Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1216

Search results for: autism spectrum

1216 The Miller Umwelt Assessment Scale: A Tool for Planning Interventions for Children on the Autism Spectrum

Authors: Sonia Mastrangelo

Abstract:

The Miller Umwelt Assessment Scale is a useful tool for obtaining information about the developmental capacities of children on the autism spectrum. The assessment, made up of 19 tasks in the areas of: body organization, contact with surroundings, expressive and receptive communication, representation, and social-emotional development, has been used with much success over the past 40 years. While many assessments are difficult to administer to children on the autism spectrum, the simplicity of the MUAS reveals key strengths and challenges for both low and high functioning children on the spectrum. The results guide parents and clinicians in providing a curriculum and/or home program that moves children up the developmental ladder.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, assessment, reading intervention, Miller method

Procedia PDF Downloads 462
1215 Effect of Early Therapeutic Intervention for the Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Quasi Experimental Design

Authors: Sultana Razia

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of early therapeutic intervention on children with an autism spectrum disorder. Participants were 140 children with autism spectrum disorder from Autism Corner in a selected rehabilitation center of Bangladesh. This study included children who are at aged of 18-month to 36-month and who were taking occupational therapy and speech and language therapy from the autism center. They were primarily screened using M-CHAT; however, children with other physical disabilities or medical conditions were excluded. 3-months interventions of 6 sessions per week are a minimum of 45-minutes long per session, one to one interaction followed by parent-led structured home-based therapy were provided. The results indicated that early intensive therapeutic intervention improves understanding, social skills and sensory skills. It can be concluded that therapeutic early intervention has a positive effect on diminishing symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Keywords: autism, m-chat, reciprocal social behavior, CRP

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1214 Role of Environmental Risk Factors in Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: Dost Muhammad Halepoto, Laila AL-Ayadhi

Abstract:

Neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism can cause lifelong disability. Genetic and environmental factors are believed to contribute to the development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but relatively few studies have considered potential environmental risks. Several industrial chemicals and other environmental exposures are recognized causes of neurodevelopmental disorders and subclinical brain dysfunction. The toxic effects of such chemicals in the developing human brain are not known. This review highlights the role of environmental risk factors including drugs, toxic chemicals, heavy metals, pesticides, vaccines, and other suspected neurotoxicants including persistent organic pollutants for ASD. It also provides information about the environmental toxins to yield new insights into factors that affect autism risk as well as an opportunity to investigate the relation between autism and environmental exposure.

Keywords: Autism Spectrum Disorder, ASD, environmental factors, neurodevelopmental disorder

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1213 The Role of Cognitive Control and Social Camouflage Associated with Social Anxiety Autism Spectrum Conditions

Authors: Siqing Guan, Fumiyo Oshima, Eiji Shimizu, Nozomi Tomita, Toru Takahashi, Hiroaki Kumano

Abstract:

