Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2185

Search results for: association rule

2185 On an Approach for Rule Generation in Association Rule Mining

Authors: B. Chandra

Abstract:

In Association Rule Mining, much attention has been paid for developing algorithms for large (frequent/closed/maximal) itemsets but very little attention has been paid to improve the performance of rule generation algorithms. Rule generation is an important part of Association Rule Mining. In this paper, a novel approach named NARG (Association Rule using Antecedent Support) has been proposed for rule generation that uses memory resident data structure named FCET (Frequent Closed Enumeration Tree) to find frequent/closed itemsets. In addition, the computational speed of NARG is enhanced by giving importance to the rules that have lower antecedent support. Comparative performance evaluation of NARG with fast association rule mining algorithm for rule generation has been done on synthetic datasets and real life datasets (taken from UCI Machine Learning Repository). Performance analysis shows that NARG is computationally faster in comparison to the existing algorithms for rule generation.

Keywords: knowledge discovery, association rule mining, antecedent support, rule generation

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2184 Data Stream Association Rule Mining with Cloud Computing

Authors: B. Suraj Aravind, M. H. M. Krishna Prasad

Abstract:

There exist emerging applications of data streams that require association rule mining, such as network traffic monitoring, web click streams analysis, sensor data, data from satellites etc. Data streams typically arrive continuously in high speed with huge amount and changing data distribution. This raises new issues that need to be considered when developing association rule mining techniques for stream data. This paper proposes to introduce an improved data stream association rule mining algorithm by eliminating the limitation of resources. For this, the concept of cloud computing is used. Inclusion of this may lead to additional unknown problems which needs further research.

Keywords: data stream, association rule mining, cloud computing, frequent itemsets

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
2183 Review and Comparison of Associative Classification Data Mining Approaches

Authors: Suzan Wedyan

Abstract:

Data mining is one of the main phases in the Knowledge Discovery Database (KDD) which is responsible of finding hidden and useful knowledge from databases. There are many different tasks for data mining including regression, pattern recognition, clustering, classification, and association rule. In recent years a promising data mining approach called associative classification (AC) has been proposed, AC integrates classification and association rule discovery to build classification models (classifiers). This paper surveys and critically compares several AC algorithms with reference of the different procedures are used in each algorithm, such as rule learning, rule sorting, rule pruning, classifier building, and class allocation for test cases.

Keywords: associative classification, classification, data mining, learning, rule ranking, rule pruning, prediction

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
2182 Application of Association Rule Using Apriori Algorithm for Analysis of Industrial Accidents in 2013-2014 in Indonesia

Authors: Triano Nurhikmat

Abstract:

Along with the progress of science and technology, the development of the industrialized world in Indonesia took place very rapidly. This leads to a process of industrialization of society Indonesia faster with the establishment of the company and the workplace are diverse. Development of the industry relates to the activity of the worker. Where in these work activities do not cover the possibility of an impending crash on either the workers or on a construction project. The cause of the occurrence of industrial accidents was the fault of electrical damage, work procedures, and error technique. The method of an association rule is one of the main techniques in data mining and is the most common form used in finding the patterns of data collection. In this research would like to know how relations of the association between the incidence of any industrial accidents. Therefore, by using methods of analysis association rule patterns associated with combination obtained two iterations item set (2 large item set) when every factor of industrial accidents with a West Jakarta so industrial accidents caused by the occurrence of an electrical value damage = 0.2 support and confidence value = 1, and the reverse pattern with value = 0.2 support and confidence = 0.75.

Keywords: association rule, data mining, industrial accidents, rules

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
2181 Semi-Automatic Method to Assist Expert for Association Rules Validation

Authors: Amdouni Hamida, Gammoudi Mohamed Mohsen

Abstract:

In order to help the expert to validate association rules extracted from data, some quality measures are proposed in the literature. We distinguish two categories: objective and subjective measures. The first one depends on a fixed threshold and on data quality from which the rules are extracted. The second one consists on providing to the expert some tools in the objective to explore and visualize rules during the evaluation step. However, the number of extracted rules to validate remains high. Thus, the manually mining rules task is very hard. To solve this problem, we propose, in this paper, a semi-automatic method to assist the expert during the association rule's validation. Our method uses rule-based classification as follow: (i) We transform association rules into classification rules (classifiers), (ii) We use the generated classifiers for data classification. (iii) We visualize association rules with their quality classification to give an idea to the expert and to assist him during validation process.

