88.85% in fish fed diet FUP100 was significantly higher than 66.68% in fish fed diet FUP0 while the profit index of 1.89 in fish fed diet FUP100 was significantly different from 1.67 in fish fed diet FUP0. Therefore, fermented unripe plantain peel meal can completely replace maize in the diet of O. niloticus fingerlings.

Keywords: fermentation, fish diets, plantain peel, tilapia

Procedia PDF Downloads 450
32 Contributions of Microbial Activities to Tomato Growth and Yield under an Organic Production System

Authors: O. A. Babalola, A. F Adekunle, F. Oladeji, A. T. Osungbade, O. A. Akinlaja

Abstract:

Optimizing microbiological activities in an organic crop production system is crucial to the realization of optimum growth and development of the crops. Field and pot experiments were conducted to assess soil microbial activities, growth and yield of tomato varieties in response to 4 rates of composted plant and animal residues. The compost rates were 0, 5, 10 and 20 t ha-1, and improved Ibadan and Ibadan local constituted the varieties. Fungi population, microbial biomass nitrogen, cellulase and proteinase activities were significantly higher (P≤ 0.05) at the rhizosphere of the local variety than that of improved variety. This led to a significantly higher number of branches, plant height, leaf area, number of fruits and less days to maturity in the local variety. Furthermore, compost-amended soil had significantly higher microbial populations, microbial biomass N, P and C, enzyme activities, soil N, P and organic carbon than control, but amendment of 20 t ha-1 gave significantly higher values than other compost rates. Consequently, growth parameters and tissue N significantly increased in all compost treatments while dry matter yield and weight of fruits were significantly higher in soil amended with 20 t ha-1. Correlation analysis showed that microbial activities at 6 weeks after transplanting (6 WAT) were more consistently and highly correlated with growth and yield parameters. It was concluded that microbial activities could be optimized to improve the yield of the two tomato varieties in an organic production system, through the application of compost, particularly at 20 t ha-1.

Keywords: compost, microbial activities, microbial contribution, tomato growth and yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 130
31 Economics of Fish-Plantain Integrated Farm Enterprise in Southern Nigeria

Authors: S. O. Obasa, J. A. Soaga, O. I. Afolabi, N. A. Bamidele, O. E. Babalola

Abstract:

Attempt to improve the income of the rural population is a welcome development in Nigeria. Integrated fish-crop farming has been suggested as a means of raising farm income, reducing wastage and mitigating the risk component in production through the complementarity gain. A feeding trial was carried out to investigate the replacement of maize with fermented unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) peel meal in the diet of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. The economics of the integrated enterprise was assessed using budgetary analysis techniques. The analysis incorporated the material and labour costs as well as the returns from sale of matured fish and plantain. A total of 60 fingerlings of Nile tilapia (1.70±0.1 g) were stocked at 10 per plastic tank. Two iso-nitrogenous diets containing 35% crude protein in which maize meal was replaced by fermented unripe plantain peel meal at 0% (FUP0/Control diet), and 100% (FUP100) were formulated and prepared. The fingerlings were fed at 5% body weight per day for 56 days. Lowest feed conversion ratio of 1.39 in fish fed diet FUP100 was not significantly different (P > 0.05) from the highest 1.42 of fish fed the Control diet. The highest percentage profit of 88.85% in fish fed diet FUP100 was significantly higher than 66.68% in fish fed diet FUP0, while the profit index of 1.89 in fish fed diet FUP100 was significantly different from 1.67 in fish fed diet FUP0. Therefore, fermented unripe plantain peel meal can completely replace maize in the diet of O. niloticus fingerlings. Profitability assessment shows that the net income from the integration was ₦ 463,000 per hectare and the integration resulted to an increase of ₦ 87,750.00 representing a 12.2% increase than in separate production.

Keywords: fish-crop, income, Nile tilapia, waste management

Procedia PDF Downloads 393
30 Exploring the Power of Words: Domesticating the Competence/Competency Concept in Ugandan Organisations

Authors: John C. Munene, Florence Nansubuga

Abstract:

The study set out to examine a number of theories that have directly or indirectly implied that words are potent but that the potency depends on the context or practice in which they are utilised. The theories include the Freudian theory of Cathexis, which directly suggests that ambiguous events when named become potent as well as the word that is used to name them. We briefly examine Psychological differentiation, which submit that ambiguity is often a result of failure to distinguish figure from ground. The investigate Prospecting Theory, which suggests that in a situation when people have to make decisions, they have options to utilise intuition or reasoned judgment. It suggests that more often than not, the tendency is to utilise intuition especially when generic heuristics such as representativeness and similarity are available. That usage of these heuristics may depend on lack of a salience or accessibility of the situation due to ambiguity. We also examine Activity Theory, which proposes that meaning of words emerge directly and dialectically from the activities in which they are used. The paper argues that the power of words will depend on either or all of the theories mentioned above. To examine this general proposition we test the utilization of a generic competence framework in a local setting. The assumption is that generic frameworks are inherently ambiguous and lack the potency normally associated with the competence concept in the management of human resources. A number of case studies provide initial supporting evidence for the general proposition.