Risk factors for social anxiety in autism spectrum conditions involve executive attention, emotion regulation, and thought regulation as processes of cognitive dysregulation. Social camouflaging behaviors as strategies used to mask and/or compensate for autism characteristics during social interactions in autism spectrum conditions have also been emphasized. However, the role of cognitive dysregulation and social camouflaging related to social anxiety in autism spectrum conditions has not been clarified. Whether these factors are specific to social anxiety in autism spectrum conditions or common to social anxiety independent of autism spectrum conditions needs to be clarified. Here, we explored risk factors specific to social anxiety in autism spectrum conditions and general risk factors for social anxiety independent of autism spectrum conditions. From the Japanese participants in early adulthood (age=18~39) of the online survey in Japan, those who exceeded the Japanese version Autism-Spectrum Quotient cutoff (33 points or more )were divided into the autism spectrum conditions group (ASC; N=255, mean age=32.08, SD age=5.16)and those who did not exceed the cutoff were divided into the non-autism spectrum conditions group (Non-ASC; N=255, mean age=31.70, SD age=5.09). Using the Japanese versions of the Social Phobia Scale, the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale, and the Short Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale, a composite score for social anxiety was calculated using a method of principal. We also measured emotional control difficulties using the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, executive attention using the Effortful Control Scale for Adults, rumination using the Rumination-Reflection Questionnaire, and worry using the Penn State Worry Questionnaire. This study was passed through the review of the Ethics Committee. No conflicts of interest. Multiple regression analysis with forced entry method was used to predict social anxiety in the ASC and non-ASC groups separately, based on executive attention, emotion dysregulation, worry, rumination, and social camouflage. In the ASC group, emotion dysregulation (β=.277, p<.001), worry (β=.162, p<.05), assimilation (β=.308, p<.001) and masking (β=.275, p<.001) were significant predictors of social anxiety (F (7,247) = 45.791, p <.001, R2=.565). In the non-ASC groups,emotion dysregulation (β=.171, p<.05), worry (β=.344,p <.001), assimilation (β=.366,p <.001) and executive attention (β=-.132,p <.05) were significant predictors of social anxiety (F (7,207) =47.333, p <.001, R2=.615).The findings suggest that masking was shown to be a risk factor for social anxiety specific to autism spectrum conditions, while emotion dysregulation, worry, and assimilation were shown to be common risk factors for social anxiety, regardless of autism spectrum conditions. In addition, executive attention is a risk factor for social anxiety without autism spectrum conditions.

Keywords: autism spectrum, cognitive control, social anxiety, social camouflaging

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1212 Nine Foundational Interventions for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Authors: Jennie Long, Marjorie Bock

Abstract:

Although the professional literature related to Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has focused on successful interventions and strategies, there is a lack of documentation regarding which of these methods and supports are most foundational and essential for classroom use. Specifically, literature does not define the core foundational interventions and strategies that would be elemental for educators to use with students with an ASD diagnosis. From the increase in prevalence of autism spectrum disorders, to the challenge students with ASD pose in classrooms, to the requirement to implement evidence-based practice, rises an enormous challenge in the field of education. Foundational interventions should be in place the first day the student enters the classroom. The nine interventions are foundational in nature and because of the dramatic increase in prevalence there is currently a need for classroom programs to provide the foundation of basic educational skills as well as the specialty skills specific to the area of ASD utilizing the most current research. This article presents nine evidence-based intervention categories for implementation with students on the spectrum.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, classroom, evidence-based, foundational

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1211 The University of California at Los Angeles-Young Autism Project: A Systematic Review of Replication Studies

Authors: Michael Nicolosi, Karola Dillenburger

Abstract:

The University of California at Los Angeles-Young Autism Project (UCLA-YAP) provides one of the best-known and most researched comprehensive applied behavior analysis-based intervention models for young children on the autism spectrum. This paper reports a systematic literature review of replication studies over more than 30 years. The data show that the relatively high-intensity UCLA-YAP model can be greatly beneficial for children on the autism spectrum, particularly with regard to their cognitive functioning and adaptive behavior. This review concludes that, while more research is always welcome, the impact of the UCLA-YAP model on autism interventions is justified by more than 30 years of outcome evidence.

Keywords: ABA, applied behavior analysis, autism, California at Los Angeles Young Autism project, intervention, Lovaas, UCLA-YAP

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1210 Analyzing Initial Efficacy of Animal Assisted Therapy for Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Case Study

Authors: Georgitta Joseph Valiyamattam

Abstract:

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a growing phenomenon in India with over 10 million cases being recorded. Children with various levels and forms of ASD can be a major challenge both within the context of regular or special schooling. According to statistics by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), one in every 88 children today is born with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) against a ratio of one in 110 few years back. The growing number of children with autism spectrum disorders places greater demands on health services and necessitates the roping in of non-traditional modes of treatment to complement or even substitute traditional health care methods when possible. Research evidence, particularly from Western countries, as also some parts of Asia, suggests that animal-assisted therapy, or zootherapy, may be used as an effective individual or complementary therapeutic tool for increasing overall wellbeing and quality of life among children with Autism spectrum disorders. The paper through a case-study format seeks to evaluate the efficacy (initial stage) of animal assisted therapy (canine-therapy with visiting dog: breed-Golden retriever), as a non-conventional treatment modality for improving cognitive functioning and managing the behavioral and psychological symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders. As a pilot study forming the basis for subsequent larger application of AAT, it analyses areas of efficacy as also the challenges faced, both with regard to the mode of therapy, as also particular to the Indian setting.