Keywords: association rules, rule-based classification, classification quality, validation

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
2180 Analysis of Causality between Defect Causes Using Association Rule Mining

Authors: Sangdeok Lee, Sangwon Han, Changtaek Hyun

Abstract:

Construction defects are major components that result in negative impacts on project performance including schedule delays and cost overruns. Since construction defects generally occur when a few associated causes combine, a thorough understanding of defect causality is required in order to more systematically prevent construction defects. To address this issue, this paper uses association rule mining (ARM) to quantify the causality between defect causes, and social network analysis (SNA) to find indirect causality among them. The suggested approach is validated with 350 defect instances from concrete works in 32 projects in Korea. The results show that the interrelationships revealed by the approach reflect the characteristics of the concrete task and the important causes that should be prevented.

Keywords: causality, defect causes, social network analysis, association rule mining

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
2179 Comparative Regionalism: The Case of Financial Integration in Association of Southeast Asian Nations

Authors: Sharon Kun-Amornpong

Abstract:

In this paper, ASEAN financial integration will be discussed from the perspective of the rule of law. The methodology of the paper is comparative regionalism. It will compare the role of the rule of law in ASEAN financial integration with that of the European Union with particular focuses on, for example, institutions and values. The paper argues that in the realm of financial integration, the rule of law is one of the most important factors that could help strengthen and promote financial integration in ASEAN. This is despite the fact that the ‘ASEAN Way’ emphasises non-interference and utilises a consensus-based cooperation rather than formal institutions. Nevertheless, the rule of law for ASEAN financial integration should be situated in its own historical, cultural, and political contexts. In addition, in the case of ASEAN, the rule of law cannot take root if it does not come from the demand of the people in this region. For instance, a reform or creation of legal institutions should not be imposed by international financial institutions. The paper will conclude that law has a normative force. It could shape expectation of market participants and promote deeper financial integration if norms that the law generates have become a significant norm in the society or industry.

Keywords: Association of Southeast Asian Nations, ASEAN, comparative regionalism, financial integration, the rule of law

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2178 An Optimized Association Rule Mining Algorithm

Authors: Archana Singh, Jyoti Agarwal, Ajay Rana

Abstract:

Data Mining is an efficient technology to discover patterns in large databases. Association Rule Mining techniques are used to find the correlation between the various item sets in a database, and this co-relation between various item sets are used in decision making and pattern analysis. In recent years, the problem of finding association rules from large datasets has been proposed by many researchers. Various research papers on association rule mining (ARM) are studied and analyzed first to understand the existing algorithms. Apriori algorithm is the basic ARM algorithm, but it requires so many database scans. In DIC algorithm, less amount of database scan is needed but complex data structure lattice is used. The main focus of this paper is to propose a new optimized algorithm (Friendly Algorithm) and compare its performance with the existing algorithms A data set is used to find out frequent itemsets and association rules with the help of existing and proposed (Friendly Algorithm) and it has been observed that the proposed algorithm also finds all the frequent itemsets and essential association rules from databases as compared to existing algorithms in less amount of database scan. In the proposed algorithm, an optimized data structure is used i.e. Graph and Adjacency Matrix.