Keywords: competence, meaning, operationalisation, power of words

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
29 Profitability Analysis of Investment in Oil Palm Value Chain in Osun State, Nigeria

Authors: Moyosooore A. Babalola, Ayodeji S. Ogunleye

Abstract:

The main focus of the study was to determine the profitability of investment in the Oil Palm value chain of Osun State, Nigeria in 2015. The specific objectives were to describe the socio-economic characteristics of Oil Palm investors (producers, processors and marketers), to determine the profitability of the investment to investors in the Oil Palm value chain, and to determine the factors affecting the profitability of the investment of the oil palm investors in Osun state. A sample of 100 respondents was selected in this cross-sectional survey. Multiple stage sampling procedure was used for data collection of producers and processors while purposive sampling was used for marketers. Data collected was analyzed using the following analytical tools: descriptive statistics, budgetary analysis and regression analysis. The results of the gross margin showed that the producers and processors were more profitable than the marketers in the oil palm value chain with their benefit-cost ratios as 1.93, 1.82 and 1.11 respectively. The multiple regression analysis showed that education and years of experience were significant among marketers and producers while age and years of experience had significant influence on the gross margin of processors. Based on these findings, improvement on the level of education of oil palm investors is recommended in order to address the relatively low access to post-primary education among the oil palm investors in Osun State. In addition to this, it is important that training be made available to oil palm investors. This will improve the quality of their years of experience, ensuring that it has a positive influence on their gross margin. Low access to credit among processors and producer could be corrected by making extension services available to them. Marketers would also greatly benefit from subsidized prices on oil palm products to increase their gross margin, as the huge percentage of their total cost comes from acquiring palm oil.

Keywords: oil palm, profitability analysis, regression analysis, value chain

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
28 Hybrid Approach for Software Defect Prediction Using Machine Learning with Optimization Technique

Authors: C. Manjula, Lilly Florence

Abstract:

Software technology is developing rapidly which leads to the growth of various industries. Now-a-days, software-based applications have been adopted widely for business purposes. For any software industry, development of reliable software is becoming a challenging task because a faulty software module may be harmful for the growth of industry and business. Hence there is a need to develop techniques which can be used for early prediction of software defects. Due to complexities in manual prediction, automated software defect prediction techniques have been introduced. These techniques are based on the pattern learning from the previous software versions and finding the defects in the current version. These techniques have attracted researchers due to their significant impact on industrial growth by identifying the bugs in software. Based on this, several researches have been carried out but achieving desirable defect prediction performance is still a challenging task. To address this issue, here we present a machine learning based hybrid technique for software defect prediction. First of all, Genetic Algorithm (GA) is presented where an improved fitness function is used for better optimization of features in data sets. Later, these features are processed through Decision Tree (DT) classification model. Finally, an experimental study is presented where results from the proposed GA-DT based hybrid approach is compared with those from the DT classification technique. The results show that the proposed hybrid approach achieves better classification accuracy.

Keywords: decision tree, genetic algorithm, machine learning, software defect prediction

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
27 Care and Support for Infants and Toddlers with Special Needs

Authors: Florence A. Undiyaundeye, Aniashie Akpanke

Abstract:

Early identification of developmental disorders in infants and toddlers is critical for the well being of children. It is also an integral function of the primary care medical provider and the early care given in the home or crèche. This paper is focused at providing information on special need infants and toddlers and strategies to support them in developmental concern to cope with the challenges in and out of the classroom and to interact with their peers without stigmatization and inferiority complex. The target children are from birth through three years of age. There is a strong recommendation for developmental surveillance to be incorporated at every well child preventive care program in training and practical stage of formal school settings. The paper posits that any concerns raised during surveillance should be promptly addressed with standardized developmental screening by appropriate health service providers. In addition screening tests should be administered regularly at age 9+, 19+ and 30 months of these infants. The paper also establishes that the early identification of these developmental challenges of the infants and toddlers should lead to further developmental and medical evaluation, diagnosis and treatment, including early developmental school intervention, control and teaching and learning integration and inclusion for proper career build up. Children diagnosed with developmental disorders should be identified as children with special needs so that management is initiated and its underlying etiology may also drive a range of treatment of the child, to parents. Conselling and school integration as applicable to the child’s specific need and care for sustenance in societal functioning.

Keywords: care, special need, support, infants and toddlers, management and developmental disorders

Procedia PDF Downloads 309