Keywords: animal assisted therapy, autism, canine therapy, analyzing initial efficacy

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1209 A Chronological and Comparative Examination of Traditional American Post-Secondary Institutions of Higher Learning Delivery of Instruction for College Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Authors: Shannon Melideo

Abstract:

Post-secondary schools that provide specialized instruction for college students with special needs have been in existence for some time in the United States of America. Whether students experience learning disabilities, visual impairments, physical limitations, Autism Spectrum Disorders or any other issue that impacts their learning are able to attend universities that intentionally cater to their needs. While this selection of post-secondary education may be preferred by some students, other have sought a different experience. Over the last ten years, the number of students with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) attending traditional universities in the United States of America has increased significantly. Students with ASD tend to select smaller, private institutions that appear to offer more personal attention and services. This paper will examine how traditional American universities are preparing for this relatively new group of students in their college classrooms. This paper will provide a brief historical timeline of access to university instruction for students with Autism Spectrum Disorders, and how and if students with ASD are received in colleges around the globe, and best research supported practices for success.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorders, access to learning, university instruction, accommodations

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1208 Ecological Systems Theory, the SCERTS Model, and the Autism Spectrum, Node and Nexus

Authors: C. Surmei

Abstract:

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex developmental disorder that can affect an individual’s (but is not limited to) cognitive development, emotional development, language acquisition and the capability to relate to others. Ecological Systems Theory is a sociocultural theory that focuses on environmental systems with which an individual interacts. The SCERTS Model is an educational approach and multidisciplinary framework that addresses the challenges confronted by individuals on the autism spectrum and other developmental disabilities. To aid the understanding of ASD and educational philosophies for families, educators, and the global community alike, a Comparative Analysis was undertaken to examine key variables (the child, society, education, nurture/care, relationships, communication). The results indicated that the Ecological Systems Theory and the SCERTS Model were comparable in focus, motivation, and application, attaining to a viable and notable relationship between both theories. This paper unpacks two child development philosophies and their relationship to each other.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, ecological systems theory, education, SCERTS model

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
1207 Experiences and Perceptions of Parents Raising Children with Autism

Authors: Tamene Keneni, Tibebu Yohannes

Abstract:

The prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in general and autism in particular is on the rise globally, and the need for evidence-based intervention and care for children with autism has grown, too. However, evidence on autism is scanty in developing countries, including Ethiopia. With the aim to help fill the gap and paucity in research into the issue, the main purpose of this study is to explore, better understand, and document the experiences and perceptions of parents of children with autism. To this end, we used a qualitative survey to collect data from a convenient sample of parents raising a child with autism. The data collected were subjected to qualitative analysis that yielded several themes and subthemes, including late diagnosis, parents’ reactions to diagnosis, sources of information during and after diagnosis, differing reactions to having a child with autism from siblings, extended family members, and the larger community, attribution of autism to several causes by the community, lack of recognition and open discussion of autism and lack of appropriated public educational and health care services for children with autism and their parents. The themes and subthemes identified were discussed in light of existing literature, and implications for practice were drawn.

Keywords: ASD, autism, children with autism, raising children with autism

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1206 The Use of Robots for Children and Young People on the Autism Spectrum: A Systematic Review

Authors: Athanasia Kouroupa

Abstract:

Existing research highlights the effect of employing robots in sessions with children and young people on the autism spectrum to develop and practice skills important to independent and functional living. The systematic review aimed to explore the way robots has been used with children and young people on the autism spectrum and the effect of using robots as a therapeutic interface. An electronic bibliographic database search using a combination of expressions was conducted. Data were extracted in relation to robot types, session characteristics, and outcomes and analysed using narrative synthesis. Forty studies were selected in the review. Humanoid robots were predominantly used to practice a range of social and communication skills. On average, children and young people on the autism spectrum had five sessions, twice a week, for approximately half an hour. Having sessions with a robot was commonly equal to or more effective than 'traditional' interventions delivered by a human therapist or having no therapy. The review reported encouraging outcomes to practice and develop a range of skills with children and young people on the autism spectrum. These findings suggest that some form of intervention is favourable over no intervention. However, there is little evidence for the relative effectiveness of the robot-based intervention as an innovative alternative option. Many of the studies had methodological weaknesses that make them vulnerable to bias. There is a need for further research that adheres to strict scientific methods making direct comparisons between different treatment options.

Keywords: autism, children, robots, outcomes

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1205 Checklist for Autism Spectrum Disorder as an In-Class Observation Tool for Teachers

Authors: Werona Król-Gierat

Abstract:

The majority of Special Educational Needs checklists are intended for preliminary screening in the special education disability process. The aim of the present paper is to present their potential usefulness as in-class observation tools for teachers working with students who have already been diagnosed with a disorder. A checklist may complement and organize information about a given child, which is indispensable to improve his or her condition. The case of a Polish boy with autism will serve as an example. Last but not the least, alternative uses of checklists are suggested in the article.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorders, case study, checklist, observation tool

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
1204 Challenges That People with Autism and Caregivers Face in Public Environments

Authors: Andrei Pomana, Graham Brewer

Abstract:

Autism is a lifelong developmental disorder that affects verbal and non-verbal communication, behaviour and sensory processing. As a result, people on the autism spectrum have a difficult time when confronted with environments that have high levels of sensory stimulation. This is often compounded by the inability to properly communicate their wants and needs to caregivers. The capacity for people with autism to integrate depends on their ability to at least tolerate highly stimulating public environments for short periods of time. The overall challenges that people on the spectrum and their caregivers face need to be established in order to properly create and assess methods to mitigate the effects of high stimulus public spaces. The paper aims to identify the challenges that people on the autism spectrum and their caregivers face in typical public environments. Nine experienced autism therapists have participated in a semi-structured interview regarding the challenges that people with autism and their caregivers face in public environments. The qualitative data shows that the unpredictability of events and the high sensory stimulation present in public environments, especially auditory, are the two biggest contributors to the difficulties that people on the spectrum face. If the stimuli are not removed in a short period of time, uncontrollable behaviours or 'meltdowns' can occur, which leave the person incapacitated and unable to respond to any outside input. Possible solutions to increase integration in public spaces for people with autism revolve around removing unwanted sensory stimulus, creating personalized barriers for certain stimuli, equipping people with autism with better tools to communicate their needs or to orient themselves to a safe location and providing a predictable pattern of events that would prepare individuals for tasks ahead of time.

Keywords: autism, built environment, meltdown, public environment, sensory processing disorders

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1203 Challenging the Theory of Mind: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Social Construction, and Biochemical Explanation

Authors: Caroline Kim

Abstract:

The designation autism spectrum disorder (ASD) groups complex disorders in the development of the brain. Autism is defined essentially as a condition in which an individual lacks a theory of mind. The theory of mind, in this sense, explains the ability of an individual to attribute feelings, emotions, or thoughts to another person. An autistic patient is characteristically unable to determine what an interlocutor is feeling, or to understand the beliefs of others. However, it is possible that autism cannot plausibly characterized as the lack of theory of mind in an individual. Genes, the bran, and its interplay with environmental factors may also cause autism. A mutation in a gene may be hereditary, or instigated by diseases such as mumps. Though an autistic patient may experience abnormalities in the cerebellum and the cortical regions, these are in fact only possible theories as to a biochemical explanation behind the disability. The prevailing theory identifying autism with lacking the theory of mind is supported by behavioral observation, but this form of observation is itself determined by socially constructed standards, limiting the possibility for empirical verification. The theory of mind infers that the beliefs and emotions of people are causally based on their behavior. This paper demonstrates the fallacy of this inference, critiquing its basis in socially constructed values, and arguing instead for a biochemical approach free from the conceptual apparatus of language and social expectation.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, sociology of psychology, social construction, the theory of mind