Keywords: association rules, data mining, dynamic item set counting, FP-growth, friendly algorithm, graph

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2177 Privacy Preserving in Association Rule Mining on Horizontally Partitioned Database

Authors: Manvar Sagar, Nikul Virpariya

Abstract:

The advancement in data mining techniques plays an important role in many applications. In context of privacy and security issues, the problems caused by association rule mining technique are investigated by many research scholars. It is proved that the misuse of this technique may reveal the database owner’s sensitive and private information to others. Many researchers have put their effort to preserve privacy in Association Rule Mining. Amongst the two basic approaches for privacy preserving data mining, viz. Randomization based and Cryptography based, the later provides high level of privacy but incurs higher computational as well as communication overhead. Hence, it is necessary to explore alternative techniques that improve the over-heads. In this work, we propose an efficient, collusion-resistant cryptography based approach for distributed Association Rule mining using Shamir’s secret sharing scheme. As we show from theoretical and practical analysis, our approach is provably secure and require only one time a trusted third party. We use secret sharing for privately sharing the information and code based identification scheme to add support against malicious adversaries.

Keywords: Privacy, Privacy Preservation in Data Mining (PPDM), horizontally partitioned database, EMHS, MFI, shamir secret sharing

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
2176 An Approach for Association Rules Ranking

Authors: Rihab Idoudi, Karim Saheb Ettabaa, Basel Solaiman, Kamel Hamrouni

Abstract:

Medical association rules induction is used to discover useful correlations between pertinent concepts from large medical databases. Nevertheless, ARs algorithms produce huge amount of delivered rules and do not guarantee the usefulness and interestingness of the generated knowledge. To overcome this drawback, we propose an ontology based interestingness measure for ARs ranking. According to domain expert, the goal of the use of ARs is to discover implicit relationships between items of different categories such as ‘clinical features and disorders’, ‘clinical features and radiological observations’, etc. That’s to say, the itemsets which are composed of ‘similar’ items are uninteresting. Therefore, the dissimilarity between the rule’s items can be used to judge the interestingness of association rules; the more different are the items, the more interesting the rule is. In this paper, we design a distinct approach for ranking semantically interesting association rules involving the use of an ontology knowledge mining approach. The basic idea is to organize the ontology’s concepts into a hierarchical structure of conceptual clusters of targeted subjects, where each cluster encapsulates ‘similar’ concepts suggesting a specific category of the domain knowledge. The interestingness of association rules is, then, defined as the dissimilarity between corresponding clusters. That is to say, the further are the clusters of the items in the AR, the more interesting the rule is. We apply the method in our domain of interest – mammographic domain- using an existing mammographic ontology called Mammo with the goal of deriving interesting rules from past experiences, to discover implicit relationships between concepts modeling the domain.

Keywords: association rule, conceptual clusters, interestingness measures, ontology knowledge mining, ranking

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
2175 Association Rules Mining Task Using Metaheuristics: Review

Authors: Abir Derouiche, Abdesslem Layeb

Abstract:

Association Rule Mining (ARM) is one of the most popular data mining tasks and it is widely used in various areas. The search for association rules is an NP-complete problem that is why metaheuristics have been widely used to solve it. The present paper presents the ARM as an optimization problem and surveys the proposed approaches in the literature based on metaheuristics.

Keywords: Optimization, Metaheuristics, Data Mining, Association rules Mining

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2174 Analysis of Users’ Behavior on Book Loan Log Based on Association Rule Mining

Authors: Kanyarat Bussaban, Kunyanuth Kularbphettong

Abstract:

This research aims to create a model for analysis of student behavior using Library resources based on data mining technique in case of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. The model was created under association rules, apriori algorithm. The results were found 14 rules and the rules were tested with testing data set and it showed that the ability of classify data was 79.24 percent and the MSE was 22.91. The results showed that the user’s behavior model by using association rule technique can use to manage the library resources.

Keywords: behavior, data mining technique, a priori algorithm, knowledge discovery

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2173 A Study on the Nostalgia Contents Analysis of Hometown Alumni in the Online Community

Authors: Heejin Yun, Juanjuan Zang

Abstract:

This study aims to analyze the text terms posted on an online community of people from the same hometown and to understand the topic and trend of nostalgia composed online. For this purpose, this study collected 144 writings which the natives of Yeongjong Island, Incheon, South-Korea have posted on an online community. And it analyzed association relations. As a result, online community texts means that just defining nostalgia as ‘a mind longing for hometown’ is not an enough explanation. Second, texts composed online have abstractness rather than persons’ individual stories. This study figured out the relationship that had the most critical and closest mutual association among the terms that constituted nostalgia through literature research and association rule concerning nostalgia. The result of this study has a characteristic that it summed up the core terms and emotions related to nostalgia.

Keywords: nostalgia, cultural memory, data mining, association rule

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2172 Implementation Association Rule Method in Determining the Layout of Qita Supermarket as a Strategy in the Competitive Retail Industry in Indonesia

Authors: Dwipa Rizki Utama, Hanief Ibrahim

Abstract:

The development of industry retail in Indonesia is very fast, various strategy was undertaken to boost the customer satisfaction and the productivity purchases to boost the profit, one of which is implementing strategies layout. The purpose of this study is to determine the layout of Qita supermarket, a retail industry in Indonesia, in order to improve customer satisfaction and to maximize the rate of products’ sale as a whole, so as the infrequently purchased products will be purchased. This research uses a literature study method, and one of the data mining methods is association rule which applied in market basket analysis. Data were tested amounted 100 from 160 after pre-processing data, so then the distribution department and 26 departments corresponding to the data previous layout will be obtained. From those data, by the association rule method, customer behavior when purchasing items simultaneously can be studied, so then the layout of the supermarket based on customer behavior can be determined. Using the rapid miner software by the minimal support 25% and minimal confidence 30% showed that the 14th department purchased at the same time with department 10, 21st department purchased at the same time with department 13, 15th department purchased at the same time with department 12, 14th department purchased at the same time with department 12, and 10th department purchased at the same time with department 14. From those results, a better supermarket layout can be arranged than the previous layout.

Keywords: industry retail, strategy, association rule, supermarket

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2171 Corruption and the Entrenchment of the Rule of Law in Nigeria

Authors: Grace Titilayo, Kolawole-Amao

Abstract:

Influence and authority of law within society should be respected by all and sundry regardless of individual status. Rule of law implies that every citizen is subject to the law. In a society governed by the rule of law, government and its officials and agents are also held subject to and accountable under the law. Law should not be employed to suit individual tenets. Where the rule of law operates, the government is the government of law and not of men. Corruption is a factor that kills the growth of the rule of law. Where corruption flourishes, the rule of law fails, simply put, corruption is a threat to the rule of law. It bastardized and undermines the rule of law and good governance principles - where men rule at their discretion rather than the use of the rule of law which makes governance processes ineffective. Corruption is prevalent all over the world, and has extremely far reaching effects. Many of the world’s greatest challenges have been amplified by corruption, for example poverty, unequal distribution of wealth and resources, and world hunger and it weakens the application and the entrenchment of the rule of law. It saps citizens' trust in their governments and undercuts government credibility. This paper will discuss the rule of law in the present democratic system in Nigeria, the impact of corruption on the rule of law in Nigeria and how corruption undermines and subverts the entrenchment of the rule of law in the present day Nigeria.

Keywords: rule of law, corruption, Nigeria, influence, authority

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2170 Pruning Algorithm for the Minimum Rule Reduct Generation

Authors: Sahin Emrah Amrahov, Fatih Aybar, Serhat Dogan

Abstract:

In this paper we consider the rule reduct generation problem. Rule Reduct Generation (RG) and Modified Rule Generation (MRG) algorithms, that are used to solve this problem, are well-known. Alternative to these algorithms, we develop Pruning Rule Generation (PRG) algorithm. We compare the PRG algorithm with RG and MRG.