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1202 Control Strategies for a Robot for Interaction with Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: Vinicius Binotte, Guilherme Baldo, Christiane Goulart, Carlos Valadão, Eliete Caldeira, Teodiano Bastos

Abstract:

Socially assistive robotic has become increasingly active and it is present in therapies of people affected for several neurobehavioral conditions, such as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). In fact, robots have played a significant role for positive interaction with children with ASD, by stimulating their social and cognitive skills. This work introduces a mobile socially-assistive robot, which was built for interaction with children with ASD, using non-linear control techniques for this interaction.

Keywords: socially assistive robotics, mobile robot, autonomous control, autism

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1201 Impact of Motor Behaviour Aspects of Autism on Cognitive Ability in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: Rana Zeina

Abstract:

Cognitive and behavioral symptoms may, in fact, overlap and be related to the level of the general cognitive function. We measured the behavioral aspects of autism and its correlation to the cognitive ability in 30 children with ASD. We used a neuropsychological battery CANTAB eclipse to evaluate the ASD children's cognitive ability. Individuals with ASDs and challenging behaviors showed significant correlation between some cognitive abilities and motor behavior aspects. Based on these findings we can conclude that the motor behavioral problems in autism affect specific cognitive abilities in ASDs such as comprehension, learning, reversal, acquisition, attention set shifting, and speed of reaction to one stimulus. Future research should also focus on the relationship between motor stereotypes and other subtypes of repetitive behaviors, such as verbal stereotypes, and ritual and routine adherence and use different types of CANTAB tests.

Keywords: cognitive ability, CANTAB test, behaviour motor aspects, autism spectrum disorders

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1200 Effectiveness of a Peer-Mediated Intervention on Writing Skills in Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Inclusive Classroom

Authors: Siddiq Ahmed

Abstract:

The current study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a Peer-Mediated Intervention (PMI) on writing skills for a student with autism spectrum disorders in inclusive classrooms. The participants in this study were two students, one as a tutor and another as a tutee who was diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The target participant struggled with writing skills and was paired with a student with high academic outcomes. The Tutor had a readiness to act as a tutor for his peer and was trained on how to assist his peer and how to identify and guide his peer’s writing mistakes. Multiple baseline design across behaviors was implemented to monitor the student’s progress in writing skills. The results of the present study showed that PMI yielded significant improvements in academic achievements for the target student. This study suggests that further studies should replicate the current study with an intensive focus on other academic skills such as reading comprehension, writing social stories, and math.

Keywords: peer tutoring, writing skills, autism, inclusion

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1199 Parent’s Preferences about Technology-Based Therapy for Children and Young People on the Autism Spectrum – a UK Survey

Authors: Athanasia Kouroupa, Karen Irvine, Sivana Mengoni, Shivani Sharma

Abstract:

Exploring parents’ preferences towards technology-based interventions for children on the autism spectrum can inform future research and support technology design. The study aimed to provide a comprehensive description of parents’ knowledge and preferences about innovative technology to support children on the autism spectrum. Survey data were collected from parents (n = 267) internationally. The survey included information about the use of conventional (e.g., smartphone, iPod, tablets) and non-conventional (e.g., virtual reality, robot) technologies. Parents appeared to prefer conventional technologies such as tablets and dislike non-conventional ones. They highlighted the positive contribution technology brought to the children’s lives during the pandemic. A few parents were equally concerned that the compulsory introduction of technology during the pandemic was associated with elongated time on devices. The data suggested that technology-based interventions are not widely known, need to be financially approachable and achieve a high standard of design to engage users.