Keywords: rough sets, decision rules, rule induction, classification

Procedia PDF Downloads 389
2169 An Adaptive Distributed Incremental Association Rule Mining System

Authors: Adewale O. Ogunde, Olusegun Folorunso, Adesina S. Sodiya

Abstract:

Most existing Distributed Association Rule Mining (DARM) systems are still facing several challenges. One of such challenges that have not received the attention of many researchers is the inability of existing systems to adapt to constantly changing databases and mining environments. In this work, an Adaptive Incremental Mining Algorithm (AIMA) is therefore proposed to address these problems. AIMA employed multiple mobile agents for the entire mining process. AIMA was designed to adapt to changes in the distributed databases by mining only the incremental database updates and using this to update the existing rules in order to improve the overall response time of the DARM system. In AIMA, global association rules were integrated incrementally from one data site to another through Results Integration Coordinating Agents. The mining agents in AIMA were made adaptive by defining mining goals with reasoning and behavioral capabilities and protocols that enabled them to either maintain or change their goals. AIMA employed Java Agent Development Environment Extension for designing the internal agents’ architecture. Results from experiments conducted on real datasets showed that the adaptive system, AIMA performed better than the non-adaptive systems with lower communication costs and higher task completion rates.

Keywords: adaptivity, data mining, distributed association rule mining, incremental mining, mobile agents

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2168 An Enhanced MEIT Approach for Itemset Mining Using Levelwise Pruning

Authors: Tanvi P. Patel, Warish D. Patel

Abstract:

Association rule mining forms the core of data mining and it is termed as one of the well-known methodologies of data mining. Objectives of mining is to find interesting correlations, frequent patterns, associations or casual structures among sets of items in the transaction databases or other data repositories. Hence, association rule mining is imperative to mine patterns and then generate rules from these obtained patterns. For efficient targeted query processing, finding frequent patterns and itemset mining, there is an efficient way to generate an itemset tree structure named Memory Efficient Itemset Tree. Memory efficient IT is efficient for storing itemsets, but takes more time as compare to traditional IT. The proposed strategy generates maximal frequent itemsets from memory efficient itemset tree by using levelwise pruning. For that firstly pre-pruning of items based on minimum support count is carried out followed by itemset tree reconstruction. By having maximal frequent itemsets, less number of patterns are generated as well as tree size is also reduced as compared to MEIT. Therefore, an enhanced approach of memory efficient IT proposed here, helps to optimize main memory overhead as well as reduce processing time.

Keywords: association rule mining, itemset mining, itemset tree, meit, maximal frequent pattern

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2167 Improved FP-Growth Algorithm with Multiple Minimum Supports Using Maximum Constraints

Authors: Elsayeda M. Elgaml, Dina M. Ibrahim, Elsayed A. Sallam

Abstract:

Association rule mining is one of the most important fields of data mining and knowledge discovery. In this paper, we propose an efficient multiple support frequent pattern growth algorithm which we called “MSFP-growth” that enhancing the FP-growth algorithm by making infrequent child node pruning step with multiple minimum support using maximum constrains. The algorithm is implemented, and it is compared with other common algorithms: Apriori-multiple minimum supports using maximum constraints and FP-growth. The experimental results show that the rule mining from the proposed algorithm are interesting and our algorithm achieved better performance than other algorithms without scarifying the accuracy.

Keywords: association rules, FP-growth, multiple minimum supports, Weka tool

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2166 The Lexicographic Serial Rule

Authors: Thi Thao Nguyen, Andrew McLennan, Shino Takayama

Abstract:

We study the probabilistic allocation of finitely many indivisible objects to finitely many agents. Well known allocation rules for this problem include random priority, the market mechanism proposed by Hylland and Zeckhauser [1979], and the probabilistic serial rule of Bogomolnaia and Moulin [2001]. We propose a new allocation rule, which we call the lexico-graphic (serial) rule, that is tailored for situations in which each agent's primary concern is to maximize the probability of receiving her favourite object. Three axioms, lex efficiency, lex envy freeness and fairness, are proposed and fully characterize the lexicographic serial rule. We also discuss how our axioms and the lexicographic rule are related to other allocation rules, particularly the probabilistic serial rule.