Keywords: autism, intervention, preferences, technology

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1198 21st Century Provocation: Modern Slavery, the Implications for Individuals on the Autism Spectrum

Authors: Christina Surmei

Abstract:

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is defined as a diverse range of developmental conditions that affect an individual’s functionality. ASD is not linear, and individuals can present with deficits in social interaction, communication, and demonstrate limited, repetitive patterns of behaviour, interests, or activities. These characteristics may be observed in a variety of ways and range from mild to severe. ASD may include autism disorder, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified, Asperger’s, or other related pervasive developmental disorders. Modern slavery is defined as 'situations of exploitation that a person cannot refuse or leave because of threats, violence, coercion, and abuse of power or deception'. A review of the literature investigated the prevalence of research regarding ASD and modern slavery. Two universal search engines and five online journals were used as the apparatuses of inquiry. The results revealed two editorials, one study, and one act, totaling four publications attesting to ASD and modern slavery as a joint entity. This is representative of a vast absence of research. However, as individual entities research on autism and modern slavery is in a general high occurrence. This paper has identified a significant gap in research on ASD and modern slavery, and initiates the dialogue to unpack a significant global issue in society today.

Keywords: autism spectrum, education, modern slavery, support

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1197 Comparison of Parent’s Treatment and Education Priorities between Verbal and Non-Verbal Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Iranian Families

Authors: Elanz Alimi, Mehdi Ghanadzade

Abstract:

This current study compared the parents reported treatment and education priorities between verbal and nonverbal children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants were 196 parents of 2 to 21-year-old (83 non-verbal and 113 verbal) children and adolescents with an ASD who completed questionnaires measuring parent’s treatment and education priorities, child’s educational and intervention programs and current child’s level of performance according to each skill. Results of this study indicated that parents of verbal children with autism spectrum disorder considered communication skills, community living skills and academic skills correspondingly as their highest intervention and education priorities and parents of non-verbal children with ASD reported communication skills, social relationship skills and self-care skills as the most significant priorities for their children. Findings show that for Iranian parents of both verbal and non-verbal children with ASD, communication skills are the most crucial treatment priority.

Keywords: autism, communication skills, Iran, parent’s priorities

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1196 Comparing the Detection of Autism Spectrum Disorder within Males and Females Using Machine Learning Techniques

Authors: Joseph Wolff, Jeffrey Eilbott

Abstract:

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are a spectrum of social disorders characterized by deficits in social communication, verbal ability, and interaction that can vary in severity. In recent years, researchers have used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to help detect how neural patterns in individuals with ASD differ from those of neurotypical (NT) controls for classification purposes. This study analyzed the classification of ASD within males and females using functional MRI data. Functional connectivity (FC) correlations among brain regions were used as feature inputs for machine learning algorithms. Analysis was performed on 558 cases from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) I dataset. When trained specifically on females, the algorithm underperformed in classifying the ASD subset of our testing population. Although the subject size was relatively smaller in the female group, the manual matching of both male and female training groups helps explain the algorithm’s bias, indicating the altered sex abnormalities in functional brain networks compared to typically developing peers. These results highlight the importance of taking sex into account when considering how generalizations of findings on males with ASD apply to females.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, machine learning, neuroimaging, sex differences

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1195 Opportunities for Effective Communication Through the Delivery of an Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnosis: A Scoping Review

Authors: M. D. Antoine

Abstract:

When a child is diagnosed with an illness, condition, or developmental disorder, the process involved in understanding and accepting this diagnosis can be a very stressful and isolating experience for parents and families. The healthcare providers’ ability to effectively communicate in such situations represents a vital lifeline for parents. In this context, communication becomes a crucial element not only for getting through the period of grief but also for the future. We mobilized the five stages of grief model to summarize existing literature regarding the ways in which the experience ofan autism spectrum disorder diagnosis disclosurealigns with the experience of grief to explore how this can inform best practices for effective communication with parents through the diagnosis disclosure. Fifteen publications met inclusion criteria. Findings from the scoping review of empirical studies show that parents/families experience grief-like emotions during the diagnosis disclosure. However, grief is not an outcome of the encounter itself. In fact, the experience of the encounter can help mitigate the grief experience. The way parents/families receive and react to the ‘news’ depends on their preparedness, knowledge, and the support received through the experience. Individual communication skills, as well as policies and regulations, should be examined to alleviate adverse reactions in this context. These findings highlight the importance of further research into effective parent-provider communication strategies and their place in supporting quality autism care.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, autism spectrum disorder diagnosis, diagnosis disclosure, parent-provider communication, parental grief