Keywords: Efficiency, Envy free, Lexicographic, Probabilistic Serial Rule

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2165 Forecasting Unusual Infection of Patient Used by Irregular Weighted Point Set

Authors: Seema Vaidya

Abstract:

Mining association rule is a key issue in data mining. In any case, the standard models ignore the distinction among the exchanges, and the weighted association rule mining does not transform on databases with just binary attributes. This paper proposes a novel continuous example and executes a tree (FP-tree) structure, which is an increased prefix-tree structure for securing compacted, discriminating data about examples, and makes a fit FP-tree-based mining system, FP enhanced capacity algorithm is used, for mining the complete game plan of examples by illustration incessant development. Here, this paper handles the motivation behind making remarkable and weighted item sets, i.e. rare weighted item set mining issue. The two novel brightness measures are proposed for figuring the infrequent weighted item set mining issue. Also, the algorithm are handled which perform IWI which is more insignificant IWI mining. Moreover we utilized the rare item set for choice based structure. The general issue of the start of reliable definite rules is troublesome for the grounds that hypothetically no inciting technique with no other person can promise the rightness of influenced theories. In this way, this framework expects the disorder with the uncommon signs. Usage study demonstrates that proposed algorithm upgrades the structure which is successful and versatile for mining both long and short diagnostics rules. Structure upgrades aftereffects of foreseeing rare diseases of patient.

Keywords: association rule, data mining, IWI mining, infrequent item set, frequent pattern growth

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
2164 A Hybrid Approach for Thread Recommendation in MOOC Forums

Authors: Ahmad. A. Kardan, Amir Narimani, Foozhan Ataiefard

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Recommender Systems have been developed to provide contents and services compatible to users based on their behaviors and interests. Due to information overload in online discussion forums and users diverse interests, recommending relative topics and threads is considered to be helpful for improving the ease of forum usage. In order to lead learners to find relevant information in educational forums, recommendations are even more needed. We present a hybrid thread recommender system for MOOC forums by applying social network analysis and association rule mining techniques. Initial results indicate that the proposed recommender system performs comparatively well with regard to limited available data from users' previous posts in the forum.

Keywords: association rule mining, hybrid recommender system, massive open online courses, MOOCs, social network analysis

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2163 The Judge Citizens Have in Mind, Comparative Lessons about the Rule of Law Matrix

Authors: Daniela Piana

Abstract:

This work casts light on what lies underneath the rule of law. In order to do so it unfolds the arguments in three main steps. The first one is a pars destruens: the mainstreaming scholarship on judicial independence and judicial accountability is questioned under the large amount of data we have at our disposal (this step is accomplished in the first two paragraphs). The second step is the reframe of the concept of the rule of law and the consequent rise of a hidden dimension, which has been so far largely underexplored: responsiveness. The third step consists into offering the readers empirical support and drawing thereby consequences in terms of policy design and citizens engagement into the rule of law implementation (these two steps are accomplished in the third paragraph).

Keywords: rule of law, accountability, trust, citizens

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2162 Negation of Insinuation Rule on the Ideas of Imam Khomeini (RA)

Authors: Seyed Jafar Hosseini, Rahim Vakilzadeh, Hassan Movassagi

Abstract:

‘Negation of insinuation’ or ‘negation of dominance’ Rule is considered as one of the most important principles governing the policies and external relations of Islamic and religious countries. The stable and influential role which this rule puts on the behavior and policies of the Islamic religion and foreign policies of Islamic countries shows the importance of the presented topic. Among Islamic scholars, Imam Khomeini (RA) has been paid most attention to this rule on governing issues. In the present study, we are going to investigate the nature and dimensions of Negation of insinuation rule in Imam Khomeini's ideas with an analytical and descriptive method. The obtained results show that Negation of insinuation rule is an effective and main guidance in Imam's thoughts and behavior.