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1194 The Role of MAOA Gene in the Etiology of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Males

Authors: Jana Kisková, Dana Gabriková

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Monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) is suggested to be a candidate gene implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This meta-analytic review evaluates the relationship between ASD and MAOA markers such as 30 bp variable number tandem repeats in the promoter region (uVNTR) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) by using findings from recently published studies. It seems that in Caucasian males, the risk of developing ASD increase with the presence of 4-repeat allele in the promoter region of MAOA gene whereas no differences were found between autistic patients and controls in Egyptian, West Bengal and Korean population. Some studies point to the importance specific haplotype groups of SNPs and interaction of MAOA with others genes (e.g. FOXP2 or SRY). The results of existing studies are insufficient and further research is needed.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, MAOA, uVNTR, single nucleotide polymorphism

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1193 Analysis and Detection of Facial Expressions in Autism Spectrum Disorder People Using Machine Learning

Authors: Muhammad Maisam Abbas, Salman Tariq, Usama Riaz, Muhammad Tanveer, Humaira Abdul Ghafoor

Abstract:

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) refers to a developmental disorder that impairs an individual's communication and interaction ability. Individuals feel difficult to read facial expressions while communicating or interacting. Facial Expression Recognition (FER) is a unique method of classifying basic human expressions, i.e., happiness, fear, surprise, sadness, disgust, neutral, and anger through static and dynamic sources. This paper conducts a comprehensive comparison and proposed optimal method for a continued research project—a system that can assist people who have Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in recognizing facial expressions. Comparison has been conducted on three supervised learning algorithms EigenFace, FisherFace, and LBPH. The JAFFE, CK+, and TFEID (I&II) datasets have been used to train and test the algorithms. The results were then evaluated based on variance, standard deviation, and accuracy. The experiments showed that FisherFace has the highest accuracy for all datasets and is considered the best algorithm to be implemented in our system.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, ASD, EigenFace, facial expression recognition, FisherFace, local binary pattern histogram, LBPH

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1192 Stress and Marital Satisfaction of Parents to Children Diagnosed with Autism

Authors: Oren Shtayermman

Abstract:

The current investigation expended on research among parents caring for a child who is diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). An online web survey was used to collect data from 253 parents caring for a child with a diagnosis of ASD. Both parents reported on elevated levels of parental stress associated with caring for the child on the spectrum. In addition, lower levels of marital satisfaction were found in both parents. About 13% of the parents in the sample met the diagnostic criteria for Major Depressive Disorder and About 15% of the parents met the diagnostic criteria for Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Although the majority of the sample was females (94%) significant differences were found between males and females in relation to meeting the diagnostic criteria for Major Depressive Disorder and for Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Higher levels of stress were associated with higher number of Generalized Anxiety Disorder symptoms and higher number of Major Depressive Disorder symptoms. Findings from this study indicate how vulnerable parents and especially females are in relation to caring to a child diagnosed with ASD. Educational Objectives: At the conclusion of the paper, the readers should be able to: -Identify levels of stress and marital satisfaction among parents caring for a child diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, -Recognize the impact of stress on the development of mental health issues, -Name the two most common mood and anxiety related disorders associated with caring for a child diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder.

Keywords: autism, stress, parents, children

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1191 Evidence from the Field: The Case Study of Golitos as an Effective Soccer Program for Autism Spectrum Disorder Children

Authors: J. O. Alvarez, L. Y. Rivera

Abstract:

Physical activity can reduce symptomatology in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The sport of soccer has been widely applied as a therapeutic method for ASD children. However, empirical results from soccer programs are not widely known. This paper presents the case study of Golitos, the only dedicated soccer program for children on the island of Puerto Rico, and analyzes its results in the reduction of ASD social and emotional symptoms. The paper shows evidence that suggests that program approach, content, and community-based elements can make a notable difference in the effectiveness of using soccer or sports as therapeutic methods for children with ASD.

Keywords: autism, soccer, program, community

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1190 Language and Communication of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Highlights on Both the Issues around Requesting-Information Skills and the Procedures for Teaching These Skills

Authors: Amaal Almigal

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Neurotypical children learn to ask questions from natural exposure and this skill is fundamental for their academic success. However, children with autism spectrum disorder may not learn to ask in the same way due to earlier communication impairments, and some may need to use Augmentative and Alternative Communication systems (AAC) to ask questions. This paper aims to highlight issues related to questioning skills in children with autism giving a specific attention to asking questions within preverbal or minimally verbal children. Different procedures have been employed to teach these children, including AAC users, to ask questions. Therefore, these procedures will also be discussed to administrate how they were used and what they were aimed to teach. This paper also provides a suggested procedure to assist preverbal or minimally verbal children to ask questions using an iPad application for communication (Proloquo2Go) as AAC. This suggested procedure was used with 3 children with autism. Initial results will be discussed to clarify ways in which this procedure was used with each child based on his skills and which questioning skills each child has acquired using this procedure.

Keywords: AAC, autism, communication, information, iPad, requesting

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1189 Identification of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Day-Care Centres

Authors: Kenneth Larsen, Astrid Aasland, Synnve Schjølberg, Trond Diseth

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Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental disorders emerging in early development characterized by impairment in social communication skills and a restricted, repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior and interests. Early identification and interventions potentially improve development and quality of life of children with ASD. Symptoms of ASD are apparent through the second year of life, yet diagnostic age are still around 4 years of age. This study explored whether symptoms associated with ASD are possible to identify in typical Norwegian day-care centers in the second year of life. Results of this study clearly indicates that most described symptoms also are identifiable by day-care staff, and that a short observation list of 5 symptoms clearly identify children with ASD from a sample of normal developing peers.

Keywords: autism, early identification, day-care, screening

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1188 Decoding Mental Disorders: The Value of Practical Experience in Perceptions of Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: Ryan Tehini

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to explore the value of practical experience with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) as a microcosm of mental disorders, in psychology students’ attempt to fully understand it in all of its intricacies. The study follows a one-year program where students of psychology volunteer at a school for Autistic children of ages 3-18. The individual levels of experience with, and theoretical understanding of, ASD varies measurably amongst the volunteers; these volunteers are then intermittently interviewed, observed and surveyed throughout the program in order to determine any decline or growth in their understanding of Autism Spectrum Disorder. A panel of professionals all of whom are active in the world of ASD (headmasters of Autistic schools, psychologists, child development specialists, special needs teachers, parents of autistic children and Occupational Therapists) were used specifically for this study, in order to develop the guideline for understanding ASD that will be used comparatively against the information gained from the volunteers in order to establish the individual results. The paper concludes by illustrating how psychology has a responsibility to the community to understand disorders past what is academic and theoretical, and how increasing student experience with a disorder can aid in a more holistic psychological approach to mental disorders in the future.

Keywords: autism, mental disorders, practical experience, psychology

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
1187 Android Based Game Intervention for Enhancing the Face Reputation Abilities in Youngsters with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: Anurag Sharma, Arun Khosla, Mamta Khosla, Yogeswara Rao M.

Abstract:

Multimedia devices have received repute in the special desires community. The wide display screen makes it appealing and easy to use, specifically for the ones who've susceptible pleasant motor skill. This paper highlights how an Android-based game named as 'KIDDY' can be used to enhance confront face perceiving capacities in adults with autism and aid the children to develop social interaction capabilities. This game improved concentration and imagination via repetitive movement and visual commentary. Four students with autism, diverse in the historic period, social behavior and communiqué ability had been enrolled in the program and provided an opportunity to recognize new faces thrilling way. This paper offers resultant role based on 'Social Skills Rating System' that shows how cellular generation used as an academician intervention to decorate studying and communiqué among children with autism and additionally proven the tremendous behavior toward cell primarily based game.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, screen-based technology, mobile phone-based intercession

Procedia PDF Downloads 103