Keywords: negation of insinuation Rule, Imam Khomeini (RA), cultural domination, political domination, economic domination

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2161 Complex Event Processing System Based on the Extended ECA Rule

Authors: Kwan Hee Han, Jun Woo Lee, Sung Moon Bae, Twae Kyung Park

Abstract:

ECA (Event-Condition-Action) languages are largely adopted for event processing since they are an intuitive and powerful paradigm for programming reactive systems. However, there are some limitations about ECA rules for processing of complex events such as coupling of event producer and consumer. The objective of this paper is to propose an ECA rule pattern to improve the current limitations of ECA rule, and to develop a prototype system. In this paper, conventional ECA rule is separated into 3 parts and each part is extended to meet the requirements of CEP. Finally, event processing logic is established by combining the relevant elements of 3 parts. The usability of proposed extended ECA rule is validated by a test scenario in this study.

Keywords: complex event processing, ECA rule, Event processing system, event-driven architecture, internet of things

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2160 Optimum Dispatching Rule in Solar Ingot-Wafer Manufacturing System

Authors: Wheyming Song, Hung-Hsiang Lin, Scott Lian

Abstract:

In this research, we investigate the optimal dispatching rule for machines and manpower allocation in the solar ingot-wafer systems. The performance of the method is measured by the sales profit for each dollar paid to the operators in a one week at steady-state. The decision variables are identification-number of machines and operators when each job is required to be served in each process. We propose a rule which is a function of operator’s ability, corresponding salary, and standing location while in the factory. The rule is named ‘Multi-nominal distribution dispatch rule’. The proposed rule performs better than many traditional rules including generic algorithm and particle swarm optimization. Simulation results show that the proposed Multi-nominal distribution dispatch rule improvement on the sales profit dramatically.

Keywords: dispatching, solar ingot, simulation, flexsim

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2159 Judicial Independence and Preservation of the Rule of Law in Africa: The Case of South Africa

Authors: Mbuzeni Mathenjwa

Abstract:

Upon their independence, most African countries adopted constitutions that proclaim respect for the rule of law. The decision to constitutionalise the rule of law is basically informed by the countries’ experience during the colonial era which was characterised by discrimination on various grounds including race, gender and religion. Despite the promise to be bound by and adhere to the rule of law, disrespect for the rule of law has become a norm in the African continent. This is evident from the reported incidence of abuse of power, failure to perform obligations imposed by law and flagrant disregard of the law by the Executive including the heads of states in the continent. In some African countries including South Africa, the courts of law have been approached to rule on the legality of the decisions of the executives, taken contrary to the prescripts of the law. South African Courts have laid down a number of decisions wherein they found that the conduct of the executive contravenes the rule of law. Consequently decisions of the executive have been declared invalid by courts. In this regard courts have become a safety net in preserving the rule of law in. Accordingly, this paper discusses the role of the courts in preserving the rule of law in Africa. This it does by explaining the notion of judicial independence and the doctrine of the rule of law. The explanation on the notion of judicial independence is relevant because only an independent judiciary can effectively review and set aside the decision of the executive including the president of a country. Furthermore, a comparative overview of the enforcement of the rule of law in African countries is done. The methods used for this research is literature review, and study of legislation and case law in selected African countries relating to the independence of the judiciary and the rule of law. Finally, a conclusion is drawn on the role of the independent judiciary to preserve the rule of law in Africa.

Keywords: Africa, constitutions, independence, judiciary

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2158 Complex Decision Rules in the Form of Decision Trees

Authors: Avinash S. Jagtap, Sharad D. Gore, Rajendra G. Gurao

Abstract:

Decision rules become more and more complex as the number of conditions increase. As a consequence, the complexity of the decision rule also influences the time complexity of computer implementation of such a rule. Consider, for example, a decision that depends on four conditions A, B, C and D. For simplicity, suppose each of these four conditions is binary. Even then the decision rule will consist of 16 lines, where each line will be of the form: If A and B and C and D, then action 1. If A and B and C but not D, then action 2 and so on. While executing this decision rule, each of the four conditions will be checked every time until all the four conditions in a line are satisfied. The minimum number of logical comparisons is 4 whereas the maximum number is 64. This paper proposes to present a complex decision rule in the form of a decision tree. A decision tree divides the cases into branches every time a condition is checked. In the form of a decision tree, every branching eliminates half of the cases that do not satisfy the related conditions. As a result, every branch of the decision tree involves only four logical comparisons and hence is significantly simpler than the corresponding complex decision rule. The conclusion of this paper is that every complex decision rule can be represented as a decision tree and the decision tree is mathematically equivalent but computationally much simpler than the original complex decision rule

Keywords: strategic, tactical, operational, adaptive, innovative

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2157 Finding the Association Rule between Nursing Interventions and Early Evaluation Results of In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest to Improve Patient Safety

Authors: Wei-Chih Huang, Pei-Lung Chung, Ching-Heng Lin, Hsuan-Chia Yang, Der-Ming Liou

Abstract:

Background: In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest (IHCA) threaten life of the inpatients, cause serious effect to patient safety, quality of inpatients care and hospital service. Health providers must identify the signs of IHCA early to avoid the occurrence of IHCA. This study will consider the potential association between early signs of IHCA and the essence of patient care provided by nurses and other professionals before an IHCA occurs. The aim of this study is to identify significant associations between nursing interventions and abnormal early evaluation results of IHCA that can assist health care providers in monitoring inpatients at risk of IHCA to increase opportunities of IHCA early detection and prevention. Materials and Methods: This study used one of the data mining techniques called association rules mining to compute associations between nursing interventions and abnormal early evaluation results of IHCA. The nursing interventions and abnormal early evaluation results of IHCA were considered to be co-occurring if nursing interventions were provided within 24 hours of last being observed in abnormal early evaluation results of IHCA. The rule based methods were utilized 23.6 million electronic medical records (EMR) from a medical center in Taipei, Taiwan. This dataset includes 733 concepts of nursing interventions that coded by clinical care classification (CCC) codes and 13 early evaluation results of IHCA with binary codes. The values of interestingness and lift were computed as Q values to measure the co-occurrence and associations’ strength between all in-hospital patient care measures and abnormal early evaluation results of IHCA. The associations were evaluated by comparing the results of Q values and verified by medical experts. Results and Conclusions: The results show that there are 4195 pairs of associations between nursing interventions and abnormal early evaluation results of IHCA with their Q values. The indication of positive association is 203 pairs with Q values greater than 5. Inpatients with high blood sugar level (hyperglycemia) have positive association with having heart rate lower than 50 beats per minute or higher than 120 beats per minute, Q value is 6.636. Inpatients with temporary pacemaker (TPM) have significant association with high risk of IHCA, Q value is 47.403. There is significant positive correlation between inpatients with hypovolemia and happened abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), Q value is 127.49. The results of this study can help to prevent IHCA from occurring by making health care providers early recognition of inpatients at risk of IHCA, assist with monitoring patients for providing quality of care to patients, improve IHCA surveillance and quality of in-hospital care.

Keywords: in-hospital cardiac arrest, patient safety, nursing intervention, association rule mining

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2156 Unveiling Special Policy Regime, Judgment, and Taylor Rules in Tunisia

Authors: Yosra Baaziz, Moez Labidi

Abstract:

Given limited research on monetary policy rules in revolutionary countries, this paper challenges the suitability of the Taylor rule in characterizing the monetary policy behavior of the Tunisian Central Bank (BCT), especially in turbulent times. More specifically, we investigate the possibility that the Taylor rule should be formulated as a threshold process and examine the validity of such nonlinear Taylor rule as a robust rule for conducting monetary policy in Tunisia. Using quarterly data from 1998:Q4 to 2013:Q4 to analyze the movement of nominal short-term interest rate of the BCT, we find that the nonlinear Taylor rule improves its performance with the advent of special events providing thus a better description of the Tunisian interest rate setting. In particular, our results show that the adoption of an appropriate nonlinear approach leads to a reduction in the errors of 150 basis points in 1999 and 2009, and 60 basis points in 2011, relative to the linear approach.

Keywords: policy rule, central bank, exchange rate, taylor rule, nonlinearity

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